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Sample records for cultural heritage samples

  1. Large sample neutron activation analysis: a challenge in cultural heritage studies.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatos, Ion E; Tzika, Faidra

    2007-07-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis compliments and significantly extends the analytical tools available for cultural heritage and authentication studies providing unique applications of non-destructive, multi-element analysis of materials that are too precious to damage for sampling purposes, representative sampling of heterogeneous materials or even analysis of whole objects. In this work, correction factors for neutron self-shielding, gamma-ray attenuation and volume distribution of the activity in large volume samples composed of iron and ceramic material were derived. Moreover, the effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was examined.

  2. Raman Spectroscopy of cultural heritage Materials: Overview of Applications and New Frontiers in Instrumentation, Sampling Modalities, and Data Processing.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Francesca; Daher, Céline; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    Rooted in the long tradition of Raman spectroscopy of cultural heritage materials, in this work we provide a personal perspective on recent applications and new frontiers in sampling modalities, data processing, and instrumentation.

  3. Crowdsourcing Lost Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, G.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage all over the world is at high risk. Natural and human activities endanger the current state of monuments and sites, whereas many of them have already been destroyed especially during the last years. Preventive actions are of utmost importance for the protection of human memory and the prevention of irreplaceable. These actions may be carried out either in situ or virtually. Very often in situ preventive, or protective or restoration actions are difficult or even impossible, as e.g. in cases of earthquakes, fires or war activity. Digital preservation of cultural heritage is a challenging task within photogrammetry and computer vision communities, as efforts are taken to collect digital data, especially of the monuments that are at high risk. Visit to the field and data acquisition is not always feasible. To overcome the missing data problem, crowdsourced imagery is used to create a visual representation of lost cultural heritage objects. Such digital representations may be 2D or 3D and definitely help preserve the memory and history of the lost heritage. Sometimes they also assist studies for their reconstruction. An initiative to collect imagery data from the public and create a visual 3D representation of a recently destroyed stone bridge almost 150 years old is being discussed in this study. To this end, a crowdsourcing platform has been designed and the first images collected have been processed with the use of SfM algorithms.

  4. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed.

  5. D Photographs in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kiel, St.

    2013-07-01

    This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information) on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality"), 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud)-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in color differences

  6. Bim for Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, M.; Osello, A.

    2013-07-01

    When you think about the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry people tend to refers to new buildings, but nowadays the recovery of existing ones is increasingly the subject of the research. The current historical context raises this issue at the center of numerous thought due both to economic and environmental conditions. So, the need to refurbish the cultural heritage is becoming more important than the construction of new buildings. Modern technologies allow professionals to do this to turn the buildings into structures capable to meet the users' confort with a considerable energy saving. Italy is trying to make a change to the construction industry through the national InnovANCE project, which aims to develop the first national database able to share information among professionals through the help of Building Information Modeling (BIM). In this way the subject involved in a construction process can update their way of working, with a consequent time and cost saving. This paper aims to present the way in which the InnovANCE project can be considered as the key for Italy to change the way to conceive the building industry, using a case study such as the old thermal power of Politecnico di Torino, starting from the survey step. The methodology followed to obtain the 3D model will be described, starting from the data of a topographic and a laser scanner survey and from an archival documents research.

  7. Educational Birthrights and Cultural Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    1993-01-01

    The educational birthrights of many students, as demonstrated by the author's experiences with a high school class, remain unfulfilled because students are largely ignorant of history and the broad human cultural heritage. Their aspirations and opportunities are being blighted by attitudes they form without real stimulation of their intellects.…

  8. Versatile pulsed laser setup for depth profiling analysis of multilayered samples in the field of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, N. F. C.; Osticioli, I.; Striova, J.; Sansonetti, A.; Becucci, M.; Castellucci, E.

    2009-04-01

    The present study considers the use of a nanosecond pulsed laser setup capable of performing laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and pulsed Raman spectroscopy for the study of multilayered objects in the field of cultural heritage. Controlled etching using the 4th harmonic 266 nm emission of a Nd:YAG laser source with a 8 ns pulse duration was performed on organic films and mineral strata meant to simulate different sequence of layers usually found in art objects such as in easel and mural paintings. The process of micro ablation coupled with powerful spectroscopic techniques operating with the same laser source, constitutes an interesting alternative to mechanical sampling especially when dealing with artworks such as ceramics and metal works which are problematic due to their hardness and brittleness. Another case is that of valuable pieces where sampling is not an option and the materials to analyse lie behind the surface. The capabilities and limitations of such instrumentation were assessed through several tests in order to characterize the trend of the laser ablation on different materials. Monitored ablation was performed on commercial sheets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a standard material of known thickness and mechanical stability, and rabbit glue, an adhesive often used in works of art. Measurements were finally carried out on a specimen with a stratigraphy similar to those found in real mural paintings.

  9. Spanish Thematic Network on Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejo, M.; Blanco, M.-T.; Sáiz-Jiménez, C.

    A Thematic Network on Cultural Heritage has been recently launched to coordinate the activities related to Cultural Heritage (CH) of several groups working in the Spanish Scientific Research Council (CSIC), the largest public research organisation in Spain. The Network involves 21 leading research groups from 16 institutes. Different aspects of CH are approached including Archaeology and Architectonic Heritage, Biology, Physics, Geology and Materials Science.

  10. Comparison of matrix effects on portable and stationary XRF spectrometers for cultural heritage samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we compare the matrix effects for two different X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, a portable and a stationary one, in order to evaluate their performances in terms of scattering radiation for different matrices. Five reference materials were analyzed: orchard leaves (NBS-1571), clay (ISE-954), bone ash (NIST-1400), 70% copper alloy (BCR-691) and 22 ct gold alloy (Fisher). The results obtained showed similar behavior for both spectrometers. The lowest background was obtained for the light matrix and an increase was observed for intermediate atomic number matrices, reaching a maximum for copper and gold alloys. In spite of that the lowest background had been obtained for the light matrix, the portable system presents a tremendously high background when compared to the stationary one. For this matrix, some of the trace elements were almost not detected by the portable spectrometer, which makes difficult their characterization with this system. For medium Z matrices there is an increase on the Compton peak and a decrease on the Rayleigh one, reaching a similar intensity. Finally, for heavy matrices, the Compton peak almost disappears and the Rayleigh effect takes the lead. Three case studies were also performed in order to appraise the behavior of the spectrometers: a paper document from the XVIII century, a sample of archaeological bone from the Middle Ages and a Portuguese coin from the XIX century.

  11. Cultural Heritage Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglos, Demetrios; Detalle, Vincent

    A versatile spectrochemical technique enabling nearly instant, multi-element analysis of materials, LIBS is increasingly employed in studies of archaeological and historical objects, monuments and works of art. The development of several mobile LIBS instruments opens a lot more possibilities for analytical campaigns on site: at museums, conservation laboratories and even outdoors at excavation sites or historical monuments. The basic concepts underlying the use of LIBS in the context of cultural heritage studies are briefly reviewed along with technical and instrumentation aspects. Selected examples of analytical studies are discussed with emphasis on cases that demonstrate the use of mobile LIBS instruments.

  12. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  13. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0... and Culture Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In the five... Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, we recognize the rich heritage of Americans of...

  14. Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage documentation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    Taiwan is an important trading and maritime channels for many countries since ancient time. Numerous relics lie underwater due to weather, wars, and other factors. In the year of 2006, Bureau of Cultural Heritage (BOCH) entrusted the Underwater Archaeological Team of Academia Sinica to execute the underwater archaeological investigation projects. Currently, we verified 78 underwater targets, with 78 site of those had been recognized as shipwrecks sites. Up to date, there is a collection of 638 underwater objects from different underwater archaeological sites. Those artefacts are distributed to different institutions and museums. As very diverse management methods/systems are applied for every individual institution, underwater cultural heritage data such as survey, excavation report, research, etc. are poorly organized and disseminated for use. For better communication regarding to Taiwan's underwater cultural heritage in every level, a universal format of documentation should be established. By comparing the existing checklist used in Taiwan with guidelines that are followed in other countries, a more intact and appropriate underwater cultural heritage condition documentation system can be established and adapted in Taiwan.

  15. Gels for the conservation of cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Baglioni, Piero; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Giorgi, Rodorico

    2009-08-04

    Gels are becoming one of the most important tools for the conservation of cultural heritage. They are very versatile systems and can be easily adapted to the cleaning and consolidation of works of art. This perspective reviews the major achievements in the field and suggests possible future developments.

  16. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  17. Trends in High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Degano, Ilaria; La Nasa, Jacopo

    2016-04-01

    The separation, detection and quantitation of specific species contained in a sample in the field of Cultural Heritage requires selective, sensitive and reliable methods. Procedures based on liquid chromatography fulfil these requirements and offer a wide range of applicability in terms of analyte types and concentration range. The main applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography in this field are related to the separation and detection of dyestuffs in archaeological materials and paint samples by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with suitable detectors. The relevant literature will be revised, with particular attention to sample treatment strategies and future developments. Reversed phase chromatography has also recently gained increasing importance in the analysis of lipid binders and lipid materials in archaeological residues: the main advantages and disadvantages of the new approaches will be discussed. Finally, the main applications of ion chromatography and size exclusion chromatography in the field of Cultural Heritage will be revised in this chapter.

  18. International Education and Cultural Heritage: Alliance or Antagonism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simandiraki, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Although international education is difficult to define, its promotion of cultural diversity is widely accepted. Cultural heritage is the backbone and the product of cultural histories; it is, therefore, essential to national identity construction. As international education is very diverse, its relationship with cultural heritage ranges from…

  19. Study on Spatial Cultural Heritage Integrated into the Core Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, W. H.; Lai, Y. P.

    2015-08-01

    These Many countries have put a lot of efforts, promoting education of cultural heritage, to raise the conservation awareness and increase people's participation. However, the development of Taiwan's higher education about cultural heritage has not shown a significant growth, so it didn't train talents with enough cultural heritage awareness. In the workplace, these professionals will inevitably lack of comprehensions and the appropriate professional assessments for cultural heritage. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to study and combine these concepts into the core curriculum of Department of Construction and Spatial Design at Tungnan University. It takes the local "Shenkeng historic cultural district" as a case study, and will gradually develop an proper interdisciplinary course in order to help local residents implement projects of conserving cultural heritage. This plan not only can increase schools' engagements toward communities, with an ability of social civilization, but also it can encourage the conservation and maintenance of cultural heritages.

  20. The TSTS Method in Cultural Heritage Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stawniak, Mirosław; Cellary, Wojciech

    In cultural heritage content management systems in which cultural objects are described with the use of their semantic, temporal and spatial properties, the search capabilities taking all those properties into consideration are very limited. The difficulty comes from the fact that concepts evolve over time and depend on location. In this paper the TSTS search method is presented based on the TST similarity measure that allows assessing the similarity factor between different resources in a knowledgebase. A ranked search result is generated basing on the semantic distance between the fuzzy set created for the user query and fuzzy sets describing potential results in the time-space continuum.

  1. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  2. Meeting the expectations of your heritage culture

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Tara C.

    2016-01-01

    Do insecurely attached individuals perceive greater rejection from their heritage culture? Few studies have examined the antecedents and outcomes of this perceived rejection – termed intragroup marginalization – in spite of its implications for the adjustment of cultural migrants to the mainstream culture. This study investigated whether anxious and avoidant attachment orientations among cultural migrants were associated with greater intragroup marginalization and, in turn, with lower subjective well-being and flourishing and higher acculturative stress. Anxious attachment was associated with heightened intragroup marginalization from friends and, in turn, with increased acculturative stress; anxious attachment was also associated with increased intragroup marginalization from family. Avoidant attachment was linked with increased intragroup marginalization from family and, in turn, with decreased subjective well-being. PMID:26839442

  3. The role of SIMS in cultural heritage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowsett, Mark; Adriaens, Annemie

    2004-11-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a highly sensitive chemical analysis technique available in variants, which are top monolayer specific (static SIMS) or which can extract micro-volume analyses or depth profiles (dynamic SIMS). The technique offers ppm or even ppb atomic sensitivity for the consumption of extremely small sample volumes. In the area of cultural heritage, SIMS has been applied to a diverse range of problems including technology and authenticity, origin and provenance, degradation processes, such as corrosion and weathering, and conservation. In this paper, the basic attributes and limitations of the technique are described. An outline is given of applications to glasses (obsidian dating, conservation of stained glass and Venetian glass), metals (simulated archaeological bronzes), pigments and human remains, focusing on conservation problems such as the assessment and suppression of corrosion, other degrading processes, identification of materials using speciation. The topic of ultra low energy SIMS, newly applied to cultural heritage materials, is briefly described.

  4. Effective Communication with Cultural Heritage Using Virtual Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffat, R. M.; Nofal, E. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural heritage is neither static nor stable. There is a need to explore ways for effectively communicating with cultural heritage to tourists and society at large, in an age of immediacy, a time of multiple realities and to multi-cultural tourists. It is vital to consider cultural heritage as a creative and relational process where places and communities are constantly remade through creative performance. The paper introduces virtual technologies as an approach to attain effective communication with cultural heritage. This approach emphasizes the importance of "user, content and context" in guiding the production of virtual heritage, as opposed to technology being the sole motivator. It addresses how these three issues in virtual heritage need to be transformed from merely representing quantitative data towards cultural information using the proposed effective communication triangle through representing meaningful relationships between cultural heritage elements, users and context. The paper offers a focused articulation of a proposed computational platform of "interactive, personalized and contextual-based navigation" with Egyptian heritage monuments as a one step forward towards achieving effective communication with Egyptian cultural heritage.

  5. Optical Fiber Sensors for the Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Falciai, R.; Trono, C.

    Two examples of optical fiber sensors for the protection of the cultural heritage were given. The varnished optical fiber could be used also as temperature sensor. In fact, thanks to the good temperature sensitivity and reversibility of gum mastic, it could be considered as a transducer for the implementation of a temperature sensor to be permanently inlayed in the painting. By embedding the optical fiber in the painting together with the picture varnish for example on a comer, continuous temperature monitoring could be possible, in order to prevent risk conditions that can arise when illuminating the painting with the use of lamps, as happens during television shots.

  6. Cultural heritage training in the US military.

    PubMed

    Svec, Leedjia

    2014-01-01

    Cultural competence is a vital component of many missions in today's military. Cultural competence enables one to further a mission, save resources, and save lives. Conversely, a lack of cultural competence may bring about challenges to mission completion, requirement for more resources, waste of resources, and destruction of lives. Cultural competence involves many components. One particular component is cultural heritage awareness and protection of cultural property. This study sought to assess current understanding of cultural property protection and determine the effectiveness of a training aimed at increasing cultural property protection awareness, knowledge, and comfort within the military setting. It was hypothesized that participants would vary in their level of awareness, knowledge, and comfort of cultural property protection, and that all would show a significant improvement in knowledge scores post training. Factors such as deployment experience were examined for potential correlation with measures such as awareness. A 14 question pre-read survey was developed to assess participants' demographics, awareness, knowledge, and comfort with cultural property protection. Awareness included value, laws, and procedures while knowledge examined "know how" such as how to bed down in a protected structure or communicate information about the structure. Comfort assessed one's comfort with engaging in the knowledge based tasks. A 24 question post read survey was administered to assess awareness, knowledge, and comfort, and to solicit additional feedback on the manual itself. The survey utilized a 1-5 rating scale with 1 representing no awareness, knowledge, or comfort and 5 representing absolute awareness, knowledge, and comfort with different aspects of cultural property protection. Cultural property protection value was highest pre and post training while knowledge regarding recovery of property was rated lowest pre and post training. Results are encouraging for

  7. Building Information Modelling for Cultural Heritage: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logothetis, S.; Delinasiou, A.; Stylianidis, E.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the field of culture heritage documentation. BIM is a hot theme involving different characteristics including principles, technology, even privacy rights for the cultural heritage objects. Modern documentation needs identified the potential of BIM in the recent years. Many architects, archaeologists, conservationists, engineers regard BIM as a disruptive force, changing the way professionals can document and manage a cultural heritage structure. The latest years, there are many developments in the BIM field while the developed technology and methods challenged the cultural heritage community in the documentation framework. In this review article, following a brief historic background for the BIM, we review the recent developments focusing in the cultural heritage documentation perspective.

  8. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution promotes 3D photography as an important tool to obtain objective object information. Keeping mainly in mind World Heritage documentation as well as Heritage protection, it is another intention of this paper, to stimulate the interest in applications of 3D photography for professionals as well as for amateurs. In addition this is also an activity report of the international CIPA task group 3. The main part of this paper starts with "Digging the treasure of existing international 3D photography". This does not only belong to tangible but also to intangible Cultural Heritage. 3D photography clearly supports the recording, the visualization, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. Therefore the use of 3D photography in C.H. should increase on an international level. The presented samples in 3D represent a voluminous, almost partly "forgotten treasure" of international archives for 3D photography. The next chapter is on "Promoting new 3D photography in Cultural Heritage". Though 3D photographs are a well-established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, even suited to provide "near real" documentation, they are still a matter of research and improvement. Beside the use of 3D cameras even single lenses cameras are very much suited for photographic 3D documentation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Currently at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, low altitude aerial photography is exposed from a maximum height of 13m, using a hand hold carbon telescope rod. The use of this "huge selfie stick" is also an (international) recommendation, to expose high resolution 3D photography of monuments under expedition conditions. In addition to the carbon rod recently a captive balloon and a hexacopter UAV- platform is in use, mainly to take better synoptically (extremely low altitude, ground truth) aerial photography. Additional experiments with respect to "easy

  9. Archaeological Rescue Excavation and Digitalization of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varea, S.; Lemerle, J.-B.

    2013-07-01

    We present in this paper the original work and projects of AFT, a French company working in the complementary fields of topography, archaeological rescue excavation and digitalization of cultural heritage. Here are described more precisely the application of 3D scanning in archaeology, especially in rescue excavation, and the wish of the company to be ahead of its time in this field., followed by two examples, one in heritage object studies, the other in heritage building studies.

  10. The Protection of Cultural Heritage Sites from Geo-Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Cuca, Branka; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Tzouvaras, Marios; Michaelides, Silas; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Margottini, Claudio; Cigna, Francesca; Crosta, Giovanni; Fernandez, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Cultural heritage sites are continuously impacted by several environmental and anthropogenic factors, including climate change, precipitation, natural hazards, wars, etc. However, there is limited data available regarding the effects of geo-hazards on cultural heritage sites. This paper presents the methodology of the PROTHEGO project, which uses radar interferometry to monitor surface deformation with mm precision to analyze the impact of geo-hazards in cultural heritage sites in Europe. PROTHEGO will provide a new, low-cost methodological approach for the safe management of cultural heritage monuments and sites located in Europe. The project will apply InSAR techniques to monitor monuments and sites that are potentially unstable due to landslides, sinkholes, settlement, subsidence, active tectonics as well as structural deformation, all of which can be effected of climate change and human interaction. The research methodology will be focused on long-term low-impact monitoring systems as well as indirect analysis of environmental contexts to investigate changes and decay of structure, material and landscape. The methodology will be applied to more than 450 sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List in geographical Europe. One of the case study selected is located in Cyprus at Choirokoitia, which is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The outcomes of PROTHEGO will support correct planning and rebalancing the contrast between endogenous (structural and materials decay, the societal development, the anthropogenic pressure) and surrounding exogenous forces (natural hazards acting on the heritage) which affecting the European cultural heritage.

  11. Urban Cultural Heritage Endangerment: Degradation of historico-cultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Eric; Cabral, Pedro; Caetano, Mário; Painho, Marco; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable development has become one of the great debates of policy-making of the XXI century. The world, is facing unprecedented change following the anthropocentrism of socio-economic growth. However, the commitment of man to ‘transmit to future generations at least the same as had' (ref) seems to be a narrowing, given extensive urban growth, population increase and climate change. However, over the last twenty years, the usage of spatial information systems have brought a positive contribution for better acknowledging the problem of environmental change, and bringing more constructive approaches to planning. Prompted by much research interest in Europe, a broad specter of biodiversity loss models, pollution and environmental degradation algorithms as well as climate change models, have become important tools under the European umbrella. Recognizing the essence of sustainable development, historico-cultural and archaeological regions have a remarkable role in the transformation of landscapes and maintenance of cultural and regional identity. Furthermore, the socio-economic, political-geographic and cultural-scientific history of the dynamics of places and localities on our earth is reflected in their historico-cultural heritage. This patrimony comprises cultural assets, such as old churches, palaces, museums, urban parks, historical architecture of cities, or landscapes of historical interest. Historico-cultural heritage also includes archaeological sites, which sometimes not only have a local value but may have a worldwide significance (e.g. Pompeii). However, massive urban growth is affecting directly the existing historico-cultural resources throughout the European region, and little attention is given to this juxtaposing reality of peri-urban growth and cultural / archaeological heritage preservation. Also, the settling patterns within historico-cultural local clusters follow a similar pattern as current growth tendencies, given the physical conditions of

  12. Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams as Diagnostics for Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Barberio, M; Veltri, S; Scisciò, M; Antici, P

    2017-03-07

    This paper introduces the first use of laser-generated proton beams as diagnostic for materials of interest in the domain of Cultural Heritage. Using laser-accelerated protons, as generated by interaction of a high-power short-pulse laser with a solid target, we can produce proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopies (PIXE). By correctly tuning the proton flux on the sample, we are able to perform the PIXE in a single shot without provoking more damage to the sample than conventional methodologies. We verify this by experimentally irradiating materials of interest in the Cultural Heritage with laser-accelerated protons and measuring the PIXE emission. The morphological and chemical analysis of the sample before and after irradiation are compared in order to assess the damage provoked to the artifact. Montecarlo simulations confirm that the temperature in the sample stays safely below the melting point. Compared to conventional diagnostic methodologies, laser-driven PIXE has the advantage of being potentially quicker and more efficient.

  13. Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams as Diagnostics for Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Veltri, S.; Scisciò, M.; Antici, P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the first use of laser-generated proton beams as diagnostic for materials of interest in the domain of Cultural Heritage. Using laser-accelerated protons, as generated by interaction of a high-power short-pulse laser with a solid target, we can produce proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopies (PIXE). By correctly tuning the proton flux on the sample, we are able to perform the PIXE in a single shot without provoking more damage to the sample than conventional methodologies. We verify this by experimentally irradiating materials of interest in the Cultural Heritage with laser-accelerated protons and measuring the PIXE emission. The morphological and chemical analysis of the sample before and after irradiation are compared in order to assess the damage provoked to the artifact. Montecarlo simulations confirm that the temperature in the sample stays safely below the melting point. Compared to conventional diagnostic methodologies, laser-driven PIXE has the advantage of being potentially quicker and more efficient.

  14. Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams as Diagnostics for Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Barberio, M.; Veltri, S.; Scisciò, M.; Antici, P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the first use of laser-generated proton beams as diagnostic for materials of interest in the domain of Cultural Heritage. Using laser-accelerated protons, as generated by interaction of a high-power short-pulse laser with a solid target, we can produce proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopies (PIXE). By correctly tuning the proton flux on the sample, we are able to perform the PIXE in a single shot without provoking more damage to the sample than conventional methodologies. We verify this by experimentally irradiating materials of interest in the Cultural Heritage with laser-accelerated protons and measuring the PIXE emission. The morphological and chemical analysis of the sample before and after irradiation are compared in order to assess the damage provoked to the artifact. Montecarlo simulations confirm that the temperature in the sample stays safely below the melting point. Compared to conventional diagnostic methodologies, laser-driven PIXE has the advantage of being potentially quicker and more efficient. PMID:28266496

  15. Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Cacace, Carlo; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Italy is the country that owns most of the world cultural heritage as it's clear from the list of sites of inestimable value to humanity, prepared by UNESCO under the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage ratified in 1972. The Italian territory is also particularly prone to natural hazards such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence and coastal erosion which undermine the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of architectural, monumental and archaeological heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk at national scale. The input data are: the Italian Cultural Heritage database (Carta del Rischio del patrimonio culturale) realized by ISCR (Central Institute for the Conservation and Restoration); the Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) developed by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-Governing Provinces of Italy and the flood hazard zones defined by the Italian River Basin Authorities. Italian landslide inventory contains more than 486,000 landslides affecting an area of about 20,800 km2, equal to 6.9% of Italian territory. In order to estimate the number and type of cultural heritage at risk some GIS processing have been carried out, overlapping information from the above mentioned databases. The analysis provided the following results: Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide risk were estimated to 5.511 (6.6%) while the ones exposed to flood risk results 9.859 (11.7%). Two case studies concerning landslide phenomena affecting important Italian municipalities and the flood risk of historical centre of Rome, have been also analyzed. These results could be used to identify priorities and plan field surveys, detailed studies and monitoring systems, allowing job scheduling of cultural heritage maintenance. This need becomes more and more a necessity taking into account

  16. Data fusion in Cultural Heritage - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. M.; Remondino, F.

    2015-08-01

    Geometric documentation is one of the most important task of the Cultural Heritage (CH) conservation and management policies. 3D documentation, prior to any conservation and restoration works, is considered a basic pre-requisite for preserving, understanding, communicating and valorizing CH sites and objects (London Charter, 2009; Sevilla Principles, 2011). 3D models have become the usual way of digitally preserving, communicating, explaining and disseminat ing cultural knowledge, as they have the capability of reproducing ancient states and behaviors. Using photo-realistic and accurate 3D models, the current conservation state can be shown and preserve for future generations. But despite the large request of 3D models in the CH field, there is no 3D documentation method which can properly satisfy all the areas with their requirements, therefore a fusion methodology (of data and sensors) is normally required and performed. The paper analyzes the fusion concept and levels as well as some merging approaches so far presented in the research community. While the paper will be necessarily incomplete due to space limitations, it will hopefully give an understanding on the actual methods of data fusion and clarify some open research issues.

  17. Culture heritage and identity - some cases in Taiwan on the protection of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. W.-C.

    2015-09-01

    The protection of cultural heritage relates to an issue of identity. How a nation or a state tries to face to its history is often revealed on the protection of cultural heritage. Taiwan is as a country with complex history, especially the period after World War II. This article will work on some significant cases, regarded as ideological representation of identity. This article works on the cultural identity by observing and analyzing different cases of classified Historic Monuments. In different political periods, we see how the government tries to fabricate on the identity issue by working on Historic Monuments preservation. During the presidency of Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo, the classification of Historic Monuments tried to focus on those make by former Chinese migrants. They tried hard to establish and reaffirm the ever existing "fact" of people in Taiwan. Whereas after the late 1980s and 1990s, after Chiang's reign, local conscience has been awaken. Political ambience turned to a new era. This freedom of speech of post-Chiang's reign encourages people to seek on their identity. The complex political situation of Taiwan makes this seeking cultural identity related to the seeking of independence of Taiwan. The respect to the aboriginal people also reoriented to include the preservation of their tribes and villages.

  18. Application of Neutron Tomography in Culture Heritage research.

    PubMed

    Mongy, T

    2014-02-01

    Neutron Tomography (NT) investigation of Culture Heritages (CH) is an efficient tool for understanding the culture of ancient civilizations. Neutron imaging (NI) is a-state-of-the-art non-destructive tool in the area of CH and plays an important role in the modern archeology. The NI technology can be widely utilized in the field of elemental analysis. At Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), a collimated Neutron Radiography (NR) beam is employed for neutron imaging purposes. A digital CCD camera is utilized for recording the beam attenuation in the sample. This helps for the detection of hidden objects and characterization of material properties. Research activity can be extended to use computer software for quantitative neutron measurement. Development of image processing algorithms can be used to obtain high quality images. In this work, full description of ETRR-2 was introduced with up to date neutron imaging system as well. Tomographic investigation of a clay forged artifact represents CH object was studied by neutron imaging methods in order to obtain some hidden information and highlight some attractive quantitative measurements. Computer software was used for imaging processing and enhancement. Also the Astra Image 3.0 Pro software was employed for high precise measurements and imaging enhancement using advanced algorithms. This work increased the effective utilization of the ETRR-2 Neutron Radiography/Tomography (NR/T) technique in Culture Heritages activities.

  19. Cultural Mapping of the Heritage Districts in Medan, North Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, I.; Ratna; Sitorus, R.; Affan, M.

    2017-03-01

    Medan as one of the historical towns in Indonesia is rich with architectural and urban heritages; however, there still has no integrated plan to safeguard them. This paper discusses the cultural mapping of the seven heritage conservation districts in the city of Medan. It focuses on exploring the process and challenges of the study from the initial step of data collections to the building of the cultural maps with web based GIS. Multi-method of data collection tactics or triangulation such as field survey, interviews was done to cover the cultural data resources including both tangible (or quantitative) and intangible (or qualitative). Participation of the local community is essential to identify mainly the intangibles one. Based on the preliminary analysis of the seven heritage districts in Medan city, Merdeka-Kesawan area had whole categories of the cultural assets and resources compared to other six heritage areas. Consequently, it influences the enhancement its cultural heritage significance. By using our methods, we emphasized the importance of the cultural mapping in preparing the conservation policies and strategies of the seven heritage districts in Medan.

  20. Documentation of cultural heritage; techniques, potentials, and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, F.; Moser, M.; Rampold, R.; Wu, C.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage is known as an invaluable asset of human being, which portrays his achievements over centuries. The need for identification and preservation of cultural heritage is well understood and experts' attempt is to exploit any possible method to fulfill this aim. There are several published literatures and documents, which emphasize on the importance of the documentation of the cultural heritage such as Burra Charter. However, with the development of human and invention of new tools and technologies, the concept of the conservation of cultural heritage has changed considerably. The new technologies such as computers and digital tools have opened new windows and bestowed new opportunities in the process of conservation of cultural heritage. In this regard, it is important to review different technologies in order to make the best advantage of these tools in the cultural heritage field. The focus of this paper would be on the non-technical users who need to gain an overall comprehension of these new emerging tools. The foundation of this paper will be on the existing literatures published by various experts in addition to the author's experience and research in the conservation field.

  1. Mobile NMR: An essential tool for protecting our cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Baias, Maria

    2017-01-01

    What is 'cultural heritage'? Is it simply our legacy of physical artifacts - or is it our collective legacy as human societies - how we want to be remembered by future generations? With time, negligence, and even military conflict working to erase the past, we must ask: Can a better understanding of our shared heritage assists us in addressing cultural differences in the present day? And how can science both help us understand the historic record and work to preserve it? In this perspective article, we examine an emerging scientific method, mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which can help us examine in a non-invasive way important objects and sites of our cultural heritage. Following these investigations, one can envisage ways for protecting our global heritage for future generations. For this purpose, we examine how this method can be used to non-destructively explore historical artifacts, which can lead to understanding the science behind the creation of these treasured items - paintings, frescoes, parchments, historical buildings, musical instruments, ancient mummies, and other artifacts. This perspective article follows few relevant examples from the scientific literature where mobile NMR has been applied in a non-invasive way to analyze objects of cultural heritage. One can envision possible future advancements of this technique and further applications where portable NMR can be used for conservation of cultural heritage. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Identification of collagen-based materials in cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Daniel P; Buckley, Michael; Promise, Ellen; Trauger, Sunia A; Holdcraft, T Rose

    2013-09-07

    All stakeholders in cultural heritage share an interest in fabrication methods and material technology. Until now methods for analysis of organic materials, particularly proteins, have not been widely available to researchers at cultural institutions. This paper will describe an analytical method for the identification of collagen-based materials from soft tissue sources and show examples of its application to diverse museum objects. The method, peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF), uses enzymatic digestion of extracted proteins to produce a mixture of peptides. The mass spectrum of the mixture contains characteristic marker ions-a peptide mass fingerprint-which are compared to species-specific markers from references as the basis of identification. Preliminary results indicate that analysis of materials from aged samples, several different tissue types, and tanned or untanned materials yields comparable PMF results. Significantly, PMF is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific, has been implemented in a museum laboratory, and is being practiced successfully by non-specialists.

  3. Globalization and Localization of Heritage Preservation in Taiwan - an Analysis Perspective under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Fu, C.-C.

    2015-08-01

    The key contribution to the legislation of heritage preservation in Taiwan primarily derived from the historical monument movements in the 1970s. Specific legislation results include the establishment of Council for Cultural Affairs and the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 1982. Although the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is the first subjective cultural act, its lack of structure during the initial commencement stages made it un-conducive to heritage preservation and thus unable to meet the people's expectations. Therefore, throughout the 33 years after the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, the Act has been amended 6 times. These amendments reflect the degree of importance that the society has attached to heritage preservation, and the innovative system also showcases the progress in preservation concepts and methods. These innovative orientations, such as emphasizing on the authenticity and integrity of heritage preservation, intangible cultural heritage, and cultural diversity, conform to the international preservation trends. They are also local trends such as encouraging community participation, adaptive-reuse, or enhancing the local governments' powers to implement local cultural governance. This is particularly true for the fifth comprehensive revision in 2005, which has symbolic significance because its contents epitomized the heritage preservation work while moving Taiwan's heritage preservation system towards globalization and localization. Therefore, we analyzed the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act amendment and revision processes over the past 33 years to highlight the innovations in Taiwan's cultural heritage work and illustrate their globalization and localization features. Finally, we proposed recommendations for Taiwan's preservation work in the future as the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is about to undergo its seventh amendment in 2015.

  4. A low cost ERT prototype in the Cultural Heritage monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Loperte, A.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    is little "aggressive" to the surface of installation, has been identified as a solution to minimize the electrode resistance; this topic is significant, since classical georesistivimeters, such as the one here used, provide a resistance of 10 KOhm. Finally, the prototype was designed and built by means of a multi-electrode cable formed by 48 Ag/AgCl electrodes 1m spaced, which is particularly suitable for the high spatial resolution and shallower layers inspection of interest Cultural Heritage purposes. Few preliminary tests have been performed on different construction samples and the results were well evaluated with respect to their "interpretability", also thanks to the use of an inversion stage carried out by using the Res2DInv software(Loke and Baker, 1996). The system was effective in few situations and relatively inexpensive to be upgraded for tasks not originally conceived for this system. Anyway, several "applicative" problems have to be solved as well as the electrode positioning on not-horizontal surfaces, the effect of electro-conductive gel on precious materials surfaces and the effect of the current injection on electrode response quality. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n. 225663 Joint Call FP7-ICT-SEC-2007-1 Loke, M.H., 2006. RES2DINV ver. 3.55, Rapid 2D resistivity and IP inversion using the least-squares method. Software Manual: 139pp.

  5. First aid to Cultural Heritage. Training initiatives on rapid documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Tandon, A.; Eppich, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.

  6. Preservation of Scientific and Cultural Heritage in Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonta, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are…

  7. Online Cultural Heritage Exhibitions: A Survey of Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to report findings from a study that looked at a range of strategic issues faced in the development, management and maintenance of online cultural heritage exhibitions. The study examined exhibitions from different types of cultural agencies and asked questions about whether, for instance, the exhibitions are part of the…

  8. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  9. Heritage/Culture Preservation Model Bilingual Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samayoa, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Our first generation children face a loss of heritage in today's public schools. Unfortunately, the assets that one's bilingual ability brings into the classroom are difficult for educators to fully understand. Often this may happen because professionals in the field of education lack the knowledge about the need for children to maintain their…

  10. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient "nanotechnologies"; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  11. JPEG2000 and dissemination of cultural heritage over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Politou, Eugenia A; Pavlidis, George P; Chamzas, Christodoulos

    2004-03-01

    By applying the latest technologies in image compression for managing the storage of massive image data within cultural heritage databases and by exploiting the universality of the Internet we are now able not only to effectively digitize, record and preserve, but also to promote the dissemination of cultural heritage. In this work we present an application of the latest image compression standard JPEG2000 in managing and browsing image databases, focusing on the image transmission aspect rather than database management and indexing. We combine the technologies of JPEG2000 image compression with client-server socket connections and client browser plug-in, as to provide with an all-in-one package for remote browsing of JPEG2000 compressed image databases, suitable for the effective dissemination of cultural heritage.

  12. Analysis of Cultural Heritage by Accelerator Techniques and Analytical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the result of experimental investigation using two very important accelerator techniques: (1) synchrotron radiation XRF and XAFS; and (2) accelerator mass spectrometry and multispectral analytical imaging for the investigation of cultural heritage. We also want to introduce a complementary approach to the investigation of artworks which is noninvasive and nondestructive that can be applied in situ. Four major projects will be discussed to illustrate the potential applications of these accelerator and analytical imaging techniques: (1) investigation of Mongolian Textile (Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Period) using XRF, AMS and electron microscopy; (2) XRF studies of pigments collected from Korean Buddhist paintings; (3) creating a database of elemental composition and spectral reflectance of more than 1000 Japanese pigments which have been used for traditional Japanese paintings; and (4) visible light-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging of degraded malachite and azurite. The XRF measurements of the Japanese and Korean pigments could be used to complement the results of pigment identification by analytical imaging through spectral reflectance reconstruction. On the other hand, analysis of the Mongolian textiles revealed that they were produced between 12th and 13th century. Elemental analysis of the samples showed that they contained traces of gold, copper, iron and titanium. Based on the age and trace elements in the samples, it was concluded that the textiles were produced during the height of power of the Mongol empire, which makes them a valuable cultural heritage. Finally, the analysis of the degraded and discolored malachite and azurite demonstrates how multispectral analytical imaging could be used to complement the results of high energy-based techniques.

  13. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  14. Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Sensors to Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Noemi; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported. PMID:24755519

  15. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance sensors to cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Noemi; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2014-04-21

    In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported.

  16. Automatic Damage Detection for Sensitive Cultural Heritage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerra, D.; Tian, J.; Lysandrou, V.; Plank, S.

    2016-06-01

    The intentional damages to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State (IS) have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data is an important tool to assess these damages in such non-accessible areas: If a fast response is desired, automated image processing techniques would be needed to speed up the analysis. This paper shows the first results of applying fast and robust change detection techniques to sensitive areas. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings is derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to the Cultural Heritage sites in the observed images.

  17. Cultural heritage of Varna and its tourist recognisability in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowicz, M.; Gruszka, P.; Jarecka, I.

    2016-03-01

    Cultural heritage of the European civilization constitutes cultural and spiritual property of the ancestors, as well as current generations of the Varna city. It represents both material and non-material value, defines the European culture. It includes all the environmental consequences arising from the interaction between the man and the surroundings over the course of history. Assessment of tourist potential of Varna performed on 9-14th September, 2014, by the members of the "European Traveler" scientific circle, students of tourist and recreation, as well as heritage and culture tourism at Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, made it possible to identify the main points of tourist recognizability in relation to the city and region. The staid points are predominantly based on the unique cultural assets of the city and the region - in large measure related to the origins of the European civilization - as well as current cultural events organized in the city.

  18. Exploring Cultural Heritage Resources in a 3d Collaborative Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Respaldiza, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Vázquez Hoehne, A.

    2012-06-01

    Cultural heritage is a complex and diverse concept, which brings together a wide domain of information. Resources linked to a cultural heritage site may consist of physical artefacts, books, works of art, pictures, historical maps, aerial photographs, archaeological surveys and 3D models. Moreover, all these resources are listed and described by a set of a variety of metadata specifications that allow their online search and consultation on the most basic characteristics of them. Some examples include Norma ISO 19115, Dublin Core, AAT, CDWA, CCO, DACS, MARC, MoReq, MODS, MuseumDat, TGN, SPECTRUM, VRA Core and Z39.50. Gateways are in place to fit in these metadata standards into those used in a SDI (ISO 19115 or INSPIRE), but substantial work still remains to be done for the complete incorporation of cultural heritage information. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the complexity of cultural heritage resources can be dealt with by a visual exploration of their metadata within a 3D collaborative environment. The 3D collaborative environments are promising tools that represent the new frontier of our capacity of learning, understanding, communicating and transmitting culture.

  19. Pass the Flame: Tentative Programs of Cultural Heritage Education Among Teenagers in Yuanmingyuan Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, R.; Yin, L.; Liu, T.; Zhang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Yuanmingyuan is a very important cultural heritage site in Beijing, China. In order to improve the conservation of Yuanmingyuan Site and increase communication between the cultural heritage site and the public, especially the teenagers, our institute initiated a serial of education programs in the past two years, cooperating with local schools, including courses on the base of school curriculums, independent cultural heritage summer camp, and special sessions in international cultural heritage symposium. All these programs have received positive feedback and shown promising future.

  20. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage Initiatives in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Bill; Parthesius, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is provide an overview of the capacity building programmes in maritime and underwater cultural heritage (MUCH) conducted by the authors in Tanzania and Mozambique. Tanzania and Mozambique have long histories of indigenous cultures, foreign contacts and influences and African adaptations beginning in the late Greco-Roman period, when the coastal populations exploited the peoples and riches of the interior. Today the coastline contains numerous examples of indigenous tangible and intangible heritage and many sites and histories related to the Swahili culture. Some exploratory research and training has been conducted in Tanzania and Mozambique, but the implementation by local residents of their own MUCH programme is still at an early stage. Under a UNESCO agreement framework, Tanzania in particular has started to develop a MUCH programme, which can assist in highlighting their extensive histories, cultural landscapes and cultural identity.

  1. 3 CFR 8585 - Proclamation 8585 of October 14, 2010. Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 8585 Proclamation 8585 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8585 of October 14, 2010 Proc. 8585 Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010By the... Culture Month, we recognize the rich heritage of Americans of Italian descent and celebrate...

  2. Challenges of Digital Preservation for Cultural Heritage Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evens, Tom; Hauttekeete, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborates four major issues hampering the sustainability of digital preservation within cultural heritage institutions: digitization, metadata indexes, intellectual property rights management and business models. Using a case-study approach, the digitization of audiovisual collections within the performing arts institutions in…

  3. Voice knowledge acquisition system for the management of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Château, Stefan; Boulanger, Danielle; Mercier-Laurent, Eunika

    This document presents our work on a definition and experimentation of a voice interface for cultural heritage inventory. This hybrid system includes signal processing, natural language techniques and knowledge modeling for future retrieval. We discuss the first results and give some points on future work.

  4. Management Documentation: Indicators & Good Practice at Cultural Heritage Places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppich, R.; Garcia Grinda, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation for cultural heritage places usually refers to describing the physical attributes, surrounding context, condition or environment; most of the time with images, graphics, maps or digital 3D models in their various forms with supporting textural information. Just as important as this type of information is the documentation of managerial attributes. How do managers of cultural heritage places collect information related to financial or economic well-being? How are data collected over time measured, and what are significant indicators for improvement? What quality of indicator is good enough? Good management of cultural heritage places is essential for conservation longevity, preservation of values and enjoyment by the public. But how is management documented? The paper will describe the research methodology, selection and description of attributes or indicators related to good management practice. It will describe the criteria for indicator selection and why they are important, how and when they are collected, by whom, and the difficulties in obtaining this information. As importantly it will describe how this type of documentation directly contributes to improving conservation practice. Good practice summaries will be presented that highlight this type of documentation including Pamplona and Ávila, Spain and Valletta, Malta. Conclusions are drawn with preliminary recommendations for improvement of this important aspect of documentation. Documentation of this nature is not typical and presents a unique challenge to collect, measure and communicate easily. However, it is an essential category that is often ignored yet absolutely essential in order to conserve cultural heritage places.

  5. Harvesting Cultural Heritage Metadata Using the OAI Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreeves, Sarah L.; Kaczmarek, Joanne S.; Cole, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign undertook a project to test the efficacy of using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting to construct a search and discovery service focused on information resources in the domain of cultural heritage. Provides an overview of the Illinois project, with quantitative data about…

  6. Cyanobacteria and biodeterioration of cultural heritage: a review.

    PubMed

    Crispim, C A; Gaylarde, C C

    2005-01-01

    Growing concern for the preservation of cultural heritage has led to a greater interest in the biological attack on these buildings. The importance of cyanobacteria as deteriogens is emphasized and the traditional and more modern molecular methods used to detect these microorganisms are discussed. The development of molecular techniques for the rapid identification of cyanobacteria without need for culture and isolation is fundamental if our knowledge of these communities in biofilms on the surfaces of historic buildings is to be extended.

  7. Embedding Knowledge in 3D Data Frameworks in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughenour, C. M.; Vincent, M. L.; de Kramer, M.; Senecal, S.; Fritsch, D.; Flores Gutirrez, M.; Lopez-Menchero Bendicho, V. M.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    At present, where 3D modeling and visualisation in cultural heritage are concerned, an object's documentation lacks its interconnected memory provided by multidisciplinary examination and linked data. As the layers of paint, wood, and brick recount a structure's physical properties, the intangible, such as the forms of worship through song, dance, burning incense, and oral traditions, contributes to the greater story of its cultural heritage import. Furthermore, as an object or structure evolves through time, external political, religious, or environmental forces can affect it as well. As tangible and intangible entities associated with the structure transform, its narrative becomes dynamic and difficult to easily record. The Initial Training Network for Digital Cultural Heritage (ITN-DCH), a Marie Curie Actions project under the EU 7th Framework Programme, seeks to challenge this complexity by developing a novel methodology capable of offering such a holistic framework. With the integration of digitisation, conservation, linked data, and retrieval systems for DCH, the nature of investigation and dissemination will be augmented significantly. Examples of utilisating and evaluating this framework will range from a UNESCOWorld Heritage site, the Byzantine church of Panagia Forviotissa Asinou in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus, to various religious icons and a monument located at the Monastery of Saint Neophytos. The application of this effort to the Asinou church, representing the first case study of the ITN-DCH project, is used as a template example in order to assess the technical challenges involved in the creation of such a framework.

  8. Business Planning for Cultural Heritage Institutions. A Framework and Resource Guide to Assist Cultural Heritage Institutions with Business Planning for Sustainability of Digital Asset Management Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishoff, Liz; Allen, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a framework and resource guide to help cultural heritage institutions plan sustainable access to their digital cultural assets and to do so by means that link their missions to planning modes and models. To aid cultural heritage organizations in the business-planning process, this resource will do the…

  9. VIDEOR: cultural heritage risk assessment and monitoring on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteleone, Antonio; Dore, Nicole; Giovagnoli, Annamaria; Cacace, C.

    2016-08-01

    Cultural heritage is constantly threatened by several factors, such as anthropic activities (e.g. urbanization, pollution) and natural events (e.g. landslides, subsidence) that compromise cultural assets conservation and integrity over time. Italy is the country with the highest number of UNESCO cultural and natural World Heritage sites (51) containing both monuments and archaeological assets of global significance that need to be preserved for future generations, as declared and requested both by UNESCO and the European Commission. VIDEOR, the first web-service completely dedicated to cultural heritage, arises as support tool to institutions and organisations responsible of CH safeguard, with the goal to guarantee a constant and continuous monitoring of cultural assets considered to be at risk. Thanks to its services, VIDEOR allows a periodic situation evaluation, performed with the use of satellite remote sensing data (both optical and SAR) and aerial platform remote sensing data (UAVs), these last used when satellites identify a critical situation that requires deeper analyses. This constant and periodic monitoring will allow not only always updated information about the asset health status, but also early warnings launched by the operative center (NAIS) directly to experts of the responsible institutions (ISCR) after risk identification. The launch of early warnings will be essential for triggering promptly activities of preventive restoration, a less expensive way of intervention if compared to the post-event restoration, both in economic terms and in terms of historical preservation of a country.

  10. Non-invasive studies of objects from cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Vontobel, Peter; Deschler-Erb, Eckhard; Soares, Marie

    2005-04-01

    In order to preserve the objects from European cultural heritage in its structure and shape for our future generations, there is a need to perform all investigations on important samples non-destructively or with very limited amounts of material. Among the non-destructive testing (NDT) methods available for this purpose there are those that need large installations such as accelerators and reactors to provide different kinds of radiation (X-ray, protons, neutrons, gamma, etc.). Therefore, a link between the specialists working at such facilities with scientists from museums and archaeological institutes is necessary. This paper describes the status of a European network dedicated to the NDT of museum objects (COST-G8) as an overview. In more detail, the activities in Switzerland will be presented where PSI plays a role for the study with neutrons and X-rays. Most of the investigated samples of Swiss collections are from Celtic or Roman origin. The superposition of both applied methods gives the opportunity to decide about the structure of objects and artefacts from restoration work applied later to the virgin excavation status. The presented examples will give an overview about opportunities of the applied methods and their limitations in some cases. This should be motivating to adapt the demonstrated methods to other similar objects of historical relevance.

  11. Protection Versus Public Access: Two Concepts Compared within the Italian Underwater Cultural Heritage Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secci, Massimiliano

    2011-12-01

    The concepts of protection and public access relating to underwater cultural heritage are often taken as two contrasting notions in the Italian underwater cultural heritage management panorama. This contribution aims to review these concepts with the objective of emphasizing the possibility of sound and scientifically compelling public access to the underwater cultural heritage, keeping protection principles intact. With the support of in-the-field examples successfully produced worldwide, this paper will attempt to underline how scientifically sound public access activities in the field of underwater cultural heritage management can benefit the protection of such heritage.

  12. The Importance of Cultural Heritage in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avvisati, Gala; Di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; de Vita, Sandro; Nave, Rosella; Vertechi, Enrico; De Natale, Giuseppe; Ghilardi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Earth Sciences community is facing the need to achieve a more effective and efficient dissemination of its scientific culture. There is now a growing needing to integrate the use of "traditional" dissemination media of cultural heritage with the new digital technologies. Getting people involved in geoheritage site's activities represents a crucial issue in order to better communicate and increase the collective awareness of natural hazards, risk, and environmental change. The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV) which is part of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), owns collections unique in their combination of scientific, historical and artistic importance. The long history of ROV is extensively documented in its collections. This heritage - of great scientific and cultural value and unique for its abundance and variety - tells the story of the first observatory in the world, closely linked to the activity of Vesuvius, and the commitment of many scientists who dedicated their lives to study the volcano. The collections include: a) old books on volcanological matters, b) collection of rocks, minerals, volcanic ash and other materials from historical eruptions of Vesuvius, c) recordings on smoked paper of Vesuvius seismic activity from 1915 until 1970, d) scientific instruments, e) geological and geomorphological maps and models, f) vintage photographs and filmed sequences of eruptions, g) gouaches of Vesuvius and h) lava medals. The exposition of these collections, improved with the new digital contents, may trace new and unexplored routes for the dissemination of Earth Sciences related culture. The ethical duty of the ROV is the creation of an universal identity by taking a picture of the evolution of the society through the training of the culture of seismic and volcanic risk. A disappearance of its heritage could represent an huge impoverishment of its community: the ROV carries in fact the cultural identity of the

  13. Noninvasive testing of art and cultural heritage by mobile NMR.

    PubMed

    Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Presciutti, Federica; Anselmi, Chiara; Doherty, Brenda

    2010-06-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has many applications in science, medicine, and technology. Conventional instrumentation is large and expensive, however, because superconducting magnets offer maximum sensitivity. Yet NMR devices can also be small and inexpensive if permanent magnets are used, and samples need not be placed within the magnet but can be examined externally in the stray magnetic field. Mobile stray-field NMR is a method of growing interest for nondestructive testing of a diverse range of materials and processes. A well-known stray-field sensor is the commercially available NMR-MOUSE, which is small and can readily be carried to an object to be studied. In this Account, we describe mobile stray-field NMR, with particular attention to its use in analyzing objects of cultural heritage. The most common data recorded are relaxation measurements of (1)H because the proton is the most sensitive NMR nucleus, and relaxation can be measured despite the inhomogeneous magnetic field that typically accompanies a simple magnet design. Through NMR relaxation, the state of matter can be analyzed locally, and the signal amplitude gives the proton density. A variety of stray-field sensors have been designed. Small devices weighing less than a kilogram have a shallow penetration depth of just a few millimeters and a resolution of a few micrometers. Access to greater depths requires larger sensors that may weigh 30 kg or more. The use of these sensors is illustrated by selected examples, including examinations of (i) the stratigraphy of master paintings, (ii) binder aging, (iii) the deterioration of paper, (iv) wood density in master violins, (v) the moisture content and moisture profiles in walls covered with paintings and mosaics, and (vi) the evolution of stone conservation treatments. The NMR data provide unique information to the conservator on the state of the object--including past conservation measures. The use of mobile NMR remains relatively new, expanding

  14. ATHENA: Remote Sensing Science Center for Cultural Heritage in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriakos; Cuca, Branka; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-04-01

    The Cultural Heritage (CH) sector, especially those of monuments and sites has always been facing a number of challenges from environmental pressure, pollution, human intervention from tourism to destruction by terrorism.Within this context, CH professionals are seeking to improve currently used methodologies, in order to better understand, protect and valorise the common European past and common identity. "ATHENA" H2020-TWINN-2015 project will seek to improve and expand the capabilities of the Cyprus University of Technology, involving professionals dealing with remote sensing technologies for supporting CH sector from the National Research Center of Italy (CNR) and German Aerospace Centre (DLR). The ATHENA centre will be devoted to the development, introduction and systematic use of advanced remote sensing science and technologies in the field of archaeology, built cultural heritage, their multi-temporal analysis and interpretation and the distant monitoring of their natural and anthropogenic environment in the area of Eastern Mediterranean.

  15. From Oss CAD to Bim for Cultural Heritage Digital Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logothetis, S.; Karachaliou, E.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-02-01

    The paper illustrates the use of open source Computer-aided design (CAD) environments in order to develop Building Information Modelling (BIM) tools able to manage 3D models in the field of cultural heritage. Nowadays, the development of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) has been rapidly growing and their use tends to be consolidated. Although BIM technology is widely known and used, there is a lack of integrated open source platforms able to support all stages of Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) processes. The present research aims to use a FOSS CAD environment in order to develop BIM plug-ins which will be able to import and edit digital representations of cultural heritage models derived by photogrammetric methods.

  16. FOREWORD: Cultural heritage and civil engineering Cultural heritage and civil engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Soldovieri, Francesco; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Dumoulin, Jean

    2012-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Geophysics and Engineering offers a diverse panorama of approaches and technologies that aim to characterize and analyse the state of conservation and health of cultural heritage and civil infrastructure. In particular, it provides a significant overview not only of the effectiveness but also of the limitations of single diagnostic techniques, which can be overcome through the integration of different methods and technologies and/or the use of robust and novel data processing techniques. The choice of diagnostic strategy depends on the material (concrete, masonry), the spatial characteristics of the objects or sites, the value of the objects to be investigated (cultural or not), the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment, etc). The paper by Fornaro et al reports an important technological advance in the field of slow deformation monitoring of civil infrastructure by means of differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from satellite platforms. The paper shows how the joint exploitation of the last generation of X-band SAR sensors, such as TerraSAR-X, and novel tomographic approaches makes possible advanced multi-dimensional imaging of real structures such as the Las Vegas Monorail. Within the same SAR-based applications, Tapete et al tested the capability of persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) techniques in the preventative diagnosis of deformation threatening the structural stability of archaeological monuments and buried structures in the Roman Forum, Palatino Hill and Oppio Hill in the centre of Rome. A PSInSAR processing approach, based on the use of the SqueeSAR algorithm, has been shown to be highly suitable for retrieving not only information about displacements of the archaeological remains, but also evidence of criticalities affecting partially or totally buried structures, such as those discovered at Nero's Golden

  17. Efficient cultural heritage image restoration with nonuniform illumination enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jmal, Marwa; Souidene, Wided; Attia, Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Cultural heritage digitization has been of research interest for several decades. For such, the quality of the stored images should be pleasant to see. However, as images captured by digital devices may include undesirable effects, conducting an enhancement on the image is essential. In this context, we present a framework for the purpose of cultural heritage image illumination enhancement. First, a mapping curve based on saturation feedback is created to adjust the contrast. Then illumination is enhanced by applying a modified homomorphic filter in the frequency domain. The technique employs an optimization search process based on the efficient golden section search algorithm to compute the optimal parameters to produce the enhanced image. Finally, a color restoration function is applied to overcome the problem of color violation. The resulted image represents a trade-off among local contrast improvement, detail enhancement, and preserving the naturalness of the image. Experiments are conducted on a collected dataset of cultural heritage images and compared to some of the state-of-the-art image enhancement methods using a set of quantitative assessments criteria. Results have shown that our proposed approach is able to accomplish a wide set of the performance goals.

  18. Recent trends in IBA for cultural heritage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Lucile

    2014-08-01

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques play an important role in the field of cultural heritage. IBA was one of the first physical methods applied to archaeology in the 70s. 40 years later, more than 25 accelerator laboratories were or are involved in cultural heritage applications. The advantages of the IBA techniques match very well the requirements for the analysis of archaeological or museum objects: non destructiveness, major, minor and trace element analysis, information in depth, elemental mapping… Thanks to this collected information, IBA techniques can answer archaeological and conservation questions: provenance determination, ancient technologies (fabrication, transformation, recipes…) and conservation issues. In spite of the competition with portable devices and large facilities (such as synchrotron or neutron reactors), the IBA methods keep their interest due to the possibility of associating two or three of them according to the archaeological or art issue. In this article, some examples chosen for their original approach are presented: PIXE for X-radiography, provenance of prehistoric pigments and painting characterisation. They illustrate the useful versatility of IBA for cultural heritage studies. Perspectives for further improvements are also proposed.

  19. Boundaries and Boundary Marks - Substantive Cultural Heritage of Extensive Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhaeusl, P.; Koenig, H.; Mansberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Austrian Society for surveying and Geoinformation (ASG) has proposed to submit "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" for the UNESCO World Heritage title. It was time that boundaries, borders and limits of all types as well as ownership rights would find the proper attention in the global public. Landmarks symbolize the real property and the associated rights and obligations, in a figurative sense, the property generally and all legal limits. A democratic state of law is impossible at today's population density without a functioning land administration system with surveying and jurisdiction. As monumental World Heritage representatives of the geodetic artwork "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" are specifically proposed: remaining monuments of the original cadastral geodetic network, the first pan-Austrian surveying headquarters in Vienna, and a specific selection of outstanding boundary monuments. Landmarks are monuments to the boundaries which separate rights and obligations, but also connect the neighbors peacefully after written agreement. "And cursed be he who does not respect the boundaries" you wrote already 3000 years ago. Boundaries and Boundary Marks are a real thing; they all belong to the tangible or material heritage of human history. In this context also the intangible heritage is discussed. This refers to oral tradition and expressions, performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; as well as to knowledge and practices handling nature and the universe. "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" do not belong to it, but clearly to the material cultural world heritage. "Boundary and Boundary Marks" is proposed to be listed according to the criteria (ii),(iv),(vi).

  20. Computational chemistry meets cultural heritage: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fantacci, Simona; Amat, Anna; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2010-06-15

    Chemistry is central to addressing topics of interest in the cultural heritage field, offering particular insight into the nature and composition of the original materials, the degradation processes that have occurred over the years, and the attendant physical and chemical changes. On the one hand, the chemical characterization of the constituting materials allows researchers to unravel the rich information enclosed in a work of art, providing insight into the manufacturing techniques and revealing aspects of artistic, chronological, historical, and sociocultural significance. On the other hand, despite the recognized contribution of computational chemistry in many branches of materials science, this tool has only recently been applied to cultural heritage, largely because of the inherent complexity of art materials. In this Account, we present a brief overview of the available computational methods, classified on the basis of accuracy level and dimension of the system to be simulated. Among the discussed methodologies, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT represent a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost, allowing researchers to model the structural, electronic, and spectroscopic properties of complex extended systems in condensed phase. We then discuss the results of recent research devoted to the computer simulation of prototypical systems in cultural heritage, namely, indigo and Maya Blue, weld and weld lake, and the pigment minium (red lead). These studies provide insight into the basic interactions underlying the materials properties and, in some cases, permit the assignment of the material composition. We discuss properties of interest in the cultural heritage field, ranging from structural geometries and acid-base properties to IR-Raman vibrational spectra and UV-vis absorption-emission spectra (including excited-state deactivation pathways). We particularly highlight how computational chemistry applications in cultural

  1. Micelle, microemulsions, and gels for the conservation of cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Baglioni, Piero; Berti, Debora; Bonini, Massimo; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Fratini, Emiliano; Giorgi, Rodorico

    2014-03-01

    Past restorations performed with acrylic and vinyl polymers showed detrimental effects to wall paintings that lead to the complete disfiguration of the painted surfaces. The removal of these materials performed with the traditional solvent-based methodology represents a real challenge to conservators and usually achieves very poor results. This review reports on the new palette, nowadays available to restorers, based on microemulsions, micellar systems, physical and chemical gels specifically formulated for the cleaning of cultural heritage artefacts. These systems have been developed in the last twenty years within the cultural framework of colloids and surface science.

  2. D Tracking Based Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battini, C.; Landi, G.

    2015-02-01

    The development of contactless documentation techniques is allowing researchers to collect high volumes of three-dimensional data in a short time but with high levels of accuracy. The digitalisation of cultural heritage opens up the possibility of using image processing and analysis, and computer graphics techniques, to preserve this heritage for future generations; augmenting it with additional information or with new possibilities for its enjoyment and use. The collection of precise datasets about cultural heritage status is crucial for its interpretation, its conservation and during the restoration processes. The application of digital-imaging solutions for various feature extraction, image data-analysis techniques, and three-dimensional reconstruction of ancient artworks, allows the creation of multidimensional models that can incorporate information coming from heterogeneous data sets, research results and historical sources. Real objects can be scanned and reconstructed virtually, with high levels of data accuracy and resolution. Real-time visualisation software and hardware is rapidly evolving and complex three-dimensional models can be interactively visualised and explored on applications developed for mobile devices. This paper will show how a 3D reconstruction of an object, with multiple layers of information, can be stored and visualised through a mobile application that will allow interaction with a physical object for its study and analysis, using 3D Tracking based Augmented Reality techniques.

  3. Integrated Conservation of the Cantonese Opera Art Museum and Intangible Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Li, X.

    2015-08-01

    Cantonese Opera, as the sole cultural heritage of Guangdong Province of China so far, which was included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the UNESCO, bears the cultural memory of the Lingnan region and as well as the overseas Chinese worldwide. Located in the core historic urban area - Enning Road of Guangzhou, the Cantonese Opera Art Museum is designed in Lingnan traditional garden manner, through going deep into the Cantonese opera culture, Lingnan traditional garden culture and Lingnan cultural spirit. The design highlights the integrated conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, to protect living history and build the historical environment and place spirit for the intangible cultural heritage. The Cantonese Opera Art Museum is not only a tangible space for exhibition, study, education and display of the Cantonese Opera art, but also a cultural space with the Lingnan cultural memory, gathering the Lingnan intangible heritage and closely linked with current life of successors and ordinary people.

  4. Digitization of Cultural Heritage of Slovak Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehovská, J.; Brunčák, P.; Dedík, L.; Kravjanská, I.; Sučíková, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic within the Operational Programme Information Society from 2012, is digital documenting selected national cultural monuments of the Slovak Republic. Within this project 1,855 architectural objects in Slovakia has been digitized by internal component of the The Monuments Board SR and external suppliers. For measurement there were used the most modern surveying technologies - digital photogrammetry (DP) of land and aerial images and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The outputs of digitization are point cloud, highly detailed polygon models, orthoimages, gigapixel images and 2D drawing documentations. During the project, arose the need to process the huge number of images (thousands or tens of thousands) and also need a TLS connection to DP. For this reason, started Slovak commercial firm developing of new software which enable this processing and connection. The outcomes are unique spatial models of large architectural complexes (castles, monasteries, churches...) with high detail and accuracy up to 1 cm. Article is devoted to the project description and the method of digitization for the specific types of the cultural monuments.

  5. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    PubMed

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique.

  6. The Significance of Significance in Cultural Heritage Studies: A Role for Cultural Analogues in Applied Geography Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, William E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a teaching exercise for increasing awareness of, and sensitivity to, issues in cultural heritage management and addresses the significance attached to cultural icons of the past. The exercise uses representative places from mainstream Australian culture as a way to introduce mainstream students to issues of indigenous cultural heritage.…

  7. A framework to apply ICT for bequeathing the cultural heritage to next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syah, R.; Nuradi, T. E.; Nasution, M. K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Of course, preservation of cultural heritage is a task given by UNISCO charter, but bequeath the cultural heritage to the next generation is most important. The cultural heritage contains the lost intelligence, displaced by modernization and globalization, but ICT can be a way out although ICT has a negative effect. Based on the component we apply ICT, we derive a framework for applying ICT as core and next generation as consideration scope.

  8. Exploring Race, Culture, and Family in the Identities of Mixed Heritage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pecero, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Family plays an integral role in racial and cultural socialization, yet how mixed heritage students understand the concepts of race and culture in relation to family is unclear. This qualitative study explored the interplay of race, culture, and family in the identity constructions of 25 mixed heritage students. Findings suggest the centrality of…

  9. Information support systems for cultural heritage protection against flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvedova, K.; Pergl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling) for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.

  10. Ion beam analysis in cultural heritage studies: Milestones and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dran, Jean-Claude; Calligaro, Thomas

    2013-07-18

    For three decades, ion beam analysis (IBA) in external mode was considered as the best choice for the characterisation of cultural heritage materials, as it combines excellent analytical performance and non-invasive character. However, in recent years, other analytical techniques arose as serious competitors, such as those based on synchrotron radiation (X-ray absorption, fluorescence or diffraction) or those using portable instruments (XRF, micro-Raman). It is shown that nevertheless IBA remains unmatched thanks to two unique features, namely the analysis of light elements and the high-resolution 3D chemical imaging.

  11. Advanced imaging systems for diagnostic investigations applied to Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peccenini, E.; Albertin, F.; Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Petrucci, F.

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic investigations are an important resource in the studies on Cultural Heritage to enhance the knowledge on execution techniques, materials and conservation status of a work of art. In this field, due to the great historical and artistic value of the objects, preservation is the main concern; for this reason, new technological equipment has been designed and developed in the Physics Departments of the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna to enhance the non-invasive approach to the study of pictorial artworks and other objects of cultural interest. Infrared (IR) reflectography, X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT), applied to works of art, are joined by the same goal: to get hidden information on execution techniques and inner structure pursuing the non-invasiveness of the methods, although using different setup and physical principles. In this work transportable imaging systems to investigate large objects in museums and galleries are presented. In particular, 2D scanning devices for IR reflectography and X-ray radiography, CT systems and some applications to the Cultural Heritage are described.

  12. Local Resources, Global Heritage: An Introduction to the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Amanda M.; Russell, Matthew A.; Leshikar-Denton, Margaret E.

    2010-12-01

    On January 2, 2009, the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage entered into force, setting an international precedent for the protection and preservation of underwater archaeological resources and providing guidelines for site management and responsible investigation. Historically, submerged cultural resources, particularly shipwrecks, have been exploited primarily for their potential monetary value. Over the last 50 years archaeologists have challenged this perception, demonstrating the cultural and scientific value of submerged cultural resources.

  13. Connecting World Heritage Nominations and Monitoring with the Support of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vileikis, O.; Dumont, B.; Serruys, E.; Van Balen, K.; Tigny, V.; De Maeyer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are challenging the way cultural heritage has been managed and evaluated in the past. Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are unique in that they consist of multiple sites listed as one property, distributed in different countries, involving a large diversity of stakeholders in the process. As a result, there is a need for precise baseline information for monitoring, reporting and decision making. This type of nomination requires different methodologies and tools to improve the monitoring cycle from the beginning of the nomination towards the periodic reporting. The case study of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS) illustrates the use of a Geographical Content Management System (Geo-CMS) supporting the serial transnational World Heritage nomination and the monitoring of the Silk Roads in the five Central Asian countries. The Silk Roads CHRIS is an initiative supported by UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), and developed by a consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the KULeuven. The Silk Roads CHRIS has been successfully assisting in the preparation of the nomination dossiers of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and will be used as a tool for monitoring tool in the Central Asian countries.

  14. Conservation of stone built cultural heritage and preservation of memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antônio

    2016-04-01

    Certainly, the main justification for the conservation of cultural heritage built, lies in the meanings that these buildings have, either to the history of nations, either as part of the cultural heritage of humanity. On the other hand, and taking into account the use of stone, it can be said that in addition to cultural and aesthetic values usually associated with these monuments or architectural ensembles that make up this heritage, the presence of stone materials gives another dimension to those constructions, which is the geo-memory. This means that, due to the presence of this material, where each has its own history, it is also possible to identify geo-memories for each of these monuments or architectural ensembles that make up this heritage, either the genesis point of view, involving environments and processes, either regarding the formation ages of these materials. At the same time and due to the use of these materials can be said that each monument or group of monuments is a reflection of the geo-diversity of a determined region or territory. In Brazil, due to its large territory, this geo-diversity includes a wide range of geological environments, phenomena and processes, giving rise to diverse stone materials, which can be observed in the monuments that are part of your built heritage. Thus in old buildings of historic sites located in particular in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil, this geo-diversity is present because many types of rocks were used, igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary compositions and of very different ages. Of these types stands out, for example, granites and gneisses, which were used in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, where they are very common. In such cases, the rocks were formed, or end of the Paleoproterozoic, or at the end of the Neoproterozoic and have different textures, sometimes with predominance of biotite, among mica, sometimes amphibole, as hornblende, or with garnet. They were often used in

  15. Effectiveness of granite cleaning procedures in cultural heritage: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Antonio, J S; Rivas, T; López, A J; Fiorucci, M P; Ramil, A

    2016-11-15

    Most of the Cultural Heritage built in NW Iberian Peninsula is made of granite which exposition to the environment leads to the formation of deposits and coatings, mainly two types: biological colonization and sulphated black crusts. Nowadays, another form of alteration derives from graffiti paints when these are applied as an act of vandalism. A deep revision needs to be addressed considering the severity of these deterioration forms on granite and the different cleaning effectiveness achieved by cleaning procedures used to remove them. The scientific literature about these topics on granite is scarcer than on sedimentary carbonate stones and marbles, but the importance of the granite in NW Iberian Peninsula Cultural Heritage claims this review centred on biological colonization, sulphated black crusts and graffiti on granite and their effectiveness of the common cleaning procedures. Furthermore, this paper carried out a review of the knowledge about those three alteration forms on granite, as well as bringing together all the major studies in the field of the granite cleaning with traditional procedures (chemical and mechanical) and with the recent developed technique based on the laser ablation. Findings concerning the effectiveness evaluation of these cleaning procedures, considering the coating extraction ability and the damage induced on the granite surface, are described. Finally, some futures research lines are pointed out.

  16. Thermal Neutron Tomography for Cultural Heritage at INR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, Marin; Mandescu, Dragos

    The neutron and gamma imaging facility placed at the tangential channel of the TRIGA-ACPR from INR was used for tomography investigations on a test object with good results and shortly followed its involvement for tomography investigations on prehistoric statues of clay from the Arges County Museum. This activity was performed in connection with a research contract with IAEA with title "The neutron and gamma imaging method combined with neutron-based analytical methods for cultural heritage research", in the frame of a current CRP, that helps curators to reveal the internal structure and composition of the objects. The detector system has been developed based on two interchangeable scintillators, one for thermal neutrons and the other one for gamma radiations, a mirror of float glass coated with aluminum and two interchangeable CCD cameras. Experiments of tomography imaging for two prehistoric statues of clay with CCD STARLIGHT XPRESS SXV-H9 camera with XD-4 type image intensifier are presented in this paper. The tomography reconstructions with Octopus software have shown the potential of good results even for 100 projections/1800. This was a good opportunity for the dissemination of the investigation methods based on neutrons for cultural heritage and beyond this area.

  17. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    PubMed

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  18. Optimization of digitization procedures in cultural heritage preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Bea; Mitjà, Carles; Escofet, Jaume

    2013-11-01

    The digitization of both volumetric and flat objects is the nowadays-preferred method in order to preserve cultural heritage items. High quality digital files obtained from photographic plates, films and prints, paintings, drawings, gravures, fabrics and sculptures, allows not only for a wider diffusion and on line transmission, but also for the preservation of the original items from future handling. Early digitization procedures used scanners for flat opaque or translucent objects and camera only for volumetric or flat highly texturized materials. The technical obsolescence of the high-end scanners and the improvement achieved by professional cameras has result in a wide use of cameras with digital back to digitize any kind of cultural heritage item. Since the lens, the digital back, the software controlling the camera and the digital image processing provide a wide range of possibilities, there is necessary to standardize the methods used in the reproduction work leading to preserve as high as possible the original item properties. This work presents an overview about methods used for camera system characterization, as well as the best procedures in order to identify and counteract the effect of the lens residual aberrations, sensor aliasing, image illumination, color management and image optimization by means of parametric image processing. As a corollary, the work shows some examples of reproduction workflow applied to the digitization of valuable art pieces and glass plate photographic black and white negatives.

  19. Deformation Measurement Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbesoglu, M. O.; Bakirman, T.; Gokbayrak, O.

    2016-10-01

    Historical structures are one of the most essential element of cultural heritage. They reflect history, lifestyle and tradition of a country and society. However, they are damaged through the years due to human activities and natural hazards. Therefore, digital documentation of structures and monuments is critical for preservation, sustainability and protection of cultural heritage. Terrestrial laser scanner is a widespread used tool for obtaining 3D representation of real world. In this study, we aimed to measure deformation of deformed minaret of a historical mosque using terrestrial laser scanner. In order to represent the geometry of the deformed minaret with high accuracy, 31 horizontal sections were created from the transition segment to the spire of the minaret with 30 cm intervals. The changing curvatures of the minaret were analysed in three parts; cylindrical part, balcony part and upper part. The offsets from the vertical axes for the parts of the minaret were found as 10.14 cm, 13.97 cm and 16.51 cm, respectively.

  20. Contemporary Culture: A Model for Teaching a Culture's Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Tom

    Current approaches to teaching culture which have adapted the anthropological model to contemporary life situations can serve as a guide to the organization of traditional civilization course material, from which exercises can be developed. Culture instruction should incorporate a cross-cultural dimension, be authentically contemporary, and be…

  1. From Quisqueya: In Search of New Horizons. Dominican Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcantara, Anibal; Aquino, Jaime; Lantigua, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Digna; Soto, Alejandro

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help them understand the cultural heritage of Dominican students and their communities. The Dominican Republic, which occupies two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, has a long history dominated by the struggle for independence. In their efforts to create a better…

  2. MOSAICA: A Web-2.0 Based System for the Preservation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Herscoviz, Orit; Kaberman, Zvia; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of how to present cultural heritage resources in a way that attracts potential users is becoming important in our ever-changing world. This paper describes MOSAICA system--a web 2.0-based toolbox, dedicated for the preservation and presentation of cultural heritage. This paper also describes an evaluation study that examined MOSAICA…

  3. Measuring enjoyable informal learning using augmented reality at cultural heritage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendit, Ulka Chandini; Zaibon, Syamsul Bahrin; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu

    2016-08-01

    The instrument of evaluation of measuring enjoyable informal learning at cultural heritage site was produced by validity and reliability analysis. It involved two cycles of steps, content validity and face validity and content validity and reliability analysis. From the analysis, it was found out that the instrument is reliable to be measure enjoyable informal learning at cultural heritage site.

  4. Digital Forensics and Born-Digital Content in Cultural Heritage Collections. CLIR Publication No. 149

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Matthew G.; Ovenden, Richard; Redwine, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is twofold: first, to introduce the field of digital forensics to professionals in the cultural heritage sector; and second, to explore some particular points of convergence between the interests of those charged with collecting and maintaining born-digital cultural heritage materials and those charged with collecting…

  5. Remote photonic metrology in the conservation of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornari, Vivi; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.

    2013-05-01

    Photonic technologies play a leading innovative role of research in the fields of Cultural Heritage (CH) conservation, preservation and digitisation. In particular photonic technologies have introduced a new indispensable era of research in the conservation of cultural artefacts expanding from decorative objects, paintings, sculptures, monuments to archaeological sites and including fields of application as diverse as materials characterisation to restoration practices and from defect topography to 3d artwork reconstruction. Thus the last two decades photonic technologies have emerged as unique answer or most competitive alternative into many long-term standing disputes in conservation and restoration of Cultural Heritage. Despite the impressive advances on the state-of-the-art ranging from custom-made system development to new methods and practises, photonic research and technological developments remain incoherently scattered and fragmented with a significant amount of duplication of work and misuse of resources. In this context, further progress should aim to capitalise on the so far achieved milestones in any of the diverse applications flourished in the field of CH. Embedding of experimental facilities and conclusions seems the only way to secure the progress beyond the existing state of the art and its false use. The solution to this embedment seems possible through the new computing environments. Cloud computing environment and remote laboratory access hold the missing research objective to bring the leading research together and integrate the achievements. The cloud environment would allow experts from museums, galleries, historical sites, art historians, conservators, scientists and technologists, conservation and technical laboratories and SMEs to interact their research, communicate their achievements and share data and resources. The main instrument of this integration is the creation of a common research platform termed here Virtual Laboratory allowing

  6. Non invasive sensing technologies for cultural heritage management and fruition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of the information produced by science and technology for the knowledge of the cultural heritage depends on the quality of the feedback and, consequently, on the "cultural" distance between scientists and end-users. In particular, the solution to this problem mainly resides in the capability of end-users' capability to assess and transform the knowledge produced by diagnostics with regard to: information on both cultural objects and sites (decay patterns, vulnerability, presence of buried archaeological remains); decision making (management plan, conservation project, and excavation plan). From our experience in the field of the cultural heritage and namely the conservation, of monuments, there is a significant gap of information between technologists (geophysicists/physicists/engineers) and end-users (conservators/historians/architects). This cultural gap is due to the difficulty to interpret "indirect data" produced by non invasive diagnostics (i.e. radargrams/thermal images/seismic tomography etc..) in order to provide information useful to improve the historical knowledge (e.g. the chronology of the different phases of a building), to characterise the state of conservation (e.g. detection of cracks in the masonry) and to monitor in time cultural heritage artifacts and sites. The possible answer to this difficulty is in the set-up of a knowledge chain regarding the following steps: - Integrated application of novel and robust data processing methods; - Augmented reality as a tool for making easier the interpretation of non invasive - investigations for the analysis of decay pathologies of masonry and architectural surfaces; - The comparison between direct data (carrots, visual inspection) and results from non-invasive tests, including geophysics, aims to improve the interpretation and the rendering of the monuments and even of the archaeological landscapes; - The use of specimens or test beds for the detection of archaeological features and

  7. [Preserving the cultural heritage of health in Brazil: an emerging question].

    PubMed

    Serres, Juliane Conceição Primon

    2015-12-01

    In a discussion that applies the category "heritage" to goods within the realm of health, the article problematizes the recent recognition and incipient protection of the cultural heritage of health in Brazil. It presents a roster of assets that receive federal protection through Brazil's Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN), including hospitals and health-related buildings as well as inventories conducted in a number of state capitals by the Brazilian Network for Cultural Heritage in Health. This approach suggests that preserving this valuable heritage is a matter of importance for the history of health in Brazil.

  8. Safety issues in cultural heritage management and critical infrastructures management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is the fourth of its kind in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering , containing studies and applications of geophysical methodologies and sensing technologies for the knowledge, conservation and security of products of human activity ranging from civil infrastructures to built and cultural heritage. The first discussed the application of novel instrumentation, surface and airborne remote sensing techniques, as well as data processing oriented to both detection and characterization of archaeological buried remains and conservation of cultural heritage (Eppelbaum et al 2010). The second stressed the importance of an integrated and multiscale approach for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage, from SAR to GPR to imaging based diagnostic techniques (Masini and Soldovieri 2011). The third enlarged the field of analysis to civil engineering structures and infrastructures, providing an overview of the effectiveness and the limitations of single diagnostic techniques, which can be overcome through the integration of different methods and technologies and/or the use of robust and novel data processing techniques (Masini et al 2012). As a whole, the special issue put in evidence the factors that affect the choice of diagnostic strategy, such as the material, the spatial characteristics of the objects or sites, the value of the objects to be investigated (cultural or not), the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment). In order to complete the overview of the application fields of sensing technologies this issue has been dedicated to monitoring of cultural heritage and critical infrastructures to address safety and security issues. Particular attention has been paid to the data processing methods of different sensing techniques, from infrared thermography through GPR to SAR. Cascini et al (2013) present the effectiveness of a

  9. The Cultural Socialization Scale: Assessing Family and Peer Socialization toward Heritage and Mainstream Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2015-01-01

    In a culturally diverse society, youth learn about multiple cultures from a variety of sources, yet the existing assessment of cultural socialization has been limited to parents' efforts to teach youth about their heritage culture. The current study adapted and extended an existing cultural socialization measure (Umaña-Taylor & Fine, 2004) to assess four types of socialization practices encountered specifically during adolescence: cultural socialization by families and peers toward both one's heritage culture and the mainstream culture. In a pilot study, we developed the cultural socialization scale based on retrospective reports from 208 young adults, maximizing young adults' ability to reason and reflect their adolescent experiences with various socialization practices. In the primary study, we examined the psychometric properties of the scale using reports from 252 adolescents. Cultural socialization occurred from both socialization agents toward both cultures. Our cultural socialization scale demonstrated stable factor structures and high reliabilities. We observed strong factorial invariance across the four subscales (six items). MIMIC models also demonstrated invariance for each subscale across adolescents' demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, SES, language of assessment). The implications of the cultural socialization scale are discussed. PMID:25961139

  10. Critique of Practical Archaeology: Underwater Cultural Heritage and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secci, Massimiliano; Spanu, Pier Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The international development of the underwater archaeology and underwater cultural heritage (UCH) management disciplines has witnessed a progressive buildup of the disciplinary debate. From an initial methodological focus, still active and necessary, the two interconnected disciplines have moved toward topics and aspects external, but complementary, to the disciplines themselves which are tied together in mutual exchange. Legal, economic, social, cultural (stricto sensu), and psychological aspects all find their expression in strategies quintessential, especially, to the management of UCH. The discipline's socio-cultural wherewithal has been internationally recognized, analyzed, evaluated, and exploited in the planning of activities directed toward UCH management. In Italy, however, a lack of a coherent planning has emerged which does not take into account the various aspects composing a productive program for the management of UCH, both at the regional and national levels. Considering the issue in Italy, this contribution will offer an overview of the Sardinian perspective, offering some considerations toward envisaging an achievable, structured program for the management of underwater cultural resources within a specific regional panorama.

  11. Documentation of cultural heritage sites using the INSPIRE directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkadolou, Eleni; Prastacos, Poulicos

    2016-08-01

    The INSPIRE directive, adopted by the EC in 2007 provides the guidelines for the organization of all geographic data and is the basis for establishing a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Documentation of cultural heritage sites such as archeological areas, historic places and others is not a thematic area addressed in the directive. However, as discussed in this paper the directive can be extended to cover the documentation of these sites as well. The location of an archaeological area and its monuments, its legal status, the surrounding physical environment (NATURA protected areas), the protection zones around the site and the permitted development can be documented following the INSPIRE directive. Additionally, results of research carried out in these sites such as geophysical surveys, use of satellite images or topographical surveys can be also organized using the INSPIRE guidelines.

  12. The Use of Neutron Technology in Archaeological and Cultural HeritageResearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creagh, Dudley

    Nations define themselves by their history and their customs. Their history is determined by both archaeological and archival evidence. The continuing development of a national culture is essential for the formation of a national identity. Both archaeological sites and cultural heritage artifacts are important to many nations because of income earned through tourism. This chapter discusses the use of neutron technology, one of a number of possible technologies, in the study of archaeological and cultural heritage artifacts. In particular descriptions of Neutron Activation Analysis, Neutron Diffraction, and Neutron Imaging Techniques will be given, and selected applications of these techniques to archaeology and cultural heritage artifacts will be given.

  13. Visual impact of wind farms on cultural heritage: A Norwegian case study

    SciTech Connect

    Jerpasen, Gro B. Larsen, Kari C.

    2011-04-15

    This paper discusses different approaches of how visual impact on cultural heritage can be methodologically improved within Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). During the recent decade, visual impact on cultural heritage and heritage sites has become a more frequent but contentious issue in public and academic discussions. Yet, within EIA issues relating to heritage sites and visual impact are rarely debated or critically reflected upon. Today most methods and theories on visual impact and cultural heritage within EIA are transferred from disciplines such as landscape architecture, architecture and geography. The article suggests how working with the concepts and definitions of site and setting can be a methodological tool for delimiting and clarifying visual impact on cultural heritage sites. The article also presents ways of how public participation can be a tool to start exploring the field of what the visual impact on cultural heritage implies and how it effects upon our understanding and appreciation of heritage sites. Examples from a Norwegian case are taken as illustrations to highlight these issues.

  14. Confocal Raman microscopy for in depth analysis in the field of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, G.; Striova, J.; Zoppi, A.; Castellucci, E. M.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of cultural heritage, the main concern when a sample is analyzed is its safeguard, and this means that non-destructive techniques are required. In this work, we show how confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) may be successfully applied in the study of works of art as a valuable alternative to other well established techniques. CRM with a metallurgical objective was tested for the in depth study of thin samples that are of interest in the field of cultural heritage. The sensitivity of the instrumentation was first evaluated by analyzing single layers of pure polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films having a thickness of 12, 25, and 50 μm, respectively, and a multilayer sample of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). Subsequently, the technique was applied to the analysis of historical dyed cotton yarns in order to check whether it was possible to achieve a better discrimination of the fibres' signals for an easier identification. A substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio was found in the confocal arrangement with respect to the non-confocal one, suggesting the use of this technique for this kind of analysis in the field of cultural heritage. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy in confocal configuration was exploited in the evaluation of cleaning performed on the mural painting specimens, treated with acrylic resin (Paraloid B72). Confocal Raman experiments were performed before and after laser cleaning (at different conditions) in order to monitor the presence and to approximate the polymer thickness: the method proved to be a valid comparative tool in assessment of cleaning efficiencies.

  15. Heritage Language Education: Valuing the Languages, Literacies, and Cultural Competencies of Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Corinne A.; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the value of heritage language programs and the micro-level language policies that support them, focusing on a case study of a program in the USA to make this argument. We also argue for the importance of recognizing students' heritage languages, cultures, and individual goals and identities in mainstream school programs.…

  16. Collaborative reputation systems in a cultural heritage scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Salvatore; De Michele, Pasquale; Galletti, Ardelio; Ponti, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, algorithms for reputation systems are been widely developed in order to achieve correct ratings for products, services, companies, digital contents and people. We start from a comprehensive mathematical model for Collaborative Reputation Systems (CRSes), present in the literature and formally defined as a recurrence relation that generates a sequence of trust matrices, from which the reputation of the items and the raters can be derived. Even though this model can be applied to several scenarios, the focus of this work is related to its application in a real case, that is a cultural event scenario. More in detail, in cultural heritage environment, the data collected in an event represent the basic knowledge to be inferred. The main idea is to correctly use the available technology and data to give a reliable rate (reputation) for both visitors and artworks. These rates will be very useful to classify the visiting style of the visitors and to fix the artworks that have most attracted visitors.

  17. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  18. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  19. European Master-Doctorate Course on "Vulnerability of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, R.-A.

    2009-04-01

    « Vulnerability of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change », European Master-Doctorate Course, Council of Europe, Strasbourg 7-11 September 2009 The character of Cultural Heritage is closely related to the climate, and the urban landscape and the built heritage have been designed with the local climate in mind. The stability of Cultural Heritage is, therefore, closely tied to its interactions with the ground and the atmosphere. Climate Change is thus expected to have either catastrophic or subtle effects on Cultural Heritage materials and Cultural Landscapes. The major aim of the 2009 Strasbourg Course is to ensure that young European students are informed on these important problems and will be able in the future to undertake rigorous ongoing scientific monitoring of changes in conditions of Cultural Heritage. The Programme of the Course will cover the following topics: • Heritage Climatology • Principles of Mitigation and Adaptation of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change • Impact of Climate Change on building structures • Dose-Response and Damage Functions for materials in a Changing Climate • Modelling sea salts transport and deposition • Modelling wetting and drying of historic buildings • Impact of Climate Change on building materials: stone, mortar, modern glass, stained glass windows • Impact of Climate Change on organic materials • Biological impact of Climate Change on Cultural Heritage • Sea level rise models and possible application to Cultural Heritage • Past, present and future for Venice • The policies and action plans of International Organisations (Council of Europe, UNESCO, ICCROM) The Course is addressed to young people with scientific background: physicists, chemists, geologists, biologists, engineers, because of the high scientific level of the background required to follow the lectures. Teaching will be delivered in English without any simultaneous translation. The teachers belong to European Universities, National

  20. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  1. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Elemental Analysis in Environmental, Cultural Heritage and Space Applications: A Review of Methods and Results

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiuso, Rosalba; Dell’Aglio, Marcella; De Pascale, Olga; Senesi, Giorgio S.; De Giacomo, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Analytical applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), namely optical emission spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas, have been constantly growing thanks to its intrinsic conceptual simplicity and versatility. Qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed by LIBS both by drawing calibration lines and by using calibration-free methods and some of its features, so as fast multi-elemental response, micro-destructiveness, instrumentation portability, have rendered it particularly suitable for analytical applications in the field of environmental science, space exploration and cultural heritage. This review reports and discusses LIBS achievements in these areas and results obtained for soils and aqueous samples, meteorites and terrestrial samples simulating extraterrestrial planets, and cultural heritage samples, including buildings and objects of various kinds. PMID:22163611

  2. Design of a hybrid (wired/wireless) acquisition data system for monitoring of cultural heritage physical parameters in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-03-25

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board's designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation.

  3. Design of a Hybrid (Wired/Wireless) Acquisition Data System for Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Physical Parameters in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board’s designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation. PMID:25815447

  4. Analysis Of Usefulness Of Satellite Image Processing Methods For Investigations Of Cultural Heritage Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osińska-Skotak, Katarzyna; Zapłata, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the analysis of usefulness of WorldView-2 satellite image processing, which enhance information concerning the cultural heritage objects. WorldView-2 images are characterised by the very high spatial resolution and high spectral resolution; that is why they create new possibilities for many applications, including investigations of the cultural heritage. The vicinities of Iłża have been selected as the test site for presented investigations. The presented results of works are the effect of research works, which were performed in the frames of the scientific project "Utilisation of laser scanning and remote sensing in protection, investigations and inventory of the cultural heritage. Development of non-invasive, digital methods of documenting and recognising the architectural and archaeological heritage", as the part of "The National Programme for the Development of Humanities" of the Minister of Science and Higher Education in the period of 2012-2015.

  5. City scale assessment model for air pollution effects on the cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente, D.; Vega, J. M.; Viejo, F.; Díaz, I.; Morcillo, M.

    2011-02-01

    Damage caused to objects of cultural heritage is one of the most serious detrimental effects of air pollutants. Within the 6th Framework Programme of the EU, the CULT-STRAT project is an inter-agency, multi-disciplinary project that has integrated research and monitoring information to provide answers to policy and management questions, which relate the effects of air pollutants on heritage and the management options available to mitigate them. The overall aim of the project has been to assess and predict the effects of different pollutants on materials and objects of cultural heritage in a multipollutant scenario and to identify indicators and thresholds levels of pollutants. These have been used for development of management strategies for sustainable maintenance and preventive conservation of European Cultural Heritage and air quality policy from continental to local scale. The present paper reports one of the studies carried out in the CULT-STRAT project at city level and focused on the town of Madrid (Spain). Different maps are shown for the present and possible future scenarios (2010 and 2020): inventory of stock of cultural heritage for each selected material, concentration of selected pollutants (SO 2, NO 2, O 3 and PM 10), corrosion (cast bronze) and recession (Portland limestone), exceedance of tolerable degradation thresholds for each material and corrosion-cultural heritage overlapped maps.

  6. A Study of Awareness of Cultural Heritage among the Teachers at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Cultural Heritage means to inherent and cultivate the cultural disinclinations from one generation to next generation. It is possible by education as well as following the traditional livelihood of ours; it is conducted formal/consciously or informal/unconsciously. One of the traits of education is to hand on the cultural values and behaviour…

  7. San Luis Valley - Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, Konstance L.; Abplanalp, Jennifer M.; Brown, Jeff; Cantwell, Brian; Dicks, Merrill; Fredericks, Brian; Krall, Angie; Rollins, Katherine E.; Sullivan, Robert; Valdez, Arnie; Verhaaren, Bruce; Vieira, Joseph; Walston, Lee; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2016-10-01

    The San Luis Valley – Taos Plateau Landscape-Level Cultural Heritage Values and Risk Assessment (hereafter referred to as cultural assessment) is a BLM pilot project designed to see whether the Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) framework (already established and implemented throughout many ecoregions in the West) can be applied to the cultural environment.

  8. Calibrating and Evaluating a Range Camera for Cultural Heritage Metric Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaudo, F.; Chiabrando, F.

    2013-07-01

    At the last ISPRS Congress in 2008, the first experimental evaluations of range cameras were presented. During the last four years, much research has been done by different research groups and some meetings have allowed a continuous sharing of experiences and results. The research group of the Politecnico di Torino has developed some original methodologies for calibrating range cameras and a set of tests for evaluating the possible use of range cameras for Cultural Heritage metric surveys. Cultural Heritage objects are characterized by complex shapes and different materials (e.g. stones, plasters, etc.). The present paper describes the results achieved in calibrating the SR4000 range camera and it studies the influences of the measuring direction inclination and of the different materials on distance measurements accuracy and completeness. This allows defining which are the possible strategies to be adopted to give affordable and useful point clouds for the metric description of Cultural Heritage objects. Some basic metric survey examples of architectural objects are given to demonstrate the real application of such devices to Cultural Heritage metric documentation, from the acquisition of point clouds up to 2D (elevations) and 3D representations (texturized 3D models). Considering the current development of such devices and their possible future evolutions, the expected possible uses of range cameras in Cultural Heritage metric survey should be advantageous, especially considering the low costs of such devices and the possibility of their making 3D videos which can be acquired in a short time.

  9. ED-XRF analysis for Cultural Heritage: is quantitative evaluation always essential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonizzoni, L.

    2015-07-01

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) is a very suitable tool for examination of Cultural Heritage materials because of its simplicity, with no requirement for any sample preparation and the possibility of operating with portable instruments, and it can probably be considered the most useful non-destructive analytical technique for ancient valuable objects of archaeological, historical or artistic interest. As regards the possibility of getting quantitative analysis in archaeometric applications, the problems arising from the limited sensitivity in detecting low Z elements, the irregular shape or the non-homogeneous composition of the sample have generated a widespread opinion that only semi-quantitative analyses are possible in XRF applications to archaeometry. In fact, this is always true for non-homogeneous samples as, typically, painting layers. On the contrary, the problems deriving from limited sensitivity in detecting matrix light elements as well as from irregular surface under analysis can be solved in most cases. Notwithstanding, working on unique and not standardized objects requires to pay attention on details and to know how to choose correct parameters and calculation algorithms to obtain reliable results. Indeed opportunities to deal with these objects are very limited and results have implication in other fields, so that each information about materials and production technique is of great interest. Two typical materials of archaeological interest showing particular features are considered - namely high corroded metallic artefacts and ceramics - revealing that, even if in cultural heritage field detailed quantitative analysis is the goal, it is not always necessary as also qualitative information by XRF spectra increase the knowledge of artefact.

  10. School and the Cultural-Heritage Environment: Pedagogical, Creative and Artistic Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivon, Hicela; Kušcevic, Dubravka

    2013-01-01

    The present paper explores the idea that learning, both in and out of school, is a cultural act, and that school and its cultural-heritage environment stamp their own characteristics on pupils. This implies that pupils gradually, with the help of teachers and other relevant adults from their close social environment, develop and adjust their…

  11. Metamorphosis of Confucian Heritage Culture and the Possibility of an Asian Education Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jae

    2011-01-01

    This paper opens with a critical analysis of a paradox in contemporary educational research in and about Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC): the assumption that national boundaries coincide with those of a distinct and homogeneous culture, which consistently renders a rather homogenous set of educational phenomena, and collides against a more widely…

  12. From an Ancient Tradition to the Present. Chinese Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching Fang; Lee, Amy

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help promote better understanding of Chinese students in the New York City public schools. China has an ancient history and a rich cultural tradition, and people all over the world have recognized China as one of the world's greatest civilizations. The earliest…

  13. Inquiry-Based Projects in the Spanish Heritage Language Classroom: Connecting Culture and Community through Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belpoliti, Flavia; Fairclough, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and implementation of inquiry-based cultural projects in a Spanish Heritage Language (SHL) Program. Four different inquiry-based curricula are described to illustrate how university students in an SHL program advance their knowledge of Spanish while carrying out research to understand Hispanic cultures. First-,…

  14. Imaging topological radar for 3D imaging in cultural heritage reproduction and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, Claudio; Guarneri, Massimiliano; Fornetti, Giorgio; Ferri de Collibus, Mario; De Dominicis, Luigi; Paglia, Emiliano; Ricci, Roberto

    2005-10-01

    We present the last results obtained by using our Imaging Topological Radar (ITR), an high resolution laser scanner aimed at reconstruction 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The system, based on amplitude modulation ranging technique, enables to obtain simultaneously a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range image, with resolution depending mainly on the laser modulation frequency (current best performance are ~100μm). The complete target surface is reconstructed from sampled points by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloy, bones) and is suitable of relevant applications in different fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics. We present some relevant examples of 3D reconstruction in the heritage field. Such results were obtained during recent campaigns carried out in situ in various Italian historical and archaeological sites (S. Maria Antiqua in Roman Forum, "Grotta dei cervi" Porto Badisco - Lecce, South Italy). The presented 3D models will be used by cultural heritage conservation authorities for restoration purpose and will available on the Internet for remote inspection.

  15. Older People as a Developing Market for Cultural Heritage Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Anna; Zipsane, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable for the heritage sector to see the growing population of senior citizens as a developing market? Jamtli is an open air museum in the north of Sweden. The main target group is families with children, but an increasing number of activities for older adults are being offered. The growing population of older people is a…

  16. D Documentation of Global Historic Sites: the `SCOTTISH Ten' Project and its Applications for Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L.; Rawlinson, A.; Mitchell, D. S.; Pritchard, D. K.; McGregor, H. C.

    2011-09-01

    The Scottish Ten project seeks to digitally document World Heritage Sites in Scotland and culturally significant international heritage sites, using technologies such as terrestrial laser scanning, aerial LiDAR, high resolution photography, digital photogrammetry, high-accuracy GPS and digital total stations. The project has numerous aims, centering around conservation, cultural heritage management, promoting Scotland's technical and scientific expertise and Scottish cultural connections. This paper focuses on the recent 3D survey work in the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site in Scotland. Two principal sites, Skara Brae and Maeshowe, are described, the methodologies undertaken and the results so far. Aside from generating accurate survey records, data will be utilised for analysis and interpretation, monitoring, visualisation and numerous other purposes. Although the data is still at the early stages of processing, the paper highlights the significant potential of 3D survey for understanding and managing the Heart of Neolithic Orkney and the benefits of 3D survey for cultural heritage applications in general.

  17. Some Experiences in 3D Laser Scanning for Assisting Restoration and Evaluating Damage in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, L. M.; Finat, Javier; Fernández-Martin, J. J.; Martínez, J.; SanJose, J. I.

    The recent incorporation of laser devices provides advanced tools for assisting the conservation and restoration of Cultural Heritage. It is necessary to have as complete as possible understanding of the object state before evaluating or defining the reach of the restoration process. Thus, a special effort is devoted to surveying, measuring and generating a high-resolution 3D model prior to restoration planning. This work presents results of several experiments performed on damaged pieces for evaluation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Some software tools are applied for carving-work analysis, conservation-state monitoring, and simulation of weathering processes for evaluating temporal changes. In all cases considered, a high resolution information capture has been performed with a laser scanner, the Minolta 910. Our approach is flexible enough to be adapted to other kinds of pieces or Cultural Heritage artefacts, in order to provide an assessment for intervention planning in conservation and restoration tasks.

  18. Advanced spectral imaging for noninvasive microanalysis of cultural heritage materials: review of application to documents in the U.S. Library of Congress.

    PubMed

    France, Fenella G

    2011-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging was originally developed for remote sensing and astronomical applications, but adaptations of this technology have been of great benefit to the preservation of cultural heritage. Developments in noninvasive analytical techniques have advanced the preservation of cultural heritage materials by enabling the identification and analysis of a range of materials, utilizing their unique spectral response to nondestructively determine chemical composition, and determining states of deterioration and change due to environmental conditions. When used as a tool for noninvasive characterization of cultural heritage, these spectral imaging systems allow the collection of chemical identification information about materials without sampling, which is a critical factor for cultural heritage materials. The United States Library of Congress has been developing the application of hyperspectral imaging to the preservation and analysis of cultural heritage materials as a powerful noncontact technique. It allows noninvasive characterization of materials, by identifying and characterizing colorants, inks, and substrates with narrow-band illumination to protect the object while also monitoring deterioration or changes due to exhibit and other environmental conditions. Contiguous illumination from the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral regions allows the capture of lost, obscured, and deteriorated information. The resulting image cube allows greater capabilities for mapping and coordinating a range of complementary chemical and spectral analyses. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated by a review of results from analysis of the Waldseemüller World Map, the L'Enfant plan for Washington, D.C., and the first draft of the U.S. Declaration of Independence.

  19. The implementation of a social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture: the case of Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hằng, Ngô Vũ Thu; Meijer, Marijn Roland; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2015-09-01

    Social constructivism has been increasingly studied and implemented in science school education. Nevertheless, there is a lack of holistic studies on the implementation of social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture. This study aims to determine to what extent a social constructivist approach is implemented in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture and to give explanations for the implementation from a cultural perspective. Findings reveal that in Confucian heritage culture a social constructivist approach has so far not implemented well in primary science education. The implementation has been considerably influenced by Confucian heritage culture, which has characteristics divergent from and aligning with those of social constructivism. This study indicates a need for design-based research on social constructivism-based science curriculum for Confucian heritage culture.

  20. Computer graphics and cultural heritage, part 2: continuing inspiration for future tools.

    PubMed

    Arnold, David

    2014-01-01

    The availability of large quantities of cultural-heritage data will enable new, previously inconceivable, types of analysis and new applications. Currently, most emerging analysis methods are experimental research. It's likely to take many years before the research matures and provides cultural-heritage professionals with novel research methods that they use routinely. Indeed, we can expect further disruptive technologies to emerge in the foreseeable future and a "steady state" of continuing rapid change. Part 1 can be found at 10.1109/MCG.2014.47.

  1. Role of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in cultural heritage research: a review.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Barbara; Monticelli, Damiano; Rampazzi, Laura

    2009-03-02

    Cultural heritage represents a bridge between the contemporary society and the past populations, and a strong collaboration between archaeologists, art historians and analysts may lead to the decryption of the information hidden in an ancient object. Quantitative elemental compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship of ancient cultures with the environment. Nevertheless, the scientific investigation of an artifact should be carried out complying with some important constraints: above all the analyses should be as little destructive as possible and performed directly on the object to preserve its integrity. Laser ablation sampling coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) fulfils these requirements exhibiting comparably strong analytical performance in trace element determination. This review intends to show through the applications found in the literature how valuable is the contribution of LA-ICP-MS in the investigation of ancient materials such as obsidian, glass, pottery, human remains, written heritage, metal objects and miscellaneous stone materials. The main issues related to cultural heritage investigation are introduced, followed by a brief description of the features of this technique. An overview of the exploitation of LA-ICP-MS is then presented. Finally, advantages and drawbacks of this technique are critically discussed: the fit for purpose and prospects of the use of LA-ICP-MS are presented.

  2. Exploring Attachment to the “Homeland” and Its Association with Heritage Culture Identification

    PubMed Central

    Ferenczi, Nelli; Marshall, Tara C.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptualisations of attachment to one's nation of origin reflecting a symbolic caregiver can be found cross-culturally in literature, art, and language. Despite its prevalence, the relationship with one's nation has not been investigated empirically in terms of an attachment theory framework. Two studies employed an attachment theory approach to investigate the construct validity of symbolic attachment to one's nation of origin, and its association with acculturation (operationalized as heritage and mainstream culture identification). Results for Study 1 indicated a three-factor structure of nation attachment; the factors were labelled secure-preoccupied, fearful, and dismissive nation attachment. Hierarchical linear modelling was employed to control for differing cultures across participants. Secure-preoccupied nation attachment was a significant predictor of increased heritage culture identification for participants residing in their country of birth, whilst dismissive nation attachment was a significant predictor of decreased heritage culture identification for international migrants. Secure-preoccupied nation attachment was also associated with higher levels of subjective-wellbeing. Study 2 further confirmed the validity of the nation attachment construct through confirmatory factor analysis; the three-factor model adequately fit the data. Similar to the results of Study 1, secure-preoccupied nation attachment was associated with increased levels of heritage culture identification and psychological well-being. Implications of the tripartite model of nation attachment for identity and well-being will be discussed. PMID:23372673

  3. Heritage Forward: The Central Command Historical-Cultural Advisory Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-22

    replica and hardened archaeological sites for realistic training, underwater archaeology awareness training, bi-lingual heritage briefings for...presentations in the Middle East, on-site training for US personnel on Middle Eastern archaeological sites, and partnerships for developing GIS data for... archaeological site planning. The project has generated positive publicity for DoD around the world. Since this project was undertaken, the US Senate

  4. Evaluation Of Mass Market Devices For The Documentation Of The Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicardi, I.; Lingua, A.; Piras, M.

    2014-06-01

    The cultural and artistic heritage has always been at the center of activities aimed at its preservation and enhancement. Italy is a country particularly rich in terms of heritage to be protected, where the high-risk due to natural hazard, as earthquakes, landslides and floods, which are adds to human activities, contribute to make the heritage more frail, land needs to be safeguarded and enhanced and new mass market technology can be considered as innovative tools for the documentation of cultural heritage. In order to increase our country on the artistic point of view, it must be known in an historical and cultural way. Moreover, it is important also to define the cultural heritage on metric terms, to be able to describe and represent it with the best approach, with the purpose to offer to the people who comes to visit our beautiful country, the reliable model of some important object, that is no longer in exposition. The possibility to use the mass-market devices can allow us to realize it, because they are available for the greater part of the visitors, in a photogrammetric way to reconstruct our models. In the last years, these devices have been very improved and the embedded sensors are becoming more and more efficient in terms of precision and reliability. Also several small video cameras are now used to document our travels and activities and to share them through Internet. In this scenario, the aim of this research is to study and validate the possibility to use mass-market technology for this purpose, testing four different devices (smartphones and video cameras) for the documentation of the cultural heritage.

  5. Protection of European Cultural Heritage from geo - hazards: the PROTHEGO project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Cigna, Francesca; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Fernandez Merodo, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Tangible cultural heritage includes various categories of monuments and sites, from cultural landscapes and sacred sites to archaeological complexes, individual architectural or artistic monuments and historic urban centers. Such places are continuously impacted and weathered by several internal and external factors, both natural and human-induced, with rapid and/or slow onset, including natural hazards, such as earthquakes or extreme meteorological events, cumulative processes as well as the effects of humans, especially in conflict situations. A clear picture of endangered sites is not available. In particular, the list of List of World Heritage in danger mainly focuses on sites threaten by armed conflicts. New space technology based on radar interferometry (InSAR) is now capable to monitor, since 1992 and with mm precision, surface deformation for reflective targets named persistent scatterers, which consistently return stable signals to the radar satellites. Led by the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, and in collaboration with NERC British Geological Survey, Geological and Mining Institute of Spain, University of Milano-Bicocca and Cyprus University of Technology, the project PROTHEGO, co-funded in the framework of JPI on Cultural Heritage EU programme (2015-2018), will make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage in Europe. The project will apply novel InSAR techniques to monitor monuments and sites that are potentially unstable due to landslides, sinkholes, settlement, subsidence, active tectonics as well as structural deformation, all of which could be effected of climate change and human interaction. To magnify the impact of the project, the approach will be implemented in more than 400 sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List in geographical Europe. After the remote sensing investigation, detailed geological interpretation, hazard analysis, local-scale monitoring, advanced

  6. Minimal camera networks for 3D image based modeling of cultural heritage objects.

    PubMed

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-03-25

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue "Lamassu". Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm.

  7. What makes astronomical heritage valuable? Identifying potential Outstanding Universal Value in cultural properties relating to astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Michel

    2015-08-01

    The communication will present the today situation of astronomical and archaeo-astronomical heritage related to the World Heritage Convention along the past years till today. Some parallel events and works promoted strongly as the IAU - UNESCO initiative for the “year of astronomy” (2009). It was followed by a joint program by IAU and ICOMOS who is an official advisory body assessing the World Heritage Committee for the evaluation of nomination dossiers. Result of that works is an important publication by around 40 authors coming from 20 different countries all around the World: Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (2010-2011). A second volume is under preparation (2015). It was also accompanied by some initiatives like “Windows to the Universe” organisation and parallel constitution of local “Starlight Reserves”. Some regional meetings studying specific facets or regional heritage in the field giving significant knowledge progresses also accompanied global trend for astronomical heritage.WH assessment is defined by a relatively strict format and methodology. Key word is “demonstration of an Outstanding Universal Value” to justify the WH Listing by the Committee. Communication first examines requirements and evaluation practices about of the OUV demonstration for a given place in context of astronomical or archaeo-astronomical heritage. That means examination of the tangible attributes, inventory of the property in terms of unmoveable and moveable components and inventory of intangible issues related to the history (history of the place in context of the history of astronomy and cultural history). That is also related to apply to the site concept of integrity and authenticity level of the place and comparison with other similar places (WH site already listed, national WH Tentative List, other similar places in the region).Second issue of the communication is to give a glimpse on the

  8. Fluorometric detection and estimation of fungal biomass on cultural heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Konkol, Nick; McNamara, Christopher J; Mitchell, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    A wide variety of cultural heritage materials are susceptible to fungal deterioration. The paper, canvas, and stone constituents of our cultural heritage are subjected to harmful physical and chemical processes as they are slowly consumed by fungi. Remediation of fungal contamination can be costly and risk further damage to cultural artifacts. Early detection of fungal growth would permit the use of relatively noninvasive treatments to remediate fungal contamination before visible or lasting damage to the object has occurred. Current methods used for the detection and measurement of microbial biomass, such as colony counts, microscopic biovolume estimation, and ergosterol analysis are expensive and time consuming, or are inappropriate for use with fungi. Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity provides a reliable estimation of fungal biomass in soil and on building materials. Adapted for use on cultural heritage materials' fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) labeled substrate N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (NAG) was used to detect beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity in the fungus Aspergillus niger. Fluorescence increased linearly with fungal biomass and the sensitivity of the assay was comparable to other biochemical techniques. The fluorometric assay was used to monitor fungal biomass on a variety of cultural heritage materials non-destructively, and without the introduction of chemicals or solvents to the surfaces.

  9. A 3D modeling and measurement system for cultural heritage preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guoguang; Zhou, Mingquan; Ren, Pu; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo; Wu, Zhongke

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Heritage reflects the human production, life style and environmental conditions of various historical periods. It exists as one of the major national carriers of national history and culture. In order to do better protection and utilization for these cultural heritages, a system of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and statistical measurement is proposed in this paper. The system solves the problems of cultural heritage's data storage, measurement and analysis. Firstly, for the high precision modeling and measurement problems, range data registration and integration algorithm used to achieve high precision 3D reconstruction. Secondly, multi-view stereo reconstruction method is used to solve the problem of rapid reconstruction by procedures such as the original image data pre-processing, camera calibration, point cloud modeling. At last, the artifacts' measure underlying database is established by calculating the measurements of the 3D model's surface. These measurements contain Euclidean distance between the points on the surface, geodesic distance between the points, normal and curvature in each point, superficial area of a region, volume of model's part and some other measurements. These measurements provide a basis for carrying out information mining of cultural heritage. The system has been applied to the applications of 3D modeling, data measurement of the Terracotta Warriors relics, Tibetan architecture and some other relics.

  10. Impact of the Climate Change on Cultural Heritage Sites in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuca, Branka; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Michaelides, Silas; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is one of the main factors with a significant impact on changes of cultural heritage and landscapes. Exposed and buried archaeological remains are particularly endangered by effects of climate change processes hence it is of great importance to understand the type of risks and the degree of their impact on such assets. Some of the potential risks for cultural heritage and landscape include flooding, intense rainfall, increase in time of wetness, extreme events in temperature change, coastal flooding, drought, wind driven/transported agents (sand, rain or salt) and so forth. From the geo-science perspective, the topic of climate change and the risks it causes is of crucial importance for environmental monitoring in general and it is one of the main applications of the European program on Earth Observation Copernicus. The activities performed in CLIMA project - "Cultural Landscape risk Identification, Management and Assessment" have as one of the main tasks to combining the fields of remote sensing technologies, including the Sentinel data, and cultural heritage monitoring. Such interdisciplinary approach was undertaken in order to identify major climate change risks affecting archaeological heritage in rural areas in Cyprus and to identify the most suitable Earth Observation (EO) and ground-based methods that might be effective in the mapping, diagnostics and monitoring of such risks. This thorough analysis will support the overall design of the CLIMA platform based in EO data analysis, risk models and ground-based methods to provide integrated information for specialists in remote sensing but also to archeologists and policy makers engaged in heritage preservation and management. The case study selected for Cyprus is the awarded Nea Paphos archeological site and historical center of Paphos that is surrounding this UNSECO World Heritage site.

  11. Sensitivity of Students to the Natural Environment, Animals, Social Problems and Cultural Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtdede Fidan, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to determine the sensitivity levels of fourth-grade students to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. Besides, it has been investigated whether some personal characteristics of the students have differentiating effect on the views related to the sensitivity to the natural environment, animals,…

  12. Public Education and Community Development: The Shared Mission of Libraries and Cultural Heritage Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Carmine J.

    This paper illustrates how libraries, museums, and other cultural heritage institutions are natural allies in developing and delivering public education and community service programs for lifelong learners of all ages. The paper opens by discussing how Robert S. Martin, Director of the National Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), has…

  13. Cultural Heritage Through Time: a Case Study at Hadrian's Wall, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieber, K. D.; Mills, J. P.; Peppa, M. V.; Haynes, I.; Turner, S.; Turner, A.; Douglas, M.; Bryan, P. G.

    2017-02-01

    Diachronic studies are central to cultural heritage research for the investigation of change, from landscape to architectural scales. Temporal analyses and multi-temporal 3D reconstruction are fundamental for maintaining and safeguarding all forms of cultural heritage. Such studies form the basis for any kind of decision regarding intervention on cultural heritage, helping assess the risks and issues involved. This article introduces a European-wide project, entitled "Cultural Heritage Through Time", and the case study research carried out as a component of the project in the UK. The paper outlines the initial stages of the case study of landscape change at three locations on Hadrian's Wall, namely Beckfoot Roman Fort, Birdoswald Roman Fort and Corbridge Roman Station, all once part of the Roman Empire's north-west frontier. The main aim of the case study is to integrate heterogeneous information derived from a range of sources to help inform understanding of temporal aspects of landscape change. In particular, the study sites are at risk from natural hazards, notably erosion and flooding. The paper focuses on data collection and collation aspects, including an extensive archive search and field survey, as well as the methodology and preliminary data processing.

  14. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  15. Hybrid System for the Inventory of the Cultural Heritage Using Voice Interface for Knowledge acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Château, Stefan Du; Boulanger, Danielle; Mercier-Laurent, Eunika

    This document presents our work on a definition and experimentation of a voice interface for cultural heritage inventory. This hybrid system includes signal processing, natural language techniques and knowledge modeling for future retrieval. We discuss the first results and present some challenges for our future work.

  16. Training Migrant Paraprofessionals in Bilingual Mini Head Start. Mexican Cultural Heritage Materials for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermea, Maria Teresa Cruz

    Given in this manual are materials used in the Bilingual Mini Head Start Program to teach migrant preschool children about their Mexican cultural heritage. Presented in Spanish, the activities include pronunciation exercises, rhymes, tales, songs, dances, games, and manual activities. Materials are given for teaching about: (1) El Dia de la…

  17. A Survey of Digital Cultural Heritage Initiatives and Their Sustainability Concerns. Managing Economic Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorich, Diane M.

    In September 2002, the Council on Library and Information Re-sources (CLIR) commissioned a survey of North American-based digital cultural heritage initiatives (DCHIs). The purpose of the survey was to identify the scope, financing, organizational structure, and sustainability of DCHIs. To gain a funder's perspective on these initiatives, the…

  18. The Transmission of Cultural Heritages: The Case of the Irish and the Italians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Andrew J.; McCready, William

    This paper begins with a very simple theoretical question: Do the cultural heritages of the Old World persist among children and grandchildren of the immigrants from the various European countries? Two ethnic groups--the Irish Catholics and the Italians--about whose country of origin there exists something of an anthropological and sociological…

  19. Experiential Learning and Values Education at a School Youth Camp: Maintaining Jewish Culture and Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2017-01-01

    In our post-modern, globalised world, there is a risk of unique cultural heritages being lost. This loss contributes to the detriment of civilization, because individuals need to be rooted in their own specific identity in order to actively participate in community life. This article discusses a longitudinal case study of the efforts being made by…

  20. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

  1. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval'chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  2. Participatory Imaging Mapping of Cultural Heritage Across Internal Borders Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzic, L.; Dzino-Suta, A.; Eppich, R.; Vezic, A.; Izkara Martinez, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) cultural heritage was explicitly targeted and the state of destruction was extensive to both sacral and secular monuments. Two decades after the end of hostilities the perception of the historic environment is still defined from the angles of national, religious or ethnic belonging. Enabling recognition, reconciliation, tolerance and respect within the community of Stolac, Bosnia & Herzegovina through a better understanding and sharing of cultural heritage was the focus of this project. Stolac is representative of the problems in the region and stands out for its particularly sharp divisions. Until recently there was segregation with local schools and their curriculum was divided with cultural heritage generally not addressed. How can this small community engage with heritage and develop a dialogue that encourages tolerance, respect and as a base for development? How does one understand, then document areas significance to the community? Finally, how can technology assist? The focus of this paper is to relate the experiences and findings of a project that incorporated participatory imaging mapping and the use of technology to bridge between the internal borders of this small community. It will outline a methodology, experiences of the participants and results from their exercises in order to assist other communities facing similar issues.

  3. Identifying designs from incomplete, fragmented cultural heritage objects by curve-pattern matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Yu, Haozhou; Smith, Karen; Wilder, Colin; Yu, Hongkai; Wang, Song

    2017-01-01

    The study of cultural heritage objects with embellished realistic and abstract designs made up of connected and intertwined curves crosscuts a number of related disciplines, including archaeology, art history, and heritage management. However, many objects, such as pottery sherds found in the archaeological record, are fragmentary, making the underlying complete designs unknowable at the scale of the sherd fragment. The challenge to reconstruct and study complete designs is stymied because (1) most fragmentary cultural heritage objects contain only a small portion of the underlying full design, (2) in the case of a stamping application, the same design may be applied multiple times with spatial overlap on one object, and (3) curve patterns detected on an object are usually incomplete and noisy. As a result, traditional curve-pattern matching algorithms, such as Chamfer matching, may perform poorly in identifying the underlying design. We develop a new partial-to-global curve matching algorithm to address these challenges and better identify the full design from a fragmented cultural heritage object. Specifically, we develop the algorithm to identify the designs of the carved wooden paddles of the Southeastern Woodlands from unearthed pottery sherds. A set of pottery sherds, curated at Georgia Southern University, are used to test the proposed algorithm, with promising results.

  4. When you have lived in a different culture, does returning 'home' not feel like home? Predictors of psychological readjustment to the heritage culture.

    PubMed

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C

    2015-01-01

    Many repatriates find it challenging to readjust to their heritage culture after spending a significant period of time abroad. Research on predictors of readjustment, however, remains limited. The present study in particular investigated the identification of third culture individuals (TCIs) - that is, individuals who spent their formative years outside of their heritage culture - with an abstract, third culture. Our findings demonstrated that TCIs' identification with the third culture was empirically distinct from that of the heritage and host cultures. The present study further examined whether several variables - sojourner type (TCI vs. non-TCI), perceived conflict between heritage and host culture, perceived cultural distance, and cultural identification with heritage and other cultures - predicted psychological readjustment (stress, anxiety, depression and overall psychological readjustment). The results showed that strong heritage culture identification was associated with better psychological readjustment, whereas cultural conflict was generally associated with poorer readjustment. Furthermore, sojourner type significantly moderated the latter association, such that cultural conflict predicted the stress aspect of psychological readjustment for non-TCIs, but not for TCIs. As the present investigation is the first study to empirically establish identification with a 'third culture' we discuss implications for the literature on third culture individuals and psychological adjustment upon re-entry.

  5. A multi-disciplinary approach for the structural monitoring of Cultural Heritages in a seismic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Musacchio, Massimo; Guerra, Ignazio; Porco, Giacinto; Stramondo, Salvatore; Casula, Giuseppe; Caserta, Arrigo; Speranza, Fabio; Doumaz, Fawzi; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Luzi, Guido; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Montuori, Antonio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vecchio, Antonio; Gervasi, Anna; Bonali, Elena; Romano, Dolores; Falcone, Sergio; La Piana, Carmelo

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, the concepts of seismic risk vulnerability and structural health monitoring have become very important topics in the field of both structural and civil engineering for the identification of appropriate risk indicators and risk assessment methodologies in Cultural Heritages monitoring. The latter, which includes objects, building and sites with historical, architectural and/or engineering relevance, concerns the management, the preservation and the maintenance of the heritages within their surrounding environmental context, in response to climate changes and natural hazards (e.g. seismic, volcanic, landslides and flooding hazards). Within such a framework, the complexity and the great number of variables to be considered require a multi-disciplinary approach including strategies, methodologies and tools able to provide an effective monitoring of Cultural Heritages form both scientific and operational viewpoints. Based on this rationale, in this study, an advanced, technological and operationally-oriented approach is presented and tested, which enables measuring and monitoring Cultural Heritage conservation state and geophysical/geological setting of the area, in order to mitigate the seismic risk of the historical public goods at different spatial scales*. The integration between classical geophysical methods with new emerging sensing techniques enables a multi-depth, multi-resolution, and multi-scale monitoring in both space and time. An integrated system of methodologies, instrumentation and data-processing approaches for non-destructive Cultural Heritage investigations is proposed, which concerns, in detail, the analysis of seismogenetic sources, the geological-geotechnical setting of the area and site seismic effects evaluation, proximal remote sensing techniques (e.g. terrestrial laser scanner, ground-based radar systems, thermal cameras), high-resolution aerial and satellite-based remote sensing methodologies (e.g. aeromagnetic surveys

  6. Terahertz pulse imaging of stratified architectural materials for cultural heritage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. Bianca; Labaune, Julien; Mourou, Gérard; Duling, Irl N.; Walker, Gillian; Bowen, John; Menu, Michel

    2011-06-01

    Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) is a novel noncontact, nondestructive technique for the examination of cultural heritage artifacts. It has the advantage of broadband spectral range, time-of-flight depth resolution, and penetration through optically opaque materials. Fiber-coupled, portable, time-domain terahertz systems have enabled this technique to move out of the laboratory and into the field. Much like the rings of a tree, stratified architectural materials give the chronology of their environmental and aesthetic history. This work concentrates on laboratory models of stratified mosaics and fresco paintings, specimens extracted from a neolithic excavation site in Catalhoyuk, Turkey, and specimens measured at the medieval Eglise de Saint Jean-Baptiste in Vif, France. Preparatory spectroscopic studies of various composite materials, including lime, gypsum and clay plasters are presented to enhance the interpretation of results and with the intent to aid future computer simulations of the TPI of stratified architectural material. The breadth of the sample range is a demonstration of the cultural demand and public interest in the life history of buildings. The results are an illustration of the potential role of TPI in providing both a chronological history of buildings and in the visualization of obscured wall paintings and mosaics.

  7. When You Have Lived in a Different Culture, Does Returning ‘Home’ Not Feel Like Home? Predictors of Psychological Readjustment to the Heritage Culture

    PubMed Central

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.

    2015-01-01

    Many repatriates find it challenging to readjust to their heritage culture after spending a significant period of time abroad. Research on predictors of readjustment, however, remains limited. The present study in particular investigated the identification of third culture individuals (TCIs) – that is, individuals who spent their formative years outside of their heritage culture - with an abstract, third culture. Our findings demonstrated that TCIs’ identification with the third culture was empirically distinct from that of the heritage and host cultures. The present study further examined whether several variables – sojourner type (TCI vs. non-TCI), perceived conflict between heritage and host culture, perceived cultural distance, and cultural identification with heritage and other cultures – predicted psychological readjustment (stress, anxiety, depression and overall psychological readjustment). The results showed that strong heritage culture identification was associated with better psychological readjustment, whereas cultural conflict was generally associated with poorer readjustment. Furthermore, sojourner type significantly moderated the latter association, such that cultural conflict predicted the stress aspect of psychological readjustment for non-TCIs, but not for TCIs. As the present investigation is the first study to empirically establish identification with a ‘third culture’ we discuss implications for the literature on third culture individuals and psychological adjustment upon re-entry. PMID:25970185

  8. Heritage Language Maintenance and Cultural Identity Formation: The Case of Korean Immigrant Parents and Their Children in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boh Young

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the beliefs and attitudes that Korean immigrant parents and their children in the USA hold about their heritage language. Data were collected through interviews. This study addresses how parents' perspectives and their actual heritage language practices with their children influence their children's cultural identity and…

  9. Flood risk and cultural heritage: the case study of Florence (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Cultural heritage plays a key role for communities in terms of both identity and economic value. It is often under serious threat by natural hazards, nevertheless, quantitative assessments of risk are quite uncommon. This work addresses the flood risk assessment to cultural heritage in an exemplary art city, which is Florence, Italy. The risk assessment method here adopted borrows the most common definition of flood risk as the product of hazard, vulnerability and exposure, with some necessary adjustments. The risk estimation is carried out at the building scale for the whole UNESCO site, which coincides with the historical centre of the city. A distinction in macro- and micro-damage categories has been made according to the vulnerability of the objects at risk. Two damage macro-categories are selected namely cultural buildings and contents. Cultural buildings are classified in damage micro-categories as churches/religious complexes, libraries/archives and museums. The damages to the contents are estimated for four micro-categories: paintings, sculptures, books/prints and goldsmith's art. Data from hydraulic simulations for different recurrence scenarios, historical reports of the devastating 1966 flood and the cultural heritage recognition sheets allow estimating and mapping the annual expected number of works of art lost in absence of risk mitigation strategies.

  10. a Semi-Automated Point Cloud Processing Methodology for 3d Cultural Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıvılcım, C. Ö.; Duran, Z.

    2016-06-01

    The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect's Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  11. Mobile Applications as Tool for Exploiting Cultural Heritage in the Region of Turin and Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolando, A.; Scandiffio, A.

    2013-07-01

    The current research aims at showing as applications working on personal mobile communication terminals such as smartphones, can be useful for exploration of places and, at the same time, as tools able to develop interaction between cultural heritage and users. In this sense, the use of smartphone applications can be combined with GIS in order to make a platform of knowledge useful to support research studies in the field of cultural heritage, with specific reference to accessibility issues and to the combined use of integrated technologies like GPS, QR code and GIS, with the final aim to find an useful methodology for collecting data by visitors and visualizing them through mapping techniques. The research shows how the integration of different systems and technologies can be used as method for inquiring the interactions between users and cultural heritage in terms of accessibility to places. GPS devices can be used to record visitors movements (cultural routes) in terms of space and time; QR code can be used for users interaction with cultural heritage (tourists opinion, heritage ranking, facilities, accessibility); GIS software can be used for data management, analysis and mapping (tourist flows, more visited places). The focus of research is about a combination of information related to cultural routes with the information related to single cultural places. The focus of research is about a combination of information related to cultural routes with the information related to single cultural places. The current research shows the potential use of smartphone applications, as mobile device for collecting data, as means to record rides and more visited places by tourists. The research could be divided into three steps; the first one concerns with GPS that can be used to record routes; the second one deals with interaction between tourists and cultural heritage through a system based on QR code; the third one is about GIS, used as tool for management, analysis and

  12. Applications of synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques for the analysis of Cultural Heritage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cotte, Marine; Chilida, Javier; Walter, Philippe; Taniguchi, Yoko; Susini, Jean

    2009-01-29

    The analysis of cultural Heritage objects is often technically challenging. When analyzing micro-fragments, the amount of matter is usually very tiny, hence requiring sensitive techniques. These samples, in particular painting fragments, may present multi-layered structures, with layer thickness of {approx}10 {mu}m. It leads to favor micro-imaging techniques, with a good lateral resolution (about one micrometer), that manage the discriminative study of each layer. Besides, samples are usually very complex in term of chemistry, as they are made of mineral and organic matters, amorphous and crystallized phases, major and minor elements. Accordingly, a multi-modal approach is generally essential to solve the chemical complexity of such hybrid materials. Different examples will be given, to illustrate the various possibilities of synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques, such as micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro FTIR spectroscopy. Focus will be made on paintings, but the whole range of museum objects (going from soft matter like paper or wood to hard matter like metal and glass) will be also considered.

  13. Three-dimensional imaging of flat natural and cultural heritage objects by a Compton scattering modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero Prado, Patricio; Nguyen, Mai K.; Dumas, Laurent; Cohen, Serge X.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and interpretation of flat ancient material objects, such as those found in archaeology, paleoenvironments, paleontology, and cultural heritage, have remained a challenging task to perform by means of conventional x-ray tomography methods due to their anisotropic morphology and flattened geometry. To overcome the limitations of the mentioned methodologies for such samples, an imaging modality based on Compton scattering is proposed in this work. Classical x-ray tomography treats Compton scattering data as noise in the image formation process, while in Compton scattering tomography the conditions are set such that Compton data become the principal image contrasting agent. Under these conditions, we are able, first, to avoid relative rotations between the sample and the imaging setup, and second, to obtain three-dimensional data even when the object is supported by a dense material by exploiting backscattered photons. Mathematically this problem is addressed by means of a conical Radon transform and its inversion. The image formation process and object reconstruction model are presented. The feasibility of this methodology is supported by numerical simulations.

  14. Quality of Cultural Heritage in EIA; twenty years of experience in Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, Inge

    2012-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify and discuss how quality, relevance, attitudes, beliefs and transfer value act as underlying driving forces in the development of the Cultural Heritage theme in EIAs. One purpose is to identify and discuss some conditions that can better environmental assessment in order to increase the significance of EIA in decision-making with regard to Cultural Heritage. The main tools used are different research methods designed for analyses of quality and quality changes, primarily based on the relevant opinions of 160 people occupied with Cultural Heritage in EIA in Norway. The study is based on a review of 40 types of EIAs from 1991 to 2000, an online questionnaire to 319 (160 responded) individuals from 14 different backgrounds, and interviews with three institutions in Sweden and Denmark. The study confirms a steadily increasing quality on EIRs over time, parallel with an improvement of the way in which Cultural Heritage is treated in EIA. This is supported by both the interviews and the qualitative comments regarding the survey. Potential for improvements is shown to be a need for more detailed background material as well as more use of adequate methods. The survey shows the existence of a wide variety of negative views, attitudes and beliefs, but the consequences of this are difficult to evaluate. However, most certainly, negative attitudes and beliefs have not been powerful enough to be detrimental to the quality of Cultural Heritage component, as nothing in the study indicates that negative attitudes and myths are undermining the system of EIA. The study shows the importance of having on-going discussions on quality and quality change over time by people involved in EIA, and how this is a necessary condition for successful implementation and acceptance. Beliefs and negative attitudes can also be a catalyst for developing better practice and advancing new methodology. In addition, new EIA countries must be prepared for several years

  15. The cultural heritage of tattooing: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Krutak, Lars

    2015-01-01

    For millennia, peoples around the world have tattooed human skin to communicate various ontological, psychosocial, and sociocultural concepts encompassing beauty, cultural identity, status and position, medicine, and supernatural protection. As a system of knowledge transmission, tattooing has been and continues to be a visual language of the skin whereby culture is inscribed, experienced, and preserved in a myriad of specific ways. If we are to fully comprehend the meanings that tattoos have carried across human history and into the present, then it would be useful to explore some of the ways tattoos, as instruments that transmit culture, have been deployed cross-culturally through time.

  16. Multi-cooperation of Cultural Heritage Conservation: The Cangdong Project of Guangdong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, J.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, some workshops and research cases have arisen in China to seek for suitable ways for heritage conservation and development of historic villages. However, the issue of multi-cooperation has not been much mentioned in research works. The case of Cangdong Project in Guangdong Province is a social enterprise. It is a center focusing on heritage education. It organizes tailor-made workshops for interested people from all over China and Hong Kong, Macao and overseas, including university courses for credits, summer/winter camps for primary and middle school students, as well as common people who are interested in heritage conservation. The purpose of the education center is to enhance heritage/cultural interest of the younger generations and common people, and try to work with local villagers to build a wealthy community. Nowadays, more and more villagers moved out for work and the countryside population in China is decreasing, this project also aims to create work opportunities for villagers through heritage conservation projects, so that the villagers can be willing to stay. The project focuses more in a sustainable way for community development. It has been five years since the project was set up in Cangdong Village. The project team worked with villagers, city people, students, scholars, different levels of local governments, investors, Medias, charitable organizations, as well as the market of tourism. As such, a platform of multi-cooperation for the above parties has formed during the past five years. This paper takes the Project experience from 2010-2015 as the case to study multi-cooperation in the field of heritage conservation in China, as well as to discuss how to co-operate the subjective initiatives of different stokeholds.

  17. Promoting the Effect of the Qing Dynasty Imperial Garden Architectural Component Library on the Digitalization of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindan, C.; Junsong, Z.; Jiujun, Z.

    2015-08-01

    With the development of computer technology and practical verification, digital virtual technology has matured and is increasingly being widely applied to cultural heritage protection and research. With this advancement in technology, there is pressing need to simplify heritage-related puzzles. Thus the main question that has increasingly become the most central and fundamental problem in heritage digitalization work is how to choose the "proper technology" that provides support directly, accurately and rapidly for the research, protection and exchange of cultural heritage. Based on the principles of "authenticity" and "completeness" found in the Venice Charter in regards to dealing with cultural heritage; this paper proposes the concept of the component library which facilitates the improvement and efficiency of virtual reconstruction, provides a visual discussion platform for cultural heritage protection, virtual scene construction, accuracy assessment, and multi-space-time exhibition; thereby implementing the spirit of tolerance and respect found in the Nara Document on Authenticity. The paper further aims to illustrate the significance of the Qing dynasty imperial garden architectural component library for cultural heritage study and protection, the principles for virtual library construction, use and maintenance of the library, and classification approaches, and also provide some suggestions about making high quality 3D models and effective means for database integration.

  18. The National Commitment Towards Conserving the Heritage (documentation of Historical and Cultural Sites in Gcc Countries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSulaiti, F.

    2013-07-01

    The five Arab Gulf countries of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman possess many shared characteristics and historical ties across their common peninsula. The prime factor uniting them is the historical nature of their entwined involvement with peoples and nations beyond the region. That the Gulf has been an important water passageway since ancient times suggests that the inhabitants of its shores met early on with other civilizations. The knowledge of one's roots, history, and traditional arts supports awareness of inherited culture and can help contextualize and illuminate community reflection and identification. The intricacy of the recording and understanding processes of documentation requires skilled professionals, with knowledge and awareness for the associated tasks. Responsible of cultural heritage should provide the adequate documentations, recording and updating of the records. Collaboration of different individuals such as specialist heritage, archaeologists, surveyors, conservators, researchers, architectural historians, and many other expert personnel is the golden key of successful documentation. The purpose of this document is to show the authorities of Gulf Arab countries and their planning measures, management and sharing effect of recording the cultural heritage. This essay identifies key points in the approach to contextualizing and developing cultural identity in a way that respects organic qualities. Through highlighting a number of archeological ruins and outlining management plans, the essay explores frameworks that can be applied to promote and preserve integral identity of important sites and their greater surrounding communities.

  19. Seismic hazard assessment of the cultural heritage sites: A case study in Cappadocia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyrek, Evren; Orhan, Ahmet; Dinçer, İsmail

    2014-05-01

    Turkey is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Major earthquakes with the potential of threatening life and property occur frequently here. In the last decade, over 50,000 residents lost their lives, commonly as a result of building failures in seismic events. The Cappadocia region is one of the most important touristic sites in Turkey. At the same time, the region has been included to the Word Heritage List by UNESCO at 1985 due to its natural, historical and cultural values. The region is undesirably affected by several environmental conditions, which are subjected in many previous studies. But, there are limited studies about the seismic evaluation of the region. Some of the important historical and cultural heritage sites are: Goreme Open Air Museum, Uchisar Castle, Ortahisar Castle, Derinkuyu Underground City and Ihlara Valley. According to seismic hazard zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement these heritage sites fall in Zone III, Zone IV and Zone V. This map show peak ground acceleration or 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for bedrock. In this connection, seismic hazard assessment of these heritage sites has to be evaluated. In this study, seismic hazard calculations are performed both deterministic and probabilistic approaches with local site conditions. A catalog of historical and instrumental earthquakes is prepared and used in this study. The seismic sources have been identified for seismic hazard assessment based on geological, seismological and geophysical information. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at bed rock level is calculated for different seismic sources using available attenuation relationship formula applicable to Turkey. The result of the present study reveals that the seismic hazard at these sites is closely matching with the Seismic Zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement. Keywords: Seismic Hazard Assessment, Probabilistic Approach

  20. 3D Documentation and BIM Modeling of Cultural Heritage Structures Using UAVs: The Case of the Foinikaria Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2016-10-01

    The documentation of architectural cultural heritage sites has traditionally been expensive and labor-intensive. New innovative technologies, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), provide an affordable, reliable and straightforward method of capturing cultural heritage sites, thereby providing a more efficient and sustainable approach to documentation of cultural heritage structures. In this study, hundreds of images of the Panagia Chryseleousa church in Foinikaria, Cyprus were taken using a UAV with an attached high resolution camera. The images were processed to generate an accurate digital 3D model by using Structure in Motion techniques. Building Information Model (BIM) was then used to generate drawings of the church. The methodology described in the paper provides an accurate, simple and cost-effective method of documenting cultural heritage sites and generating digital 3D models using novel techniques and innovative methods.

  1. What makes astronomical heritage valuable? Identifying potential Outstanding Universal Value in cultural properties relating to astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Michel

    2016-10-01

    This communication presents the situation regarding astronomical and archaeoastronomical heritage related to the World Heritage Convention through recent years up until today. Some parallel events and works were promoted strongly within the IAU-UNESCO Initiative during the International Year of Astronomy (2009). This was followed by a joint program by the IAU and ICOMOS-an official advisory body assisting the World Heritage Committee in the evaluation of nomination dossiers. The result of that work is an important publication by around 40 authors from 20 different countries all around the world: Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the Context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (Ruggles & Cotte 2010). A second volume is under preparation (2015). It was also accompanied by some initiatives such as the ``Windows to the Universe" organisation and the parallel constitution of local ``Starlight Reserves''. Some regional meetings studying specific facets or regional heritage in the field giving significant knowledge progresses also accompanied the global trend for astronomical heritage. WH assessment is defined by a relatively strict format and methodology. A key phrase is ``demonstration of Outstanding Universal Value'' to justify the WH Listing by the Committee. This communication first examines the requirements and evaluation practices about of demonstrating OUV for a given place in the context of astronomical or archaeoastronomical heritage. That means the examination of the tangible attributes, an inventory of the property in terms of immoveable and moveable components and an inventory of intangible issues related to the history (history of the place in the context of the history of astronomy and cultural history). This is also related to the application to the site of the concept of integrity and authenticity, as regards the place itself and in comparison with other similar places (WH sites already listed, sites on national WH Tentative Lists

  2. Using mid-range laser scanners to digitize cultural-heritage sites.

    PubMed

    Spring, Adam P; Peters, Caradoc; Minns, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Here, we explore new, more accessible ways of modeling 3D data sets that both professionals and amateurs can employ in areas such as architecture, forensics, geotechnics, cultural heritage, and even hobbyist modeling. To support our arguments, we present images from a recent case study in digital preservation of cultural heritage using a mid-range laser scanner. Our appreciation of the increasing variety of methods for capturing 3D spatial data inspired our research. Available methods include photogrammetry, airborne lidar, sonar, total stations (a combined electronic and optical survey instrument), and midand close-range scanning.1 They all can produce point clouds of varying density. In our case study, the point cloud produced by a mid-range scanner demonstrates how open source software can make modeling and disseminating data easier. Normally, researchers would model this data using expensive specialized software, and the data wouldn't extend beyond the laser-scanning community.

  3. Infrared thermographic assessment of materials and techniques for the protection of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Koui, Maria; Delegou, Ekaterini T.; Tsiourva, Theodora

    2001-09-01

    In this work, infrared thermography was applied and investigated as a non-destructive tool in the assessment of materials and techniques for the protection of cultural heritage. Diagnostic studies on monuments and historic buildings, situated in Greece, were performed. Long wave infrared thermography was used on restoration and traditional - historic materials concerning architectural surfaces and historic structures for research purposes such as: the assessment of moisture impact to porous stone masonries and the evaluation of conservation interventions (materials and techniques) regarding, consolidation interventions on porous stone masonries, restoration of masonries by repair mortars, and cleaning of facades. The results of this work indicate that thermography can be considered as a powerful diagnostic nondestructive tool for the preservation and protection of cultural heritage.

  4. The surface of cultural heritage artefacts: physicochemical investigations for their knowledge and their conservation.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Marc; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne

    2007-10-01

    This tutorial review intends to show, through demonstrative examples chosen from the recent literature, how surface characterisation conducted by modern investigation methods leads to very rich information on a cultural heritage artefact's history, fabrication techniques and conservation state. Application of surface science to conservation science is of great help for the definition of a conservation and restoration policy for museum and archaeological objects. A brief description of the investigation methods is given, together with relevant references for more detailed information.

  5. Cultural Heritage Content Re-Use: An Aggregators's Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilis, D.; Ioannides, M.; Theofanous, E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces a use case of re-using aggregated and enriched metadata for the tourism creative industry. The MORe aggregation and enrichment framework is presented along with an example for enriching cultural heritage objects harvested from a number of Omeka repositories. The enriched content is then published both to the EU Digital Library Europeana (http://www.europeana.eu) and to an Elastic Search component that feeds a portal aimed at providing tourists with interesting information.

  6. Documentation and Cultural Heritage Inventories - Case of the Historic City of Ahmadabad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, K.

    2015-08-01

    Located in the western Indian state of Gujarat, the historic city of Ahmadabad is renowned for the unparalleled richness of its monumental architecture, traditional house form, community based settlement patterns, city structure, crafts and mercantile culture. This paper describes the process followed for documentation and development of comprehensive Heritage Inventories for the historic city with an aim of illustrating the Outstanding Universal Values of its Architectural and Urban Heritage. The exercise undertaken between 2011 & 2014 as part of the preparation of world heritage nomination dossier included thorough archival research, field surveys, mapping and preparation of inventories using a combination of traditional data procurement and presentation tools as well as creation of advanced digital database using GIS. The major challenges encountered were: need to adapt documentation methodology and survey formats to field conditions, changing and ever widening scope of work, corresponding changes in time frame, management of large quantities of data generated during the process along with difficulties in correlating existing databases procured from the local authority in varying formats. While the end result satisfied the primary aim, the full potential of Heritage Inventory as a protection and management tool will only be realised after its acceptance as the statutory list and its integration within the larger urban development plan to guide conservation, development and management strategy for the city. The rather detailed description of evolution of documentation process and the complexities involved is presented to understand the relevance of methods used in Ahmadabad and guide similar future efforts in the field.

  7. Comparative study of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for the analysis of cultural heritage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinaki, O.; Mihesan, C.; Velegrakis, M.; Anglos, D.

    2013-07-01

    Analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is compared, on the basis of a hybrid experimental set-up, with laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-MS) for the characterization of materials relevant to cultural heritage. The present study focuses on the analysis of selected paint materials such as lithopone, a white inorganic pigment, and two synthetic organic paint formulations, lemon yellow and phthalocyanine blue. Optical emission spectra, obtained by LIBS, lead to rapid, straightforward identification of the elemental content of the paint samples while mass spectra yield, additionally to elemental analysis, complementary isotopic analysis and, more importantly, enable detection of molecules and molecular fragments, permitting a more complete structural and compositional characterization of composite materials. Mass spectra were recorded either simultaneously with the optical emission ones, or sequentially. The latter was preferred for materials having significantly lower fluence threshold for desorption/ionization relative to plasma formation resulting to optimum mass resolution and minimal surface damage. In all, the results of this study demonstrate the advantages of instrumentally complementing LIBS with TOF-MS in relation to applications in cultural heritage materials analysis, with exciting prospects when laser ablation sampling can be carried out under ambient atmosphere.

  8. A S.M.A.R.T. system for the seismic vulnerability mitigation of Cultural Heritages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montuori, Antonio; Costanzo, Antonio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vecchio, Antonio; Minasi, Mario; Falcone, Sergio; La Piana, Carmelo; Stramondo, Salvatore; Casula, Giuseppe; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Musacchio, Massimo; Doumaz, Fawzi; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Both assessment and mitigation of seismic vulnerability connected to cultural heritages monitoring are non-trivial issues, based on the knowledge of structural and environmental factors potential impacting the cultural heritage. A holistic approach could be suitable to provide an effective monitoring of cultural heritages within their surroundings at different spatial and temporal scales. On the one hand, the analysis about geometrical and structural properties of monuments is important to assess their state of conservation, their response to external stresses as well as anomalies related to natural and/or anthropogenic phenomena (e.g. the aging of materials, seismic stresses, vibrational modes). On the other hand, the investigation of the surrounding area is relevant to assess environmental properties and natural phenomena (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, subsidence, seismic response) as well as their related impacts on the monuments. Within such a framework, a multi-disciplinary system has been developed and here presented for the monitoring of cultural heritages for seismic vulnerability assessment and mitigation purposes*. It merges geophysical investigations and modeling, in situ measurements and multi-platforms remote sensing sensors for the non-destructive and non-invasive multi-scales monitoring of historic buildings in a seismic-prone area. In detail, the system provides: a) the long-term and the regional-scale analysis of buildings' environment through the integration of seismogenic analysis, airborne magnetic surveys, space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and multi-spectral sensors. They allow describing the sub-surface fault systems, the surface deformation processes and the land use mapping of the regional-scale area on an annual temporal span; b) the short-term and the basin-scale analysis of building's neighborhood through geological setting and geotechnical surveys, airborne Light Detection And Radar (LiDAR) and ground-based SAR sensors. They

  9. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  10. Microbial deterioration of cultural heritage and works of art--tilting at windmills?

    PubMed

    Sterflinger, Katja; Piñar, Guadalupe

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms (bacteria, archaea and fungi), in addition to lichens and insect pests, cause problems in the conservation of cultural heritage because of their biodeteriorative potential. This holds true for all types of historic artefacts, and even for art made of modern materials, in public buildings, museums and private art collections. The variety of biodeterioration phenomena observed on materials of cultural heritage is determined by several factors, such as the chemical composition and nature of the material itself, the climate and exposure of the object, in addition to the manner and frequency of surface cleaning and housekeeping in museums. This study offers a review of a variety of well-known biodeterioration phenomena observed on different materials, such as stone and building materials, objects exhibited in museums and libraries, as well as human remains and burial-related materials. The decontamination of infected artefacts, exhibition rooms and depots incurs high expenditure for museums. Nevertheless, the question has to be raised: whether the process of biodeterioration of cultural heritage can or should be stopped under all circumstances, or whether we have to accept it as a natural and an implicit consecution of its creation. This study also highlights critically the pros and cons of biocide treatments and gives some prominent examples of successful and unsuccessful conservation treatments. Furthermore, an outlook on the future research needs and developments in this highly interesting field is given.

  11. Integrated Data Capturing Requirements for 3d Semantic Modelling of Cultural Heritage: the Inception Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giulio, R.; Maietti, F.; Piaia, E.; Medici, M.; Ferrari, F.; Turillazzi, B.

    2017-02-01

    The generation of high quality 3D models can be still very time-consuming and expensive, and the outcome of digital reconstructions is frequently provided in formats that are not interoperable, and therefore cannot be easily accessed. This challenge is even more crucial for complex architectures and large heritage sites, which involve a large amount of data to be acquired, managed and enriched by metadata. In this framework, the ongoing EU funded project INCEPTION - Inclusive Cultural Heritage in Europe through 3D semantic modelling proposes a workflow aimed at the achievements of efficient 3D digitization methods, post-processing tools for an enriched semantic modelling, web-based solutions and applications to ensure a wide access to experts and non-experts. In order to face these challenges and to start solving the issue of the large amount of captured data and time-consuming processes in the production of 3D digital models, an Optimized Data Acquisition Protocol (DAP) has been set up. The purpose is to guide the processes of digitization of cultural heritage, respecting needs, requirements and specificities of cultural assets.

  12. a New Tool for Facilitating the Retrieval and Recording of the Place Name Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzini, C.; Conedera, M.; Krebs, P.

    2013-07-01

    Traditional place names (toponyms) represent the immaterial cultural heritage of past land uses, particular characteristics of the territory, landscape related events or inhabitants, as well as related cultural and religious background. In Euopean countries where the cultural landscape has a very long history, this heritage is particularly considerable. Often most of the detailed knowledge about traditional place names and their precise localization is non-written and familiar only to old local native persons who experienced the former rural civilization. In the next future this important heritage will be seriously threatened because of the physical disappearance of its living custodians. One of the major problems that one has to face, when trying to trace and document the knowledge related to place names and their localization, is to translate the memory and the former landscape experiences of the respondents into maps and structured records. In this contribution we present a new tool based on the monoplotting principle and ad hoc developed to enable the synchronization of terrestrial oblique landscape pictures with the represented digital elevation model. The local respondents are then just asked to show the place name localization on historical landscape pictures they are familiar with. The tool automatically gives back the corresponding world coordinates, what makes the interviewing process more rapid and smooth as well as motivating and less stress-inducing for the informants.

  13. SfM for Orthophoto to Generation: A Winning Approach for Cultural Heritage Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiabrando, F.; Donadio, E.; Rinaudo, F.

    2015-08-01

    3D detailed models derived from digital survey techniques have increasingly developed and focused in many field of application. The high detailed content and accuracy of such models make them so attractive and usable for large sets of purposes in Cultural Heritage. The present paper focuses on one of the main techniques used nowadays for Cultural Heritage survey and documentation: the image matching approach or Structure from Motion (SfM) technique. According to the low cost nature and the rich content of derivable information, these techniques are extremely strategic in poor available resources sectors such as Cultural Heritage documentation. After an overview of the employed algorithms and used approaches of SfM computer vision based techniques, the paper is focused in a critical analysis of the strategy used by two common employed software: the commercial suite Agisoft Photoscan and the open source tool MicMac realized by IGN France. The experimental section is focused on the description of applied tests (from RPAS data to terrestrial acquisitions), purposed to compare different solutions in various featured study cases. Finally, the accuracy assessment of the achieved products is compared and analyzed according to the strategy employed by the studied software.

  14. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

  15. NUMERIC: Statistics for the Digitisation of European Cultural Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Roswitha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present results of NUMERIC, a project of the European Commission that started out to define measures and methods for assessing the current state of digitisation in Europe's cultural institutions (archives, libraries and museums). The central task of the NUMERIC project was to develop a framework for the…

  16. Geochemical study of black crusts as a diagnostic tool in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, Mauro F.; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Comite, Valeria; Barca, Donatella; Bonazza, Alessandra; Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2013-12-01

    This contribution focuses on spectrometric analyses carried out on crust samples covering the stone surface of the boundary walls of the Tower of London. The main goal of this research is to investigate the degradation processes related to the environmental impact on cultural heritage. Specifically, the chemical contamination of stone substrate in the Tower of London due to the crust formation was examined through laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This technique allowed us to achieve a complete characterization of the damage layers in terms of trace elements. In addition, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR) were also used for an exhaustive characterization of the examined samples. Results obtained demonstrated that such a geochemical approach represents a powerful diagnostic tool in the study of black crusts, since it represents a reliable indicator of the environmental pollution. The higher concentrations of most heavy metals in black crusts with respect to the underlying stone suggest that crusts were greatly influenced by atmospheric inputs in their formation, mainly represented by mobile combustion sources. In addition, the possibility of analyzing in some samples the portion of altered substrate allowed us to hypothesize that some specific heavy metals tend to migrate from the crust to the unaltered substrate over time, becoming catalysts for the formation of new crust. Therefore, this research focuses on the role of diagnostics in order to plan suitable cleaning and consolidation intervention aimed at a better protection of the monument.

  17. Linking buildings, archives and museums of the 19th century Turin's Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborrino, R.; Rinaudo, F.

    2015-08-01

    The documentation of Cultural Heritage asset is the basis for all the interventions and policies on Cultural heritage conservation and management. The documentation is mainly based on historic knowledge and metric survey. As far as historic knowledge is concerned many information are still recorded and preserved inside written documents that are usually not easy to reach and correctly understandable by all the experts that have specific responsibilities on Cultural Heritage. The digitalization of documents (hardly faced in the last years) is not sufficient to guarantee the effective access to the historical information useful inside a documentation process. The documentation always needs an historical interpretation based on a critical reading produced by linking heterogeneous materials. Iconography also is an important source when it is correctly interpreted and linked to other sources. IT development and digital technology diffusion allowed offering new way to record, organize and share historical information: GIS and 3D modeling can be used as standard approaches to transfer the historical knowledge in a proper way to specialists involved in Cultural Heritage conservation and management. They have been generally used as tool to represent information for different targets, the ones mostly for specialized users, the others for edutainment. GIS are largely diffused yet in the Cultural Heritage management, and 3D modeling is wide spread used in museums communication. Nevertheless, both of them have more potential. They could be integrated in order to manage different data set related with the same matter. They could be used to make new research by surveying and improving interpretation in a way ready to transmit the outcomes. To produce a new generation of affordable digital historical products is necessary that the GIS and 3D modeling design and realization would be developed in a multidisciplinary approach that must be explained and demonstrated to the people that

  18. Documentation Protocols to Generate Risk Indicators Regarding Degradation Processes for Cultural Heritage Risk Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioussi, A.; Karoglou, M.; Bakolas, A.; Labropoulos, K.; Moropoulou, A.

    2013-07-01

    Sustainable maintenance and preservation of cultural heritage assets depends highly on its resilience to external or internal alterations and to various hazards. Risk assessment of a heritage asset's can be defined as the identification of all potential hazards affecting it and the evaluation of the asset's vulnerability (building materials and building structure conservation state).Potential hazards for cultural heritage are complex and varying. The risk of decay and damage associated with monuments is not limited to certain long term natural processes, sudden events and human impact (macroscale of the heritage asset) but is also a function of the degradation processes within materials and structural elements due to physical and chemical procedures. Obviously, these factors cover different scales of the problem. The deteriorating processes in materials may be triggered by external influences or caused because of internal chemical and/or physical variations of materials properties and characteristics. Therefore risk evaluation should be dealt in the direction of revealing the specific active decay and damage mechanism both in mesoscale [type of decay and damage] and microscale [decay phenomenon mechanism] level. A prerequisite for risk indicators identification and development is the existence of an organised source of comparable and interoperable data about heritage assets under observation. This unified source of information offers a knowledge based background of the asset's vulnerability through the diagnosis of building materials' and building structure's conservation state, through the identification of all potential hazards affecting these and through mapping of its possible alterations during its entire life-time. In this framework the identification and analysis of risks regarding degradation processes for the development of qualitative and quantitative indicators can be supported by documentation protocols. The data investigated by such protocols help

  19. Legal and Ethical Issues Related to the Management of Cultural Heritage in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Justin

    The recent discovery of water in darkened craters of the Moon's south pole is only the latest development drawing public and corporate interest to the possibilities of research and travel in outer space. Scientists pursuing fusion-generated power as a solution to global energy needs have also noted the relative abundance of Helium-3, an efficient fuel, on the Moon's surface, and there is the promise of other precious resources there as well. The implantation of colonies on the Moon or Mars, discussed for many decades as science fiction, therefore seems increasingly likely to happen. Some private companies and members of the public are even looking forward to the days when tourists will be able to travel for leisure beyond the earth's atmosphere. Most notably, the X Prize Foundation and Google are sponsoring a prize for the first private group to send an unmanned rover to the Moon as a way of advancing these agendas; 22 teams have registered for the competition, with some scheduled to launch by the end of 2010. Increased attention to outer space travel, exploration, and commercial exploitation has been paralleled by a rise in interest in the protection of cultural resources on Earth, such as ar-chaeological sites and historic monuments. Such sites and monuments already exist in outer space and on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. The Apollo 11 landing site, Tranquility Base, is only the most obvious example of a cultural site of outstanding significance in space. Satellites orbiting the earth -even defunct ones such as Vanguard 1, the oldest man-made object still in orbit, might be considered to have extraordinary historic and cultural value, too. As archae-ologists working on Earth have long recognized, once a site or object is damaged, it can never be perfectly restored to its original condition. Unfortunately, there are so far only a few vague guidelines, drafted in the 1960's and agreed upon by the international community, protecting mankind's cultural heritage

  20. Terrestrial Laser Scanning Cultural Heritage preservation in case of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordic, B.; Medak, D.; Pribicevic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Croatian Adriatic coast and the City of Zagreb area are hazardous with respect to earthquake occurance. These areas are rich with cultural monuments, buildings, sculptures... Accurate 3D documentation is needed for reconstruction in case of damage caused by natural disasters like earthquake, landslide ,fire... The technology of terestrial laser scanning is a promising method for providing exact 3D models of cultural heritage. Meshes, point-clouds and models should be collected and constructed. Georeferenced models can be used for tourism as a basis for virtual worlds available both in the WWW or on DVD-s...

  1. Three Dimentional Reconstruction of Large Cultural Heritage Objects Based on Uav Video and Tls Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, T. H.; Shen, Y.; Wu, L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the synergetic use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in 3D reconstruction of cultural heritage objects. Rather than capturing still images, the UAV that equips a consumer digital camera is used to collect dynamic videos to overcome its limited endurance capacity. Then, a set of 3D point-cloud is generated from video image sequences using the automated structure-from-motion (SfM) and patch-based multi-view stereo (PMVS) methods. The TLS is used to collect the information that beyond the reachability of UAV imaging e.g., partial building facades. A coarse to fine method is introduced to integrate the two sets of point clouds UAV image-reconstruction and TLS scanning for completed 3D reconstruction. For increased reliability, a variant of ICP algorithm is introduced using local terrain invariant regions in the combined designation. The experimental study is conducted in the Tulou culture heritage building in Fujian province, China, which is focused on one of the TuLou clusters built several hundred years ago. Results show a digital 3D model of the Tulou cluster with complete coverage and textural information. This paper demonstrates the usability of the proposed method for efficient 3D reconstruction of heritage object based on UAV video and TLS data.

  2. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for the Nondestructive Investigation of Conservation Treatments of Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Marcello; Robotti, Elisa; Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Barberis, Elettra; Shor, Pnina; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Today the long-term conservation of cultural heritage is a big challenge: often the artworks were subjected to unknown interventions, which eventually were found to be harmful. The noninvasive investigation of the conservation treatments to which they were subjected to is a crucial step in order to undertake the best conservation strategies. We describe here the preliminary results on a quick and direct method for the nondestructive identification of the various interventions of parchment by means of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and chemometrics. The method has been developed for the noninvasive analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls, one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. In this study castor oil and glycerol parchment treatments, prepared on new parchment specimens, were investigated in order to evaluate two different types of operations. The method was able to identify both treatments. In order to investigate the effect of the ion source temperature on the mass spectra, the DART-MS analysis was also carried out at several temperatures. Due to the high sensitivity, simplicity, and no sample preparation requirement, the proposed analytical methodology could help conservators in the challenging analysis of unknown treatments in cultural heritage.

  3. Ornaments in radiation treatment of cultural heritage: Color and UV-vis spectral changes in irradiated nacres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marušić, Katarina; Pucić, Irina; Desnica, Vladan

    2016-07-01

    Cultural heritage objects that are radiation treated in order to stop their biodegradation often contain ornamenting materials that cannot be removed. Radiation may produce unwanted changes to such materials. Nacre is a common ornamenting material so this is an attempt to assess the impact of gamma-radiation on its optical properties. Two types of nacre (yellow and white) were obtained from a museum and subjected to different absorbed doses of Co-60 gamma irradiation under the same conditions. The radiation induced changes of nacres color were investigated with fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). Colorimetry in CIE Lab space revealed that in both nacres the lightness shifted to darker grey hues at high doses while the color component's (red, green, yellow and blue) behavior depended on the nacre type. Observable changes occurred at doses much above the dose range needed for radiation treatment of cultural heritage objects that are often ornamented with nacre. In UV-vis reflectance spectra of samples irradiated to high doses carbonate radical anion absorption appeared.

  4. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for the Nondestructive Investigation of Conservation Treatments of Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Barberis, Elettra; Shor, Pnina; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Today the long-term conservation of cultural heritage is a big challenge: often the artworks were subjected to unknown interventions, which eventually were found to be harmful. The noninvasive investigation of the conservation treatments to which they were subjected to is a crucial step in order to undertake the best conservation strategies. We describe here the preliminary results on a quick and direct method for the nondestructive identification of the various interventions of parchment by means of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry and chemometrics. The method has been developed for the noninvasive analysis of the Dead Sea Scrolls, one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. In this study castor oil and glycerol parchment treatments, prepared on new parchment specimens, were investigated in order to evaluate two different types of operations. The method was able to identify both treatments. In order to investigate the effect of the ion source temperature on the mass spectra, the DART-MS analysis was also carried out at several temperatures. Due to the high sensitivity, simplicity, and no sample preparation requirement, the proposed analytical methodology could help conservators in the challenging analysis of unknown treatments in cultural heritage. PMID:27957383

  5. The market value of cultural heritage in urban areas: an application of spatial hedonic pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazrak, Faroek; Nijkamp, Peter; Rietveld, Piet; Rouwendal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The current literature often values intangible goods like cultural heritage by applying stated preference methods. In recent years, however, the increasing availability of large databases on real estate transactions and listed prices has opened up new research possibilities and has reduced various existing barriers to applications of conventional (spatial) hedonic analysis to the real estate market. The present paper provides one of the first applications using a spatial autoregressive model to investigate the impact of cultural heritage—in particular, listed buildings and historic-cultural sites (or historic landmarks)—on the value of real estate in cities. In addition, this paper suggests a novel way of specifying the spatial weight matrix—only prices of sold houses influence current price—in identifying the spatial dependency effects between sold properties. The empirical application in the present study concerns the Dutch urban area of Zaanstad, a historic area for which over a long period of more than 20 years detailed information on individual dwellings, and their market prices are available in a GIS context. In this paper, the effect of cultural heritage is analysed in three complementary ways. First, we measure the effect of a listed building on its market price in the relevant area concerned. Secondly, we investigate the value that listed heritage has on nearby property. And finally, we estimate the effect of historic-cultural sites on real estate prices. We find that, to purchase a listed building, buyers are willing to pay an additional 26.9 %, while surrounding houses are worth an extra 0.28 % for each additional listed building within a 50-m radius. Houses sold within a conservation area appear to gain a premium of 26.4 % which confirms the existence of a `historic ensemble' effect.

  6. The cultural heritage of pastoralism - local knowledge, state identity and the global perspective: the example of local breeds in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ben Hounet, Y; Brisebarre, A-M; Guinand, S

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, the heritage designation process has come to impact on the way of life of many nomadic pastoralists across the world. Since the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted in 1972, policies for the conservation of protected areas have been implemented under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), especially in countries of the South, with a varying impact on the practices and perceptions of pastoral communities. Heritage policies were further extended by the establishment of the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage (the Convention was adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in October 2003 and came into force in 2006) and the list of Cultural Landscapes (adoption in 1992, with the first site listed in 1993). This enthusiasm for heritage, which is felt by States and local communities alike, provides an opportunity to study the contradictions and changing perceptions of the nomadic and pastoral identity. In this context of wholesale heritage designation, it is interesting to examine how local knowledge - especially that on hardy animal breeds - is promoted and safeguarded. The authors focus on the case of Morocco, where the national association of sheep and goat breeders (ANOC) oversees breed selection and health policy for local breeds, in order to demonstrate that greater recognition of farmers' knowledge and their ability to identify hardy animals can ensure the sustainability of farms in both South and North from a socio-economic, genetic and health standpoint.

  7. Erratic boulders in Switzerland, a geological and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Erratic boulders are stones transported over quite long distances by glaciers and that differ from the type of rock upon which they rely. They range from the size of pebbles to large boulders weighing several thousand tons. Erratic boulders are significant geosites (Reynard, 2004) for several reasons. (1) First, they are indicators of former glacier extensions by marking glaciers' path, size and volume. In Switzerland, they allowed mapping the extension of large Alpine glaciers (the Rhine and Rhone glaciers, in particular) and their retreat stages (e.g. the Monthey erratic boulders that mark an important lateglacial stage of the Rhone glacier). Crystalline erratic boulders along the Jura range (limestone mountains) were used to map the altitude reached by the Rhone glacier during the two last glaciations. Precise mapping of crystalline and limestone boulders distribution also enabled mapping local Jura glaciers' recurrences after the Rhone glacier retreat. (2) During the last decades, several erratic boulders were used for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, which allowed impressive advances in palaeoclimatic research. (3) Erratic blocks have also an ecological interest by the fact that they "have transported" specific habitats in areas far away from their origin (e.g. acid crystalline rocks and soils in limestone areas such as in the Jura). For all these reasons, several erratic boulders were classified in the inventory of Swiss geosites. Erratic boulders also have a significant cultural value (Lugon et al., 2006). (1) The Glacier Garden in Lucerne was discovered in 1872. It comprises various surfaces of "roches moutonnées", potholes and large erratic blocks that document the presence of the Reuss glacier. Considered as a natural monument it is now one of the most famous touristic attraction of Lucerne and Central Switzerland. (2) The Pierre Bergère stone, situated in Salvan (Mont-Blanc massif, South-western Switzerland), is the place where future Nobel Prize

  8. Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.

    PubMed

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects.

  9. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous.

  10. Challenges, Strategies and Techniques for International Training in Technology for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppich, R.; Almagro Vidal, A.

    2013-07-01

    Technology to document and investigate cultural heritage sites is rapidly advancing - multispectral and high dynamic range imaging, spherical high resolution photography, three-dimensional laser scanning and unmanned aerial vehicles are only a few of the new technologies available to heritage conservation professionals to record monuments, buildings, city centres and landscapes. These advanced tools are giving architects, engineers and conservation professionals' new insights and additional information which helps to make better informed decisions. But this technology and the knowledge about its correct use are extremely unevenly distributed across the world. The Digital Divide is present and growing in the field of cultural heritage preservation (Letellier, 2001). Many of those responsible for the management, maintenance and care of some of the world's most significant cultural heritage sites do not have access to or information about the latest technologies. They are also confronted with an overwhelming assortment of new technologies and consultants or developers that promote them and therefore must allocate their limited budgets with limited information. What is to be done about bridging this gap? Obviously cost and accessibility are issues. However one of the most important challenges to be addressed is education. As the base knowledge of these technologies is very uneven this leads to further questions: Are there strategies or methodologies for teaching this technology? How to combine and balance different professional backgrounds from different and so unevenly distributed places around the world and provide them all with useful information to make good documentation and conservation decisions? This paper will describe the methodology developed over the last ten years in teaching documentation technologies to diverse groups of cultural heritage professionals and students from Côte d'Ivoire, Germany, Belgium, Kosovo, Albania, Nigeria, Egypt, Japan, Iraq

  11. 3D Modeling from Multi-views Images for Cultural Heritage in Wat-Pho, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soontranon, N.; Srestasathiern, P.; Lawawirojwong, S.

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, there are several types of (tangible) cultural heritages. This work focuses on 3D modeling of the heritage objects from multi-views images. The images are acquired by using a DSLR camera which costs around 1,500 (camera and lens). Comparing with a 3D laser scanner, the camera is cheaper and lighter than the 3D scanner. Hence, the camera is available for public users and convenient for accessing narrow areas. The acquired images consist of various sculptures and architectures in Wat-Pho which is a Buddhist temple located behind the Grand Palace (Bangkok, Thailand). Wat-Pho is known as temple of the reclining Buddha and the birthplace of traditional Thai massage. To compute the 3D models, a diagram is separated into following steps; Data acquisition, Image matching, Image calibration and orientation, Dense matching and Point cloud processing. For the initial work, small heritages less than 3 meters height are considered for the experimental results. A set of multi-views images of an interested object is used as input data for 3D modeling. In our experiments, 3D models are obtained from MICMAC (open source) software developed by IGN, France. The output of 3D models will be represented by using standard formats of 3D point clouds and triangulated surfaces such as .ply, .off, .obj, etc. To compute for the efficient 3D models, post-processing techniques are required for the final results e.g. noise reduction, surface simplification and reconstruction. The reconstructed 3D models can be provided for public access such as website, DVD, printed materials. The high accurate 3D models can also be used as reference data of the heritage objects that must be restored due to deterioration of a lifetime, natural disasters, etc.

  12. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  13. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    SciTech Connect

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-06

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  14. Laser techniques for cultural heritage research case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwiński, G.; Jasińska, M.; Bredal-Jørgensen, J.; Kamińska, A.; Komar, K.; Sawczak, M.

    2007-03-01

    Results of the recent application studies of laser-based techniques for conservation practice, carried out in the frames of research and conservation projects are presented and discussed. The Gotland Sandstone Project covers laser cleaning, spectroscopic techniques of the process monitoring and materials analysis. The post-processing effect is investigated by means of LIBS, colorimetry, SEM and XEDS in order to answer questions regarding encrustation removal, discoloration and alteration due to environmental pollution and laser interaction, respectively. The cleaning is monitored acoustically. Slight differences in stone yellowing are revealed when applying laser in air or pure N II environment which is ascribed to material oxidation and partial combustion of surface remnants due to presence of O II contributing to the final effect of laser cleaning. Results of microscopic observation are supported by the presence of elements S, Al, Ca, and C which prevail in crust. In case of restoration of the historical documents on paper the ablative cleaning and the nearly nondestructive identification and composition analysis of surface layers such as contaminants, substrate and pigments are performed. Spectra obtained by means of the LIPS technique for historical, originally contaminated and also artificially soiled model samples reveal reach structures. The emission lines of Ca, Na, K, Al and Fe are ascribed to contaminants because of intensities decreasing with prolonged surface irradiation during laser cleaning. Bands of Ti and Ba correspond to white pigments (TiO II and BaSO 4) in the paper and are confirmed by the Raman spectra as well. For identification of historical pigments the reference measurements on model substrates are performed, too.

  15. Conservation of cultural heritage in minority ethnic regions in northwestern china—an exploration at Kuqa, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Zhang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Kuqa, Xinjiang, is located at northwestern inland china. Traditionally a bridge between eastern and western civilizations, Kuqa had a history of cultural fusion and was left with abundant cultural heritage. As population increase, economic growth and social changes occurred, spontaneous renovation of the old city was affected, in which street fabric and scenes underwent damages. The paper demonstrates attempts made in various projects to achieve conservation of cultural heritage in agreement with economic development and improvement of living condition. The lessons learnt in these projects will be of value to development of other historic cities, especially in minority ethnic regions in China.

  16. Copyright for Interactive Systems: Stratagems for Tourism and Cultural Heritage Promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla-Ficarra, Francisco V.; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Ficarra, Valeria M.

    We present a series of strategies followed from the interactive design for the realization of a hypermedia system aimed at promoting in an original, simple and universal way the cultural and tourism heritage of a wide rural area in two Italian regions: Emilia Romagna and Lombardy. Besides, the main stratagems followed are disclosed to overcome the existing hurdles when it comes to copyright for the free diffusion of the tourism view of the area, such as can be photography or video, for instance. Finally, we present the first vademecum to be considered before making on-line and off-line interactive systems in Italy.

  17. Integrating Spherical Panoramas and Maps for Visualization of Cultural Heritage Objects Using Virtual Reality Technology.

    PubMed

    Koeva, Mila; Luleva, Mila; Maldjanski, Plamen

    2017-04-11

    Development and virtual representation of 3D models of Cultural Heritage (CH) objects has triggered great interest over the past decade. The main reason for this is the rapid development in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing, laser scanning, and computer vision. The advantages of using 3D models for restoration, preservation, and documentation of valuable historical and architectural objects have been numerously demonstrated by scientists in the field. Moreover, 3D model visualization in virtual reality has been recognized as an efficient, fast, and easy way of representing a variety of objects worldwide for present-day users, who have stringent requirements and high expectations. However, the main focus of recent research is the visual, geometric, and textural characteristics of a single concrete object, while integration of large numbers of models with additional information-such as historical overview, detailed description, and location-are missing. Such integrated information can be beneficial, not only for tourism but also for accurate documentation. For that reason, we demonstrate in this paper an integration of high-resolution spherical panoramas, a variety of maps, GNSS, sound, video, and text information for representation of numerous cultural heritage objects. These are then displayed in a web-based portal with an intuitive interface. The users have the opportunity to choose freely from the provided information, and decide for themselves what is interesting to visit. Based on the created web application, we provide suggestions and guidelines for similar studies. We selected objects, which are located in Bulgaria-a country with thousands of years of history and cultural heritage dating back to ancient civilizations. The methods used in this research are applicable for any type of spherical or cylindrical images and can be easily followed and applied in various domains. After a visual and metric assessment of the panoramas and the evaluation of

  18. The Use and Role of Pop Culture in Heritage Language Learning: A Study of Advanced Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the important use of pop culture in many instructional settings, its use in the heritage language (HL) classroom remains largely unexplored. Thus, this article reports findings from classroom-based qualitative research that examined the use and role of pop culture in advanced Korean HL learners' literacy engagement and identity…

  19. Cultural influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in Chinese- and European-heritage students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lorena; Alden, Lynn E

    2008-07-01

    We examined culture-related influences on willingness to seek treatment for social anxiety in first- and second-generation students of Chinese heritage (Ns=65, 47, respectively), and their European-heritage counterparts (N=60). Participants completed measures that assessed their willingness to seek treatment for various levels of social anxiety. Results showed that participants were similar on willingness to seek treatment at low- and high-severity levels of social anxiety; however, at moderate levels, first-generation Chinese participants were significantly less willing to seek treatment compared to their European-heritage counterparts. The reluctance of first-generation Chinese participants to seek treatment was associated with greater Chinese-heritage acculturation, and was not related to perceiving symptoms of social anxiety as less impairing. The findings support the general contention that Asians in North America tend to delay treatment for mental health problems.

  20. Polarization Second Harmonic Generation Discriminates Between Fresh and Aged Starch-Based Adhesives Used in Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Gavgiotaki, Evaggelia; Melessanaki, Kristallia; Tsafas, Vassilis; Filippidis, George

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we report that polarization second harmonic generation (PSHG) microscopy, commonly used in biomedical imaging, can quantitatively discriminate naturally aged from fresh starch-based glues used for conservation or restoration of paintings, works of art on paper, and books. Several samples of fresh and aged (7 years) flour and starch pastes were investigated by use of PSHG. In these types of adhesives, widely used in cultural heritage conservation, second harmonic generation (SHG) contrast originates primarily from the starch granules. It was found that in aged glues, the starch SHG effective orientation (SHG angle, θ) shifts to significantly higher values in comparison to the fresh granules. This shift is attributed to the different degree of granule hydration between fresh and aged adhesives. Thus noninvasive high-resolution nonlinear scattering can be employed to detect and quantify the degree of deterioration of restoration adhesives and to provide guidance toward future conservation treatments.

  1. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging: New Approaches to the Analysis of Cultural Heritage and Its Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, Austin; Cesaratto, Anna; Bellei, Sara; D'Andrea, Cosimo; Toniolo, Lucia; Valentini, Gianluca; Comelli, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Applications of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (TRPL) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to the analysis of cultural heritage are presented. Examples range from historic wall paintings and stone sculptures to 20th century iconic design objects. A detailed description of the instrumentation developed and employed for analysis in the laboratory or in situ is given. Both instruments rely on a pulsed laser source coupled to a gated detection system, but differ in the type of information they provide. Applications of FLIM to the analysis of model samples and for the in-situ monitoring of works of art range from the analysis of organic materials and pigments in wall paintings, the detection of trace organic substances on stone sculptures, to the mapping of luminescence in late 19th century paintings. TRPL and FLIM are employed as sensors for the detection of the degradation of design objects made in plastic. Applications and avenues for future research are suggested. PMID:24699285

  2. Development of X-ray Fluorescence Quantitative Methodologies To Analyze Aqueous and Acid Extracts from Building Materials Belonging to Cultural Heritage.

    PubMed

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Carrero, Jose Antonio; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2017-04-04

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF) is widely used in art and cultural heritage for direct measurements and elemental quantification of solid samples. However, in the literature there are not works dealing with the quantitative application of ED-XRF to liquid extracts coming from samples belonging to cultural heritage. In this work, a novel methodology based on the use of ED-XRF spectrometry after thin film deposition on special sample retainers and a subsequent evaporation was developed to quantify light elements (Z ≤ 20) in aqueous extracts and heavy elements (Z > 20) in acid extracts, coming from materials and degradation products belonging to built heritage (mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations). For this purpose, special sample retainers were used instead of more common adsorbent filter papers. Three different ED-XRF calibration methodologies were designed as elemental quantification tools and "green chemistry" alternatives to conventional techniques. On the one hand, the developed external ED-XRF calibration methodology for elements with Z ≤ 20 was proposed as an alternative to ion chromatography to obtain information about the degradation processes that the building materials suffered. On the other hand, the external ED-XRF calibration for elements with Z > 20 in acid extracts was optimized as a faster and cleaner quantification alternative to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Finally, with the aim to reduce the matrix effect and to improve the quantitative results for elements with Z > 20 in acid extracts, a novel ED-XRF calibration methodology based on standard additions was successfully designed and applied to real samples belonging to built heritage.

  3. Experiential learning and values education at a school youth camp: Maintaining Jewish culture and heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2017-02-01

    In our post-modern, globalised world, there is a risk of unique cultural heritages being lost. This loss contributes to the detriment of civilization, because individuals need to be rooted in their own specific identity in order to actively participate in community life. This article discusses a longitudinal case study of the efforts being made by Australian Jewish schools to maintain Jewish heritage through annual experiential religious education camps, coordinated in a programme called Counterpoint. The researchers' aim was to analyse how a school youth camp can serve as a site for socialisation and education into a cultural and religious heritage through experiential learning and informal education. During research trips which took place over several years, interviews enabling insights into the process of experiential education were conducted with a total of three different Directors of Informal Jewish Education, two Jewish Studies heads, five participating teachers, seven youth leaders, as well as seven student focus groups. In their analysis of the semi-structured interviews, the authors of this article employed a grounded theory approach using a constant comparative method, which enabled a more nuanced understanding of the main phenomenon investigated. Over the years, they were able to observe two philosophical approaches, one of which focused more on socialisation, with immersion into experience, while the other focused on education, with immersion into Jewish knowledge. Their findings reveal that some educators aim to "transmit" knowledge through "evocation", with the students involved in active learning; while others focus more on students' "acquisition" of knowledge through transmission. Experiential learning activities were found to be more meaningful and powerful if they combined both approaches, leading to growth.

  4. Experiential learning and values education at a school youth camp: Maintaining Jewish culture and heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Zehavit; Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2016-12-01

    In our post-modern, globalised world, there is a risk of unique cultural heritages being lost. This loss contributes to the detriment of civilization, because individuals need to be rooted in their own specific identity in order to actively participate in community life. This article discusses a longitudinal case study of the efforts being made by Australian Jewish schools to maintain Jewish heritage through annual experiential religious education camps, coordinated in a programme called Counterpoint. The researchers' aim was to analyse how a school youth camp can serve as a site for socialisation and education into a cultural and religious heritage through experiential learning and informal education. During research trips which took place over several years, interviews enabling insights into the process of experiential education were conducted with a total of three different Directors of Informal Jewish Education, two Jewish Studies heads, five participating teachers, seven youth leaders, as well as seven student focus groups. In their analysis of the semi-structured interviews, the authors of this article employed a grounded theory approach using a constant comparative method, which enabled a more nuanced understanding of the main phenomenon investigated. Over the years, they were able to observe two philosophical approaches, one of which focused more on socialisation, with immersion into experience, while the other focused on education, with immersion into Jewish knowledge. Their findings reveal that some educators aim to "transmit" knowledge through "evocation", with the students involved in active learning; while others focus more on students' "acquisition" of knowledge through transmission. Experiential learning activities were found to be more meaningful and powerful if they combined both approaches, leading to growth.

  5. The historical and cultural heritage from Brazil: rocks and deterioration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antônio

    2014-05-01

    This summary provides information on the results of a research in progress, which focuses on the investigation of stone materials, as steatites, serpentinites, quartzites and schists, widely used in construction of buildings belonging to the cultural heritage of Brazil, especially in those that are in the state of Minas Gerais. These historic buildings, some of those with more than three hundred years of existence and constructed with the use of different rocks, function as open-air laboratories and because of that assists on the study of the deterioration of these materials. In its early stages, the research has focused on macroscopic characterization of the employed materials, following with the lifting of their respective areas of occurrence. Then samples for the survey of other features, such as its chemical and physical-mechanical properties were collected. The investigated physical-mechanical properties were as follows: thermal dilatation coefficient, compressive and flexural strength, abrasion resistance, water absorption coefficient by capillarity, real and apparent density, total and open porosity. Currently, the research focuses on issues such as: evidence of degradation and extent of deterioration in these monuments, as a result of the performance of different processes of alteration and decay. In this investigation it is understood that the first processes are associated with modifications of stone materials, which do not necessarily imply in worsening of the characteristics of these materials from the point of view of conservation and seconds are related to chemical and physical changes of intrinsic properties of rocks used in the construction of this heritage, which can lead to a loss of value, or some impediment of use, according to the indications of the illustrated glossary on patterns of deterioration of rocks proposed by ICOMOS. For this purpose macroscopic descriptions of monuments and its applied rocks, accompanied by detailed photographic

  6. Documentation of some Cultural Heritage Emergencies in Syria In August 2010 by Spherical Photrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangi, G.

    2015-09-01

    Syria is a country of many civilizations, Marie, Aramaic, Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, Ottoman civilizations. Unfortunally the recent war is the reason for many cultural heritage items to be destroyed, beyond the thausand civilian people killed. In 2010, just before the war, the A. made a touristic trip together with Crua (Recreational Club of the Ancona University). It was the occasion to make some fast documentation of some Syrian CH monuments. Mostly of the images were taken by the A. not to make a survey, but as a photographic report, as fast and complete as possible. For a regular survey project, the tripod, the spherical head should be used for the takings and the 3x3 Cipa rules should be followed, that occurred only in the three main projects, say the survey of the citadel walls in Aleppo, the survey of the Umayyads Mosque in Damascus, and the survey of the minaret of the Umayyads Mosque in Aleppo. All the other documentation surveys have been carried out with hand-held camera taking the dimension of the model from Google earth high resolution, when available. But, apart the regular surveys, due to the explosion of the unexpected war, the photographs taken in such a touristic way, have been used to try to get some usable plottings an restitutions and it worked successfully mostly of the times. These surveys could be useful in case of reconstruction and in case of lack of suitable alternative metric documentation. Because of the continuing threats, all six Syrian World Heritage properties were inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cambodia last June: Ancient City of Aleppo, Ancient City of Bosra, Ancient City of Damascus, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria, Krak des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din ans finally the Site of Palmyra. See the following links: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=kr.a3e0DL5sA and https

  7. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  8. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H.; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  9. Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants’ second-language processing through triggering first-language interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W.; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting’s cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants’ second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants’ English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning. PMID:23776218

  10. Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants' second-language processing through triggering first-language interference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Morris, Michael W; Cheng, Chi-Ying; Yap, Andy J

    2013-07-09

    For bicultural individuals, visual cues of a setting's cultural expectations can activate associated representations, switching the frames that guide their judgments. Research suggests that cultural cues may affect judgments through automatic priming, but has yet to investigate consequences for linguistic performance. The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants' second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants' English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing. We discuss conceptual implications for the automaticity and adaptiveness of cultural priming and practical implications for immigrant acculturation and second-language learning.

  11. Software for storage and management of microclimatic data for preventive conservation of cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Navajas, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2013-02-27

    Cultural Heritage preventive conservation requires the monitoring of the parameters involved in the process of deterioration of artworks. Thus, both long-term monitoring of the environmental parameters as well as further analysis of the recorded data are necessary. The long-term monitoring at frequencies higher than 1 data point/day generates large volumes of data that are difficult to store, manage and analyze. This paper presents software which uses a free open source database engine that allows managing and interacting with huge amounts of data from environmental monitoring of cultural heritage sites. It is of simple operation and offers multiple capabilities, such as detection of anomalous data, inquiries, graph plotting and mean trajectories. It is also possible to export the data to a spreadsheet for analyses with more advanced statistical methods (principal component analysis, ANOVA, linear regression, etc.). This paper also deals with a practical application developed for the Renaissance frescoes of the Cathedral of Valencia. The results suggest infiltration of rainwater in the vault and weekly relative humidity changes related with the religious service schedules.

  12. The protective and detrimental effects of self-construal on perceived rejection from heritage culture members

    PubMed Central

    Ferenczi, Nelli; Marshall, Tara C.; Bejanyan, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    Individuals may perceive themselves as interdependent and similar with close others, or as independent and distinct. Do these differences in self-construal influence perceptions of rejection from those closest to us? Few studies have investigated the antecedents of intragroup marginalization – the perception of rejection from family and friends due to not conforming to the prescribed values and expectations of one’s heritage culture. Furthermore, the implications of perceived intragroup marginalization for psychological adjustment and an integrated bicultural identity are unclear. To gage the effects of self-construals on perceived intragroup marginalization and psychological adjustment (i.e., subjective well-being and flourishing) and an integrated bicultural identity, we increased the cognitive accessibility of independent and interdependent self-construals through a priming manipulation. Participants were recruited via Amazon MTurk and completed the measures online. Our results showed that priming an interdependent self-construal decreased perceived intragroup marginalization from family and, in turn, poor psychological adjustment and bicultural identity conflict. Conversely, participants primed with an independent self-construal reported increased perceptions of intragroup marginalization from their family and, in turn, decreased psychological adjustment and increased identity conflict. These findings support the benefits of an interdependent self and the disadvantages of an independent self for minimizing perceived exclusion from heritage culture members. PMID:25762950

  13. Software for Storage and Management of Microclimatic Data for Preventive Conservation of Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Navajas, Ángel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Cultural Heritage preventive conservation requires the monitoring of the parameters involved in the process of deterioration of artworks. Thus, both long-term monitoring of the environmental parameters as well as further analysis of the recorded data are necessary. The long-term monitoring at frequencies higher than 1 data point/day generates large volumes of data that are difficult to store, manage and analyze. This paper presents software which uses a free open source database engine that allows managing and interacting with huge amounts of data from environmental monitoring of cultural heritage sites. It is of simple operation and offers multiple capabilities, such as detection of anomalous data, inquiries, graph plotting and mean trajectories. It is also possible to export the data to a spreadsheet for analyses with more advanced statistical methods (principal component analysis, ANOVA, linear regression, etc.). This paper also deals with a practical application developed for the Renaissance frescoes of the Cathedral of Valencia. The results suggest infiltration of rainwater in the vault and weekly relative humidity changes related with the religious service schedules. PMID:23447005

  14. IBA techniques: Examples of useful combinations for the characterisation of cultural heritage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Pichon, L.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.; Walter, P.

    2011-12-01

    For many years, ion beam analysis techniques have successfully been used to the study of cultural heritage objects. The chemical composition of work art is usually determined by PIXE, but in many cases, RBS and/or PIGE can provide useful complementary information. RBS gives information about the depth distribution and concentration in light elements, such as carbon and oxygen. In the past years, the experimental facilities at the AGLAE (Accélérateur Grand Louvre d'Analyse Élémentaire) accelerator has been progressively developed in order to apply simultaneously PIXE, PIGE and RBS under optimal conditions using an external beam. This combination is now routinely used for point analyses or mappings. In this contribution, we present several examples of applications: manufacturing technology of lustre-decorated ceramics and silver plating, control of altered or restored surfaces, and quantification of organic phase in painting and bone. The final conclusion is that the association of PIXE with RBS is very attractive for the investigation of cultural heritage objects, in particular of materials containing both mineral and organic components or possessing a multilayered structure. The first results of the production of monochromatic X-rays for radiography purposes by PIXE are also presented.

  15. Disaster Risk Management and Measurement Indicators for Cultural Heritage in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y. N.; Cheng, C. F.; Cheng, H. M.

    2015-08-01

    Under the influence of global climate change, the risk preparedness has become a universal issue in different research fields. In the conservation of cultural heritage, disaster risk management is becoming one of the major research topics. Besides researches on the theory and mechanism of disaster risk management, the tools for the performance of site managers to protect cultural heritage is another important issue that needs development. UNESCO and ICOMOS have released some important documents on disaster risk management including its concept, identification, evaluation, mitigation, monitoring and resilience, etc. However, there is a big gap between concept and implementation in Taiwan. Presently there are 2000 monuments in Taiwan that hardly meet the modern code. First, based on international documents released, this research presents 13 disaster indicators on monuments and their environments. Next, 345 monuments in northern Taiwan are taken as examples to evaluate their risk situations with indicators designed in 2011. Some positive recommendations were given at the same time. As a result, a comparative evaluation was completed in 2012 and some key issues are found, such as too many electrical facilities, lack of efficient firefighting equipment, and a shortage of management mechanism, just to name a few. Through the improvement of the management, some major risk can be mitigated. In 2013~14, this research took 23 national monuments from the 345 monuments to evaluate their risk situations and compare the differences between national and local monuments. Results show that almost all management mechanisms in the national monuments have been established and are running well. However, problems like inappropriate electrical facilities and insufficient monitoring equipment remain. In addition, the performance of private monuments is not as good as public ones. Based on the collected information and evaluation, this research develops safety measures of heritage

  16. Isotopic labeling for the understanding of the alteration of limestone used in built cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saheb, Mandana; Chabas, Anne; Mertz, Jean-Didier; Rozenbaum, Olivier; Verney-Carron, Aurélie

    2015-04-01

    This project belongs to a specific work aiming at developing isotopic tools to better understand the alteration of materials used in the built cultural heritage. It is focused on the study of the alteration of limestone used in the facades of historic buildings subject to atmospheric polluted environment. Actually in the elevated parts of the buildings, water as rainfall (runoff or wet deposition) or in vapor form (condensation or dry deposition) is the main agent of alteration. Thus, the rock/water interactions need to be well understood to propose adapted solution to better preserve the buildings. To identify the water transfer within the porous limestone and locate the reaction preferential sites, two isotopic tracers (D and 18O) are used to monitor the alteration solution (D) and locate the zones containing the secondary phases (18O). The Saint-Maximin limestone used in many monuments in the suburbs of Paris (France) as a building and restoration stone has been specifically studied. Pristine materials, stones from monuments (monuments in the Paris area) and samples altered in laboratory constitute the analytical corpus to compare different stages of alteration. In a first step the stones are characterized at different scales to identify the alteration pattern (SEM-EDS, Raman microspectrometry, XRD, rugosimetry) and study the water transfers (X-ray tomography, mercury porosimetry, imbibition kinetics). The samples are then altered in the laboratory by realistic and controlled wet or dry deposition using isotopically labeled solutions to locate the reaction zones by SIMS. The multiscale characterization of the alteration pattern has allowed proposing alteration mechanisms linked to the properties of the stones and their location inside the building. Moreover, the location of the reactive zones inside the materials determined by the isotopic experiments helps examining the role of the evolution of porosity and formation of alteration products within the material

  17. Survey Guidelines and its Reading Criteria for Monitoring and Transmitting Cultural Heritage Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Masi, A.

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes reading criteria for an analysis and interpretation of material systems in relation to a built space, survey guidelines and its reading criteria for Cultural Heritage (CH) values'monitoring and transmission. In addition, integrated systems of digital technologies and 2D/3D digitization of CH are introduced for an effective and accurate reading of Venice and Milan's monuments. Specifically, the guidelines for an architectural survey allow to organize and document historic monuments information, and to identify the significant cultural/physical elements of our past in order for them to be preserved and protected for future generations. In addition, in this paper the studied projects introduce a combination of virtual technologies and historical reality with experimenting innovative solutions for CH. From the methodological point of view, this study has made use of the identification of levels of study (LS) differentiated, each of which is capable of identifying categories.

  18. Expert Meeting on Community Involvement in Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage: Towards the Implementation of the 2003 Convention (Tokyo, Japan, March 13-15, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Twenty experts from eighteen countries attended the meeting, which was co-organized by the Intangible Heritage Section of UNESCO and the Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU). They discussed in three successive sessions three subjects concerning community involvement in safeguarding intangible cultural heritage (ICH): (1) the definition…

  19. Documentation of Cultural Heritages Using a GIS Based Information and Management System; Case Study of Safranbolu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, D. Z.; Alkan, M.; Kutoglu, S. S.; Akcin, H.

    2010-12-01

    Documentation of the cultural heritage sites is extremely important for monitoring and preserves them from natural disasters and human made activities. Due to its very rich historical background from the first human settlements in Catalhoyuk and Alacahoyuk and civilizations such as Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman, there are lots of cultural heritage sites in Turkey. 3D modeling and recording of historical buildings using modern tools and techniques in several locations of Turkey have been conducted and still continuing. The nine cultural sites in Turkey are included in the protection list of UNESCO as cultural heritage and one of them is the township of Safranbolu, which is the one of the most outstanding example of the traditional Turkish Architecture and also unique itself in terms of conservation of the human settlement in their authentic environmental motif up till now. In this study outcomes and further studies of a research project related to study area which is supported by the Turkish National Research Center (TUBITAK) with the project number 106Y157, will be presented in details. The basic aim of the study is development a GIS based information and management system for the city of Safranbolu. All historical buildings which are registered are assigned with the database. 3D modeling some of the selected building among the buildings which are registered as historical monuments using different data comes from different sources similar to their original constructions were realized and then it will be distributed via internet by a web-based information system designed during the project. Also some of the buildings were evaluated using close range photogrammetric technique to obtain their façade reliefs, were also assigned with the database. Designed database consists of 3D models, locations, historical information, cadastral and land register data of the selected buildings together with the other data collected during the project related to buildings. Using this

  20. Integration of the geomorphological environment and cultural heritage for tourism promotion: a case study from Gozo (Maltese Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Gauci, Ritienne; Schembri, John A.; Soldati, Mauro; Tonelli, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    The paper aims to highlight the unique integration of natural and cultural heritage within the Dwejra area, a site of outstanding scenery located along the NW coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta). Dwejra displays a great variety of geological and geomorphological features as well as unusual and unique ecological systems, concentrated in a relatively small and remoteness area. The landscape is made of a large set of landforms created by several processes: karst dissolution, forming at least four solution subsidence structures in the area; fluvial processes (marked by the presence of perennial freshwater pools), seepage from cliffs, waterfall and several dry valley systems (widien); marine erosion processes as evidenced by the great variety of features, including with sea-caves, tunnel, arches, stacks and reefs. The presence of cultural features spanning from rubble walls and rural structures, to cart-ruts of unknown age and structures of the 19th Century enrich the interest in the area and allow it to become a landmark of cultural importance to the history of the island as a whole. This unique combination of geological l.s., cultural and biological heritage contributes in making Dwejra a site of extraordinary scientific importance and heritage value, an ideal tourist destination for fostering a varied form of geotourism. In perspective of tourism promotion and geoconservation measures, this paper aims at highlighting how the integration of environmental and cultural heritage aspects makes the Dwejra area a site of remarkable value to be promoted for a more holistic and varied tourism.

  1. Remote assessment of cultural heritage environments with wireless sensor array networks.

    PubMed

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell, John E; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-05-19

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported.

  2. Monument Damage Information System (mondis): AN Ontological Approach to Cultural Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciotti, R.; Valach, J.; Kuneš, P.; Čerňanský, M.; Blaško, M.; Křemen, P.

    2013-07-01

    Deriving from the complex nature of cultural heritage conservation it is the need for enhancing a systematic but flexible organization of expert knowledge in the field. Such organization should address comprehensively the interrelations and complementariness among the different factors that come into play in the understanding of diagnostic and intervention problems. The purpose of MONDIS is to endorse this kind of organization. The approach consists in applying an ontological representation to the field of heritage conservation in order to establish an appropriate processing of data. The system allows replicating in a computer readable form the basic dependence among factors influencing the description, diagnosis and intervention of damages to immovable objects. More specifically MONDIS allows to input and search entries concerning object description, structural evolution, location characteristics and risk, component, material properties, surveys and measurements, damage typology, damage triggering events and possible interventions. The system supports searching features typical of standard databases, as it allows for the digitalization of a wide range of information including professional reports, books, articles and scientific papers. It also allows for computer aided retrieval of information tailored to user's requirements. The foreseen outputs will include a web user interface and a mobile application for visual inspection purposes.

  3. Remote Assessment of Cultural Heritage Environments with Wireless Sensor Array Networks

    PubMed Central

    Agbota, Henoc; Mitchell John, E.; Odlyha, Marianne; Strlič, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The logistics and cost of environmental monitoring can represent challenges for heritage managers, partly because of the sheer number of environmental parameters to consider. There is a need for a system, capable of monitoring the holistic impact of the environment on cultural materials while remaining relatively easy to use and providing remote access. This paper describes a dosimetric system based on piezoelectric quartz crystal technology. The prototype sensing module consists of an array of piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQC) coated with different metals (Fe, Cu, Ni and Sn) and includes a temperature and relative humidity sensor. The communication module involves an 802.15.4 low-power radio and a GPRS gateway which allows real time visualisation of the measurements online. An energy management protocol ensures that the system consumes very low power between measurements. The paper also describes the results and experiences from two heritage field deployments, at Apsley House in London, UK, and at the Royal Palaces of Abomey in Benin. Evaluation of PQC measurements, temperature, relative humidity and the rate of successful transmission over the communication systems are also reported. PMID:24854056

  4. The Qatar National Historic Environment Record: a Platform for the Development of a Fully-Integrated Cultural Heritage Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttler, R. T. H.; Tonner, T. W. W.; Al-Naimi, F. A.; Dingwall, L. M.; Al-Hemaidi, N.

    2013-07-01

    The development of the Qatar National Historic Environment Record (QNHER) by the Qatar Museums Authority and the University of Birmingham in 2008 was based on a customised, bilingual Access database and ArcGIS. While both platforms are stable and well supported, neither was designed for the documentation and retrieval of cultural heritage data. As a result it was decided to develop a custom application using Open Source code. The core module of this application is now completed and is orientated towards the storage and retrieval of geospatial heritage data for the curation of heritage assets. Based on MIDAS Heritage data standards and regionally relevant thesauri, it is a truly bilingual system. Significant attention has been paid to the user interface, which is userfriendly and intuitive. Based on a suite of web services and accessed through a web browser, the system makes full use of internet resources such as Google Maps and Bing Maps. The application avoids long term vendor ''tie-ins'' and as a fully integrated data management system, is now an important tool for both cultural resource managers and heritage researchers in Qatar.

  5. D Modelling and Interactive Web-Based Visualization of Cultural Heritage Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeva, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, there are rapid developments in the fields of photogrammetry, laser scanning, computer vision and robotics, together aiming to provide highly accurate 3D data that is useful for various applications. In recent years, various LiDAR and image-based techniques have been investigated for 3D modelling because of their opportunities for fast and accurate model generation. For cultural heritage preservation and the representation of objects that are important for tourism and their interactive visualization, 3D models are highly effective and intuitive for present-day users who have stringent requirements and high expectations. Depending on the complexity of the objects for the specific case, various technological methods can be applied. The selected objects in this particular research are located in Bulgaria - a country with thousands of years of history and cultural heritage dating back to ancient civilizations. This motivates the preservation, visualisation and recreation of undoubtedly valuable historical and architectural objects and places, which has always been a serious challenge for specialists in the field of cultural heritage. In the present research, comparative analyses regarding principles and technological processes needed for 3D modelling and visualization are presented. The recent problems, efforts and developments in interactive representation of precious objects and places in Bulgaria are presented. Three technologies based on real projects are described: (1) image-based modelling using a non-metric hand-held camera; (2) 3D visualization based on spherical panoramic images; (3) and 3D geometric and photorealistic modelling based on architectural CAD drawings. Their suitability for web-based visualization are demonstrated and compared. Moreover the possibilities for integration with additional information such as interactive maps, satellite imagery, sound, video and specific information for the objects are described. This comparative study

  6. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human activities are concentrated around coastal areas, making coastline retreat, a significant threat to coastal infrastructure, thus increasing protection cost and investment revenue losses. In this study the management of coastal areas in terms of protecting coastal infrastructures, cultural and environmental heritage sites, through risk assessment analysis is been made. The scope is to provide data for spatial planning for future developments in the coastal zone and the protection of existing ones. Also to determine the impact of coastal changes related to the loss of natural resources, agricultural land and beaches. The analysis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental, spatial and economic data. This can be implemented by integrating the assessment of vulnerability of coasts, the spatial distribution and structural elements of coastal infrastructure (transport, tourism, and energy) and financial data by region, in a spatial database. The approach is based on coastal vulnerability estimations, considering sea level rise, land loss, extreme events, safety, adaptability and resilience of infrastructure and natural sites. It is based on coupling of environmental indicators and econometric models to determine the socio-economic impact in coastal infrastructure, cultural and environmental heritage sites. The indicators include variables like the coastal geomorphology; coastal slope; relative sea-level rise rate; shoreline erosion/accretion rate; mean tidal range and mean wave height. The anthropogenic factors include variables like settlements, sites of cultural heritage, transport networks, land uses, significance of infrastructure (e.g. military, power plans) and economic activities. The analysis in performed by a GIS application. The forcing variables are determined with the use of sub-indices related to coastal geomorphology, climate and wave variables and the socioeconomics of the coastal zone. The Greek coastline in

  7. Drawing on Students' Experiences, Cultures and Languages to Develop English Language Writing: Perspectives from Three Lao Heritage Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souryasack, Rassamichanh; Lee, Jin Sook

    2007-01-01

    Lao students have not fared well in the American educational system. Raised in a home culture that emphasizes and values the oral tradition, the acquisition of academic writing skills has been especially problematic even for U.S.-born students of Lao heritage. Recognizing that writing is a critical component for academic success, this study…

  8. Developing PISA-"Like" Mathematics Task with Indonesia Natural and Cultural Heritage as Context to Assess Students Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktiningrum, Wuli; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is produce a set of PISA-like mathematics task with Indonesia natural and cultural heritage as context which are valid, practical, to assess students' mathematics literacy. This is design research using type of development research with formative evaluation. A total of 20 students of SMP Negeri 1 Palembang. Beside, 10…

  9. Connecting to the World's Collections: Making the Case for the Conservation and Preservation of Our Cultural Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Joyce Hill

    2009-01-01

    Sixty cultural heritage leaders from thirty-two countries, including representatives from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South America, Australia, Europe, and North America gathered in October 2009 in Salzburg, Austria, to develop a series of practical recommendations to ensure optimal collections conservation worldwide. Convened at Schloss…

  10. Agriculture as an Upholder of Cultural Heritage? Conceptualizations and Value Judgements--A Norwegian Perspective in International Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugstad, Karoline; Ronningen, Katrina; Skar, Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The multifunctional role of agriculture as a producer of collective goods in addition to food and fibre, has been stressed within the context of negotiations on the liberalization of the world market for food (WTO) and in general in discussions concerning restructuring of the agricultural sector. One of these collective goods, cultural heritage,…

  11. An Examination of the Adoption of Preservation Metadata in Cultural Heritage Institutions: An Exploratory Study Using Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw

    2009-01-01

    Digital preservation is a significant challenge for cultural heritage institutions and other repositories of digital information resources. Recognizing the critical role of metadata in any successful digital preservation strategy, the Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) has been extremely influential on providing a "core" set…

  12. Cultural Sustainability of African Canadian Heritage: Engaging Students in Learning, the Past, the Present and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research is cultural sustainability of African Canadian heritage. Research literature informs us that engaging youth in educational programmes at the local level is fundamental to sustainability discussions. Furthermore, students must be actively engaged in their African Canadian past, present and future education. However, there…

  13. The Implementation of a Social Constructivist Approach in Primary Science Education in Confucian Heritage Culture: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    H?ng, Ngô Vu Thu; Meijer, Marijn Roland; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Social constructivism has been increasingly studied and implemented in science school education. Nevertheless, there is a lack of holistic studies on the implementation of social constructivist approach in primary science education in Confucian heritage culture. This study aims to determine to what extent a social constructivist approach is…

  14. Transracial adoptees bridging heritage and national cultures: Parental socialisation, ethnic identity and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Laura; Ranieri, Sonia; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity affirmation dimensions). We then investigated whether ethnic identity affects self-esteem by testing the hypothesis that national identity moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Results revealed that mothers' enculturation (but not their preparation for bias) supported adoptees' ethnic identity exploration, which in turn was positively associated with ethnic identity affirmation. Moreover, we confirmed the moderation effect: ethnic identity affirmation enhanced the level of self-esteem, but only for those adoptees who perceived a higher degree of national identity affirmation.

  15. Colloid and materials science for the conservation of cultural heritage: cleaning, consolidation, and deacidification.

    PubMed

    Baglioni, Piero; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Poggi, Giovanna

    2013-04-30

    Serendipity and experiment have been a frequent approach for the development of materials and methodologies used for a long time for either cleaning or consolidation of works of art. Recently, new perspectives have been opened by the application of materials science, colloid science, and interface science frameworks to conservation, generating a breakthrough in the development of innovative tools for the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage. This Article is an overview of the most recent contributions of colloid and materials science to the art conservation field, mainly focusing on the use of amphiphile-based fluids, gels, and alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions for the cleaning of pictorial surfaces, the consolidation of artistic substrates, and the deacidification of paper, canvas, and wood. Future possible directions for solving several conservation issues that still need to be faced are also highlighted.

  16. Dual domain watermarking for authentication and compression of cultural heritage images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Campisi, Patrizio; Kundur, Deepa

    2004-03-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the combined image authentication and compression of color images by making use of a digital watermarking and data hiding framework. The digital watermark is comprised of two components: a soft-authenticator watermark for authentication and tamper assessment of the given image, and a chrominance watermark employed to improve the efficiency of compression. The multipurpose watermark is designed by exploiting the orthogonality of various domains used for authentication, color decomposition and watermark insertion. The approach is implemented as a DCT-DWT dual domain algorithm and is applied for the protection and compression of cultural heritage imagery. Analysis is provided to characterize the behavior of the scheme under ideal conditions. Simulations and comparisons of the proposed approach with state-of-the-art existing work demonstrate the potential of the overall scheme.

  17. ALS and TLS data fusion in cultural heritage documentation and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryskowska, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Delis, P.; Wojtkowska, M.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important aspects of documenting cultural heritage sites is acquiring detailed and accurate data. A popular method of storing 3D information about historical structures is using 3D models. These models are built based on terrestrial or aerial laser scanning data. These methods are seldom used together. Historical buildings usually have a very complex design, therefore the input data, on the basis of which their 3D models are being built, must provide a high enough accuracy to model these complexities. The data processing methods used, as well as the modeling algorithms implemented, should be highly automated and universal. The main of the presented research was to analyze and compare various methods for extracting matching points. The article presents the results of combining data from ALS and TLS using reference points extracted both manually and automatically. Finally, the publication also includes an analysis of the accuracy of the data merging process.

  18. Integration of active thermography into the assessment of cultural heritage buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierhofer, Christiane; Röllig, Mathias; Krankenhagen, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    Applications of infrared thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. Active infrared thermography methods enable structural investigations of building elements with one-sided access up to a depth of about 10 cm. Masonry and especially historical masonry has a very heterogeneous structure containing several different materials (brick, stone, mortar, plaster, wood, metal, etc.) with various thermal properties. As many classes of damage originate from defects that are close to the surface, active thermography is in general very well suited to assessing different test problems in cultural heritage buildings. In this paper, the physical background, equipment, environmental influences and material properties are discussed. Several application results are presented. It is shown how active thermography can be integrated into a holistic approach for the assessment of historical structures.

  19. Our Privilege and Co-responsibility in the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erreguerena, Pilar Luna

    2010-12-01

    Even if specialists in fields related to the underwater cultural heritage sometimes express their differences, or even think that their opposite positions are insurmountable, it is obvious that we all share the same concern regarding the preservation of this legacy. It is time to overcome egotistical attitudes that speak about ownership and dominium, and instead talk about co-responsibility. The 2001 UNESCO Convention is a helpful legal instrument and a two-way commitment that we, as professionals in the field, need to support. There is a difference between the empty promises of treasure hunters and the committed intentions and actions of researchers and managers. How can we respond to today's challenges? The key is cooperation.

  20. Semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage from airborne laser scanning using deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Due Trier, Øivind; Salberg, Arnt-Børre; Holger Pilø, Lars; Tonning, Christer; Marius Johansen, Hans; Aarsten, Dagrun

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes to use deep learning to improve semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. Automatic detection methods, based on traditional pattern recognition, have been applied in a number of cultural heritage mapping projects in Norway for the past five years. Automatic detection of pits and heaps have been combined with visual interpretation of the ALS data for the mapping of deer hunting systems, iron production sites, grave mounds and charcoal kilns. However, the performance of the automatic detection methods varies substantially between ALS datasets. For the mapping of deer hunting systems on flat gravel and sand sediment deposits, the automatic detection results were almost perfect. However, some false detections appeared in the terrain outside of the sediment deposits. These could be explained by other pit-like landscape features, like parts of river courses, spaces between boulders, and modern terrain modifications. However, these were easy to spot during visual interpretation, and the number of missed individual pitfall traps was still low. For the mapping of grave mounds, the automatic method produced a large number of false detections, reducing the usefulness of the semi-automatic approach. The mound structure is a very common natural terrain feature, and the grave mounds are less distinct in shape than the pitfall traps. Still, applying automatic mound detection on an entire municipality did lead to a new discovery of an Iron Age grave field with more than 15 individual mounds. Automatic mound detection also proved to be useful for a detailed re-mapping of Norway's largest Iron Age grave yard, which contains almost 1000 individual graves. Combined pit and mound detection has been applied to the mapping of more than 1000 charcoal kilns that were used by an iron work 350-200 years ago. The majority of charcoal kilns were indirectly detected as either pits on the circumference, a central mound, or both

  1. Study of free radicals in gamma irradiated cellulose of cultural heritage materials using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Rodrigues, Orlando, Jr.; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Santos, Paulo de Souza; Vasquez, Pablo A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Main subject of this article was to study room temperature stable radicals in Co-60 gamma irradiated contemporary paper using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer (EPR). XRD was used to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the morphology of book paper. SEM images presented regions with cellulose fibers and regions with particles agglomeration on the cellulose fibers. Those agglomerations were rich in calcium, observed by EDS. XRD analysis confirmed presence of calcium carbonate diffraction peaks. The main objective of this study was to propose a method using conventional kinetics chemical reactions for the observed radical formed by ionizing radiation. Therefore, further analyses were made to study the half-life and the kinetics of the free radical created. This method can be suitably applied to study radicals on cultural heritage objects.

  2. Surveying and Monitoring of Cultural Heritage: The Role of COSMO-SkyMed Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, Patrizia; Battagliere, Maria Libera; Daraio, Maria Girolamo; Coletta, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Early applications of SAR in archaeology date back to the 1980s and, although being mainly demonstrative experimentations, they enabled numerous important discoveries. With the development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi- polarization and high-resolution data, space radar remote sensing for archaeology has become a potential field for research. Although the archaeological detection capability of this technology has so far not been fully assessed, the advent of Very High Resolution (VHR) space borne SAR sensors, such as Italian COSMO- SkyMed, offered advanced mapping capability at high resolution for archaeology investigations. This paper aims to give an overview of the contribution provided by the COSMO-SkyMed mission in the framework of specific projects in which SAR X-band data have been exploited for the monitoring and the management of cultural and archeological heritage, showing some obtained results.

  3. The ICTP-Elettra X-ray laboratory for cultural heritage and archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuniz, C.; Bernardini, F.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Dreossi, D.; Gianoncelli, A.; Mancini, L.; Mendoza Cuevas, A.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Zanini, F.; Zanolli, C.

    2013-05-01

    A set of portable/transportable X-ray analytical instruments based on radiography, microtomography, fluorescence and diffraction have been built and are being operated at the Multidisciplinary Laboratory (MLAB) of the 'Abdus Salam' International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in collaboration with Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste. This is part of a project funded by the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) and the ICTP, which aims to develop innovative X-ray analytical tools for noninvasive studies of cultural heritage objects and palaeontological remains. The X-ray instruments at MLAB are also used for hands-on training activities involving students and scientists from developing countries. The MLAB analytical tools complement the microtomography instruments available at Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste. Examples of our first studies in archaeological and palaeontological applications are presented here.

  4. Nonlinear imaging techniques as non-destructive, high-resolution diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, G.; Tserevelakis, G. J.; Selimis, A.; Fotakis, C.

    2015-02-01

    Here, we present a review of the implementation of nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques such as second and third harmonic generation (SHG-THG) and multi-photon excitation fluorescence (MPEF), as high-resolution, non-invasive diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies. Specifically, the above nonlinear modalities are employed for the precise three-dimensional (3D) delineation of the protective layers bulk in model multilayer painting artworks. The high axial resolution thickness determination of protective layers through the use of THG imaging and the identification of the chemical composition of the artefacts via MPEF measurements are depicted. Furthermore, we reveal the potential of MPEF imaging measurements for the identification of the corrosion layers in silver-based artefacts. Finally, nonlinear modalities are employed for the assessment of the affected region and the obtainment of depth information during laser cleaning of polymeric coatings.

  5. Main geophysical techniques used for non-destructive evaluation in cultural built heritage: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinho, E.; Dionísio, A.

    2014-10-01

    Geophysical methodologies have been implemented, tested and validated as diagnostic and /or monitoring tools in artworks or historical monuments. They are non-destructive and can give an image of internal structure of investigated medium. This paper is a review about the main geophysical techniques applied to the study of cultural built heritage (excluding the archaeology field). A brief description of the used methodologies is presented, the main investigations done in this field are showed, the method or methods most appropriate to answer each problem (moisture detection, characterization of the materials, study of the structural continuity of the material, assessment of intervention’s effectiveness) are indicated and the main advances and gaps and future developments are also pointed out.

  6. A New Acquisition and Imaging System for Environmental Measurements: An Experience on the Italian Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Calogero, Andrea; Trinca, Daniele; di Pasquale, Stefano; Giarnetti, Sabino; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up. PMID:24859030

  7. A new acquisition and imaging system for environmental measurements: an experience on the Italian cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Calogero, Andrea; Trinca, Daniele; di Pasquale, Stefano; Giarnetti, Sabino; Cozzella, Lorenzo

    2014-05-23

    A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up.

  8. Picasso at the Nanoscale: The Art of Using Cutting-Edge Science to Understand Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Scientists are using high-energy X-ray instruments to solve mysteries behind art masterpieces, including artwork by Picasso. Learn how Argonne National Laboratory is working with major art institutions, such as The Art Institute of Chicago and Smithsonian Institute, to unlock groundbreaking information about art, the artist, and our cultural heritage. A deep connection to our past and shared cultural heritage must be preserved to foster a balanced society where all humanity can thrive. This talk will describe analysis of paint materials used by Pablo Picasso at the nanoscale, as only possible at the brightest synchrotron sources. It will highlight how new imaging techniques can reveal the invisible, bringing to light underlying compositions of old masters' paintings. This in turn enables the writing of new art history and provides important material clues that can assist with attribution and authentication. We will explain how the use of new technology can lead to new discoveries, which, in turn, can change the public's and the specialists' perception of great works of art. In collaboration with scientists from The Art Institute of Chicago we have teamed up to study the chemical make up of zinc oxide pigments used in artworks by Pablo Picasso. We will show how highly focused X-ray beams with nanoscale spatial resolution and trace element sensitivity have helped to determine that Picasso has used conventional house paint in some of his paintings. Surprisingly, the study gives also new insights into the pigment material zinc oxide, which has also great potential in a variety of applications such as in spintronics or as transparent electrodes in solar panels. Work at the Advanced Photon Source and the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract DEAC02-06CH11357.

  9. Perigee: Zero, a Unified Theory of Cultural Heritage and Geological History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davias, M. E.

    2006-05-01

    Perigee: Zero proposes a unified theory to solve enigmas haunting our cultural heritage and the Earth's geological history. We maintain the theory is simple and provable. We document the terraforming of the Earth by the cratering and accretive action of impacting comets and resulting ejecta, during events occurring at regular intervals over the past 15,000 years. Visual evidence of geomorphed landscape is presented using the perspective of high-resolution satellite imaging and DEM data. Correlation of these images with physical and historic evidence has proven supportive. Sections of the lithosphere have been lofted thousands of kilometers. Excised trenches have filled with water, or left as barren desert. Blankets of ejecta have overlain the continents and their inhabitants. The atmosphere was disrupted by the influx of dust and energy. Composed of hydrated silica, the comets have added a significant percentage of the water and unusually pure silicate (as sand and clay) now present on earth. Human history is immersed in these events. Oral and written works comprising much of the world's cultural heritage provide us with accounts of catastrophic damage visited upon Earth and its inhabitants. Those accounts describe mountains being moved, large expanses of the earth being swept clean - or replaced with open ocean, civilizations buried, years of darkness, the world flooded. Our forefathers invoked deities from the heavens, or perhaps giant kangaroos. We invoke impactors from the Taurid Complex, a simple and natural process, as most of its progenitor's mass may be missing. The damage to the earth is interpreted as the result of hundreds of grazing and nearly tangential impacts, suggesting decaying orbits of earth-captured cosmic bodies as a plausible solution. The events are seen occurring when the low point of the orbit -the perigee- reaches the earth's surface; in effect Perigee: Zero.

  10. Automatic Camera Calibration for Cultural Heritage Applications Using Unstructured Planar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, K.; Kalisperakis, I.; Grammatikopoulos, L.; Karras, G.; Petsa, E.

    2013-07-01

    As a rule, image-based documentation of cultural heritage relies today on ordinary digital cameras and commercial software. As such projects often involve researchers not familiar with photogrammetry, the question of camera calibration is important. Freely available open-source user-friendly software for automatic camera calibration, often based on simple 2D chess-board patterns, are an answer to the demand for simplicity and automation. However, such tools cannot respond to all requirements met in cultural heritage conservation regarding possible imaging distances and focal lengths. Here we investigate the practical possibility of camera calibration from unknown planar objects, i.e. any planar surface with adequate texture; we have focused on the example of urban walls covered with graffiti. Images are connected pair-wise with inter-image homographies, which are estimated automatically through a RANSAC-based approach after extracting and matching interest points with the SIFT operator. All valid points are identified on all images on which they appear. Provided that the image set includes a "fronto-parallel" view, inter-image homographies with this image are regarded as emulations of image-to-world homographies and allow computing initial estimates for the interior and exterior orientation elements. Following this initialization step, the estimates are introduced into a final self-calibrating bundle adjustment. Measures are taken to discard unsuitable images and verify object planarity. Results from practical experimentation indicate that this method may produce satisfactory results. The authors intend to incorporate the described approach into their freely available user-friendly software tool, which relies on chess-boards, to assist non-experts in their projects with image-based approaches.

  11. Efficient Use of Video for 3d Modelling of Cultural Heritage Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsadik, B.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is a rapid development in the techniques of the automated image based modelling (IBM), especially in advanced structure-from-motion (SFM) and dense image matching methods, and camera technology. One possibility is to use video imaging to create 3D reality based models of cultural heritage architectures and monuments. Practically, video imaging is much easier to apply when compared to still image shooting in IBM techniques because the latter needs a thorough planning and proficiency. However, one is faced with mainly three problems when video image sequences are used for highly detailed modelling and dimensional survey of cultural heritage objects. These problems are: the low resolution of video images, the need to process a large number of short baseline video images and blur effects due to camera shake on a significant number of images. In this research, the feasibility of using video images for efficient 3D modelling is investigated. A method is developed to find the minimal significant number of video images in terms of object coverage and blur effect. This reduction in video images is convenient to decrease the processing time and to create a reliable textured 3D model compared with models produced by still imaging. Two experiments for modelling a building and a monument are tested using a video image resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Internal and external validations of the produced models are applied to find out the final predicted accuracy and the model level of details. Related to the object complexity and video imaging resolution, the tests show an achievable average accuracy between 1 - 5 cm when using video imaging, which is suitable for visualization, virtual museums and low detailed documentation.

  12. Novel approach of signal normalization for depth profile of cultural heritage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvilay, D.; Detalle, V.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of cultural heritage materials is always complex and specific because unique. Materials are most often heterogeneous and organized in several layers such as mural paintings or corrosion products. The characterization of a complete artwork's stratigraphy is actually one of the questions of science conservation. Indeed, the knowledge of these layers allows completing the history of the work of art and a better understanding of alteration processes in order to set up an appropriate conservation action. The LIBS technique has been employed to study the stratigraphy of an artwork thanks to the ablation laser. However, as we know, atomic information could be insufficient to characterize two materials composed by the same based elements. Therefore, an additional molecular analysis, like Raman spectroscopy; is sometimes necessary for a better identification of the material in particular for organic coatings in cultural heritage. We suggest in this study to use Standard Normal Variate (SNV) as a common normalization for different kinds of spectra (LIBS and Raman spectroscopy) combined with a 3D colour representation for stratigraphic identification of the different layers composing the complex material from artwork. So in this investigation, the SNV method will be applied on LIBS and Raman spectra but also on baseline Raman spectra often considering as nuisance. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the versatility of SNV applied on varied spectra like LIBS, Raman spectra as well as the luminescence background. This original work considers the SNV with a 3D colour representation as a probable new perspective for an easy recognition of a structure layered with a direct overview of the depth profile of the artwork.

  13. Cultural heritage and archaeology materials studied by synchrotron spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Robinet, Laurianne; Thoury, Mathieu; Janssens, Koen; Cohen, Serge X.; Schöder, Sebastian

    2012-02-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation techniques to study cultural heritage and archaeological materials has undergone a steep increase over the past 10-15 years. The range of materials studied is very broad and encompasses painting materials, stone, glass, ceramics, metals, cellulosic and wooden materials, and a cluster of organic-based materials, in phase with the diversity observed at archaeological sites, museums, historical buildings, etc. Main areas of investigation are: (1) the study of the alteration and corrosion processes, for which the unique non-destructive speciation capabilities of X-ray absorption have proved very beneficial, (2) the understanding of the technologies and identification of the raw materials used to produce archaeological artefacts and art objects and, to a lesser extent, (3) the investigation of current or novel stabilisation, conservation and restoration practices. In terms of the synchrotron methods used, the main focus so far has been on X-ray techniques, primarily X-ray fluorescence, absorption and diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. We review here the use of these techniques from recent works published in the field demonstrating the breadth of applications and future potential offered by third generation synchrotron techniques. New developments in imaging and advanced spectroscopy, included in the UV/visible and IR ranges, could even broaden the variety of materials studied, in particular by fostering more studies on organic and complex organic-inorganic mixtures, while new support activities at synchrotron facilities might facilitate transfer of knowledge between synchrotron specialists and users from archaeology and cultural heritage sciences.

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on the Use of X-ray (and related) Techniques in Arts and Cultural Heritage (XTACH 11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Nasser; El-Khatib, Sami

    2012-07-01

    Restauration des Musees de France) introduced the Cultural Heritage Advanced Research Infrastructure (CHARISMA) website, highlighting some of its components such as ARCHLAB Infrastructures (for bibliographies), FIXLAB (for large instruments) and MOLAB (for mobile instruments). He explained that CHARISMA was for people working in Europe (or in associated countries). There was some discussion then about the need for a similar sort of network being established for the Middle East region. The proceedings contain peer reviewed papers presented at the conference. During the conference and in collaboration with the Sharjah Department of Culture and Information (Directorate of Antiquities), the American University of Sharjah organized an archaeology exhibition from the 30 November until the 10 December 2011. Special thanks go to Dr Sabah Jasim and Eisa Abbas from the Sharjah Directorate of Antiquities for facilitating this event. The exhibition included about 45 artifacts from different sites within Sharjah emirate, some of which dated as far back 7000 years ago. These artifacts included: flint arrowheads, pottery and alabaster vessels, metal objects including bronze arrowheads and coins, as well as carnelian bead necklaces. Also coinciding with the XTACH11 conference, the American University of Sharjah, in cooperation with The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the National X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory organized a regional training course from 3-8 December 2011. This covered a similar range of topics to those discussed at the XTACH11 conference. Participants of the course were trained in the use of physical and analytical techniques in cultural heritage. In addition to lectures from the National X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory and from the IAEA, the NXFL team provided the opportunity for trainees to undertake projects on ancient pottery samples, metal artifacts and Islamic manuscripts. The practical part of the course included experiments on XRF (portable, and micro XRF

  15. Comprehensive Plans for a Culture-Driven Local Development: Emergence as a Tool for Understanding Social Impacts of Projects on Built Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, Stefano Della; Canziani, Andrea

    Cultural Heritage is comprehensible within an integrated vision, involving economic, cultural and ethic values, typical of not renewable resources. It is an open system that doesn't correspond just to monuments but is made by the complex interactions of a built environment. The systemic relationships between cultural goods (object, building, landscape), and their environmental context have to be considered of the same importance of the systemic relations established with stakeholders/observers. A first partial answer to Cultural Heritage systemic nature has been the creation of "networks" of cultural institutions, that afterwards have been evolving in "cultural systems" and have been recently followed by "cultural districts". The Cultural District model put forward a precise application for the theory of emergence. But its systemic nature presents also some problematical identifications. For Cultural Heritage the point is not any more limited to "direct" actions. We must consider stakeholders/observers, feedback circuits, emergence of activation of social/cultural/human capital, more than that linked to the architectural design process.

  16. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    the mural surface patch model. For the degradation of the surface of the pigment layer, we use the patch model to simulate the scan obtained from an analysis. Statistics calculated relatively objective mural surface area from volume data, providing more accurate quantitative data for the mural conservation, especially, providing a viable technology for accurate monitoring of continued degradation. We believe, in order to make use of the three-dimensional laser scanning technology in a digital heritage conservation application, the technology should not only be used to record the object geometry and play a role in record keeping aspects, but, rather, should be used during the investigation to protect against targeted degradation and a more meaningful interpretation function. Like the development of the medical application of X-ray technology not only retains a picture, but more importantly, through this technical interpretation of patient pathology, guides doctors in carrying out the treatment work. Therefore, in the process of digitization of cultural heritage research, the focus should shift to the use of digital technology in the analysis of heritage object degradation and degradation monitoring surveys can promote the application of digital technology in the conservation of cultural heritage.

  17. Presenting Cultural Heritage Landscapes - from GIS via 3d Models to Interactive Presentation Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prechtel, N.; Münster, S.; Kröber, C.; Schubert, C.; Schietzold, S.

    2013-07-01

    Two current projects of the authors try to approach cultural heritage landscapes from both cultural sciences and geography through a combination of customised geo-information (GIS) and visualisation/presentation technology. In excess of a mere academic use, easyto- handle virtual 3D web presentations may contribute to knowledge, esteem, commemoration and preservation. The examples relate to pre-historic Scythian burial sites in the South-Siberian Altay Mountains ("Uch Enmek") as well as to a "virtual memorial" of contemporary history ("GEPAM"), a chapter of Jewish prosecution in the "Third Reich", which historically connects the town of Dresden with the Czech Terezin (Theresienstadt). It is common knowledge that a profound understanding of (pre-)historic artefacts and places may reflect a larger environment as well as an individual geographic setting. Coming from this background, the presented projects try to find technical solutions. They start from GIS models and aim at customised interactive presentations of 3D models. In using the latter a widely-spanned public is invited to a land- or townscape of specific cultural importance. The geographic space is thought to work as a door to a repository of educational exhibits under the umbrella of a web application. Within this concept a landscape/townscape also accounts for the time dimension in different scales (time of construction/operation versus actual state, and in sense of a season and time of the day as a principal modulator of visual perception of space).

  18. Hispanic Heritage Month

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hispanic-themed music and Salsa dance performances helped kick off the Johnson Space Center celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, commemorating the histories, cultures and contributions of Hispan...

  19. D Reconstruction and Visualization of Cultural Heritage: Analyzing Our Legacy Through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Muñoz-Nieto, A. L.; del Pozo, S.; Sanchez-Aparicio, L. J.; Gonzalez-Aguilera, D.; Micoli, L.; Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Guidi, G.; Mills, J.; Fieber, K.; Haynes, I.; Hejmanowska, B.

    2017-02-01

    Temporal analyses and multi-temporal 3D reconstruction are fundamental for the preservation and maintenance of all forms of Cultural Heritage (CH) and are the basis for decisions related to interventions and promotion. Introducing the fourth dimension of time into three-dimensional geometric modelling of real data allows the creation of a multi-temporal representation of a site. In this way, scholars from various disciplines (surveyors, geologists, archaeologists, architects, philologists, etc.) are provided with a new set of tools and working methods to support the study of the evolution of heritage sites, both to develop hypotheses about the past and to model likely future developments. The capacity to "see" the dynamic evolution of CH assets across different spatial scales (e.g. building, site, city or territory) compressed in diachronic model, affords the possibility to better understand the present status of CH according to its history. However, there are numerous challenges in order to carry out 4D modelling and the requisite multi-data source integration. It is necessary to identify the specifications, needs and requirements of the CH community to understand the required levels of 4D model information. In this way, it is possible to determine the optimum material and technologies to be utilised at different CH scales, as well as the data management and visualization requirements. This manuscript aims to provide a comprehensive approach for CH time-varying representations, analysis and visualization across different working scales and environments: rural landscape, urban landscape and architectural scales. Within this aim, the different available metric data sources are systemized and evaluated in terms of their suitability.

  20. Uncertainty quantification in structural health monitoring: Applications on cultural heritage buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzoni, Filippo; Casarin, Filippo; Caldon, Mauro; Islami, Kleidi; Modena, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of cultural heritage buildings and sites determined a growing interest in structural health monitoring (SHM) as a knowledge-based assessment tool to quantify and reduce uncertainties regarding their structural performance. Monitoring can be successfully implemented in some cases as an alternative to interventions or to control the medium- and long-term effectiveness of already applied strengthening solutions. The research group at the University of Padua, in collaboration with public administrations, has recently installed several SHM systems on heritage structures. The paper reports the application of monitoring strategies implemented to avoid (or at least minimize) the execution of strengthening interventions/repairs and control the response as long as a clear worsening or damaging process is detected. Two emblematic case studies are presented and discussed: the Roman Amphitheatre (Arena) of Verona and the Conegliano Cathedral. Both are excellent examples of on-going monitoring activities, performed through static and dynamic approaches in combination with automated procedures to extract meaningful structural features from collected data. In parallel to the application of innovative monitoring techniques, statistical models and data processing algorithms have been developed and applied in order to reduce uncertainties and exploit monitoring results for an effective assessment and protection of historical constructions. Processing software for SHM was implemented to perform the continuous real time treatment of static data and the identification of modal parameters based on the structural response to ambient vibrations. Statistical models were also developed to filter out the environmental effects and thermal cycles from the extracted features.

  1. Documentation, Multi-scale and Multi-dimensional Representation of Cultural Heritage for the Policies of Redevelopment, Development and Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Masi, A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes reading criteria for the documentation for important buildings in Milan, Italy, as a case study of the research on the integration of new technologies to obtain 3D multi-scale representation architectures. In addition, affords an overview of the actual optical 3D measurements sensors and techniques used for surveying, mapping, digital documentation and 3D modeling applications in the Cultural Heritage field. Today new opportunities for an integrated management of data are given by multiresolution models, that can be employed for different scale of representation. The goal of multi-scale representations is to provide several representations where each representation is adapted to a different information density with several degrees of detail. The Digital Representation Platform, along with the 3D City Model, are meant to be particularly useful to heritage managers who are developing recording, documentation, and information management strategies appropriate to territories, sites and monuments. Digital Representation Platform and 3D City Model are central activities in a the decision-making process for heritage conservation management and several urban related problems. This research investigates the integration of the different level-of-detail of a 3D City Model into one consistent 4D data model with the creation of level-of-detail using algorithms from a GIS perspective. In particular, such project is based on open source smart systems, and conceptualizes a personalized and contextualized exploration of the Cultural Heritage through an experiential analysis of the territory.

  2. Risk evaluation focused on the valorization and management of cultural underground heritages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qeraxhiu, Lydra; Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Around the present and old coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the outcropping of soft calcareous and arenaceous stones (calcareous tuffs, encroutement calcaires, etc.) favoured the establishment and development of rupestrian civilizations. In many areas, these settlements raise a particular significance under anthropological and artistic point of view, such as the Matera "Sassi", an Italian UNESCO World Heritage site. A number of cultural heritages remnants, consisting of rupestrian establishments which have artistic and cultural significance, are diffused on the Gravine and on the Lame (local name of major and minor canyons) of the Murgia flanks (Southern Italy). It is required to preserve these cultural assets, even having such an objective, a new use of them with exhibition purposes. The most common environment on which are found these settlements are the slopes of the Gravine, carved into calcarenites. Despite to its excellent characteristic (good resistance coupled with an excellent workability), calcarenite is subject to decay for the negative interaction with the water of capillary or hygroscopic absorption. The absorbed water by the rock interacts with each of its three phases, clastic or bioclastic granules of calcium carbonate, matrix and cement, but in particular with the carbonate cement which determine, in function of its concentration, dissolution or precipitation processes with synchronous effects on the technical properties of the rock. Therefore the structural weakening of the calcarenite leads to the possibility of brittle fracture of statically relevant parts of naturally or artificially carved mass, often in contexts where the actual geometry and the perception of risk cannot be properly evaluated. The fragility of the contexts, where the excavated continues with parts constructed with the same materials, leads to disastrous evolutions of the same in case of failure. Recent studies on the underground cavities have allowed an assessment of

  3. Iniciativa de ley federal del patrimonio cultural de la nacion (Draft of Federal Law for the Cultural Heritage of the Nation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the draft of a law for the preservation of Mexican national heritage, particularly for the protection, conservation, and recuperation of cultural objects. The document consists of twelve chapters and six articles. Chapter 1 declares the protection, conservation,…

  4. The problem of sampling on built heritage: a preliminary study of a new non-invasive method.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Isca, C; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Casoli, A; Olazabal, M A; Arana, G; Madariaga, J M

    2014-11-01

    The relevance of a risk assessment of the built heritage was clearly justified due to the fact that it acts as a pollutant repository and hazardous pollutants have the capacity to penetrate into materials. However, the limitation of the sampling processes due to the high value of the built heritage makes a correct evaluation difficult. For that reason, in the present work, the potential of agar gels as non-invasive samplers of built heritage deterioration products, like crusts and patinas, was evaluated. Different gels of agar and Carbopol® (as control gel) were applied on these built surfaces considering several factors: the treatment time, the effectiveness of the addition of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, C10H16N2O8) and its concentration and the use of a buffer at pH 7.5. All these factors were evaluated in order to determine the capacity of these gels as sampling systems under non-controlled atmospheric conditions. The results obtained in the assays were evaluated by visual examination, by evolution of pH and by the most important techniques used in the risk assessment analysis of the built heritage (Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)). In this evaluation, the agar gels showed an intrinsic capacity as sampler with respect to the gel Carbopol® and thus, the best option between the studied gels consisted on agar gels with 2 % of EDTA and the longest application time. On the whole, the agar gels showed an interesting potential as non-invasive samplers of built heritage deterioration materials which should be studied more in depth.

  5. Along Silk Road: Earth observation and ICT for Cultural Heritage from Italian and Chinese perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Chen, Fulong; Feng, Dexian; Gabellone, Francesco; Lasaponara, Rosa; Yang, Ruixia

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the bilateral scientific cooperation programme between Italy and China a project financed by Italian of Ministry Affairs on Earth Observation and ICT for cultural heritage has been starting since 2013 with the participation of researchers of two Italian institutes of CNR, IBAM and IMAA, and of Centre for Earth Observation and Digital Earth of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The aims of this project is to achieve advances in knowledge, methods and technologies to support a smart management of cultural sites which require constant monitoring activities to preserve their integrity by means of synergic Italian-Chinese research activities, training and exchanges of working experience in the field of remote sensing, geophysics, virtual reality and geomatics applied to Cultural Heritage. During the three years of the project, a number of case studies in China and in Italy will represent the test areas to implement in a synergic way different remote sensing approaches from space-borne to airborne remote sensing (Lasaponara and Masini 2011, 2013; Masini and Lasaponara 2013), including UAV, up to geophysics and terrestrial survey methods with different aims, from site discovery to monitoring and management of cultural sites. The paper shows the preliminary results of three case studies in China. One is Luoyang in the western Henan province, located at the intersection of the Luo and Yi rivers, an area that was once considered the center of China. For this reason its territory more times hosted the capital during different dynasties. The first was built on 2070 BCE, during the Xia Dynasty. Another capital of Eastern Han Dynasty was found in 25 AD by Emperor Guangwu of Han. During the Eastern Han Dynasty Luoyang was the most important town of China, from the political, religious and cultural point of view. A few architectural monuments of this period are preserved, among them the White Horse Temple, built on preexisting structures of the first Buddhist temple

  6. Advantages and limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling for cultural heritage management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beer, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Developments in collection and digitisation of geoarchaeological data now allow geoscientists to develop meaningful 3D spatial models of the subsurface. Geological models of the subsurface have been constructed for regional (urban) areas to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning on a regional scale. Risk assessment at the smaller scale of archaeological sites, for example for in-situ preservation, not only requires delimitation of cultural deposits with respect to natural geological formations, but also systematic collection, interpretation and visualisation of intra-formational geoarchaeological information. The Norwegian Standard for archaeological monitoring of cultural deposits (2009) provides the framework for systematic data collection, interpretation and monitoring over time. It enables an objective evaluation of variations between e.g. preservation state and environmental preservation conditions, a.o. based on soil moisture content, groundwater level and quality variations, and temperature variations within cultural deposits. The standard allows comparison of conditions both within and between archaeological sites. The inclusion of this monitoring data within a geological model of the site results in an integrated geoarchaeological model that can be used for both ground prediction and risk assessment with respect to for example in-situ preservation. However, archaeological sites and their surroundings, particularly in urban areas, are often characterised by large heterogeneities and a complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic deposits. At a certain level of complexity and spatial scale, modelling efforts will go beyond the advantages that can be gained. This presentation examines the advantages and the limitations of three-dimensional geological modelling at small scale urban archaeological sites for cultural heritage management.

  7. Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for cultural heritage management: state of art and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Recently, the interest on THz technology is also growing up thanks to the development of flexible and compact commercial systems having source and detector probes coupled by means of optical fiber cables and that do not require complex optical alignments. These features allow us to reconfigure the measurement configuration easily; thus transmission, normal reflection and oblique reflection data can be collected according to the constrains and objective of the survey to be performed. Moreover, they open the way to on field applications. An example of last generation THz systems is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) marketed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment. Such a system is designed to perform both transmission and reflection spectroscopy and imaging measurements in the range from 60GHz to 3THz; with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz. A review of the literature assessing potentialities and open challenges of THz spectroscopy and imaging in the frame of cultural heritage preservation will be provided at the conferences, with a specific focus on the diagnostic capabilities of last generation systems. REFERENCES [1] K. Fukunaga, I. Hosako, Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology, C. R. Physique, vol. 11, pp.519-526, 2010. [2] G.Fillippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E.J. Gualda, J.M. Manceau, S. Tzortzakis, Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of Cultural Heritage, Appl. Phys. A, vol.106, pp.257-263, 2012.

  8. Mapping geodiversity and cultural heritage; a case study: Aït Bou Oulli valley in central High-Atlas, Morocco.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzekraoui, Hicham; Barakat, Ahmed; El Youssi, Mohammed; El Khalki, Yahia; Hafid, Abdelatif; Mouaddine, Atika

    2016-04-01

    Central High-Atlas mountain in the centre of Morocco, contains an exceptional geodiversity. Some geomorphological and geological objects of it are included and protected recently by the World Heritage list. The valley of Aït Bou Oulli is located in the heart of the Moroccan central High-Atlas, whose height is 4068 m in Ighil M'goun and 3800 m in Rat Mountain. The mountain areas are characterized by higher geodiversity in comparison with other areas. The valley possesses a geological and geomorphological heritage which is very rich, much diversified and exceptional landscapes of high mountains. It is part of geopark M'Goun; the valley attracts a number of tourists every year. However, this number remains restricted because of the lack of the tools of promotion, valuation and mediation of this geoheritage. Moreover, the touristic infrastructure is modest. Regarding this situation, the geotouristic map appears as a tool of promotion of the geotourism and diversification of the regional and national tourist product. This work aims at elaborating new maps of geomorphosites, cultural sites, and geomonuments in high Mountain landscapes of the valley, suggested in geotourism circuits. The first results reveal the low exploitation of the geodiversity of this valley-oasis: the spectacular waterfalls, water sources, canyons, glacial cirques and U-shaped valleys, superficial karstic forms (sinkholes and swallow-holes), high-Atlas peaks and cliffs, spectacular scree slopes, badlands landscapes, fairy chimneys, and the geological history dating back to the Paleozoic and angular unconformity. In addition, the valley has diverse tangible cultural heritage spanning hundreds of years such as the enigmatic rock engravings (dating from 2000 to 3000 years), troglodyte caves and terraced agriculture landscapes, geomonuments (old cooperative storage, Kasbah, traditional water mills) and the architecture of the villages. It has also an intangible cultural heritage such as folklore. This

  9. Curricular Perspectives in the Heritage Language Context: Assessing Culture and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara; Ducar, Cynthia; Relano-Pastor, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Spanish heritage language (SHL) programmes in post-secondary institutions must continue to redesign their curricula to accommodate the needs of a growing Latino population with a broad range of bilingual competencies. Despite the proliferation of research in heritage languages, pedagogically based research that incorporates students' voices is…

  10. Melding the Old with the New: Trends in Methods Used to Identify, Monitor, and Control Microorganisms on Cultural Heritage Materials.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, Patricia; DeAraujo, Alice; Vasanthakumar, Archana

    2016-04-27

    Microbial activity has an important impact on the maintenance of cultural heritage materials, owing to the key role of microorganisms in many deterioration processes. In order to minimize such deleterious effects, there is a need to fine-tune methods that detect and characterize microorganisms. Trends in microbiology indicate that this need can be met by incorporating modern techniques. All of the methods considered in this review paper are employed in the identification, surveillance, and control of microorganisms, and they have two points in common: They are currently used in microbial ecology (only literature from 2009 to 2015 is included), and they are often applied in the cultural heritage sector. More than 75 peer-reviewed journal articles addressing three different approaches were considered: molecular, sensory and morphological, and biocontrol methods. The goal of this review is to highlight the usefulness of the traditional as well as the modern methods. The general theme in the literature cited suggests using an integrated approach.

  11. Comparison between traditional laboratory tests, permeability measurements and CT-based fluid flow modelling for cultural heritage applications.

    PubMed

    De Boever, Wesley; Bultreys, Tom; Derluyn, Hannelore; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the possibility to use on-site permeability measurements for cultural heritage applications as an alternative for traditional laboratory tests such as determination of the capillary absorption coefficient. These on-site measurements, performed with a portable air permeameter, were correlated with the pore network properties of eight sandstones and one granular limestone that are discussed in this paper. The network properties of the 9 materials tested in this study were obtained from micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared to measurements and calculations of permeability and the capillary absorption rate of the stones under investigation, in order to find the correlation between pore network characteristics and fluid management characteristics of these sandstones. Results show a good correlation between capillary absorption, permeability and network properties, opening the possibility of using on-site permeability measurements as a standard method in cultural heritage applications.

  12. Towards Optimal Spectral and Spatial Documentation of Cultural Heritage. Cosch - AN Interdisciplinary Action in the Cost Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boochs, F.; Bentkowska-Kafel, A.; Degringy, C.; Hautta-Kasari, M.; Rizvic, S.; Sitnik, R.; Tremeau, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the aims and early activities of Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH), an interdisciplinary European network of experts in the latest optical measuring techniques and electronic imaging applied to documentation of artefacts. COSCH is a forum open to organisations, institutions and companies interested in collaboration within the emerging field of precise spectral and spatial imaging techniques, in physical and chemical sciences applied to cultural heritage objects, as well as in research and applications to conservation and art-historical analysis of such objects. COSCH started in November 2012. Funded by COST, an intergovernmental framework for European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COSCH networking activities enable knowledge exchange and coordination of nationally-funded research on a European level with occasional contribution of experts from other countries. Funding has been made available for four years (2012-2016). Participation is open to researchers across a wide range of disciplines, including computer scientists and museum professionals, art historians and academics in heritage-related fields. COSCH is a trans-domain Action (TD1201) of the COST Domain Materials, Physics and Nanosciences (MPNS) which facilitates and promotes innovation in material science. The work of COSCH is defined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the COST Office and the Chairman of COSCH. The Memorandum is available from http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/mpns/Actions/TD1201 alongside the latest progress report and other documents. The scientific work draws on earlier and current research of the participants and is organised around the following areas: spectral and spatial object documentation; algorithms and procedures; analysis and restoration of surfaces and objects of material culture; visualisation of cultural heritage objects and its dissemination

  13. DNP-enhanced ultrawideline (207)Pb solid-state NMR spectroscopy: an application to cultural heritage science.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Perras, Frédéric A; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Catalano, Jaclyn; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Pruski, Marek

    2017-03-14

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is used to enhance the (ultra)wideline (207)Pb solid-state NMR spectra of lead compounds of relevance in the preservation of cultural heritage objects. The DNP SSNMR experiments enabled, for the first time, the detection of the basic lead carbonate phase of the lead white pigment by (207)Pb SSNMR spectroscopy. Variable-temperature experiments revealed that the short T'2 relaxation time of the basic lead carbonate phase hinders the acquisition of the NMR signal at room temperature. We additionally observe that the DNP enhancement is twice as large for lead palmitate (a lead soap, which is a degradation product implicated in the visible deterioration of lead-based oil paintings), than it is for the basic lead carbonate. This enhancement has allowed us to detect the formation of a lead soap in an aged paint film by (207)Pb SSNMR spectroscopy; which may aid in the detection of deterioration products in smaller samples removed from works of art.

  14. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-14

    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection.

  15. Recent applications and current trends in Cultural Heritage Science using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Marine; Dumas, Paul; Taniguchi, Yoko; Checroun, Emilie; Walter, Philippe; Susini, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) is one of the emerging techniques increasingly employed for Cultural Heritage analytical science. Such a technique combines the assets of FTIR spectroscopy (namely, the identification of molecular groups in various environments: organic/inorganic, crystallized/amorphous, solid/liquid/gas), with the extra potential of chemical imaging (localization of components + easier data treatment thanks to geographical correlations) and the properties of the synchrotron source (namely, high brightness, offering high data quality even with reduced dwell time and reduced spot size). This technique can be applied to nearly all kind of materials found in museum objects, going from hard materials, like metals, to soft materials, like paper, and passing through hybrid materials such as paintings and bones. The purpose is usually the identification of complex compositions in tiny, heterogeneous samples. Recent applications are reviewed in this article, together with the fundamental aspects of the infrared synchrotron source which are leading to such improvements in analytical capabilities. A recent example from the ancient Buddhist paintings from Bamiyan is detailed. Emphasis is made on the true potential offered at such large scale facilities in combining SR-FTIR microscopy with other synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques. To cite this article: M. Cotte et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  16. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-01

    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection.

  17. Innovative systems for cultural heritage conservation. Millimeter wave application for non-invasive monitoring and treatment of works of art.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Bisceglia; De Leo, Roberto; Pastore, Anna Pia; von Gratowski, Svetlana; Meriakri, Viatcheslav

    2011-01-01

    A novel non invasive technique and a suitable apparatus for disinfestation of artworks is introduced. Non destructive and non invasive techniques are often irreplaceable in order to preserve and restore cultural heritage objects in its structure and shape. Although many techniques are available for art and archaeological works the non invasive methods are preferred as they leave the object untouched after treatment. Environmental parameters, such as humidity, can damage culture heritage objects and also results in spring up variety of pests and other micro-organisms. Non-invasive monitoring of these damage and also disinfestation treatments and drying with help of electromagnetic waves are preferred as they keep the object untouched after treatment. Application of millimeter waves for solving this problem is discussed here. Millimeter waves have high spatial resolution and absorption in water as well as in bio-objects that are usually moist and at the same time minimal interaction with dry culture heritage objects by itself. Different phases of the microwaves treatment (MW) of artworks are described, some results are shown and discussed. Many biological forms don't survive over a certain temperature, called lethal temperature which, for most xylophages is about 53-55 degrees C, while for moulds and funguses is between 65 and 70 degrees C. In order to evaluate the management of disinfestation of works of art, incident power, temperature, exposure time were monitored. The monitoring of temperature is essential in order to prevent damages. A computer simulation allows to predict and monitor the heating process.

  18. From Point Cloud to Bim: a Modelling Challenge in the Cultural Heritage Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, C.; Achille, C.; Fassi, F.

    2016-06-01

    Speaking about modelling the Cultural Heritage, nowadays it is no longer enough to build the mute model of a monument, but it has to contain plenty of information inside it, especially when we refer to existing construction. For this reason, the aim of the research is to insert an historical building inside a BIM process, proposing in this way a working method that can build a reality based model and preserve the unicity of the elements. The question is: "What is the more useful mean in term of survey data management, level of detail, information and time savings?" To test the potentialities and the limits of this process we employed the most used software in the international market, taking as example some composed elements, made by regular and complex, but also modular parts. Once a final model is obtained, it is necessary to provide a test phase on the interoperability between the used software modules, in order to give a general picture of the state of art and to contribute to further studies on this subject.

  19. Carbon nanostructured materials for applications in nano-medicine, cultural heritage, and electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Valentini, F; Carbone, M; Palleschi, G

    2013-01-01

    This review covers applications of pristine and functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in nano-medicine, cultural heritage, and biosensors. The physicochemical properties of these engineered nanoparticles are similar to those of ultrafine components of airborne pollution (UF) and might have similar adverse effects. UF may impair cardiovascular autonomic control (inducing a high-risk condition for adverse cardiovascular effects), cause mammalian embryo toxicity, and increase geno-cytotoxic risk. SWCNTs coated with a biopolymer, for example polyethylenimine (PEI), become extremely biocompatible, hence are useful for in-vivo and in-vitro drug delivery and gene transfection. It is also possible to successfully immobilize a human enteric virus on PEI/SWCNT composites, suggesting application as a carrier in non-permissive media. The effectiveness of carbon nanostructured materials in the cleaning, restoration, and consolidation of deteriorated historical surfaces has been widely shown by the use of carbon nanomicelles to remove black dendritic crust from stone surfaces. The nanomicelles, here, have the twofold role of delivery and controlled release of the cleaning agents. The high biocompatibility of functionalized SWCNTs with enzymes and proteins is a fundamental feature used in the assembly of electrochemical biosensors. In particular, a third-generation protoporphyrin IX-based biosensor has been assembled for amperometric detection of nitrite, an environmental pollutant involved in the biodeterioration and black encrustation of historical surfaces.

  20. Automated Voxel Model from Point Clouds for Structural Analysis of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Castellazzi, G.; D'Altri, A. M.; De Miranda, S.; Lambertini, A.; Selvaggi, I.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of cultural heritage, an accurate and comprehensive digital survey of a historical building is today essential in order to measure its geometry in detail for documentation or restoration purposes, for supporting special studies regarding materials and constructive characteristics, and finally for structural analysis. Some proven geomatic techniques, such as photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning, are increasingly used to survey buildings with different complexity and dimensions; one typical product is in form of point clouds. We developed a semi-automatic procedure to convert point clouds, acquired from laserscan or digital photogrammetry, to a filled volume model of the whole structure. The filled volume model, in a voxel format, can be useful for further analysis and also for the generation of a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the surveyed building. In this paper a new approach is presented with the aim to decrease operator intervention in the workflow and obtain a better description of the structure. In order to achieve this result a voxel model with variable resolution is produced. Different parameters are compared and different steps of the procedure are tested and validated in the case study of the North tower of the San Felice sul Panaro Fortress, a monumental historical building located in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena, Italy) that was hit by an earthquake in 2012.

  1. The Survey of Cultural Heritage after AN Earthquake: the Case of Emilia-Lombardia in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, A.; Chiarini, S.; Cremonesi, S.; Fregonese, L.; Taffurelli, L.; Valente, M. V.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years many earthquakes hit Italy and its Cultural Heritage. The topic of survey of buildings damaged by seismic events and their interpretation has become very relevant and involved many research groups and Italian Civil Protection. The damage survey has different roles: in the first stage, immediately after the emergency, the documentation is necessary for the shoring and protection of damaged structures (AEDES forms of Civil Protection). The aim of the second stage is the study and the documentation for the restoration, reconstruction and retrofitting of buildings. In this context, this study presents methods and instruments used in the survey of 24 churches in the province of Mantua, Lombardy, after the 2012 earthquake sequence. The paper examines the difficulties in surveying damaged buildings and presents the classification used to define, time by time, the most suitable survey approach in the field of Geomatics. In this classification, many aspects are taken into account, such as logistical and practical problems, safety conditions, time preserving methods, economic decisions, complexity of building and required results. The accurate documentation obtained as a three-dimensional architectural database allows for the observation and analysis of the damage, the definition of interpretative models and the development of intervention projects. Different results are obtained from the point cloud database: traditional 2D representations for architectural projects as well as 3D models for structural analysis or for the development of BIM.

  2. A New Dusts Sensor for Cultural Heritage Applications Based on Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Andrea; Leccese, Fabio; Caciotta, Maurizio; Morresi, Fabio; Santamaria, Ulderico; Malomo, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new sensor for the detection and analysis of dusts (seen as powders and fibers) in indoor environments, especially designed for applications in the field of Cultural Heritage or in other contexts where the presence of dust requires special care (surgery, clean rooms, etc.). The presented system relies on image processing techniques (enhancement, noise reduction, segmentation, metrics analysis) and it allows obtaining both qualitative and quantitative information on the accumulation of dust. This information aims to identify the geometric and topological features of the elements of the deposit. The curators can use this information in order to design suitable prevention and maintenance actions for objects and environments. The sensor consists of simple and relatively cheap tools, based on a high-resolution image acquisition system, a preprocessing software to improve the captured image and an analysis algorithm for the feature extraction and the classification of the elements of the dust deposit. We carried out some tests in order to validate the system operation. These tests were performed within the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Museums, showing the good performance of the proposed sensor in terms of execution time and classification accuracy. PMID:24901977

  3. Four-dimensional reconstruction of cultural heritage sites based on photogrammetry and clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulodimos, Athanasios; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Fritsch, Dieter; Makantasis, Konstantinos; Doulamis, Anastasios; Klein, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A system designed and developed for the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of cultural heritage (CH) assets is presented. Two basic approaches are presented. The first one, resulting in an "approximate" 3-D model, uses images retrieved in online multimedia collections; it employs a clustering-based technique to perform content-based filtering and eliminate outliers that significantly reduce the performance of 3-D reconstruction frameworks. The second one is based on input image data acquired through terrestrial laser scanning, as well as close range and airborne photogrammetry; it follows a sophisticated multistep strategy, which leads to a "precise" 3-D model. Furthermore, the concept of change history maps is proposed to address the computational limitations involved in four-dimensional (4-D) modeling, i.e., capturing 3-D models of a CH landmark or site at different time instances. The system also comprises a presentation viewer, which manages the display of the multifaceted CH content collected and created. The described methods have been successfully applied and evaluated in challenging real-world scenarios, including the 4-D reconstruction of the historic Market Square of the German city of Calw in the context of the 4-D-CH-World EU project.

  4. Interactions between nanostructured calcium hydroxide and acrylate copolymers: implications in cultural heritage conservation.

    PubMed

    Carretti, Emiliano; Chelazzi, David; Rocchigiani, Giulia; Baglioni, Piero; Poggi, Giovanna; Dei, Luigi

    2013-08-06

    The interactions between an acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly(EMA/MA), and Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles were investigated in order to establish the reciprocal influence of these two compounds on their peculiar properties. The carbonation kinetics of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles by atmospheric CO2 was investigated by FTIR and SEM measurements and compared to that of a nanocomposite film. CaCO3 formation occurred even in the presence of the copolymer, but only after an induction period of ca. 200 h and with a lower reaction rate. Some implications in cultural heritage conservation dealing with application of nanolime on artifacts previously treated with acrylic copolymers were discussed. Contact angle measurements, mechanical cohesion properties, and water vapor permeability allowed us to conclude that the optimum behavior of nanolime with respect to transpiration was not compromised by the presence of the copolymer, and the behavior in terms of mechanical properties recovery by the application of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles remained excellent even in the presence of poly(EMA/MA).

  5. Combined Neutron and X-ray Imaging for Non-invasive Investigations of Cultural Heritage Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannes, D.; Schmid, F.; Frey, J.; Schmidt-Ott, K.; Lehmann, E.

    The combined utilization of neutron and X-ray imaging for non-invasive investigations of cultural heritage objects is demonstrated on the example of a short sword found a few years ago in lake Zug, Switzerland. After conservation treatments carried out at the Swiss National Museum the sword was examined at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (CH), by means of neutron and X-ray computer tomography (CT). The two types of radiation show different interaction behavior with matter, which makes the two methods complementary. While X-rays show a strong correlation of the attenuation with the atomic number, neutrons demonstrate a high sensitivity for some light elements, such as Hydrogen and thus organic material, while some heavy elements (such as Lead) show high penetrability. The examined object is a composite of metal and organic material, which makes it an ideal example to show the complementarity of the two methods as it features materials, which are rather transparent for one type of radiation, while yielding at the same time high contrast for the other. Only the combination of the two methods made an exhaustive examination of the object possible and allowed to rebuild an accurate replica of the sword.

  6. An Experience in Cultural Heritage Documentation in Iran Using a Low-Cost Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, F.; Rafiee, M.

    2013-07-01

    Today, the need for preservation of cultural heritage as an important, irreplaceable resource for human is well recognized. In this regard, prior to any conservational measure, detailed documentation and recording of these precious resources should be performed; since this way, not only preservation requirements of the object will be identified, but also the existing condition will be recorded for future generations. Accordingly, since Iran is known as an ancient land possesses valuable historic resources, and due the numerousness of Iran's monuments and the high possibility of occurring natural disasters which are counted as significant threats for the monuments, the necessity of fast and appropriate documentation in this country will be clarified. This paper is in fact a part of the project entitled "Study of the application of digital technologies in recording and rehabilitation of historic buildings" in Iran. Here, the surveying process of aforesaid project's case study which is one of the two Kharraqan Tomb Towers placed in Qazvin province of Iran, using close range photogrammetry and low cost equipment will be demonstrated.

  7. Cultural Heritage: An example of graphical documentation with automated photogrammetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    In the field of Cultural Heritage, the use of automated photogrammetric systems, based on Structure from Motion techniques (SfM), is widely used, in particular for the study and for the documentation of the ancient ruins. This work has been carried out during the PhD cycle that was produced the "Carta Archeologica del territorio intorno al monte Massico". The study suggests the archeological documentation of the mausoleum "Torre del Ballerino" placed in the south-west area of Falciano del Massico, along the Via Appia. The graphic documentation has been achieved by using photogrammetric system (Image Based Modeling) and by the classical survey with total station, Nikon Nivo C. The data acquisition was carried out through digital camera Canon EOS 5D Mark II with Canon EF 17-40 mm f/4L USM @ 20 mm with images snapped in RAW and corrected in Adobe Lightroom. During the data processing, the camera calibration and orientation was carried out by the software Agisoft Photoscans and the final result has allowed to achieve a scaled 3D model of the monument, imported in software MeshLab for the different view. Three orthophotos in jpg format were extracted by the model, and then were imported in AutoCAD obtaining façade's surveys.

  8. Landslide Monitoring and Cultural Heritage At Risk: The Case Study of San Miniato Hill In Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, G.; Casagli, N.; Delmonaco, G.; Fanti, R.; Focardi, P.; Margottini, C.

    San Miniato (known also as Monte alle Croci or Mons Florentinus) is the most fa- mous hill bordering the southern side of the historic center of Florence. Included in the SColli FiorentiniT (Florentine hills) overlooking the monuments and artworks of Flo- & cedil;rence, San Miniato provides a wonderful view of the city. The hillside has always been affected by slope instability phenomena, with periodical reactivations documented in several historic records. Most of the monuments and artworks located on the hill are cracked and fissured and have required restoration works in various circumstances in the centuries after their construction. The first documented studies on the stability of the hill were carried out by Leonardo da Vinci in the XV century and subsequently by various commissions appointed for the restoration works. During the XX century the hill was many times monitored with geotechnical instrumentation and some investiga- tions are still in progress today. This work concerns a review of these historical studies on slope instability and the interpretation of past and present monitoring results. An analytical review of the existing data is a necessary condition for the proposal of a reliable hypothesis concerning the slope instability characterization. This is made dif- ficult by the pluri-centenary urbanization of the entire hill which has led to the almost complete obliteration of the evidence of past movements and by the relevant presence of an invaluable artistic and cultural heritage.

  9. Underwater reflectance transformation imaging: a technology for in situ underwater cultural heritage object-level recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmo, David; Sturt, Fraser; Miles, James; Basford, Philip; Malzbender, Tom; Martinez, Kirk; Thompson, Charlie; Earl, Graeme; Bevan, George

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for high-resolution recording of in situ underwater cultural heritage. Reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) has a proven track record in terrestrial contexts for acquiring high-resolution diagnostic data at small scales. The research presented here documents the first adaptation of RTI protocols to the subaquatic environment, with a scuba-deployable method designed around affordable off-the-shelf technologies. Underwater RTI (URTI) was used to capture detail from historic shipwrecks in both the Solent and the western Mediterranean. Results show that URTI can capture submillimeter levels of qualitative diagnostic detail from in situ archaeological material. In addition, this paper presents the results of experiments to explore the impact of turbidity on URTI. For this purpose, a prototype fixed-lighting semisubmersible RTI photography dome was constructed to allow collection of data under controlled conditions. The signal-to-noise data generated reveals that the RGB channels of underwater digital images captured in progressive turbidity degraded faster than URTI object geometry calculated from them. URTI is shown to be capable of providing analytically useful object-level detail in conditions that would render ordinary underwater photography of limited use.

  10. Routing Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks for Health Monitoring of a Cultural Heritage Site

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Sofía; Martínez-Garrido, María I.; Ranz, Javier; Fort, Rafael; Izquierdo, Miguel Ángel G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of tree and mesh routing topologies of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a cultural heritage site. The historical site selected was San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). We report the preliminary analysis required to study the effects of heating in this historical location using WSNs to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions during periods of weeks. To test which routing topology was better for this kind of application, the WSNs were first deployed on the upper floor of the CAEND institute in Arganda del Rey simulating the church deployment, but in the former scenario there was no direct line of sight between the WSN elements. Two parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of the routing topologies of WSNs: the percentage of received messages and the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. To analyze in more detail which topology gave the best performance, other communication parameters were also measured. The tree topology used was the collection tree protocol and the mesh topology was the XMESH provided by MEMSIC (Andover, MA, USA). For the scenarios presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the tree topology lost fewer messages than the mesh topology. PMID:27775571

  11. Routing Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks for Health Monitoring of a Cultural Heritage Site.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Sofía; Martínez-Garrido, María I; Ranz, Javier; Fort, Rafael; Izquierdo, Miguel Ángel G

    2016-10-19

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of tree and mesh routing topologies of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a cultural heritage site. The historical site selected was San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). We report the preliminary analysis required to study the effects of heating in this historical location using WSNs to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions during periods of weeks. To test which routing topology was better for this kind of application, the WSNs were first deployed on the upper floor of the CAEND institute in Arganda del Rey simulating the church deployment, but in the former scenario there was no direct line of sight between the WSN elements. Two parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of the routing topologies of WSNs: the percentage of received messages and the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. To analyze in more detail which topology gave the best performance, other communication parameters were also measured. The tree topology used was the collection tree protocol and the mesh topology was the XMESH provided by MEMSIC (Andover, MA, USA). For the scenarios presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the tree topology lost fewer messages than the mesh topology.

  12. The Application of Gpr To The Estimation of Rock Fall Hazard To Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, K.-H.; Chwatal, W.; Brückl, E.

    The old town of Salzburg (Austria) belongs to the world cultural heritage. Several historic buildings are situated at the toe of steep rock walls and are threatened by con- siderable hazard of rock fall. The rock wall of the "Mönchsberg" (consisting of con- glomerate) in the old town of Salzburg was investigated by GPR (ground penetrating radar) along 39 profiles, covering an area of 3500m2, in order to detect discontinuities relevant for the development of rock falls. The topography of the rock wall was accu- rately mapped by photogrammetric methods. In fact a coherent discontinuity with an extent of about 350m2 was found. This discontinuity was correlated with a bulge of the rock wall. The results of repeated measurements in this area after one and a half year were of essential significance. It could be shown that no substantial variation in the extent of the discontinuity occurred. Some variation was detected in the dielec- tric contrast, probably due to seasonal variation of moisture. Altogether the results demonstrate GPR is an appropriate method for supervising rock walls, especially in urban environments.

  13. Dielectric non destructive testing for rock characterization in natural stone industry and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; García-Baños, Beatriz; Mar Urquiola, M.; Gutiérrez, José D.; Catalá-Civera, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric constant measurement has been used in rocks characterization, mainly for exploration objective in geophysics, particularly related to ground penetration radar characterization in ranges of 10 MHz to 1 GHz. However, few data have been collected for loss factor. Complex permittivity (dielectric constant and loss factor) characterization in rock provide information about mineralogical composition as well as other petrophysic parameters related to the quality, such as fabric parameters, mineralogical distribution, humidity. A study was performed in the frequency of 2,45GHz by using a portable kit for dielectric device based on an open coaxial probe. In situ measurements were made of natural stone marble and granite on selected industrial slabs and building stone. A mapping of their complex permittivity was performed and evaluated, and variations in composition and textures were identified, showing the variability with the mineral composition, metal ore minerals content and fabric. Dielectric constant was a parameter more sensible to rock forming minerals composition, particularly in granites for QAPF-composition (quartz-alkali feldspar-plagioclases-feldspathoids) and in marbles for calcite-dolomite-silicates. Loss factor shown a high sensibility to fabric and minerals of alteration. Results showed that the dielectric properties can be used as a powerful tool for petrographic characterization of building stones in two areas of application: a) in cultural heritage diagnosis to estimate the quality and alteration of the stone, an b) in industrial application for quality control and industrial microwave processing.

  14. a Geodatabase for Multisource Data Applied to Cultural Heritage: the Case Study of Villa Revedin Bolasco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Masiero, A.; Piragnolo, M.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of the development of a Web-based archiving and documenting system aimed to the management of multisource and multitemporal data related to cultural heritage. As case study we selected the building complex of Villa Revedin Bolasco in Castefranco Veneto (Treviso, Italy) and its park. Buildings and park were built in XIX century after several restorations of the original XIV century area. The data management system relies on a geodatabase framework, in which different kinds of datasets were stored. More specifically, the geodatabase elements consist of historical information, documents, descriptions of artistic characteristics of the building and the park, in the form of text and images. In addition, we used also floorplans, sections and views of the outer facades of the building extracted by a TLS-based 3D model of the whole Villa. In order to manage and explore these rich dataset, we developed a geodatabase using PostgreSQL and PostGIS as spatial plugin. The Web-GIS platform, based on HTML5 and PHP programming languages, implements the NASA Web World Wind virtual globe, a 3D virtual globe we used to enable the navigation and interactive exploration of the park. Furthermore, through a specific timeline function, the user can explore the historical evolution of the building complex.

  15. Parametric Accuracy: Building Information Modeling Process Applied to the Cultural Heritage Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagnani, S.; Manferdini, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Since their introduction, modeling tools aimed to architectural design evolved in today's "digital multi-purpose drawing boards" based on enhanced parametric elements able to originate whole buildings within virtual environments. Semantic splitting and elements topology are features that allow objects to be "intelligent" (i.e. self-aware of what kind of element they are and with whom they can interact), representing this way basics of Building Information Modeling (BIM), a coordinated, consistent and always up to date workflow improved in order to reach higher quality, reliability and cost reductions all over the design process. Even if BIM was originally intended for new architectures, its attitude to store semantic inter-related information can be successfully applied to existing buildings as well, especially if they deserve particular care such as Cultural Heritage sites. BIM engines can easily manage simple parametric geometries, collapsing them to standard primitives connected through hierarchical relationships: however, when components are generated by existing morphologies, for example acquiring point clouds by digital photogrammetry or laser scanning equipment, complex abstractions have to be introduced while remodeling elements by hand, since automatic feature extraction in available software is still not effective. In order to introduce a methodology destined to process point cloud data in a BIM environment with high accuracy, this paper describes some experiences on monumental sites documentation, generated through a plug-in written for Autodesk Revit and codenamed GreenSpider after its capability to layout points in space as if they were nodes of an ideal cobweb.

  16. Digital Documentation in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage: Finding the Practical in best Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L. S.

    2013-07-01

    Documentation of treatment is one of the central tenets of conservation as a profession, and a necessary aspect of the preservation of cultural heritage. Photographic documentation has been an essential technique for recording the nature of heritage objects and illustrating conservation procedures. The routine use of digital photography in recent years has opened many avenues to conservators, but also poses unique threats to the long-term stability of the conservation record. Digital documentation is subject to decay just as physical or "analogue" records are, with the stark difference that digital data corrupts absolutely, where physical records can remain legible through various stages of deterioration. It is therefore necessary to understand the options that conservators have with regards to preservation of their records for the future. The various guidelines presently available regarding digital documentation may be synthesized into a coherent "best practice" specific to digital conservation documentation. This practice, however, must be reconsidered within the framework of what is necessary to ensure that photographic records are preserved, versus what is feasible. In order to determine if conservators are aware of the limitations of digital technology, thirty practicing conservators were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding their own documentation practices. The responses identified a lack of best practice, and indicated that there are multiple factors which prevent conservators from developing effective methods for creating, storing, and accessing documentation. To address this, a modified form of best practice, the "best practical" method, is developed as a series of guidelines with the intent of being feasible for practicing conservators. This method aims to reduce the time and economic costs required of best practice, while minimizing the risk to the conservation record. The "best practical" guidelines are being designed to be applicable to a

  17. Memorialization, Graffiti and Artifact Movement: A Case Study of Cultural Impacts on WWII Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Jennifer F.

    2015-04-01

    Cultural tourism in the Pacific has always offered an underwater option for those who snorkel or are certified to dive. In addition to the coral reefs and marine life, World War II (WWII) shipwrecks, aircraft wrecks and other submerged vehicles draw hundreds of tourists to the Pacific each year. While it is encouraging that so many are interested in the cultural heritage of battlefields, these same visitors can cause considerable amounts of damage. This paper presents a case study of cultural impacts on submerged WWII sites in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) where diving heritage tourism is a growing industry. Cultural impacts in the CNMI include a diverse range of direct and indirect impacts including vandalism, the act of memorialization, looting and collecting souvenirs, anchor and mooring damage, and moving artifacts. What is often viewed as detrimental cultural impacts by archaeologists and managers can also be examined as behavior that reflects various stakeholders' values and attitudes towards heritage sites. As such, these behaviors can and should be examined and considered concurrently during research and management discussions.

  18. Matsu Cultural Heritage and Its Conservation in Bohai Rim - Case Study on the Hall of Fujian in Yantai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, S.

    2015-08-01

    Since the Yuan Dynasty, the belief of Matsu had started to spread from the birthplace to the northern coastal areas in China. Matsu worship developed to the pinnacle with the official promotion on account of the government's dependence on grain transported by sea since the mid-Qing Dynasty. A large amount of Matsu temples emerged in coastal cities of Bohai Rim where it still keeps a large number of them until now. It has much relationship between the spread of Matsu culture and the flow of Fujian population. It was one of the main building way that the Matsu temples attached to the local hall of Fujian in Bohai Rim. The Hall of Fujian in Yantai, Which was built with materials taken from Fujian, in the feature of traditional architectural style from QuanZhou, is very different from the local building style of Yantai. This case indicates that maritime culture of the south area had spread and developed in the north areas under the promotion of the population flow and the economic transaction. The essay introduces briefly about the development of Matsu culture in Bohai Rim and takes the case study of the Hall of Fujian in Yantai analyzing its causes and features, and the value as Matsu heritage. Then the paper will discuss the conservation of Matsu culture mere include the tangible and the intangible culture heritage around the origin area, the heritages of the spread area also have the same importance significance. With the evolution of the society, it calls urgent attention and protection of Matsu culture in Bohai Rim.

  19. New methodologies for the conservation of cultural heritage: micellar solutions, microemulsions, and hydroxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Michele; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero

    2010-06-15

    Modern civilization's inherited artworks have a powerful impact on society, from political, sociological, and anthropological points of view, so the conservation of our Cultural Heritage is fundamental for conveying to future generations our culture, traditions, and ways of thinking and behaving. In the conservation of cultural artifacts, scientists intervene in the degradation of often unique handcrafts, resulting from a delicate balance of aging, unpredicted events, environmental conditions, and sometimes incorrect previous restoration treatments, the details of which are often not precisely known. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are revolutionizing materials science in a pervasive way, in a manner similar to polymer chemistry's revolution of materials science over the preceding century. The continuous development of novel nanoparticle-based materials and the study of physicochemical phenomena at the nanoscale are creating new approaches to conservation science, leading to new methodologies that can "revert" the degradation processes of the works of art, in most cases "restoring" them to their original magnificent appearance. Until recently, serendipity and experiment have been the most frequent design principles of formulations for either cleaning or consolidation of works of art. Accordingly, the past has witnessed a number of actively detrimental treatments, such as the application of acrylic and vinyl resins to wall paintings, which can irreversibly jeopardize the appearance (or even the continued existence) of irreplaceable works of art. Current research activity in conservation science is largely based on the paradigm that compatibility of materials is the most important prerequisite for obtaining excellent and durable results. The most advanced current methodologies are (i) the use of water-based micelles and microemulsions (neat or combined with gels) for the removal of accidental contaminants and polymers used in past restorations and (ii) the application

  20. Cultural Heritage Documentation and Integrated Geomatics Techniques in AN Educational Context: Case Bois-Du (belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stal, C.; Goossens, R.; Carlier, L.; Debie, J.; Haoudy, K.; Nuttens, T.; De Wulf, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Walloon Region in Belgium played a leading role in the world economy and in the industrial sciences and engineering since the 19th century. Several relicts, such as important industrial buildings or sites, are spread over a large area and are still dominating the current landscape. Some of these remnants are preserved as monuments, representing the industrial, cultural and ecological transition of the region during the last two centuries. Since 2012, UNESCO recognized the importance of four of the best preserved 19th and 20th century coal mining sites and classified them as World Heritage ("Major Mining Sites of Wallonia", Le Grand-Hornu, Bois-du- Luc, Le Bois du Cazier and Blegny Mine). The four recognised mining sites together form a strip of about 170 km long, containing important examples of the so-called 'neo classical architecture' from the early periods of the industrial era in continental Europe. Motivated by this recognition and by the huge touristic and educational potential of the sites, a partnership between the Walloon government and Ghent University was organized. In this first stage, the collaboration focuses on the site of Bois-du-Luc in the municipality of La Louvière, containing a large series of dwellings, several equipments built between 1853 and 1923 by the Société des Charbonnages du Bois-du-Luc, workshops and heaps. Consisting of numerous buildings dating back to the period between 1838 and 1923, this site is one of Europe's oldest collieries. The collaboration between the Walloon government and Ghent University - Department of Geography fits in the hands-on training which students in land surveying and geomatics receive during their Bachelor studies. For the students it is very interesting that their practical exercises are not limited to the university campus, but that they are involved in a real measurement campaign. The project consists of a series of intensive land surveying campaigns, resulting in highly detailed and accurate

  1. Controlling daylight illumination in cultural heritage buildings by using thin-film and thermographic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, D.; Muñoz de Luna, J.; Alvarez, A.; Mayorga, S.; Hernández, G.; Garcia, A.; Laborde, A.; Herráez, J. A.; del Egido, M.

    2012-12-01

    There are many master pieces of the cultural heritage which cańt be correctly contemplated if daylight is not part of the exhibition environment, since they were made with the sun light as essential element of them. The Pórtico de la Gloria and the Cloister and paintings of Santa María de El Paular monastery are ones of these cases. The Pórtico de la Gloria (Gate of the Glory) is probably the most relevant masterpiece of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral. It is located at the narthex of the west gate. It is a masterwork of Romanesque sculpture built between 1168 and 1188 by Master Mateo. During the XVIII century a new Baroque façade was placed in front of it replacing the middle ages wall. Daylight entering through the windows of the facade makes possible to see the art work but the sun can generate serious problems since it heats the stone and evaporates the humidity. Thermal imagers have been used to test the thermal performance of the antireflection treatment located in the windows in the actual temperature of the stone sculptures. The cloister of the monastery of Santa María de El Paular, housed until the confiscation of 1835 a collection of 54 paintings of Vincente Carducho called Carthusian series. When in 2006 the restoration of the 52 still preserved paintings was completed, began a refurbishment of the cloister to return the paintings to their original place. We conducted a study of the incidence of the Sun in the cloister and how to avoid direct sunlight on Carducho's paintings.

  2. A multi-range approach for Cultural Heritage survey: a case study in Mantua Unesco site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarini, S.; Cremonesi, S.; Fregonese, L.; Fassi, F.; Taffurelli, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a Cultural Heritage survey, performed by employing and integrating different type of acquisition technologies (imagebased and active sensor based) is presented. The aim of the survey is to create a 3D multiscale database, therefore, different restitution scales, from the architectural-urban one to a detail one are taken in consideration. This research is part of a project financed by the Unesco for the study of historical gardens located in Mantua and Sabbioneta, and in particular for the Palazzo Te renaissance gardens in Mantua, which are reported in this paper. First of all, a general survey of the area has been realized by employing the classical aerial photogrammetry in order to provide the actual arboreal and urban furniture conditions of the gardens (1:500 scale). Next, a detailed photogrammetric survey of the Esedra courtyard in Palazzo Te has been performed by using a UAV system. At the end, laser scanning and traditional topography have been used for the terrestrial detailed acquisition of gardens and architectural façades (1:50-1:20 scale). The aim of this research is to create a suitable graphical documentation support for the study of the structure of the gardens, to analyze how they have been modified over the years and as an effective support for eventual future re-design. Moreover, the research has involved a certain number of botanic and archeological investigations, which have been duly acquired and modeled with image based systems. Starting from the acquired datasets with their acquisition scales, a series of comparative analysis have been performed, especially for those areas in which all the systems have been employed. The comparisons have been extracted by analyzing point cloud models obtained by using a topographical network. As a result, the multi-range approach efficiency, obtained by employing the actual available technologies have been illustrated in the present work.

  3. Design and Research of Service Platform for Protection and Dissemination of Cultural Heritage Resources of The Silk Road in the Territory of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zeng, S. J.; Na, W.; Yang, H.; Huang, J.; Tan, X. D.; Sun, Z. J.

    2015-08-01

    The Silk Road, a major traffic route across the Eurasia continent, has been a convergence for the exchange, communication and dissemination of various cultures such as nations, materials, religions and arts for more than two thousand years. And the cultural heritage along the long and complicate route has been also attractive. In recent years, the Silk Road - the Road Network along the Chang'an-Tianshan Mountain has been listed in the Directory of World Cultural Heritage. The rare and rich cultural resources along the Silk Road, especially those in the territory of China, have attracted attentions of the world. This article describes the research ideas, methods, processes and results of the planning design on the internet-based dissemination services platform system for cultural heritage resources. First of all, it has defined the targeting for dissemination services and the research methods applied for the Silk Road heritage resources, based on scientific and objective spatial measurement and research on history and geography, to carry on the excavation of values of cultural resource for the target users. Then, with the front-end art exhibit by means of innovative IT, time and space maps of cultural heritage resources, interactive graphics display, panoramic three-dimensional virtual tour, and the Silk Road topics as the main features, a comprehensive and multi-angle cultural resources dissemination services platform is built. The research core of the platform is a demand-oriented system design on the basis of cultural resources and features as the fundamental, the value of contemporary manifestation as the foundation, and cultural dissemination and service as a starting point. This platform has achieved, temporal context generalization, interest profiles extension, online and offline adaptation, and other prominent innovations. On the basis of routes heritage resource protection and dissemination services with complex relationship between time and space, and the

  4. Contribution of Seismology to the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makropoulos, K.; Voulgaris, N.; Kaviris, G.

    2007-12-01

    Greece is an earthquake prone country, as evidenced by the fact that almost half the seismic energy in Europe is released in its territory both on land and offshore. Numerous large earthquakes have occurred since the antiquity causing considerable damages. Furthermore, as it is well known, Greece is a country of rich cultural heritage, that incorporates a large number of archeological (more than 50%), Byzantine and recent sites and monuments, as well as a continuously growing number of museums. The Greek Seismic Design Code (NEAK, 2004) which governs building, repairing and retrofitting practices divides the country into three zones corresponding to acceleration values of 0.16g, 0.24g and 0.36g. According to the results obtained from a detailed GIS implementation the majority of Greek monuments lie within the boundaries of the second zone (more than 60%). In addition, their geographical distribution in association with the available geological data reveals that more than 50% are sited on soft soils, in contrast to a 30% on rock formations. The effects of these factors are reflected to earthquake related damages observed (evidenced) or reported at various cultural sites. Therefore, the detailed estimation of the seismic hazard for each monument, microzonation studies in the vicinity of each site and estimation of hazard due to tsunamis, liquefaction and landslides related to earthquakes, should be considered as a necessary step towards retrofitting. Applications that reveal the contribution of seismology to the preservation of Greek monuments will be presented and discussed, such as studies performed in Knossos (Crete) leading to representative design values, the church of Kapnikarea (Athens), where the influence of man-made seismic energy sources was examined and the Cathedral of Athens where it was found that local geological conditions amplify the ground velocity for frequencies close to the dominant frequency, a fact that was taken into account during the

  5. Italian guidelines for energy performance of cultural heritage and historical buildings: the case study of the Sassi of Matera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negro, Elisabetta; Cardinale, Tiziana; Cardinale, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The Sassi of Matera are a unique example in the world of rock settlement, developed from natural caves carved into the rock and then molded into increasingly complex structures inside two large natural amphitheatres: the Sasso Caveoso and the Sasso Barisano. Thanks also to this aspects Matera is an UNESCO world heritage site and was elected European Capital of Culture in 2019. Our research focuses on the compatibility of the energy efficiency measures applied in of Sassi buildings with the recent MiBACT (Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage) guidelines on "Energy efficiency improvements in the cultural heritage" and AiCARR (Italian Association of Air Conditioning) guidelines on "Energy efficiency of historical building". One of the essential measures highlighted by Mibact guidelines is ensure the Indoor Environmental Quality improvement of the historical architecture in order to preserve their identity and cultural heritage. These paper aims to analyze energy and environmental performance of different buildings typology and monuments present in the Sassi site. The energy performance and microclimate measures conducted on different type of building by non-destructive measurements and laboratory tests in situ are useful to verify and quantify the thermal characteristics of the envelopes of the Mediterranean tradition and also to demonstrate their capacity to ensure internal comfort conditions. The calcarenite walls of vernacular building of Sassi show the excellent energy behavior of these constructions. But these material often present high moisture content which negatively influence the room microclimate in particular in presence of mural frescos and rocky churches. However these structures, once restored and in a condition of normal use, give indoor comfort within the limits of thermo-hygrometrics standards established by indices as the predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD). Another interesting consideration stated from our

  6. The methodology of documenting cultural heritage sites using photogrammetry, UAV, and 3D printing techniques: the case study of Asinou Church in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Ioannides, M.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    As the affordability, reliability and ease-of-use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) advances, the use of aerial surveying for cultural heritage purposes becomes a popular choice, yielding an unprecedented volume of high-resolution, geo-tagged image-sets of historical sites from above. As well, recent developments in photogrammetry technology provide a simple and cost-effective method of generating relatively accurate 3D models from 2D images. These techniques provide a set of new tools for archaeologists and cultural heritage experts to capture, store, process, share, visualise and annotate 3D models in the field. This paper focuses on the methodology used to document the cultural heritage site of Asinou Church in Cyprus using various state of the art techniques, such as UAV, photogrammetry and 3D printing. Hundreds of images of the Asinou Church were taken by a UAV with an attached high resolution, low cost camera. These photographic images were then used to create a digital 3D model and a 3D printer was used to create a physical model of the church. Such a methodology provides archaeologists and cultural heritage experts a simple and cost-effective method of generating relatively accurate 3D models from 2D images of cultural heritage sites.

  7. Ion-beam analysis for cultural heritage on the AGLAE facility: impact of PIXE/RBS combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, J.; Dran, J.-C.; Guillou, T.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Walter, P.; Mathis, F.

    2008-07-01

    The combination of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. Several set-ups have been developed at the AGLAE facility of the Louvre Laboratory to implement these techniques with an external beam. Successively have been tested the simultaneous use of PIXE and RBS with a single beam of protons, the sequential application of PIXE with protons and RBS with 4He2+ ions and finally the simultaneous implementation of PIXE and RBS with high-energy 4He2+ ions. Several examples illustrate the benefits of these combinations of techniques.

  8. Mexico: A Leader in Ratification of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erreguerena, Pilar Luna

    2010-12-01

    Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History established an ethical program for the protection and research of the country's underwater cultural heritage (UCH). Its Vice-Directorate of Underwater Archaeology trains archaeology and conservation students, participates in national and international initiatives regarding UCH, and develops multidisciplinary projects in maritime and continental waters. During negotiation of the UNESCO Convention, the Latin American and Caribbean Group united in a strong voice and contributed to its adoption in 2001; in 2006, Mexico ratified the Convention. This article highlights Mexico's adoption of the 2001 UNESCO Convention as a case study, to stimulate all countries to ratify the convention and to cooperate in protecting the world's UCH.

  9. Australian sites of astronomical heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, T.; Lomb, N.

    2015-03-01

    The heritage of astronomy in Australia has proven an effective communication medium. By interpreting science as a social and cultural phenomenon new light is thrown on challenges, such as the dispersal of instruments and problems identifying contemporary astronomy heritage. Astronomers are asked to take note and to consider the communication of astronomy now and in the future through a tangible heritage legacy.

  10. Cultural Heritage of Observatories and Instruments - From Classical Astronomy to Modern Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    observatory came up, as in the case of Nice Observatory, Hamburg-Bergedorf and in America. Finally the Schmidt telescope was the most important and influential invention in the Hamburg Observatory. In the last quarter of the 19th century only a few centres of astrophysics existed in the world. Besides Potsdam one should mention Göttingen, Heidelberg, Bonn and Hamburg in Germany; then observatories in Hungary, Italy, England and France and later, around 1900, also in the United States and India. The change from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics can be seen very well in the case of the Hamburg Observatory around 1900 - concerning the choice of instruments, the architecture and the idea of the astronomy park: all this is an important cultural heritage connected with observatories of this time.

  11. Accurate documentation in cultural heritage by merging TLS and high-resolution photogrammetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Alby, Emmanuel; Assali, Pierre; Poitevin, Valentin; Hullo, Jean-François; Smigiel, Eddie

    2011-07-01

    Several recording techniques are used together in Cultural Heritage Documentation projects. The main purpose of the documentation and conservation works is usually to generate geometric and photorealistic 3D models for both accurate reconstruction and visualization purposes. The recording approach discussed in this paper is based on the combination of photogrammetric dense matching and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) techniques. Both techniques have pros and cons, and criteria as geometry, texture, accuracy, resolution, recording and processing time are often compared. TLS techniques (time of flight or phase shift systems) are often used for the recording of large and complex objects or sites. Point cloud generation from images by dense stereo or multi-image matching can be used as an alternative or a complementary method to TLS. Compared to TLS, the photogrammetric solution is a low cost one as the acquisition system is limited to a digital camera and a few accessories only. Indeed, the stereo matching process offers a cheap, flexible and accurate solution to get 3D point clouds and textured models. The calibration of the camera allows the processing of distortion free images, accurate orientation of the images, and matching at the subpixel level. The main advantage of this photogrammetric methodology is to get at the same time a point cloud (the resolution depends on the size of the pixel on the object), and therefore an accurate meshed object with its texture. After the matching and processing steps, we can use the resulting data in much the same way as a TLS point cloud, but with really better raster information for textures. The paper will address the automation of recording and processing steps, the assessment of the results, and the deliverables (e.g. PDF-3D files). Visualization aspects of the final 3D models are presented. Two case studies with merged photogrammetric and TLS data are finally presented: - The Gallo-roman Theatre of Mandeure, France); - The

  12. Characteristics and the Economic Impact of Visitors to Heritage and Cultural Tourism Attractions in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodur, Nancy Marie

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, travel and tourism has grown into an increasingly important industry. More recently, travelers have sought out activities and attractions that focus on authenticity, heritage and uniqueness, and rural communities have begun to realize that their communities and attractions match well with what visitors are demanding.…

  13. Maritime History in Mozambique and East Africa: The Urgent Need for the Proper Study and Preservation of Endangered Underwater Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Ricardo Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    The East African coast is a rich domain for underwater cultural heritage, whose archaeological remains are only beginning to reveal the extent of indigenous nautical technology, regional and international social contacts, and far-reaching maritime trade routes sailed for millennia. The diversity of remains found under water range from cultures up and down the East African coastline to further afield: from China, points surrounding the Indian Ocean, to the Persian Gulf, Middle East and Europe. In Mozambique, important steps to investigate and preserve this heritage have been taken over the last 20 years by several groups of local scholars in collaboration with international research institutions. However, this heritage, especially that which lies along the northern Mozambique coast, has also been subjected to extensive and serious disturbance by commercially-oriented salvage programs. These salvage activities have not only had a very negative impact on the state of the cultural resources themselves, but have also prevented the access of legitimate scholars to these resources—particularly grave is the intervention at Mozambique Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Among the meritorious efforts to mitigate this situation, in Mozambique and world-wide, the 2001 UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage is an outstanding initiative and needs to be ratified by Mozambique and other East African states.

  14. Characterisation of CIME, an experimental chamber for simulating interactions between materials of the cultural heritage and the environment.

    PubMed

    Chabas, A; Fouqueau, A; Attoui, M; Alfaro, S C; Petitmangin, A; Bouilloux, A; Saheb, M; Coman, A; Lombardo, T; Grand, N; Zapf, P; Berardo, R; Duranton, M; Durand-Jolibois, R; Jerome, M; Pangui, E; Correia, J J; Guillot, I; Nowak, S

    2015-12-01

    An approach consisting in combining in situ and laboratory experiments is often favoured for investigating the mechanisms involved in the weathering of the materials of the cultural heritage. However, the realistic simulation in the laboratory of the environmental conditions ruling the interactions of atmospheric compounds with materials is a very complex task. The aim of this work is to characterise CIME, a new chamber specially built to simulate the interactions between materials of the cultural heritage and the environment. The originality of this instrument is that beside the usual climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation) and gaseous pollutants, it also allows the controlled injection of different types of particulate matter such as terrigenous, marine and anthropogenic. Therefore, varied realistic atmospheric environments (marine or urban) can be easily simulated within CIME. In addition to the technical description of CIME, this paper shows the first results obtained by the impact of gaseous pollutants on non-durable glass, bronze and limestone. The first experiments for the deposition of different particles (calcite, clays, soot and halite) are also presented.

  15. Valorisation of Cultural Heritage Through Virtual Visit and Augmented Reality: the Case of the Abbey of Epau (france)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetto, E.; Froment, C.; Labergerie, E.; Ferré, G.; Séchet, B.; Chédorge, H.; Cali, J.; Polidori, L.

    2013-07-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), 3-D modeling and its Web visualization are the three key steps needed to perform storage and grant-free and wide access to cultural heritage, as highlighted in many recent examples. The goal of this study is to set up 3-D Web resources for "virtually" visiting the exterior of the Abbaye de l'Epau, an old French abbey which has both a rich history and delicate architecture. The virtuality is considered in two ways: the flowing navigation in a virtual reality environment around the abbey and a game activity using augmented reality. First of all, the data acquisition consists in GPS and tacheometry survey, terrestrial laser scanning and photography acquisition. After data pre-processing, the meshed and textured 3-D model is generated using 3-D Reshaper commercial software. The virtual reality visit and augmented reality animation are then created using Unity software. This work shows the interest of such tools in bringing out the regional cultural heritage and making it attractive to the public.

  16. Hazard analysis of active tectonics through geomorphometric parameters to cultural heritage conservation: the case of Paphos in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, A. V.; Sarris, A.; Alexakis, D.; Agapiou, A.; Themistocleous, K.; Lysandrou, V.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2014-08-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, can have a large destructive effect on cultural heritage sites conservation. This study aims to assess from a geospatial perspective the risk from natural hazards for the archaeological sites and monuments and evaluate the potential tectonic activity impact on the cultural and historic heritage. Geomorphometric data derivatives that can be extracted from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide information relevant with active tectonics. The specific extracted tectonic information when being used on the basis of analytical hierarchy process and weighted linear combination approach can offer an important robust approach. The ranking of the derived information relatively to specific criteria of weights can enhance the interrelationships and assemblages over neotectonics aspects. The outcomes of that methodological framework can propose an assessment approach for the spatial distribution of neotectonic activity and can become a useful tool to assessing seismic hazard for disaster risk reduction. The risk assessment aspects of such a hazard are being interlinked with the archaeological sites in order to highlight and examine those that are exposed on ongoing tectonic activity and seismic hazard. Paphos area in Cyprus has been used as the test bed for the particular analysis. The results show an important number of archaeological sites being located within zones of high degree of neotectonic activity.

  17. Time resolved XANES illustrates a substrate-mediated redox process in Prussian blue cultural heritage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Claire; Lanquille, Marie-Angélique; Moretti, Giulia; Réguer, Solenn

    2016-05-01

    The pigment Prussian blue is studied in heritage science because of its capricious fading behavior under light exposure. We show here that XANES can be used to study the photosensitivity of Prussian blue heritage materials despite X-ray radiation damage. We used an original approach based on X-ray photochemistry to investigate in depth the redox process of Prussian blue when it is associated with a cellulosic substrate, as in cyanotypes and watercolors. By modifying cation and proton contents of the paper substrate, we could tune both rate and extent of Prussian blue reduction. These results demonstrate that the photoreduction and fading of Prussian blue is principally mediated by the substrate and its interaction with the oxygen of the environment.

  18. Microwave tomography for GPR data processing in archaeology and cultural heritages diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.

    2009-04-01

    further advantages such as: the absence of the false solutions (a question to be arisen in non linear inverse problems); the exploitation of well known regularization tools for achieving a stable solution of the problem; the possibility to analyze the reconstruction performances of the algorithm once the measurement configuration and the properties of the host medium are known. Here, we will present the main features and the reconstruction results of a linear inversion algorithm based on the Born approximation in realistic applications in archaeology and cultural heritage diagnostics. Born model is useful when penetrable objects are under investigations. As well known, the Born Approximation is used to solve the forward problem, that is the determination of the scattered field from a known object under the hypothesis of weak scatterer, i.e. an object whose dielectric permittivity is slightly different from the one of the host medium and whose extent is small in term of probing wavelength. Differently, for the inverse scattering problem, the above hypotheses can be relaxed at the cost to renounce to a "quantitative reconstruction" of the object. In fact, as already shown by results in realistic conditions [4, 5], the adoption of a Born model inversion scheme allows to detect, to localize and to determine the geometry of the object also in the case of not weak scattering objects. [1] R. Persico, R. Bernini, F. Soldovieri, "The role of the measurement configuration in inverse scattering from buried objects under the Born approximation", IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, no.6, pp. 1875-1887, June 2005. [2] F. Soldovieri, J. Hugenschmidt, R. Persico and G. Leone, "A linear inverse scattering algorithm for realistic GPR applications", Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 29-42, February 2007. [3] R. Solimene, F. Soldovieri, G. Prisco, R.Pierri, "Three-Dimensional Microwave Tomography by a 2-D Slice-Based Reconstruction Algorithm", IEEE Geoscience and Remote

  19. Information system for preserving culture heritage in areas affected by heavy industry and mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacina, Jan; Kopecký, Jiří; Bedrníková, Lenka; Handrychová, Barbora; Švarcová, Martina; Holá, Markéta; Pončíková, Edita

    2014-05-01

    The natural development of the Ústí region (North-West Bohemia, the Czech Republic) has been affected by the human activity during the past hundred years. The heavy industrialization and the brown coal mining have completely changed the land-use in the region. The open-pit coal mines are completely destroying the surrounding landscape, including settlement, communications, hydrological network and the over-all natural development of the region. The other factor affecting the natural development of the landscape, land-use and settlement was the political situation in 1945 (end of the 2nd World War) when the borderland was depopulated. All these factors caused vanishing of more than two hundreds of colonies, villages and towns during this period of time. The task of this project is to prepare and offer for public use a comprehensive information system preserving the cultural heritage in the form of processed old maps, aerial imagery, land-use and georelief reconstructions, local studies, text and photo documents covering the extinct landscape and settlement. Wide range of various maps was used for this area - Müller's map of Bohemia (ca. 1720) followed by the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Military survey of Habsburg empire (1792, 1894, 1938), maps of Stabile cadaster (ca. 1840) and State map derived in the scale 1:5000 (1953, 1972, 1981). All the maps were processed, georeferenced, hand digitized and are further used as base layers for visualization and analysis. The historical aerial imagery was processed in standard ways of photogrammetry and is covering the year 1938, 1953 and the current state. The other important task covered by this project is the georelief reconstruction. We use the old maps and aerial imagery to reconstruct the complete time-line of the georelief development. This time-line is covering the period since 1938 until now. The derived digital terrain models and further on analyzed and printed on a 3D printer. Other reconstruction task are performed using

  20. Recording, Visualization and Documentation of 3D Spatial Data for Monitoring Topography in Areas of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelakis, Emmanouel; Konstantaras, Antonios; Axaridou, Anastasia; Chrysakis, Ioannis; Xinogalos, Michalis

    2014-05-01

    This research investigates the application of new system for 3D documentation of land degradation and its effect [1,2] on areas of cultural heritage via complete 3D data acquisition, 3D modeling and metadata recording using terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) [3,4,5]. As land degradation progresses through time it is important to be able to map and exactly replicate with great precision the entire 3D shape of the physical objects of interest, such as landslides, ground erosion, river boundaries, mad accumulation, etc. [1,2] TLS enables the extraction and recording of a very large number of points in space with great precision and without the need for any physical contact with the object of interest. Field specialists can then examine the produced models and comment on them both on the overall object of interest and on specific features of it by inserting annotations on certain parts of the model [6]. This process could be proven to be very cost effective as it can be repeated as often as necessary and produce a well catalogued documentation of the progress of land degradation at particular areas. The problem with repeating TLS models lies on the various types of hardware equipment and software systems that might be used for the extraction of point clouds, and the different people that might be called to analyze the findings. These often result in a large volume of interim and final products with little if no standardization, multiple different metadata and vague documentation [7], which makes metadata recordings [8] crucial both for one scientist to be able to follow upon the work of the other as well as being able to repeat the same work when deemed necessary. This makes the need for a repository tool proposed by the authors essential in order to record all work that is done in every TLS scanning, and makes the technology accessible to scientists of various different fields [9,10], eg. geologists, physicists, topographers, remote sensing engineers, archaeologists etc

  1. Navigating the al- baḥr al- muẓlim: an Assessment of the Investigation, Mitigation and Preservation of Morocco's Maritime Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakadas, Athena

    2012-10-01

    Despite the Kingdom of Morocco's extensive coastline and strategic position between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, study of the region's maritime history has been limited. Recent archaeological investigations, however, reveal the great promise of the physical remains and historical depth of the region's maritime cultural heritage. As is the case with other countries in Africa, there are critical factors that adversely affect not only the exploration of this heritage, but also its recognition and preservation. Against this background, the Oued Loukkos Survey was developed in order to mitigate such critical factors at the site of Lixus (Larache) by implementing a cross-disciplinary methodology and cooperation between several Moroccan and foreign institutions. As Morocco recently ratified the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a more comprehensive legal framework is now in place alongside existing national legislation for such mitigation practices to be enacted on a broader scale.

  2. An Application for Cultural Heritage in Erasmus Placement. Surveys and 3d Cataloging Archaeological Finds in MÉRIDA (spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; Ortiz Coder, P.; D'Auria, S.; De Feo, E.

    2011-09-01

    Man has always had the need to live with his past, with its places and its artefacts. The reconstructions, the economical changes, the urbanization and its speculations have devastated whole cities, changed the faces of their historical centers, changed the relationship between the new and the old. Also the millenarian 'rest' of the archaeological findings, and therefore the respect towards those ancient civilizations, has been troubled. Our continent is rich in masterpieces that the modern man are not able to protect and pass on to the future, it is commonplace to observe that the modern `civilization' has cemented and suffocated the ancient city of Pompeii, or even worse, failed to protected it. Walking in the archaeological area of Paestum it can be noticed how just sixty years ago, no one had the slightest concern of fencing the amphitheatre and the Roman forum, or entire houses and shops, to lay a carpet of tar or simple to build constructions completely inferior compared to those majestic Greek temples. The engineers and the architects should be held responsible for this as based on their scientific and humanistic sensibility; they should bring together the man with his surroundings in the complete respects of the historical heritage. The interest in ancient began to change nearly three decades ago since it was realized that the "Cultural Heritage" is a major tourist attraction and, if properly managed and used, it can be an economical cornerstone. Today, thanks to survey and the 3D graphics, which provide powerful new tools, we are witnessing a new and real need for the conservation, cataloguing and enhancement as a way to revive our archaeological sites. As part of a major laboratory project, artefacts from the Roman period (I and II century b.C.), found in the Spanish city of Mérida, declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1993, were acquired with a 3D laser scanner VIVID 910, and then catalogued. Based on these brief comments we wanted to direct the work

  3. NDE measurements for understanding of performance: A few case studies on engineering components, human health and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Baldev; Venkatraman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Life cycle management involves a seamless integration of materials, design, analysis, production, manufacturing, and degradation plus, a wide variety of disciplines relating to surveillance and characterisation with adequate feedback and control. Science and technology of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) links all these domains and disciplines together in a seamless and robust manner. A number of research programs on NDE science and technology have evolved during the last four decades world over including the one at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, initiated and nurtured by the first author. Many engineering and technology challenges pertaining to fast spectrum reactors have been successfully solved by this Centre through development of innovative sensors, procedures and coupled with strong basic science and modeling approaches. These technologies have also been selectively applied in gaining insights of human health and cultural heritage. This paper highlights some of the innovative NDE sensors and techniques developed in the field of electromagnetic NDE and their successful applications. A few interesting case studies pertaining to NDE in heritage and healthcare using acoustic and thermal methods are also presented.

  4. Irrigation channels of the Upper Rhone valley (Switzerland). Geomorphological analysis of a cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Rhone valley (Canton of Valais, Switzerland) is characterised by dry climatic conditions that explain the presence of an important network (about 800 km) of irrigation channels - called Bisses in the French-speaking part of the canton or Suonen in the German-speaking area - dating back to the Middle Ages. This network constitutes a cultural heritage and during the last 30 years these agricultural infrastructures have sparked a renewed interest for tourist and cultural reasons. Indeed, the paths along the channels are used as tourist trails and several abandoned channels have been renovated for tourist use. Based on an inventory of the Bisses/Suonen of Valais, the proposed communication has three aims: (1) to analyse the geomorphological context (morphometric analysis, structural geomorphology, main processes) of various types of channels and to show the impact of the geomorphological context on the building techniques; (2) to identify particularly active processes along the channels; (3) to classify the Bisses/Suonen according to their geomorphological value and to their geomorphological sensitivity, and to propose managing measures. Structural and climatic conditions influence the geomorphological context of the channels. In a structural point of view, irrigation channels are developed in three main contexts: (1) in the Aar Massif crystalline basement; (2) in the limestone and marl cover nappes of the Helvetic Alps; (3) in the metamorphic cover nappes of the Penninic domain. The Rhone River valley is boarded by two high mountain ranges: the Penninic Alps in the South and the Bernese Alps in the North. Because of rain shadow effects, the climate is relatively dry and, between Brig and Martigny, annual rainfall is not more than 600 mm at 500 m ASL and 800 mm at 1600 m ASL. Nevertheless, due to important vertical precipitation gradients annual rainfall totals are high at high altitudes. On the southern facing tributary valleys, the dry climatic conditions

  5. Crafts and Craft Education as Expressions of Cultural Heritage: Individual Experiences and Collective Values among an International Group of Women University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between crafts, craft education and cultural heritage as reflected in the individual experiences and collective values of fifteen female university students of different nationalities. The students (all trainee teachers) were following a course in crafts and craft education as part of an International Study…

  6. Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage through the Strengthening of National Capacities in Asia and the Pacific. 2011-2014 Project Completion Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favis, Ricardo; Suvanatap, Montakarn

    2015-01-01

    The "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference in October 2003 and entered into force in 2006 after ratification by 30 Member States. To date there are 161 Member States, yet the States Parties to the Convention still need to appreciate better the concepts and mechanisms…

  7. Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: a culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents.

  8. High-accuracy 3-D modeling of cultural heritage: the digitizing of Donatello's "Maddalena".

    PubMed

    Guidi, Gabriele; Beraldin, J Angelo; Atzeni, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional digital modeling of Heritage works of art through optical scanners, has been demonstrated in recent years with results of exceptional interest. However, the routine application of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling to Heritage conservation still requires the systematic investigation of a number of technical problems. In this paper, the acquisition process of the 3-D digital model of the Maddalena by Donatello, a wooden statue representing one of the major masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance which was swept away by the Florence flood of 1966 and successively restored, is described. The paper reports all the steps of the acquisition procedure, from the project planning to the solution of the various problems due to range camera calibration and to material non optically cooperative. Since the scientific focus is centered on the 3-D model overall dimensional accuracy, a methodology for its quality control is described. Such control has demonstrated how, in some situations, the ICP-based alignment can lead to incorrect results. To circumvent this difficulty we propose an alignment technique based on the fusion of ICP with close-range digital photogrammetry and a non-invasive procedure in order to generate a final accurate model. In the end detailed results are presented, demonstrating the improvement of the final model, and how the proposed sensor fusion ensure a pre-specified level of accuracy.

  9. Future Research Challenges for a Computer-Based Interpretative 3D Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage - A German Community's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münster, S.; Kuroczyński, P.; Pfarr-Harfst, M.; Grellert, M.; Lengyel, D.

    2015-08-01

    The workgroup for Digital Reconstruction of the Digital Humanities in the German-speaking area association (Digital Humanities im deutschsprachigen Raum e.V.) was founded in 2014 as cross-disciplinary scientific society dealing with all aspects of digital reconstruction of cultural heritage and currently involves more than 40 German researchers. Moreover, the workgroup is dedicated to synchronise and foster methodological research for these topics. As one preliminary result a memorandum was created to name urgent research challenges and prospects in a condensed way and assemble a research agenda which could propose demands for further research and development activities within the next years. The version presented within this paper was originally created as a contribution to the so-called agenda development process initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in 2014 and has been amended during a joint meeting of the digital reconstruction workgroup in November 2014.

  10. Development of a technique based on multi-spectral imaging for monitoring the conservation of cultural heritage objects.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Manfredi, Marcello; Zerbinati, Orfeo; Robotti, Elisa; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gosetti, Fabio; Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Shor, Pnina

    2011-11-14

    A new approach for monitoring the state of conservation of cultural heritage objects surfaces is being developed. The technique utilizes multi-spectral imaging, multivariate analysis and statistical process control theory for the automatic detection of a possible deterioration process, its localization and identification, and the wavelengths most sensitive to detecting this before the human eye can detect the damage or potential degradation changes occur. A series of virtual degradation analyses were performed on images of parchment in order to test the proposed algorithm in controlled conditions. The spectral image of a Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) parchment, IAA (Israel Antiquities Authority) inventory plate # 279, 4Q501 Apocryphal Lamentations B, taken during the 2008 Pilot of the DSS Digitization Project, was chosen for the simulation.

  11. Web-based Visualization and Query of semantically segmented multiresolution 3D Models in the Field of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, M.; Agugiaro, G.; Billen, N.; Loos, L.; Zipf, A.

    2014-05-01

    Many important Cultural Heritage sites have been studied over long periods of time by different means of technical equipment, methods and intentions by different researchers. This has led to huge amounts of heterogeneous "traditional" datasets and formats. The rising popularity of 3D models in the field of Cultural Heritage in recent years has brought additional data formats and makes it even more necessary to find solutions to manage, publish and study these data in an integrated way. The MayaArch3D project aims to realize such an integrative approach by establishing a web-based research platform bringing spatial and non-spatial databases together and providing visualization and analysis tools. Especially the 3D components of the platform use hierarchical segmentation concepts to structure the data and to perform queries on semantic entities. This paper presents a database schema to organize not only segmented models but also different Levels-of-Details and other representations of the same entity. It is further implemented in a spatial database which allows the storing of georeferenced 3D data. This enables organization and queries by semantic, geometric and spatial properties. As service for the delivery of the segmented models a standardization candidate of the OpenGeospatialConsortium (OGC), the Web3DService (W3DS) has been extended to cope with the new database schema and deliver a web friendly format for WebGL rendering. Finally a generic user interface is presented which uses the segments as navigation metaphor to browse and query the semantic segmentation levels and retrieve information from an external database of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI).

  12. Quantification of fungal abundance on cultural heritage using real time PCR targeting the β-actin gene.

    PubMed

    Ettenauer, Jörg; Piñar, Guadalupe; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The traditional methodology used for the identification of microbes colonizing our cultural heritage was the application of cultivation methods and/or microscopy. This approach has many advantages, as living microorganisms may be obtained for physiological investigations. In addition, these techniques allow the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the investigated environment. Quantitative analyses are done by plate count and the determination of abundance by the colony forming unit (CFU). Nevertheless, these techniques have many drawbacks that lead to an underestimation of the cell numbers and do not provide a comprehensive overview of the composition of the inhabiting microbiota. In the last decades, several molecular techniques have been developed enabling many advantages over the cultivation approach. Mainly PCR-based, fingerprinting techniques allow a qualitative detection and identification of the microbiota. In this study, we developed a real time PCR method as a simple, rapid and reliable tool to detect and quantify fungal abundance using the β-actin gene, which is known to appear as a single-copy gene in fungi. To this end, five different indoor thermal insulation materials applied for historical buildings that were previously tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi were subjected to qPCR analyses. The obtained results were compared with those obtained from a previous study investigating the bio-susceptibility of the insulation materials using classical cultivation experiments. Both results correlated well, revealing that Perlite plaster was the most suitable insulation material, showing the lowest fungal CFU and qPCR values. In contrast, insulations made of wood showed to be not recommendable from the microbiological point of view. In addition, the potential of qPCR was tested in other materials of cultural heritage, as old parchments, showing to be a suitable method for measuring fungal abundance in these delicate materials.

  13. Quantification of fungal abundance on cultural heritage using real time PCR targeting the β-actin gene

    PubMed Central

    Ettenauer, Jörg; Piñar, Guadalupe; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The traditional methodology used for the identification of microbes colonizing our cultural heritage was the application of cultivation methods and/or microscopy. This approach has many advantages, as living microorganisms may be obtained for physiological investigations. In addition, these techniques allow the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the investigated environment. Quantitative analyses are done by plate count and the determination of abundance by the colony forming unit (CFU). Nevertheless, these techniques have many drawbacks that lead to an underestimation of the cell numbers and do not provide a comprehensive overview of the composition of the inhabiting microbiota. In the last decades, several molecular techniques have been developed enabling many advantages over the cultivation approach. Mainly PCR-based, fingerprinting techniques allow a qualitative detection and identification of the microbiota. In this study, we developed a real time PCR method as a simple, rapid and reliable tool to detect and quantify fungal abundance using the β-actin gene, which is known to appear as a single-copy gene in fungi. To this end, five different indoor thermal insulation materials applied for historical buildings that were previously tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi were subjected to qPCR analyses. The obtained results were compared with those obtained from a previous study investigating the bio-susceptibility of the insulation materials using classical cultivation experiments. Both results correlated well, revealing that Perlite plaster was the most suitable insulation material, showing the lowest fungal CFU and qPCR values. In contrast, insulations made of wood showed to be not recommendable from the microbiological point of view. In addition, the potential of qPCR was tested in other materials of cultural heritage, as old parchments, showing to be a suitable method for measuring fungal abundance in these delicate materials. PMID

  14. The Impact of Cultural Assumptions about Technology on Choctaw Heritage Preservation and Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezal, Jake A.

    2013-01-01

    Neither the effects of information and communication technology (ICT) on culture nor the cultural roles of ICT are widely understood, particularly among marginalized ethno-cultures and indigenous people. One theoretical lens that has received attention outside of Native American studies is the theory of Information Technology Cultures, or "IT…

  15. X-ray CT imaging as a scientific tool to study the capillary water absorption in sedimentary rocks used in cultural heritages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberghina, M. F.; Barraco, R.; Brai, M.; Lo Casto, A.; Mazzocchio, A.; Schillaci, T.

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes the X-Ray CT imaging as appropriate tool for investigating the capillary water absorption in sedimentary rocks. This technique, in fact, provides information useful for deeping the knowledge about of the porosity and the kinetics of the water capillary absorption in porous materials. The possibility to improve in non invasive manner, the understanding of this phenomenon, constitutes a fundamental aspect to take actions in the restoration and conservation of lapideous artifact and monuments from cultural heritages. The investigated sedimentary rocks come from different Sicilian quarries and were used for the building of the Greek temples in the archaeological areas of Agrigento, Selinunte and in the baroque monuments of the Val di Noto area. The image acquisition was carried out at different times after contact with water. The wetting front progression along the height of the sample was evaluated on the basis of the estimated CT attenuation value maps. An average of the CT attenuation values measured by the ROI (Region of Interest) was used to evaluate the mean height of the wetting front, with different CT scans at fixed time intervals after sample wetting, in order to describe the dynamic behaviour of the imbibition process. CT imaging results have shown that the water absorption is highly subject to the sample porous morphology.

  16. Nanostructure and irreversible colloidal behavior of Ca(OH)2: implications in cultural heritage conservation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navarro, C; Ruiz-Agudo, E; Ortega-Huertas, M; Hansen, E

    2005-11-22

    Although Ca(OH)2 is one of the oldest art and building material used by mankind, little is known about its nanostructural and colloidal characteristics that play a crucial role in its ultimate performance as a binder in lime mortars and plasters. In particular, it is unknown why hydrated lime putty behaves as an irreversible colloid once dried. Such effect dramatically affects the reactivity and rheology of hydrated lime dispersions. Here we show that the irreversible colloidal behavior of Ca(OH)2 dispersions is the result of an oriented aggregation mechanism triggered by drying. Kinetic stability and particle size distribution analysis of oven-dried slaked lime or commercial dry hydrate dispersions exhibit a significant increase in settling speed and particle (cluster) size in comparison to slaked lime putty that has never been dried. Drying-related particle aggregation also leads to a significant reduction in surface area. Electron microscopy analyses show porous, randomly oriented, micron-sized clusters that are dominant in the dispersions both before and after drying. However, oriented aggregation of the primary Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals (approximately 60 nm in size) is also observed. Oriented aggregation occurs both before and during drying, and although limited before drying, it is extensive during drying. Nanocrystals self-assemble in a crystallographically oriented manner either along the 100 or equivalent 110 directions, or along the Ca(OH)2 basal planes, i.e., along [001]. While random aggregation appears to be reversible, oriented aggregation is not. The strong coherent bonding among oriented nanoparticles prevents disaggregation upon redispersion in water. The observed irreversible colloidal behavior associated with drying of Ca(OH)2 dispersions has important implications in heritage conservation, particularly considering that nowadays hydrated lime is often the preferred alternative to portland cement in architectural heritage conservation. Finally, our

  17. African American Culture and Heritage in Higher Education Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kassie, Ed.

    Fifteen papers examine the cultural context and history of African Americans in higher education research and practice. Papers are grouped in three parts: African American culture in higher education research; African American higher education research issues and paradigms; and African American culture and higher education policy and practice.…

  18. Advanced discriminating criteria for natural organic substances of cultural heritage interest: spectral decomposition and multivariate analyses of FT-Raman and FT-IR signatures.

    PubMed

    Daher, Céline; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Paris, Céline; Regert, Martine

    2013-10-15

    Natural organic substances are involved in many aspects of the cultural heritage field. Their presence in different forms (raw, heated, mixed), with various conservation states, constitutes a real challenge regarding their recognition and discrimination. Their characterization usually involves the use of separative techniques which imply destructive sampling and specific analytical preparations. Here we propose a non destructive approach using FT-Raman and infrared spectroscopies for the identification and differentiation of natural organic substances. Because of their related functional groups, they usually present similar vibrational signatures. Nevertheless the use of appropriate signal treatment and statistical analysis was successfully carried out to overcome this limitation, then proposing new objective discriminating methodology to identify these substances. Spectral decomposition calculations were performed on the CH stretching region of a large set of reference materials such as resins, oils, animal glues, and gums. Multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analyses) were then performed on the fitting parameters, and new discriminating criteria were established. A set of previously characterized archeological resins, with different surface aspects or alteration states, was analyzed using the same methodology. These testing samples validate the efficiency of our discriminating criteria established on the reference corpus. Moreover, we proved that some alteration or ageing of organic materials is not an issue to their recognition.

  19. Educational x-ray experiments and XRF measurements with a portable setup adapted for the characterization of cultural heritage objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianoudis, I.; Drakaki, E.; Hein, A.

    2010-05-01

    It is common to modify valuable, sophisticated equipment, originally acquired for other purposes, to adapt it for the needs of educational experiments, with great didactic effectiveness. The present project concerns a setup developed from components of a portable system for energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Two educational modules have been developed on the basis of this setup. Module 1 comprises a series of x-ray laboratory exercises investigating basic principles, such as the verification of Moseley's law, Compton's law and the Lambert-Beer law. Module 2 concerns the calibration of the XRF with reference materials, aiming to get quantitative measurements of the elemental composition of objects of cultural interest. The application of the calibrated experimental setup is demonstrated with indicative measurements of metal objects and pigments of wall paintings, in order to discuss their spectra, and their qualitative and quantitative analyses. The setup and the applied experiments are designed as an educational package of laboratory exercises on the one hand for students in natural sciences, and on the other for the education of students who will work in the field of cultural heritage, such as conservation science or archaeological science.

  20. A Pilot Project To Include Culture in the Spanish Business Language Curriculum for Heritage Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Frank

    The Spanish-speaking population is the third-largest language group worldwide, hence Spanish and Hispanic cultures are of major interest in the business sector. At the University of Texas, San Antonio, a course in "Spanish for Special Purposes: Business" integrates culture into the curriculum. Most students taking the course are…

  1. The National Heritage of Ki Hadjar Dewantara in Tamansiswa about Culture-Based Education and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towaf, Siti Malikhah

    2016-01-01

    Global interdependence is a reality; in the security, economics, politics, socio-culture, and especially in the education of a nation;. Relevant to the need for an international dialog on education, this study tries to explore: 1) the concepts of culture-based education and learning of Ki Hadjar Dewantara (KHD) in Tamansiswa, 2) the results of…

  2. Investigating Heritage Language and Culture Links: An Indo-Canadian Hindu Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Nootan; Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although it is commonly believed that language and culture are inexorably linked, the precise nature of this relationship remains elusive. This study investigated the hypothesis that a loss in language signals a loss in culture if language is considered a central value. This hypothesis was investigated by rating the Hindi and English proficiency…

  3. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  4. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  5. Using Object-Based Activities and an Online Inquiry Platform to Support Learners' Engagement with Their Heritage Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charitonos, Koula; Charalampidi, Marina; Scanlon, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Heritage language education is distinct from the field of second language acquisition due to having the concept of identity always at its core (Leeman, Rabin, & Roman-Mendoza, 2012). This paper draws on this concept and presents an action research study focusing on the teaching and learning of Greek as a heritage language in the context of…

  6. Sensor technologies and non-destructive monitoring for dampness diagnosis in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Gómez Heras, Miguel; Fort González, Rafael; Valles Iriso, Javier; José Varas Muriel, María

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a case study based on results of monitoring campaigns developed in San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). This Church was built in the twelfth-thirteenth centuries (Romanesque style) with dolostone ashlars. It was reconstructed in the sixteenth century (Renaissance style) with rubble stone and mortar, brick and an earth fill. Different sections on walls and floors (north and south oriented) have been selected based on a preliminary study of moisture distribution on stone and masonry wall. The behavior of different materials has been studied according to the influence of indoor (microclimatic conditions) and outdoor conditions (weather conditions) and taking into account constructive facts. Several sensing technologies as dataloggers and wireless sensor networks (WSN) together to other non invasive techniques as thermal imaging, portable moisture meter, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been conducted. By means of this study it has been possible to establish an analysis methodology to determine the dampness origin in each case. Conclusions related to the each technique according to its effectiveness in the detection of decay problems have been established. Research funded by Geomateriales 2(S2013/MIT-2914) and Deterioration of stone materials in the interior of historic buildings as a result induced variation of its microclimate (CGL2011-27902) projects. The cooperation received from the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio (ref. 921349), the Laboratory Network in Science and Technology for Heritage Conservation (RedLabPat, CEI Moncloa) and the Diocese of Alcalá is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Safeguard of Cultural Heritage: Evaluation of Ground Motion at Palazzo Te (Mantova, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Benetti, S.; Pisani, C.; Mastromarino, C.; Riva, P.; Marcellini, A.

    2011-12-01

    Built on the first half of the XVI century, under Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantova, Palazzo Te is one of the most relevant Italian monuments and it belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage List; the Camera dei Giganti (Chamber of the Giants) hosts a famous XVI century Giulio Romano fresco. Palazzo Te raises concerns in particular for the statics of the Fruttiere external wall and for some fissures that cross the above mentioned fresco. Therefore a monitoring survey has been undertaken to detect and qualify the vibrations caused by earthquakes and anthropic activity. Palazzo Te is situated in a low seismicity area, nevertheless even weak earthquakes could result in significant damage due to the poor soil conditions. A seismic station deployed inside the Palazzo Te recorded, on July 17, 2011, 2 cm/sec2 PGA for the ML 4.7 earthquake located at approx 51 km distance: some light damage has been observed. As far as vibrations due to anthropic origin, the station has evidenced that the major threat is due to the trains at the nearby railway: inside the Palazzo Te PGA reached 5 cm/sec2. The seismic survey led to the following considerations: 1. even low magnitude earthquakes can be a threat, given the intrinsic vulnerability of some parts of the Palazzo Te; 2. the main and possibly unique significant dangerous vibrations of anthropic origin come from the trains running nearby; 3. the response spectra evidenced that the earthquake had a consistent energy content till T0=2 seconds, while the spectrum of the trains decay abruptly at around 10 Hz. In contrast the train response spectrum is significantly higher in the high frequency range. In conclusion, despite the relatively low hazard, seismic risk is still relevant, because of the poor soil conditions coupled with the high vulnerability. The train vibrations are not a threat for the Palazzo Te structure but can cause some concerns to the frescoes.

  8. Fourteenth National Congress of the Environmental and Cultural Heritage Chemistry Division, "Chemistry in a Sustainable Society," held in Rimini (Italy) in June 2013.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elena; Passarini, Fabrizio; Morselli, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    This report briefly presents the aims and the fields of interest of the Environmental and Cultural Heritage Division (Italian Chemical Society) and the issues addressed during its national congress, held in Rimini in June 2013. The broad range of topics raised by different speakers, the variety of affiliations and institutions participating at the conference, the scientific organisations and private companies co-sponsoring the different sessions give a clear picture of the interdisciplinarity which is a hallmark of this division.

  9. Heritage Education Strategic Plan, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Margaret A.

    The Heritage Education Program mission is to promote stewardship of cultural and paleontolgical resources so present and future generations can learn from and enjoy their heritage on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands, without harm to the resources. This document defines a five year framework for BLM's educational efforts to save its vanishing…

  10. The Representation of Cultural Heritage from Traditional Drawing to 3d Survey: the Case Study of Casamary's Abbey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 3D survey the aspects most discussed in the scientific community are those related to the acquisition of data from integrated survey (laser scanner, photogrammetric, topographic and traditional direct), rather than those relating to the interpretation of the data. Yet in the methods of traditional representation, the data interpretation, such as that of the philological reconstruction, constitutes the most important aspect. It is therefore essential in modern systems of survey and representation, filter the information acquired. In the system, based on the integrated survey that we have adopted, the 3D object, characterized by a cloud of georeferenced points, defined but their color values, defines the core of the elaboration. It allows to carry out targeted analysis, using section planes as a tool of selection and filtering data, comparable with those of traditional drawings. In the case study of the Abbey of Casamari (Veroli), one of the most important Cistercian Settlement in Italy, the survey made for an Agreement with the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and University of RomaTre, within the project "Accessment of the sismic safety of the state museum", the reference 3D model, consisting of the superposition and geo-references data from various surveys, is the tool with which yo develop representative models comparable to traditional ones. It provides the necessary spatial environment for drawing up plans and sections with a definition such as to develop thematic analysis related to phases of construction, state of deterioration and structural features.

  11. The aim and participation of scientific tourism in evaluation, recognition and widening of the country's historical and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2015-07-01

    Though the phenomenon of scientific tourism is widely spread in the USA and Europe, it is a new branch in Armenian tourism. The aim of the scientific tourism is to establish relationship between the tourist and the scientist, without the tourist having any material interest. The main aim is to involve the tourist in the scientific works, giving him a chance to be a part of the expedition. One of the main goals is also to involve the local tourist in the exploration of the historical and cultural heritage. It is important to mention that besides having the chance to take part in the scientific exploration, they also enjoy the time. It gives an opportunity to make the relation between the tourist and the scientist more strengthen, and let them partnering for future. The scientific tourism gives the scientist an opportunity to get new volunteers to make it wide known for the society. What refers to a tourist it is a good chance for him to be a part of a scientific exploration, to satisfy his own interest, to get new knowledge, and take part in the development of his own country.

  12. From socialist ideology to cultural heritage: the changing basis of legitimacy in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Richard

    2014-01-01

    There has been a shift over the past generation in the moral basis for legitimacy of the Chinese state. The socialist state was legitimated by a sinified version of Marxism-Leninism, watered with the blood of revolutionary martyrs who fought on behalf of the Communist Party to defend the nation from external aggressors. However, at many levels of society, the Marxist legitimation is dead. Instead of claiming to represent the values of Communist revolutionary struggle in the twentieth century, the state is now presenting itself as the carrier and the defender of 5000 years of national cultural heritage. This undoubtedly arises partly from changes in moral attitude arising from the grass roots and partly from government initiatives descending from the top down. There is wide variation across China in the intermingling between the bottom-up and top-down moral impulses, and this is partially connected with different moral ecologies constituted by configurations of state and local political and economic institutions throughout China. In this paper, based on case studies from fieldwork carried out in several different locations in 2009, the author draws a broad map of these variations.

  13. New Perspectives of Point Clouds Color Management - the Development of Tool in Matlab for Applications in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, M.; Ackermann, S.; Fregonese, L.; Achille, C.

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes a method for Point Clouds Color management and Integration obtained from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Image Based (IB) survey techniques. Especially in the Cultural Heritage (CH) environment, methods and techniques to improve the color quality of Point Clouds have a key role because a homogenous texture brings to a more accurate reconstruction of the investigated object and to a more pleasant perception of the color object as well. A color management method for point clouds can be useful in case of single data set acquired by TLS or IB technique as well as in case of chromatic heterogeneity resulting by merging different datasets. The latter condition can occur when the scans are acquired in different moments of the same day or when scans of the same object are performed in a period of weeks or months, and consequently with a different environment/lighting condition. In this paper, a procedure to balance the point cloud color in order to uniform the different data sets, to improve the chromatic quality and to highlight further details will be presented and discussed.

  14. Challenging C. P. Snow: Active Interaction between Arts, Cultural Heritage and the Universe in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, T.

    2010-10-01

    Many events in Finland during the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) clearly demonstrated that there can be real interactions between the arts, humanities and science. We have found the 50-year-old concept, introduced by C. P. Snow, of two cultures unable to engage in a dialogue to be irrelevant. In Finland, astronomy has always been popular. The IYA2009 was celebrated in Finland with many local, national and international events. Altogether there were more than 400 events of all sizes. Arts and cultural activities were essential parts of many of these events.

  15. Calendar Pluralism and the Cultural Heritage of Domination and Resistance (Tuareg and Other Saharans)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxby, Clare

    This article is about Saharan calendars from precolonial times to the present. It shows that multiple calendar use has been a constant feature throughout the centuries, that the distinction between indigenous and imported has little meaning in this region of long-standing cultural exchange, and that many Saharan communities still simultaneously use differing official state, literate specialist, and local popular calendars. Social and political explanations of calendar pluralism are presented, contrasting the center view whereby calendars constitute a means of social control and the periphery view whereby communities may affirm their cultural autonomy through particular calendar choices.

  16. Forbearance Coping, Identification with Heritage Culture, Acculturative Stress, and Psychological Distress among Chinese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger…

  17. Learning Approaches and Cultural Influences: A Comparative Study of Confucian and Western-Heritage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennehy, Edward

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly multinational student cohorts in many higher education institutes, the possible influence of 'national culture' on students' learning approaches has become a focal point of attention. In particular, the claim that Asian (Confucian) students adopt (primarily) surface learning approaches has attracted much debate…

  18. Infinite Rehearsal of Culture in St Catherine Jamaica: Heritage as Tourist Product, Implications for Caribbean Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 20 years educational policies across the globe have become more closely aligned with industry interests. Jamaica is no exception. But what does this mean when the country's leading "industry" is tourism? It is no coincidence that in this decade the Ministry for Education became the Ministry for Education and Culture. When…

  19. Language and Culture: Heritage and Horizons. Reports of the Working Committees, Northeast Conference, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc., Madison, CT.

    This volume contains the reports of the working committees of the 1976 Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. The introduction traces the patterns of immigration in North America from the colonial period to the twentieth century. Sections entitled Origins, Cultural Pluralism, and Contributions deal with the settlement patterns…

  20. Ethnic Heritage Studies Pertaining to Arabic Culture: Six Teaching Units for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jon; Olson, Margarete

    Six social studies units are presented to help secondary school classroom teachers introduce students to Arab American culture. A major objective is to make students recognize the many contributions made by the Arabs to the development of the United States. In the introduction, Arab Americans are identified as people in the United States who…

  1. Beyond Preservation: New Directions for Technological Innovation through Intangible Cultural Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    While many digitization projects are currently underway, to help preserve Indigenous traditions, few explore the full potential of the development of digital media and networked technology through Indigenous cultures. This paper outlines the three phases necessary for a robust digital preservation, promotion and growth project: 1) Straightforward…

  2. Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

  3. A Study on Kinmen Resident's Perception of Tourism Development and Culture Heritage Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Tourism development could drive the enhancement of national income and the demands for international tourism that tourism benefits have become the key source of national revenue. The integration of cultural relics with tourism development to drive the national or regional development has currently become the world trend. Making good use of the…

  4. A multidisciplinary approach to the study of cultural heritage environments: Experience at the Palatina Library in Parma.

    PubMed

    Pasquarella, C; Balocco, C; Pasquariello, G; Petrone, G; Saccani, E; Manotti, P; Ugolotti, M; Palla, F; Maggi, O; Albertini, R

    2015-12-01

    airflow. This interdisciplinary research represents a contribution towards the definition of standardized methods for assessing the biological and microclimatic quality of indoor cultural heritage environments.

  5. Recording Cultural Heritage Using Terrestrial Laserscanning - Dealing with the System, the Huge Datasets they Create and Ways to Extract the Necessary Deliverables you can Work with

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofori, E.; Bierwagen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS) Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany"), the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D - Animations) as well as the

  6. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  7. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  8. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage in South Africa: The Development of Relevant Management Strategies in the Historical Maritime Context of the Southern Tip of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharfman, Jonathan; Boshoff, Jaco; Parthesius, Robert

    2012-10-01

    South Africans have a long association with water. It has provided a source of food, a medium for trade and a catalyst for migration and development. The country's geographical position as a crossroads of maritime trade between Europe and the East means that its history is inextricably linked to the history of the rest of the world. The result is a multi-faceted representation of sites, objects and mythologies related to water and maritime heritage that reflect not only local historical and social development, but global cultural change as well. Given the importance of South Africa's underwater cultural heritage (UCH), managers have grappled with management principles, ethics and theoretical models in an effort to produce and enforce heritage legislation that is relevant and effective. This paper outlines South Africa's maritime context from 1.5 million years ago until the present, summarises legislative and mitigation developments over the past half century and provides details of current trends in maritime archaeology and UCH management at the southern tip of Africa. Training programmes and public awareness are keys to this strategy to bring UCH and maritime archaeology into the mainstream and counter treasure hunting and looting of this rich, friable resource.

  9. Technical and technological investigation of cultural heritage: experience in applications of spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, I. A.; Chugunova, K. S.; Kadikova, I. F.; Khavrin, S. V.; Pisareva, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Physical and chemical methods of analysis are indispensable for restoration, study of painting techniques, examination and attribution of works of art. Development of new directions of investigations as well as improvements in sample preparation allow applying non-destructive analysis methods, minimizing amount of matter used to obtain informative spectra, preventing alteration and destruction of samples in the course of investigation. This paper observes the examples of applying optical and spectral methods, including molecular spectral analysis and electron microscopy, for study of binding media and pigments of painting and archaeological artifacts.

  10. Applied microbiology and biotechnology in the conservation of stone cultural heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P

    2006-11-01

    The contribution of applied microbiology and biotechnology for the preservation and restoration of culturally relevant stoneworks has been used only to a minor extent. Until recently it only involved the identification of the living organisms accountable for the deterioration of those materials by classic phenotypic identification methods. This seems to be changing, given the amount of work recently published that focuses in the introduction of molecular-based techniques for the detection of microorganisms in historic stone. Such techniques complement and expand the information up till now gathered by conventional identification methods. Along with this, efforts are being made to develop and implement bio-based methodologies that may actively contribute to the bioremediation of weathered historic stoneworks. The present mini-review aims to provide an overview of recent findings on these matters.

  11. Application of calcifying bacteria for remediation of stones and cultural heritages

    PubMed Central

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Since ages, architects and artists worldwide have focused on usage of durable stones as marble and limestone for construction of beautiful and magnificent historic monuments as European Cathedrals, Roman, and Greek temples, Taj Mahal etc. But survival of these irreplaceable cultural and historical assets is in question these days due to their degradation and deterioration caused by number of biotic and abiotic factors. These causative agents have affected not only the esthetic appearance of these structures, but also lead to deterioration of their strength and durability. The present review emphasizes about different causative agents leading to deterioration and application of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation as a novel and potential technology for dealing with these problems. The study also sheds light on benefits of microbial carbonate binders over the traditional agents and future directions. PMID:25018751

  12. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  13. In situ Raman characterization of minerals and degradation processes in a variety of cultural and geological heritage sites.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, F; Rull, F; Sanz-Arranz, A; Medina, J; Calaforra, J M; de Las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A

    2017-02-05

    We test the capabilities of in situ Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive analysis of degradation processes in invaluable masterpieces, as well as for the characterization of minerals and prehistoric rock-art in caves. To this end, we have studied the mechanism of decay suffered by the 15th-century limestone sculptures that decorate the retro-choir of Burgos Cathedral (N Spain). In situ Raman probe detected hydrated sulfate and nitrate minerals on the sculptures, which are responsible for the decay of the original limestone. In addition, in situ Raman analyses were performed on unique speleothems in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, N Spain) and in the Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, SW Spain). Unusual cave minerals were detected in El Soplao Cave, such as hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O), as well as ferromanganese oxides in the black biogenic speleothems recently discovered in this cavern. In the Gruta de las Maravillas, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) was identified for the first time, as part of the oldest cave materials, so providing additional evidence of hypogenic mechanisms that occurred in this cave during earlier stages of its formation. Finally, we present preliminary analyses of several cave paintings in the renowned "Polychrome Hall" of Altamira Cave (Cantabria, N. Spain). Hematite (Fe2O3) is the most abundant mineral phase, which provides the characteristic ochre-reddish color to the Altamira bison and deer paintings. Thus, portable Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated to be an analytical technique compatible with preserving our cultural and natural heritage, since the analysis does not require physical contact between the Raman head and the analyzed items.

  14. In situ Raman characterization of minerals and degradation processes in a variety of cultural and geological heritage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gázquez, F.; Rull, F.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Medina, J.; Calaforra, J. M.; de las Heras, C.; Lasheras, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    We test the capabilities of in situ Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive analysis of degradation processes in invaluable masterpieces, as well as for the characterization of minerals and prehistoric rock-art in caves. To this end, we have studied the mechanism of decay suffered by the 15th-century limestone sculptures that decorate the retro-choir of Burgos Cathedral (N Spain). In situ Raman probe detected hydrated sulfate and nitrate minerals on the sculptures, which are responsible for the decay of the original limestone. In addition, in situ Raman analyses were performed on unique speleothems in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, N Spain) and in the Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, SW Spain). Unusual cave minerals were detected in El Soplao Cave, such as hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O), as well as ferromanganese oxides in the black biogenic speleothems recently discovered in this cavern. In the Gruta de las Maravillas, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) was identified for the first time, as part of the oldest cave materials, so providing additional evidence of hypogenic mechanisms that occurred in this cave during earlier stages of its formation. Finally, we present preliminary analyses of several cave paintings in the renowned "Polychrome Hall" of Altamira Cave (Cantabria, N. Spain). Hematite (Fe2O3) is the most abundant mineral phase, which provides the characteristic ochre-reddish color to the Altamira bison and deer paintings. Thus, portable Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated to be an analytical technique compatible with preserving our cultural and natural heritage, since the analysis does not require physical contact between the Raman head and the analyzed items.

  15. Antarctic ice core samples: culturable bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Sisinthy; Begum, Zareena; Shiva Nageswara Rao, Singireesu Soma; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, Puram V; Manasa, Poorna; Sailaja, Buddi; Prathiba, Mambatta S; Thamban, Meloth; Krishnan, Kottekkatu P; Singh, Shiv M; Srinivas, Tanuku N R

    2013-01-01

    Culturable bacterial abundance at 11 different depths of a 50.26 m ice core from the Tallaksenvarden Nunatak, Antarctica, varied from 0.02 to 5.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1) of the melt water. A total of 138 bacterial strains were recovered from the 11 different depths of the ice core. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the 138 isolates could be categorized into 25 phylotypes belonging to phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. All isolates had 16S rRNA sequences similar to previously determined sequences (97.2-100%). No correlation was observed in the distribution of the isolates at the various depths either at the phylum, genus or species level. The 25 phylotypes varied in growth temperature range, tolerance to NaCl, growth pH range and ability to produce eight different extracellular enzymes at either 4 or 18 °C. Iso-, anteiso-, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids together constituted a significant proportion of the total fatty acid composition.

  16. Cultural Heritage Protection Issues In Leśnica, The Settlement Of Wrocław

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononowicz, Alena

    2015-09-01

    Leśnica, today the settlement on the western edge of Wrocław, formerly was an independent town, located on a previously wooded area, with a linear street system. It developed in the Middle Ages around the castle and church playing a service role for the Silesian Piast court on their way to Legnica and during hunting. In the thirteenth century it received city rights, and lost them in the eighteenth century. After the Piast dynasty had died out, it was sold by John of Luxembourg, and repeatedly changed its owners. In the nineteenth century it developed thanks to the industry, tourism and a convenient railway connection to Wrocław as well as hotel and restaurant facilities. In 1928, Leśnica was incorporated into Wrocław. After the Second World War, it lost its cultural continuity. In the 1970's, middle-heigh and high prefabricated buildings were built in the vicinity of a residential district. At the end of the twentieth and early twenty-first century, local industries were liquidated, and intensive land development started, causing the systematic blurring of its small-town character and its urban space started to acquire a character of a big city. In 2004, the old part of Leśnica was entered in the Register of Monuments. Also a ring road was planned, moving the cumbersome and dangerous transit traffic away from historic Średzka Street beyond the southern border of the settlement.

  17. Development of a biocidal treatment regime to inhibit biological growths on cultural heritage: BIODAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. E.; Alakomi, H.-L.; Fortune, I.; Gorbushina, A. A.; Krumbein, W. E.; Maxwell, I.; McCullagh, C.; Robertson, P.; Saarela, M.; Valero, J.; Vendrell, M.

    2008-12-01

    Existing chemical treatments to prevent biological damage to monuments often involve considerable amounts of potentially dangerous and even poisonous biocides. The scientific approach described in this paper aims at a drastic reduction in the concentration of biocide applications by a polyphasic approach of biocides combined with cell permeabilisers, polysaccharide and pigment inhibitors and a photodynamic treatment. A variety of potential agents were screened to determine the most effective combination. Promising compounds were tested under laboratory conditions with cultures of rock deteriorating bacteria, algae, cyanobacteria and fungi. A subsequent field trial involved two sandstone types with natural biofilms. These were treated with multiple combinations of chemicals and exposed to three different climatic conditions. Although treatments proved successful in the laboratory, field trials were inconclusive and further testing will be required to determine the most effective treatment regime. While the most effective combination of chemicals and their application methodology is still being optimised, results to date indicate that this is a promising and effective treatment for the control of a wide variety of potentially damaging organisms colonising stone substrates.

  18. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to thermophysical characterization of cultural heritage mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Nicolas, Jean-Louis; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to approach stimulated infrared thermography possibilities in terms of measuring longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings in situ. The measuring method principle is first submitted. It is based on temporal analysis of changes in the characteristic radius beams of spatial profiles of the photothermal signal, measured on the spot of the laser excitation. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated, thanks to a series of simulations. Lastly, the method enables to correctly estimate longitudinal thermal diffusivity in a test sample, and further in a fragment copy of "Saint Christophe" belonging to the Campana collection in the Louvre.

  19. Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for the analyses of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, S.

    2012-07-01

    Field Portable Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (FP-EDXRF) is particularly useful to analyze works of art, mainly because of his noninvasive and multielemental capability. In many situations FP-EDXRF is the only non invasive technique that can be realistically used to gain some information about the chemical composition of precious and unique objects. Many kind of works, such as paintings, bronzes, precious metals alloys, inks, stones, stamps and more can be studied using a field portable EDXRF system. This manuscript highlights some drawbacks that have to be kept in mind to fulfill a valid measurement such as the need for other backup methods to support portable XRF results or the problem of the non-homogeneity of the sample. This manuscript will also present three examples to demonstrate the usefulness of FP-EDXRF with paintings on canvas, ancient bronzes and sulfur surface analyses.

  20. Multiphoton microscopy: an efficient tool for in-situ study of cultural heritage artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latour, Gaël.; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Didier, Marie; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2013-05-01

    We present multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopies. Three-dimensional (3D) non-contact laser-scanning imaging with micrometer resolution is performed without any preparation of the objects under study. 2PEF signals are emitted by a wide range of fluorophores such as pigments and binder, which can be discriminated thanks to their different emission spectral bands by using suitable spectral filters in the detection channel. SHG signals are specific for dense non-centrosymmetric organizations such as the crystalline cellulose within the wood cell walls. We also show that plaster particles exhibit SHG signals. These particles are bassanite crystals with a non-centrosymmetric crystalline structure, while the other types of calcium sulphates exhibit a centrosymmetric crystalline structure with no SHG signal. In our study, we first characterize model single-layered samples: wood, gelatin-based films containing plaster or cochineal lake and sandarac film containing cochineal lake. We then study multilayered coating systems on wood and show that multimodal nonlinear microscopy successfully reveals the 3D distribution of all components within the stratified sample. We also show that the fine structure of the wood can be assessed, even through a thick multilayered varnish coating. Finally, in situ multimodal nonlinear imaging is demonstrated in a historical violin. SHG/2PEF imaging thus appears as an efficient non-destructive and contactless 3D imaging technique for in situ investigation of historical coatings and more generally for wood characterization and coating analysis at micrometer scale.

  1. Applications of GPR in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Schettini, Giuseppe; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a safe, non-destructive and non-invasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for advanced inspection of composite structures and for diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. GPR can also be successfully employed in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics. In many Countries, where the archeological patrimony is an outstanding value (as Egypt, Israel, Greece, Central and South America), GPR is usually employed both as a diagnostic tool for the preventive detection of archeological structures and as the most advanced instrument able to prospect geometry and shape of underground valuable sites. However many uncertainties persist, because of several difficulties and ambiguities due to the complexity of the image processing in heterogeneous environment. It is possible to identify three main areas, in GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in archaeological prospecting and cultural heritage diagnostics. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions, archeological sites are often located in impervious and critical environments; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. It is also important to further investigate and promote a combined use of GPR with other non-invasive advanced techniques, typically used in the archeological investigation. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by a research team of "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE

  2. Movable Heritage in Libraries: An Introduction to Heritage and What It Means for Managing Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlisk, Meg

    2009-01-01

    The cultural heritage of library collections and individual items is of importance and interest outside the profession of librarianship. This paper gives an introduction to the concept of "movable heritage" from the heritage professional's perspective and provides suggestions as to how this concept can be applied to libraries.…

  3. Micro-layers of polystyrene film preventing metal oxidation: implications in cultural heritage conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambi, Francesca; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-12-01

    Protection of surfaces directly exposed to the detrimental action of degradative agents (i.e. oxygen, air pollutants and bacteria) is one of the most important challenges in the field of conservation of works of art. Metallic objects are subjected to specific surface corrosion phenomena that, over the years, make mandatory the research of innovative materials that should avoid the direct contact between the metal surface and the weathering agents. In this paper, the set-up, characterisation and application of a new reversible material for preserving metal artefacts are reported. Micro-layers constituted of low-adhesive polystyrene (PS) films obtained from recycling waste packaging materials made of expanded PS were studied. The morphology and thickness of PS films were characterised by optical, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A further check on thickness was carried out by means of visible spectrophotometry doping the films with a hydrophobic dye. Thermal properties of the PS micro-layers were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry coupled with optical microscopy. Permeability of the PS films to water vapour was also determined. The potential of the low-adhesive PS films, that enabled an easy removal in case of film deterioration, for preventing metal oxidation was investigated on brass specimens by simulating standard artificial corrosion programmes. Morphological and chemical (coupling the energy-dispersive X-rays spectrometry to SEM measurements) analyses carried out on these metal samples showed promising results in terms of surface protection against corrosion.

  4. [System construction of early warning for ecological security at cultural and natural heritage mixed sites and its application: a case study of Wuyishan Scenery District].

    PubMed

    You, Wei-Bin; He, Dong-Jin; Qin, De-Hua; Ji, Zhi-Rong; Wu, Li-Yun; Yu, Jian-An; Chen, Bing-Rong; Tan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposed a new concept of ecological security for protection by a comprehensive analysis of the contents and standards of world heritage sites. A frame concept model named "Pressure-State-Control" for early warning of ecological security at world heritage mixed sites was constructed and evaluation indicators of this frame were also selected. Wuyishan Scenery District was chosen for a case study, which has been severely disturbed by natural and artificial factors. Based on the frame model of "Pressure-State-Control" and by employing extension analysis, the matter-element model was established to assess the ecological security status of this cultural and natural world heritage mixed site. The results showed that the accuracy of ecological security early warning reached 84%. Early warning rank was I level (no alert status) in 1997 and 2009, but that in 2009 had a higher possibility to convert into II level. Likewise, the early-warning indices of sensitive ranks were different between 1997 and 2009. Population density, population growth rate, area index for tea garden, cultivated land owned per capita, level of drought, and investment for ecological and environmental construction were the main limiting factors to hinder the development of ecological security from 2009 to future. In general, the status of Wuyishan Scenery District ecological security was relatively good and considered as no alert level, while risk conditions also existed in terms of a few early-warning indicators. We still need to pay more attention to serious alert indicators and adopt effective prevention and control measures to maintain a good ecological security status of this heritage site.

  5. An integrated multi-medial approach to cultural heritage conservation and documentation: from remotely-sensed lidar imaging to historical archive data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Palombi, Lorenzo; Morelli, Annalisa; Chimenti, Massimo; Penoni, Sara; Dercks, Ute; Andreotti, Alessia; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Bini, Marco; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Bracci, Susanna; Cantisani, Emma; Colombini, M. Perla; Cucci, Costanza; Fenelli, Laura; Galeotti, Monica; Malesci, Irene; Malquori, Alessandra; Massa, Emmanuela; Montanelli, Marco; Olmi, Roberto; Picollo, Marcello; Pierelli, Louis D.; Pinna, Daniela; Riminesi, Cristiano; Rutigliano, Sara; Sacchi, Barbara; Stella, Sergio; Tonini, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescence LIDAR imaging has been already proposed in several studies as a valuable technique for the remote diagnostics and documentation of the monumental surfaces, with main applications referring to the detection and classification of biodeteriogens, the characterization of lithotypes, the detection and characterization protective coatings and also of some types of pigments. However, the conservation and documentation of the cultural heritage is an application field where a highly multi-disciplinary, integrated approach is typically required. In this respect, the fluorescence LIDAR technique can be particularly useful to provide an overall assessment of the whole investigated surface, which can be profitably used to identify those specific areas in which further analytical measurements or sampling for laboratory analysis are needed. This paper presents some representative examples of the research carried out in the frame of the PRIMARTE project, with particular reference to the LIDAR data and their significance in conjunction with the other applied techniques. One of the major objectives of the project, actually, was the development of an integrated methodology for the combined use of data by using diverse techniques: from fluorescence LIDAR remote sensing to UV fluorescence and IR imaging, from IR thermography, georadar, 3D electric tomography to microwave reflectometry, from analytical techniques (FORS, FT-IR, GC-MS) to high resolution photo-documentation and historical archive studies. This method was applied to a 'pilot site', a chapel dating back to the fourteenth century, situated at 'Le Campora' site in the vicinity of Florence. All data have been integrated in a multi-medial tool for archiving, management, exploitation and dissemination purposes.

  6. See-Through Imaging of Laser-Scanned 3d Cultural Heritage Objects Based on Stochastic Rendering of Large-Scale Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Hasegawa, K.; Okamoto, N.; Umegaki, R.; Wang, S.; Uemura, M.; Okamoto, A.; Koyamada, K.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for the precise 3D see-through imaging, or transparent visualization, of the large-scale and complex point clouds acquired via the laser scanning of 3D cultural heritage objects. Our method is based on a stochastic algorithm and directly uses the 3D points, which are acquired using a laser scanner, as the rendering primitives. This method achieves the correct depth feel without requiring depth sorting of the rendering primitives along the line of sight. Eliminating this need allows us to avoid long computation times when creating natural and precise 3D see-through views of laser-scanned cultural heritage objects. The opacity of each laser-scanned object is also flexibly controllable. For a laser-scanned point cloud consisting of more than 107 or 108 3D points, the pre-processing requires only a few minutes, and the rendering can be executed at interactive frame rates. Our method enables the creation of cumulative 3D see-through images of time-series laser-scanned data. It also offers the possibility of fused visualization for observing a laser-scanned object behind a transparent high-quality photographic image placed in the 3D scene. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by applying it to festival floats of high cultural value. These festival floats have complex outer and inner 3D structures and are suitable for see-through imaging.

  7. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  8. D Survey and Augmented Reality for Cultural Heritage. The Case Study of Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canciani, M.; Conigliaro, E.; Del Grasso, M.; Papalini, P.; Saccone, M.

    2016-06-01

    The development of close-range photogrammetry has produced a lot of new possibility to study cultural heritage. 3D data acquired with conventional and low cost cameras can be used to document, investigate the full appearance, materials and conservation status, to help the restoration process and identify intervention priorities. At the same time, with 3D survey a lot of three-dimensional data are collected and analyzed by researchers, but there are a very few possibility of 3D output. The augmented reality is one of this possible output with a very low cost technology but a very interesting result. Using simple mobile technology (for iPad and Android Tablets) and shareware software (in the case presented "Augment") it is possible to share and visualize a large number of 3D models with your own device. The case study presented is a part of an architecture graduate thesis, made in Rome at Department of Architecture of Roma Tre University. We have developed a photogrammetric survey to study the Aurelian Wall at Castra Praetoria in Rome. The surveys of 8000 square meters of surface have allowed to identify stratigraphy and construction phases of a complex portion of Aurelian Wall, specially about the Northern door of Castra. During this study, the data coming out of 3D survey (photogrammetric and topographic), are stored and used to create a reverse 3D model, or virtual reconstruction, of the Northern door of Castra. This virtual reconstruction shows the door in the Tiberian period, nowadays it's totally hidden by a curtain wall but, little and significative architectural details allow to know its original feature. The 3D model of the ancient walls has been mapped with the exact type of bricks and mortar, oriented and scaled according to the existing one to use augmented reality. Finally, two kind of application have been developed, one on site, were you can see superimposed the virtual reconstruction on the existing walls using the image recognition. On the other hand

  9. Magnetic Gradient Horizontal Operator (MHGO) useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth: cultural heritage (Villa degli Antonini, Rota Rio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Several factors were taken into consideration in order to appropriately tailor the geophysical explorations at the cultural heritage. Given the fact that each site has been neglected for a long time and in recent times used as an illegal dumping area, we thoroughly evaluated for this investigation the advantages and limitations of each specific technique, and the general conditions and history of the site. We took into account the extension of the areas to be investigated and the need for rapid data acquisition and processing. Furthermore, the survey required instrumentation with sensitivity to small background contrasts and as little as possible affected by background noise sources. In order to ascertain the existence and location of underground buried walls, a magnetic gradiometer survey (MAG) was planned. The map of the magnetic anomalies is not computed to reduction at the pole (RTP), but with a magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO). The magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO) generates from a grid of vertical gradient a grid of steepest slopes (i.e. the magnitude of the gradient) at any point on the surface. The MHGO is reported as a number (rise over run) rather than degrees, and the direction is opposite to that of the slope. The MHGO is zero for a horizontal surface, and approaches infinity as the slope approaches the vertical. The gradient data are especially useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth. The map reveals some details of the anomalies of the geomagnetic field. Magnetic anomalies due to walls are more evident than in the total intensity map, whereas anomalies due to concentrations of debris are very weak. In this work we describe the results of an investigation obtained with magnetometry investigation for two archaeological sites: "Villa degli Antonini" (Genzano, Rome) and Rota Ria (Mugnano in Teverina, Viterbo). Since the main goal of the investigation was to understand the nature of magnetic anomalies with cost

  10. Institutional Dimensions of Cultural Bias on the Texas-Mexico Border: Linguistic Insecurity among Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Glenn A.; Petrucci, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study measures linguistic insecurity among college level heritage language (HL) learners along the Texas-Mexico border. We measured students' self-reported confidence in speaking and writing in English and in Spanish and analyzed students' perception of instruction in both languages. We argue that high levels of linguistic insecurity…

  11. Protection of Cultural Heritage in Urban Areas during Peace and Conflict Times from Threats to Risk Preparedness as a Shared Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimino, C.

    2013-07-01

    In times of economic hardship, the support given by specialized civil society organisations to public institutions in the protection of cultural heritage has often proved very useful, and there is evidence that their contribution is essential in times of conflicts and natural disasters, if well-designed plans and measures are organized efficiently, thoroughly tested and properly implemented. The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (HC), its two Protocols and other international juridical instruments address these situations since decades, however, they remained widely not-applied in absence of proper regulatory instruments. In 2004, the Second Protocol of the Hague Convention (1999HP) entered into force and the Committee of the State Parties was formed. It became clear that a new trend started when, in 2009, draft Guidelines for the implementation of the 1999HP were issued. Meanwhile, WATCH, in partnership with the Council of the United Municipalitities of Jbail (Lebanon) and the Head of the Municipality of Mtskheta (Georgia) prepared a project proposal aimed to set a precedent in the governance of urban sites that are registered in the World Heritage List which are at risk of armed conflict. The project War Free World Heritage Listed Cities http://www.warfreeheritage.net/ was co-financed in 2010 with a grant within the framework of the EC CIUDAD programme and it is currently at an advanced level of implementation. This presentation will focus on achievements and contingencies faced during implementation as well as lessons learned that could be surely useful for pers pective applicants.

  12. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  13. The University of Alcala de Henares (madrid, Spain), as a Dynamic Example and Laboratory of the Recovery, Rehabilitation, and Conservation of the Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverría Valiente, E.; da Casa Martín, F.; Celis D'amicoa, F.; Navarro, P. C.

    2013-07-01

    Cardinal Cisneros launched in 1499 a major universitary project, that was located in Alcala de Henares (Madrid, Spain). It bestowed recently the recognition of the Council of Europe as a World Heritage Site in 1998 by UNESCO. Cisneros created the new university in the vicinity of the Roman town of Complutum. This site had two qualities which were particularly important: it was placed at a safe distance from the power of the Crown at Toledo, and it was well connected with other main Spanish cities, through the Roman road or calzada that crossed the Iberian peninsula from South to North going along some important settlements as Mérida, Toledo, Zaragoza, and Barcelona. Thus the old town of Alcala de Henares still keeps the remains of the Visigothic, Roman, Muslim and Hebrew cultures. Since the end of the fifteenth century the built Renaissance complex has gone through three clear stages, where lots of relevant architects developed their work. Among them, Pedro Gumiel and Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón can be cited for their first drawings, but other anonymous architects have also contributed to build such an interesting project. In a second stage some repairs were needed on the former structures, in order to adapt them to their new functions due to deterioration or even to changes in ownership or uses (as happened to the Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso). Finally, at the latest stage at the end of the 20th and the early 21st centuries a new regeneration project took place in order to introduce the modern technologies and energy-efficient standards the old universitary buildings. An interesting example of this modern practices on dynamic conservation of the historical heritage is the new Learning and Research Center (LRC) on the ruins of San Diego headquarter built in 1859 on the site of the Franciscan convent of Santa Maria de Jesus, founded in 1445 by Archbishop Alonso Carrillo (which in turn it replaced an earlier one). The aims of the new LRC are to, preserve and

  14. Impacts of air pollution on cultural heritage corrosion at European level: What has been achieved and what are the future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Di Turo, Francesca; Proietti, Chiara; Screpanti, Augusto; Fornasier, M Francesca; Cionni, Irene; Favero, Gabriele; De Marco, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of pollutants with Cultural Heritage materials leads to artworks and materials degradation and loss, causing an unpriceless damage. This works aims to estimate the impacts of air pollution and meteorological conditions on limestone, copper and bronze and represents the European risk assessment for corrosion of Cultural Heritage materials. The measures and policies for atmospheric pollution reduction have cut off the SO2 concentration and consequently its impact on materials is drastically reduced. Indeed, in 1980 the number of UNESCO sites in danger was extremely high (94% for limestone, 54% for copper and 1% for bronze) while in 2010 these sites did not exceed the tolerable value of surface recession and corrosion. However, some problem related to air pollution persists. In particular, Random Forest Analysis (RFA), highlights PM10 as the main responsible for materials corrosion, in 2010. Two scenarios in 2030 have been tested, highlighting that the corrosion levels of limestone, copper and bronze exceed the tolerable limits only in the Balkan area and Turkey. Our results show the importance in the air quality modelling as a powerful tool for the UNESCO sites conservation.

  15. Innovative hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating p(HEMA)/PVP networks for the cleaning of water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Joana A L; Bonelli, Nicole; Giorgi, Rodorico; Fratini, Emiliano; Gorel, Florence; Baglioni, Piero

    2013-02-26

    Water-based detergent systems offer several advantages, over organic solvents, for the cleaning of cultural heritage artifacts in terms of selectivity and gentle removal of grime materials or aged varnish, which are known to alter the readability of the painting. Unfortunately, easel paintings present specific characteristics that make the usage of water-based systems invasive. The interaction of water with wood or canvas support favors mechanical stresses between the substrate and the paint layers leading to the detachment of the pictorial layer. In order to avoid painting loss and to ensure a fine control (layer by layer) of grime removal, water-based cleaning systems have been confined into innovative chemical hydrogels, specifically designed for cleaning water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts. The synthesized hydrogels are based on semi-interpenetrating chemical poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) networks with suitable hydrophilicity, water retention properties, and required mechanical strength to avoid residues after the cleaning treatment. Three different compositions were selected. Water retention and release properties have been studied by quantifying the amount of free and bound water (from differential scanning calorimetry); mesoporosity was obtained from scanning electron microscopy; microstructure from small angle X-ray scattering. To demonstrate both the efficiency and versatility of the selected hydrogels in confining and modulating the properties of cleaning systems, a representative case study is presented.

  16. Satellite SAR imagery for site discovery, change detection and monitoring activities in cultural heritage sites: experiments on the Nasca region, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, D.; Cigna, F.; Masini, N.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    Besides their suitability for multi-temporal and spatial deformation analysis, the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image archives acquired by space-borne radar sensors can be exploited to support archaeological investigations over huge sites, even those partially or totally buried and still to be excavated. Amplitude information is one of the main properties of SAR data from which it is possible to retrieve evidences of buried structures, using feature extraction and texture analysis. Multi-temporality allows the reconstruction of past and recent evolution of both landscape and built-up environment, with the possibility to detect natural and/or anthropogenic changes, including human-induced damages to the conservation of cultural heritage. We present the methodology and first results of the experiments currently undertaken using SAR data in the Nasca region (Southern Peru), where two important civilizations such as Paracas and Nasca developed and flourished from 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. The study areas include a wide spectrum of archaeological and environmental elements to be preserved, among which: the archaeological site of Cahuachi and its surroundings, considered the largest adobe Ceremonial Centre in the World; the Nasca lines and geoglyphs in the areas of Palpa, Atarco and Nasca; the ancient networks of aqueducts and drainage galleries in the Puquios area, built by Nasca in the 1st-6th centuries AD. Archaeological prospection and multi-purpose remote sensing activities are currently carried out in the framework of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), with the direct involvement of researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Italian National Research Council. In this context, C- and L-band SAR images covering the Nasca region since 2001 were identified for the purposes of this research and, in particular, the following

  17. Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Climate Change Adaptation Methods Relating to the Preservation of Urban Coastal Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, B. R.; Routhier, M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Government Accountability Office’s report, Climate Change Adaption, examines federal, state, local, and international mitigation actions for climate change and sea-level rise. The report specifically addresses the dearth of Site-Specific Information relating to the effects of climate change on a localized scale and the challenges this poses for the development of adaption strategies. We are developing a model that will begin to regionalize climate change projections for the purpose of projecting the effects of climate change on coastal cultural heritage. As global sea level increases, so too will the number of historically significant landscapes that are threatened due to sea-level rise. Because of this, historical preservationists will require a greater availability of pertinent information in order to contend with the threats posed by climate change and rising sea levels. These threats will have a far greater impact on Low Elevation Coastal Zones (LECZ) areas. The US ranks third for land mass classified as LECZ and has an estimated population of 22 million people living within these regions. Many of these areas have had high population densities due to the concentration of marine fishery resources, ease of transportation, and agricultural associations with river deltas. These areas have acted as catalysts for the evolution of various societies and cultures, and contain a concentrated stratification of cultural heritage deposits. The development of models for the assessment of spatial/temporal impacts of climate change on coastal cultural heritage will play a significant role in defining long-term preservation needs on a regional scale. We are coordinating ground water seepage models, tidal estuary models, and the regionalized Global Climate Models with localized geophysical assessments and GIS data sets. Through the digitization and rectification of various contemporary and historical maps we have developed a GIS data set that reflects the evolution of the

  18. The visual assessment of broth cultures for tissue bank samples.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2017-01-05

    The bioburden screening process of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received at the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services includes the routine use of solid agar and cooked meat (CM) broth media. CM has been routinely sub-cultured onto solid agar plates after aerobic incubation at 35 °C. This study will evaluate whether a visual assessment of CM can replace sub-culture by an in vitro inoculation and a prospective study. Eight challenge organisms were serially diluted and inoculated into CM. The average inoculum of 0.5-5.5 CFU produced visible turbidity of CM after 24-h incubation for 7 of the challenge organisms with one organism producing turbidity after 48-h incubation. The prospective study evaluated 222 CM of which 213 were visually clear and no-growth on sub-culture and 9 turbid CM which were culture positive. Broth cultures are an integral part of the bioburden screening process of allograft musculoskeletal tissue and swab samples and visual assessment of CM can replace sub-culture.

  19. Archaeological prospection of cultural heritage in the Nasca region, Peru, by coupling ENVISAT ASAR 2003-2007 and optical-VHR time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca; Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    We present the radar-interpretation of a 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR imagery, integrated and cross-validated with optical-Very High Resolution (VHR) data from QuickBird2, GeoEye and WorldView-1/2, and carried out over the cultural and natural heritage of the Nasca region in Southern Peru. This research is performed thanks to the provision of free-access archive SAR data from the European Space Agency (ESA) through the Cat-1 project 11073, and is supporting the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. The whole ENVISAT ASAR imagery archive, consisting of 8 ASAR IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, was processed by exploiting and analyzing SAR amplitude information and change detection to reconstruct the temporal evolution of radar signatures and related backscattering coefficient (σ0) of the targets on the ground in the monitoring period 2003-2007. The selection of a SAR amplitude-based change detection method was made to explore its actual potentials for archaeological prospection and monitoring purposes, complementarily to approaches of interferometric coherence used by other scholars over the same region of investigation. The novel contribution to heritage studies over Nasca includes remote sensing insights into the renowned UNESCO-WHL Nasca geoglyphs and archaeological mounds of the adobe Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, as well as the ancient puquios within the Rio Grande drainage basin. The latter are prehispanic underground aqueducts, and nowadays represent not only important cultural features to preserve, but also a potential driver to revitalize waterways and oases in such a dry region

  20. The Use of Gamma Radiation for the Treatment of Cultural Heritage in the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ana Maria Del Carmen; Docters, Andrea; Miranda, María Virginia; Saparrat, Mario Carlos Nazareno

    2017-02-01

    The use of gamma radiation for treating biodeteriorated cultural heritage on paper has been studied at the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA (Argentina) since 2001. In order to preserve books, publications, and documents that have been attacked by insects or fungi, gamma radiation techniques have been used at CNEA. The activities include basic research as well as their applications in infected documents and papers currently used in libraries and archives. New papers were subjected to accelerated ageing in order to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on their physical and mechanical properties. Current studies include resistance to radiation in two batches of highly cellulolytic fungi, associated with indoor environment. They are present in papers and adhesives used for conservation purposes at the Laboratory of Preventive Conservation and Restoration of Documents. A joint study has been started in CNEA with the National University of La Plata.

  1. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  2. A Rubric for Campus Heritage Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Charles A.; Fixler, David N.; Kelly, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    This article is inspired by recent observations, events, and publications, as well as by a general and rising concern for and appreciation of the culture of American historical heritage as manifested on college and university campuses. Among the influences and inspirations for this article are Richard P. Dober's (2005) "Campus Heritage"…

  3. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  4. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications. PMID:22389618

  5. Our Olympic Heritage. Potpourri 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Marilyn, Ed.

    Devoted to Greek and Roman mythic contributions to culture and developed to tie in with the 1984 Olympic Games in California, this pamphlet includes exams, discussion topics, vocabulary, and other teaching ideas on the Olympic heritage. Most of the exercises were written by Nathan Reed Mathis, former president of Southland Council of Teachers of…

  6. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although…

  7. Reconstructing the astronomical heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planesas, Pere

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the astronomical heritage can deal with the ancient astronomical knowledge, traditions and myths, as well as with old instruments and observatories. It is urgent to work for their recovery, before they are definitely forgoten, lost or destroyed. On the cultural side, the Joint ALMA Observatory is sponsoring the study of the local cosmology and sky of the indigenous people living in the region where ALMA is currently being build. In the case of ancient instruments, several success stories already exist, the most recent one being the reconstruction of the Madrid 25ft Herschel telescope. Examples of notable instruments pending reconstruction are listed.

  8. Chemistry and Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  9. Monitoring the impact of the indoor air quality on silver cultural heritage objects using passive and continuous corrosion rate assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    `t Hart, Lucy; Storme, Patrick; Anaf, Willemien; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Dorriné, Walter; Janssens, Koen; de Wael, Karolien; Schalm, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    There is a long tradition in evaluating industrial atmospheres by measuring the corrosion rate of exposed metal coupons. The heritage community also uses this method, but the interpretation of the corrosion rate often lacks clarity due to the low corrosivity in indoor museum environments. This investigation explores the possibilities and drawbacks of different silver corrosion rate assessments. The corrosion rate is determined by three approaches: (1) chemical characterization of metal coupons using analytical techniques such as electrochemical measurements, SEM-EDX, XRD, and µ-Raman spectroscopy, (2) continuous corrosion monitoring methods based on electrical resistivity loss of a corroding nm-sized metal wire and weight gain of a corroding silver coated quartz crystal, and (3) characterization of the visual degradation of the metal coupons. This study confirms that subtle differences in corrosivity between locations inside a museum can be determined on condition that the same corrosion rate assessment is used. However, the impact of the coupon orientation with respect to the prevailing direction of air circulation can be substantially larger than the impact of the coupon location.

  10. Efficacy of a Culturally Based Parenting Intervention: Strengthening Open Communication Between Mexican-Heritage Parents and Adolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L; Garvey, Meghan M; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Castro, Felipe González

    2012-12-03

    This article presents the results of an initial efficacy trial of a parenting intervention, Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), used to strengthen parenting practices, specifically, open family communication. Using community-based participatory research, including stakeholder involvement, the FPNG curriculum was developed, evaluated for feasibility, and revised to complement the classroom-based keepin' itREAL youth substance-use prevention program. FPNG focuses on family influences that characterize Mexican-heritage youth and families, including the impact of acculturation. The 9 middle schools were block-randomized into 3 groups: parents and youth (PY), youth only (Y), and control (C) conditions. Parents of 7th grade youth (N = 393, 82.8% mothers) completed self-report surveys at baseline and immediately following the intervention. Structural equation model analyses confirmed that PY parents reported significantly greater levels of open family communication at the follow-up compared with Y parents; C parents were not significantly different from Y parents at follow-up. The inclusion of parents in adolescent-focused preventive interventions might increase the effect size of an original and efficacious youth prevention intervention.

  11. Efficacy of a Culturally Based Parenting Intervention: Strengthening Open Communication Between Mexican-Heritage Parents and Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Garvey, Meghan M.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Castro, Felipe González

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of an initial efficacy trial of a parenting intervention, Familias: Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), used to strengthen parenting practices, specifically, open family communication. Using community-based participatory research, including stakeholder involvement, the FPNG curriculum was developed, evaluated for feasibility, and revised to complement the classroom-based keepin' itREAL youth substance-use prevention program. FPNG focuses on family influences that characterize Mexican-heritage youth and families, including the impact of acculturation. The 9 middle schools were block-randomized into 3 groups: parents and youth (PY), youth only (Y), and control (C) conditions. Parents of 7th grade youth (N = 393, 82.8% mothers) completed self-report surveys at baseline and immediately following the intervention. Structural equation model analyses confirmed that PY parents reported significantly greater levels of open family communication at the follow-up compared with Y parents; C parents were not significantly different from Y parents at follow-up. The inclusion of parents in adolescent-focused preventive interventions might increase the effect size of an original and efficacious youth prevention intervention. PMID:23805361

  12. Impact Assessment of the Renewable Energies in the Cultural Heritage: the Case of the Way of St. James in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chias, P.; Abad, T.

    2014-06-01

    Medieval town centres and landscapes along the Way of St. James are being affected by renewable energy sources at the architectural, urban and territorial scales. The impact is not only visual, but thermal, accoustic and electromagnetic. Visual impact of solar photovoltaic power plants - which are placed over traditional crops close to the urban borders -, and also wind farms located at the hilltops, are sometimes remarkable. Solar photovoltaic modules are integrated into ancient roofs, and small scale wind turbines are taking up the ancient urban spaces. Among other effects on animal life and vegetation, the rise in temperature, radioelectric interferences, as well as changes in the traditional land uses are noticeable, and a deep analysis is needed. Our main target is to define an integrated methodology which considers all these effects. As a part of our project premises, we work with Open Source programs. We obtained a digital terrain model - 25 m spatial resolution -, and from Corine Land Cover images we got different raster files according to our research targets. Databases where implemented from both remote sensing and measures obtained directly in the field work. We applied GIS based multicriteria decision analysis and weighted linear combination, and then we adapted GRASS tools for a better usability. Our case studies are particularly interesting due to their situation along the Spanish Way of St. James, which is an itinerary named one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

  13. On the advance of non-invasive techniques implementation for monitoring moisture distribution in cultural heritage: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Gómez Heras, Miguel; Fort González, Rafael; Valles Iriso, Javier; José Varas Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a case study developed in San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (12th -16th Century), which have been selected as an example of a historical church with a complex construction with subsequent combination of architectural styles and building techniques and materials. These materials have a differential behavior under the influence of external climatic conditions and constructive facts. Many decay processes related to humidity are affecting the building's walls and also have influence in the environmental dynamics inside the building. A methodology for monitoring moisture distribution on stone and masonry walls and floors was performed with different non-invasive techniques as thermal imaging, wireless sensor networks (WSN), portable moisture meter, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), in order to the evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques for the knowledge of moisture distribution inside the walls and the humidity origin. North and south oriented sections, both on walls and floors, were evaluated and also a general inspection in the church was carried out with different non-invasive techniques. This methodology implies different monitoring stages for a complete knowledge of the implication of outdoors and indoors conditions on the moisture distribution. Each technique is evaluated according to its effectiveness in the detection of decay processes and maintenance costs. Research funded by Geomateriales (S2013/MIT-2914) and Deterioration of stone materials in the interior of historic buildings as a result induced variation of its microclimate (CGL2011-27902) projects. The cooperation received from the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio (ref. 921349), the Laboratory Network in Science and Technology for Heritage Conservation (RedLabPat, CEI Moncloa) and the Diocese of Alcalá is gratefully acknowledged. MI Mart

  14. Enhancing the Reuse of Digital Resources for Integrated Systems to Represent, Understand and Dynamize Complex Interactions in Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F. J.; Martinez, R.; Finat, J.; Martinez, J.; Puche, J. C.; Finat, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we develop a multiply interconnected system which involves objects, agents and interactions between them from the use of ICT applied to open repositories, users communities and web services. Our approach is applied to Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments (ACHE). It includes components relative to digital accessibility (to augmented ACHE repositories), contents management (ontologies for the semantic web), semiautomatic recognition (to ease the reuse of materials) and serious videogames (for interaction in urban environments). Their combination provides a support for local real/remote virtual tourism (including some tools for low-level RT display of rendering in portable devices), mobile-based smart interactions (with a special regard to monitored environments) and CH related games (as extended web services). Main contributions to AR models on usual GIS applied to architectural environments, concern to an interactive support performed directly on digital files which allows to access to CH contents which are referred to GIS of urban districts (involving facades, historical or preindustrial buildings) and/or CH repositories in a ludic and transversal way to acquire cognitive, medial and social abilities in collaborative environments.

  15. Precise Visualization Method for Cultural Heritage-The Case of High-Resolution Read Relief Image Map Used for Study of Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Shimoda, I.; Haraguchi, T.; Shimoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    To precisely visualize the Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia, we used a new method in field of cultural heritage study. Read Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) is a powerful method which has been used for geomorphological studies. In this study, using the LiDAR data conducted at the Angkor Archaeological Park in Cambodia in April 2012 (Evans et al., 2013), we visualized the Royal City of Angkor Thom and its vicinity (Shimoda et al., 2016). The RRIM provided a new visualization method of localizing, minute topographical changes in regions with large undulations over a wide area. It has proved to be effective in mapping, on a single wide-area map, the numerous buried remains that exist as comparable height differences or minute undulations measuring less than 1 meter in height, and provides a unique aerial view of their widespread distribution. Based on the RRIM map, past archaeological studies were referenced to reconstruct the layout of the water channel network system. Past studies revealed that a large number of ponds had been dug inside Angkor Thom. The RRIM expanded the investigation and revealed the existence of many ponds outside the royal capital indicating that a residential community had flourished outside the moat surrounded capital city.

  16. Attention to Instruction Directed to Another by U.S. Mexican-Heritage Children of Varying Cultural Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Angelica; Correa-Chavez, Maricela; Rogoff, Barbara; Gutierrez, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Children commonly observe and pitch in to ongoing activities in Indigenous communities of Mexico, according to ethnographic research. The present study examines the generality of this approach to learning by comparing its use among Mexican immigrants of two cultural backgrounds in the United States. Results showed more sustained attention to (and…

  17. Studies of Cultural Pluralism by Connecticut High School Students. The Peoples of Connecticut Multicultural Ethnic Heritage Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews, Ed.

    The ten essays that comprise this anthology concerning the people of Connecticut were written by high school students in Connecticut for the First Ethnic Studies Competition held in 1979-1980. The aim of the competition was to increase awareness of cultural pluralism in the state, to encourage multicultural education, to improve intergroup…

  18. When ancestral heritage is a source of discomfort: culture, pre-object relatedness, and self-alienation.

    PubMed

    Kradin, Richard L

    2012-04-01

    The ancestral claims on an individual can evoke mental conflict when they involve separating from an ethnic group whose beliefs and customs are devalued by the dominant culture. However, these claims are engraved on the psyche early in development by caretakers to the level of pre-object relatedness, where contents and affect tones are implicit and may be unavailable for later psychoanalytical interventions. In addition, as the anthropologist Clifford Geertz notes, one's culture of origin precedes the development of psyche and creates its own set of claims that must be renegotiated when one encounters a different domain of cultural symbols, a confrontation that can produce psychological dissonance and self-alienation. In this paper, three cases are examined in which mental conflicts were evoked by attempts at divesting ancestral claims in response to conscious efforts to assimilate into the dominant culture. These patients suffered from separation guilt and unstable self-esteem and reported dream imagery suggesting psychological imbalance. The requirement to carefully delineate the ancestral claims on psyche as well as those contents and affects that may not be accessible to therapeutic intervention is emphasized, and the importance of compromise and acceptance with respect to the psychological demands of the unconscious are considered.

  19. New Lipids From Cultured Archaea and Environmental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Bradley, A. S.; Hebting, Y.; Jahnke, L. L.; Embaye, T.; Orphan, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    The intact polar lipids of Archaea comprise cores with isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains with 20, 25 or 40 carbon atoms linked through ether bonds to glycerol. These cores can take the form of diethers or membrane- spanning tetraethers. Together with their wide array of polar head groups, these compounds are structurally diverse and potentially very useful as taxonomic markers for making assessments of microbial diversity independently of genomic approaches. Furthermore, the recalcitrant hydrocarbon chains of these lipids are the only really effective means to identify the presence of Archaea in ancient sedimentary environments. The advent of new LC-MS methods has enabled ready identification and quantification of intact polar lipids in cultures and environmental samples based on comparisons with appropriate standard compounds [1, 2]. However, these LC-MS analyses of intact lipids have also revealed the presence of additional compounds and it is likely that many of these represent chemical structures that are new to science. Elucidating these structures is a major analytical challenge because, generally, only minute amounts of material available for chemical characterization. In order to study these potentially new structures, one layer of information can be obtained by chemical degradation to remove and identify the polar head groups [2]. Cleavage of the ether bonds releases the hydrocarbon chains for their further characterization. One class of core lipids, the 3-hydroxyarchaeols, escaped detection for many years because strong acid treatments in the analysis protocols had destroyed hydroxyl-containing isoprenoid chains. We have now re-examined the lipids of a thermophilic methanogen, M. thermolithotrophicus, using mild procedures and avoiding strong acids. As well as the known compounds archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol, we encountered dihydroxyarchaeol. Moreover, the hydroxylated archaeols were found to exist as a very complex mixture of

  20. UNESCO Thematic Initiative ``Astronomy and World Heritage'': studies and research on technological heritage connected with space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Anna

    The Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) provides a unique opportunity to preserve exceptional properties world-wide and to raise awareness about the Outstanding Universal Value of these properties. The mission of UNESCO regarding World Heritage consists of assisting the States Parties to this Convention to safeguard properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, to support activities led by States Parties in the preservation of World Heritage, and to encourage international cooperation in heritage conservation. Considering that sites related to science and technology are among the most under-represented on the World Heritage List and recognizing the absence of an integrated thematic approach for such sites, the World Heritage Committee launched the Thematic Initiative “Astronomy and World Heritage”. Developed in close collaboration between the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), and implemented by the National Focal Points world-wide, the Thematic Initiative on Astronomy and World Heritage aims to establish a link between Science and Culture towards the recognition of scientific values of sites linked to astronomy. It provides an opportunity not only to identify the properties but also to keep their memory alive and preserve them from progressive deterioration. The implementation of this initiative has revealed numerous issues that need to be addressed, and in particular in the domain of technological heritage connected with space exploration. For this reason, the World Heritage Committee during its 36th session (Saint Petersburg, 2012) encouraged cooperation between the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, specialized agencies and relevant interdisciplinary scientific initiatives towards the elaboration of a Global Thematic Study on Heritage of Science and Technology, including studies and research on technological

  1. 3D micro-XRF for cultural heritage objects: new analysis strategies for the investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Wolff, Timo; Hahn, Oliver; Rabin, Ira; Lühl, Lars; Pagels, Marcel; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kanngiesser, Birgit

    2011-08-15

    A combination of 3D micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (3D micro-XRF) and micro-XRF was utilized for the investigation of a small collection of highly heterogeneous, partly degraded Dead Sea Scroll parchment samples from known excavation sites. The quantitative combination of the two techniques proves to be suitable for the identification of reliable marker elements which may be used for classification and provenance studies. With 3D micro-XRF, the three-dimensional nature, i.e. the depth-resolved elemental composition as well as density variations, of the samples was investigated and bromine could be identified as a suitable marker element. It is shown through a comparison of quantitative and semiquantitative values for the bromine content derived using both techniques that, for elements which are homogeneously distributed in the sample matrix, quantification with micro-XRF using a one-layer model is feasible. Thus, the possibility for routine provenance studies using portable micro-XRF instrumentation on a vast amount of samples, even on site, is obtained through this work.

  2. Calcium hydroxide nanoparticles for the conservation of cultural heritage: new formulations for the deacidification of cellulose-based artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, G.; Toccafondi, N.; Melita, L. N.; Knowles, J. C.; Bozec, L.; Giorgi, R.; Baglioni, P.

    2014-03-01

    Alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions have demonstrated to be efficient for the preservation of cellulose-based artifacts, providing a stable neutral environment and, if in excess, turning into mild alkaline species. New formulations tailored for specific conservation issues have been recently obtained via a solvothermal reaction, starting from bulk metal, and short chain alcohols. Using this synthetic procedure, stable, and high concentrated calcium hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions can be obtained. The characterization of nanoparticles was carried out by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction and showed that the dispersed systems are particularly suitable for the application on porous substrates. In a direct application of this technology, acidic paper and canvas samples were artificially aged after deacidification using calcium hydroxide nanoparticles dispersed in short chain alcohols. Cellulose viscosimetric polymerization degree (DPv), cellulose pyrolysis temperature, and samples' pH were evaluated upon the aging and in terms of protective action arising from the applied treatment. In particular, determinations of DPv clearly showed that the degradation of acidic paper and canvas samples proceeds at higher rates with respect to deacidified samples. These evidences were also confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis of samples, in which the benefits due to the deacidification treatments are measured in terms of pyrolysis temperature of cellulose. These new formulations of nanoparticles dispersions expand the palette of available tools for the conservation of cellulose-based works of art, such as easel paintings, and manuscripts, potentially opening the way for the intervention on parchment and leather, whose preservation is a particularly challenging task.

  3. Structural health monitoring of engineered structures using a space-borne synthetic aperture radar multi-temporal approach: from cultural heritage sites to war zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Pietro; Tapete, Deodato; Cigna, Francesca; Perissin, Daniele; Salzer, Jacqueline; Lundgren, Paul; Fielding, Eric; Burgmann, Roland; Biondi, Filippo; Milillo, Giovanni; Serio, Carmine

    2016-10-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of engineered structures consists of an automated or semi-automated survey system that seeks to assess the structural condition of an anthropogenic structure. The aim of an SHM system is to provide insights into possible induced damage or any inherent signals of deformation affecting the structure in terms of detection, localization, assessment, and prediction. During the last decade there has been a growing interest in using several remote sensing techniques, such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), for SHM. Constellations of SAR satellites with short repeat time acquisitions permit detailed surveys temporal resolution and millimetric sensitivity to deformation that are at the scales relevant to monitoring large structures. The all-weather multi-temporal characteristics of SAR make its products suitable for SHM systems, especially in areas where in situ measurements are not feasible or not cost effective. To illustrate this capability, we present results from COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) and TerraSAR-X SAR observations applied to the remote sensing of engineered structures. We show how by using multiple-geometry SAR-based products which exploit both phase and amplitude of the SAR signal we can address the main objectives of an SHM system including detection and localization. We highlight that, when external data such as rain or temperature records are available or simple elastic models can be assumed, the SAR-based SHM capability can also provide an interpretation in terms of assessment and prediction. We highlight examples of the potential for such imaging capabilities to enable advances in SHM from space, focusing on dams and cultural heritage areas.

  4. Unusual Application Of Ion Beam Analysis For The Study Of Surface Layers On Materials Relevant To Cultural Heritage

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, F.; Salomon, J.; Aucouturier, M.; Trocellier, P.

    2006-12-01

    Recently a new thematic of research -- intentional patinas on antic copper-base objects -- lead the AGLAE (Accelerateur Grand Louvre pour l'Analyse Elementaire) team of the C2RMF (Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France) to improve its methods of analyzing thin surface layers both in their elemental composition and in-depth elemental distribution. A new beam extraction set-up containing a particle detector has been developed in order to use a 6 MeV alpha beam both in PIXE and RBS mode and to monitor precisely the ion dose received by the sample. Both RBS and ionization cross sections were assessed in order to make sure that the analysis can be quantitative. This set up allows great progresses in the understanding of both nature and structure of this very particular oxide layer obtained in the antiquity by chemical treatment on copper alloys, containing gold and/or silver and presenting very interesting properties of color and stability.Besides the non destructive properties of the IBA in external beam mode, this method of analyzing allows the study of samples in interaction with its environment. This was used to study the high temperature oxidation of Cu-Sn alloys using a furnace developed in order to heat a sample and analyze it in RBS mode at the same time. This new way of studying the growth of oxide layers permits to understand the oxidation mechanism of this system and to propose an experimental model for the identification of oxide layers due to an exposition to a high temperature, model needed for a long time by curators in charge of the study and the conservation of archaeological bronzes.

  5. Cultural heritage conservation and communication by digital modeling tools. Case studies: minor architectures of the Thirties in the Turin area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, A., Jr.; Spallone, R.

    2015-08-01

    Between the end of the twenties and the beginning of the World war two Turin, as the most of the Italian cities, was endowed by the fascist regime of many new buildings to guarantee its visibility and to control the territory: the fascist party main houses and the local ones. The style that was adopted for these constructions was inspired by the guide lines of the Modern movement which were spreading by a generation of architects as Le Corbusier, Gropius, Mendelsohn. At the end of the war many buildings were reconverted to several functions that led heavy transformations not respectful of the original worth, other were demolished. Today it's possible to rebuild those lost architectures in their primal format as it was created by their architects on paper (and in their mind). This process can guarantee the three-dimensional perception, the authenticity of the materials and the placement into the Turin urban tissue, using static and dynamic digital representation systems. The "three-dimensional re-drawing" of the projects, thought as an heuristic practice devoted to reveal the original idea of the project, inserts itself in a digital model of the urban and natural context as we can live it today, to simulate the perceptive effects that the building could stir up today. The modeling skills are the basis to product videos able to explore the relationship between the environment and "re-built architectures", describing with the synthetic movie techniques, the main formal and perceptive roots. The model represents a scientific product that can be involved in a virtual archive of cultural goods to preserve the collective memory of the architectural and urban past image of Turin.

  6. Levels of Cultural Knowledge and Self-Esteem of Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grade Participants in a Philippine Ethnic Heritage Curriculum Conducted in Guam Catholic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Etta B.

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a curriculum for increasing the cultural knowledge and self-esteem of minority group Filipino elementary school students residing on the island of Guam. The sample consisted of four fourth, fifth, and sixth grade classes attending four Catholic schools. The total number of students in each…

  7. Performance of three different Si X-ray detectors for portable XRF spectrometers in cultural heritage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Manso, M.; Longelin, S.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a study of detection systems in portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry was performed. An assessment of various detectors and their influence on the measurement of trace elements in different bulk materials, from light to heavy matrices, was done. Four reference materials were analyzed: Orchard Leaves (NBS-1571); Bone Meal (NIST-1486); River Sediment (NBS-1645) and Free-Cutting Brass (NBS-1105). Detection limits were calculated for the elements present in the reference materials, quantitative calculations were performed for three known samples and a comparison was made for each detector. Three case studies were also performed in order to appraise the behavior of the detection systems: A paper document from 1909, a potassium alum/calcite mixture and a Portuguese coin.

  8. Data and interpretation: enhancing conservation of art and cultural heritage through collaboration between scientist, conservator, and art historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jo-Fan

    2012-07-01

    Conservation practices can be greatly enhanced and influenced by scientific analysis and art historical insights. In the same respect, scientific data can be contextualized and substantiated by findings from visual examination and historical research. Such collaboration can contribute to the field of conservation in multiple ways: by assisting the conservator to investigate treatment options, discover artists' materials and techniques, determine date of manufacture, and investigate conservation treatment materials. Several technical studies conducted by the author and her collaborators employed micro-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). These techniques were used on the following previously published projects such as a Japanese painting at the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston, Thai manuscripts at the Arthur M. Sackler Museum at Harvard University, and Chinese export paintings on pith at the Winterthur Museum. Although these studies have been published in the past, they are worthy examples to illustrate how collaborations between conservator, scientist, and art historian complement one another. This presentation will also touch upon ethics in sampling of fine art materials and several online databases such as Infrared and Raman User Group (IRUG) and Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO), which have proven to be very helpful in the field of conservation.

  9. The new external ion beam analysis setup at the Demokritos Tandem accelerator and first applications in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Bistekos, Euthimios; Georgiou, Lambros; Salomon, Joseph; Bogovac, Mladen; Aloupi-Siotis, Eleni; Paschalis, Vasilis; Aslani, Ioanna; Karabagia, Sofia; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Kantarelou, Vasiliki; Karydas, Andreas-Germanos

    2011-03-01

    At the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG accelerator of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Athens, Greece, an external ion-beam set-up has been recently developed and installed. The aim of this development was to integrate the analytical capabilities of the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ion beam techniques in one experimental set-up, so that to attain a complete elemental and near surface structural characterization of samples in an almost non-destructive way and without any limitation concerning their size or conductive state. A careful 3D mechanical drawing optimized the set-up experimental parameters achieving probe dimensions at the millimeter range (1 mm 2) and fulfilling the special requirements imposed for optimum performance of the aforementioned techniques, including the possibility to use heavier, than protons, ion beams. For the digital pulse processing of the X-ray, γ-ray and charged particle detector signals, novel hardware and software tools were developed based on a custom FPGA configuration. The first applications were focused in the quality control of materials that have been intentionally contaminated with a particular tracer-element ("tagged" materials). The tagged materials which were developed and tested are technologically authentic replicas of ancient attic ceramics with black glazed decoration. Analytical diagnostic studies were carried out for a few representative paintings of contemporary Greek painters in order to identify and document materials/pigments and techniques and eventually to prevent trade of fakes. Finally, ancient glass beads were also examined with respect to the sodium concentration and its in-depth homogeneity.

  10. Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage Information Pieces in Iran over Imam Reza's 4th Zarih (Burial Chamber) as a Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrokhnia, Maliheh; Zarei, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer an example of how ontology, such as CIDOC, can be turned into a format from the perspective of an object. In fact, it illustrates the possible semantic analysis of an object description into a view neutral machine-interpretable form. The aim is to show that a museum object located in a museum can be…

  11. Acculturation among Mexican-heritage preadolescents: A latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Lee, Chioun; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This study applies advanced conceptualization and measurement to an analysis of acculturation among 1,632 Mexican-heritage preadolescents. We assessed whether – and how – multiple measures combine to form a latent acculturation construct that groups individuals into classes; and determine how many and what classes (or types) of acculturation are experienced by this sample of 5th graders. Measures included attitudinal, behavioral, and linguistic acculturation, generation status, time in the U.S., ethnic identification, and contact with the culture of origin. The analysis identified five classes of acculturation, differing in size and characterized by specific measures of acculturation: less acculturated, moderately bicultural, strongly bicultural, highly acculturated, and marginalized. Although most youths fell into the first four classes, consonant with their exposure to American society, a small minority of youths fell into the last class. Despite substantial exposure to U.S. culture and recent exposure to Mexican culture, these youth showed little affinity for either culture. PMID:21785519

  12. Heritage contribution in sustainable city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, R.; Khoshnava, S. M.; Lamit, H.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of sustainability has been an integral part of development work since the late 1970s. Sustainability is no longer a buzzword but a reality that must be addressed by cities all over the world. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that city sustainability is not just related to technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth, but also it covers social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a major component of quality of life, features that give a city its unique character and provide the sense of belonging that lies at the core of cultural identity. In other words, heritage by providing important social and psychological benefits enrich human life with meanings and emotions, and raise quality of life as a key component of sustainability. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine the role that built cultural heritage can play within sustainable urban development.

  13. Circum-Mediterranean cultural heritage and medicinal plant uses in traditional animal healthcare: a field survey in eight selected areas within the RUBIA project

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Andrea; Giusti, Maria Elena; de Pasquale, Caterina; Lenzarini, Cinzia; Censorii, Eleonora; Gonzáles-Tejero, María Reyes; Sánchez-Rojas, Cristina Patricia; Ramiro-Gutiérrez, Jose M; Skoula, Melpomeni; Johnson, Chris; Sarpaki, Anaya; Della, Athena; Paraskeva-Hadijchambi, Demetra; Hadjichambis, Andreas; Hmamouchi, Mohammed; El-Jorhi, Said; El-Demerdash, Mohamed; El-Zayat, Mustafa; Al-Shahaby, Omar; Houmani, Zahia; Scherazed, Mekious

    2006-01-01

    During the years 2003–2005, a comparative ethnobotanical field survey was conducted on remedies used in traditional animal healthcare in eight Mediterranean areas. The study sites were selected within the EU-funded RUBIA project, and were as follows: the upper Kelmend Province of Albania; the Capannori area in Eastern Tuscany and the Bagnocavallo area of Romagna, Italy; Cercle de Ouezanne, Morocco; Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche Natural Park in the province of Huelva, Spain; the St. Catherine area of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; Eastern and Western Crete, Greece; the Paphos and Larnaca areas of Cyprus; and the Mitidja area of Algeria. One hundred and thirty-six veterinary preparations and 110 plant taxa were recorded in the survey, with Asteraceae and Lamiaceae being the most quoted botanical families. For certain plant species the survey uncovered veterinary phytotherapeutical indications that were very uncommon, and to our knowledge never recorded before. These include Anabasis articulata (Chenopodiaceae), Cardopatium corymbosum (Asteraceae), Lilium martagon (Liliaceae), Dorycnium rectum (Fabaceae), Oenanthe pimpinelloides (Apiaceae), Origanum floribundum (Lamiaceae), Tuberaria lignosa (Cistaceae), and Dittrichia graveolens (Asteraceae). These phytotherapeutical indications are briefly discussed in this report, taking into account modern phytopharmacology and phytochemistry. The percentage of overall botanical veterinary taxa recorded in all the study areas was extremely low (8%), however when all taxa belonging to the same botanical genus are considered, this portion increases to 17%. Nevertheless, very few plant uses were found to be part of a presumed "Mediterranean" cultural heritage in veterinary practices, which raises critical questions about the concept of Mediterraneanism in ethnobotany and suggests that further discussion is required. Nearly the half of the recorded veterinary plant uses for mammals uncovered in this survey have also been recorded

  14. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  15. A Tale of Three Campuses: Planning and Design in Response to the Cultural Heritages at Mills College, the University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiene, Karen; Sabbatini, Robert

    2011-01-01

    How do forward-looking institutions with rich landscape and architectural heritages integrate contemporary programming and design? This article explores the evolution of the Mills College campus and compares it with two larger western universities: the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) and Leland Stanford, Jr., University (Stanford…

  16. Heritage Learners in the Chinese Language Classroom: Home Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Yun

    2006-01-01

    Studies from information-processing and language comprehension research have reported that background knowledge facilitates reading and writing. By comparing Chinese language development of heritage students who had home background in Chinese language and culture with those who did not, this study found that heritage learners did significantly…

  17. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

  18. Evaluation of a PCR assay on overgrown environmental samples cultured for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Labrecque, Olivia; Paré, Julie; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the definitive antemortem test method for paratuberculosis. Microbial overgrowth is a challenge for MAP culture, as it complicates, delays, and increases the cost of the process. Additionally, herd status determination is impeded when noninterpretable (NI) results are obtained. The performance of PCR is comparable to fecal culture, thus it may be a complementary detection tool to classify NI samples. Our study aimed to determine if MAP DNA can be identified by PCR performed on NI environmental samples and to evaluate the performance of PCR before and after the culture of these samples in liquid media. A total of 154 environmental samples (62 NI, 62 negative, and 30 positive) were analyzed by PCR before being incubated in an automated system. Growth was confirmed by acid-fast bacilli stain and then the same PCR method was again applied on incubated samples, regardless of culture and stain results. Change in MAP DNA after incubation was assessed by converting the PCR quantification cycle (Cq) values into fold change using the 2(-ΔCq) method (ΔCq = Cq after culture - Cq before culture). A total of 1.6% (standard error [SE] = 1.6) of the NI environmental samples had detectable MAP DNA. The PCR had a significantly better performance when applied after culture than before culture (p = 0.004). After culture, a 66-fold change (SE = 17.1) in MAP DNA was observed on average. Performing a PCR on NI samples improves MAP culturing. The PCR method used in our study is a reliable and consistent method to classify NI environmental samples.

  19. Teaching America's Maritime Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman, Ray

    1977-01-01

    The author recommends that social studies curricula include study of American maritime heritage. He describes aspects of the heritage, such as commercial trade and water sports; suggests topics for mini-units, such as marine careers; and presents an annotated bibliography of 56 resources for teaching about maritime activities. (AV)

  20. Heritage Learning, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbishley, Mike, Ed.; Glen, Ken, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The spring special theme issue of English Heritage's, "Discover Your Heritage," celebrates half a million years of history. The publication contains a poster and timeline (from Boxgrove to the Channel Tunnel) which should be a useful classroom resource. In the center of the issue is a unique pullout aimed at younger students which…

  1. On the Need for Reliable Seismic Input Assessment for Optimized Design and Retrofit of Seismically Isolated Civil and Industrial Structures, Equipment, and Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experience of recent violent earthquakes, the limits of the methods that are currently used for the definition of seismic hazard are becoming more and more evident to several seismic engineers. Considerable improvement is felt necessary not only for the seismic classification of the territory (for which the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—PSHA—is generally adopted at present), but also for the evaluation of local amplification. With regard to the first item, among others, a better knowledge of fault extension and near-fault effects is judged essential. The aforesaid improvements are particularly important for the design of seismically isolated structures, which relies on displacement. Thus, such a design requires an accurate definition of the maximum value of displacement corresponding to the isolation period, and a reliable evaluation of the earthquake energy content at the low frequencies that are typical of the isolated structures, for the site and ground of interest. These evaluations shall include possible near-fault effects even in the vertical direction; for the construction of high-risk plants and components and retrofit of some cultural heritage, they shall be performed for earthquakes characterized by very long return periods. The design displacement shall not be underestimated, but neither be excessively overestimated, at least when using rubber bearings in the seismic isolation (SI) system. In fact, by decreasing transverse deformation of such SI systems below a certain value, their horizontal stiffness increases. Thus, should a structure (e.g. a civil defence centre, a masterpiece, etc.) protected in the aforesaid way be designed to withstand an unnecessarily too large earthquake, the behaviour of its SI system will be inadequate (i.e. it will be too stiff) during much more frequent events, which may really strike the structure during its life. Furthermore, since SI can be used only when the room available to the structure

  2. The Mexican American Heritage: With Writing Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Carlos M.

    Written by a Los Angeles history teacher frustrated by the lack of culturally relevant materials, this book covers some of the most interesting events in the history of Mexico and the heritage of Mexican Americans. Chapters are: (1) Indian Mexico (Teotihuacan, the Maya, the Toltecs, and the Aztecs); (2) La Conquista (Cortes and Moctezuma, conquest…

  3. Heritage Education Resource Guide. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Kathleen, Ed.

    Heritage education is defined as teaching and learning about U.S. history and culture. It is an interdisciplinary approach to education that encompasses subjects like architecture, art, community planning, social history, politics, conservation, and transportation. This guide is intended to help persons identify information about heritage…

  4. Pinto Horse Rider. Blackfeet Heritage Program: Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Many Guns, Tom

    As part of an effort to preserve oral tradition and produce a history about the Blackfeet people, Tom Many Guns relates the story of his life and, in so doing, brings out the rich cultural heritage of the Blackfeet. The recollections were gathered through interviews and translated from Blackfeet to English using every effort to preserve Tom Many…

  5. The Architectural Heritage: A Market Under Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalck, Paul; Pillemont, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    From preservation of historical monuments to repair of existing buildings, architectural heritage seems to be a market with a future for France's building industry. The public's enthusiasm, along with greater appreciation of the "value" of cultural goods and their integration into a framework of economic development offer a favorable…

  6. Detection limits of Legionella pneumophila in environmental samples after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficiency of recovery and the detection limit of Legionella after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga are not known and so far no investigations have been carried out to determine the efficiency of the recovery of Legionella spp. by co-culture and compare it with that of conventional culturing methods. This study aimed to assess the detection limits of co-culture compared to culture for Legionella pneumophila in compost and air samples. Compost and air samples were spiked with known concentrations of L. pneumophila. Direct culturing and co-culture with amoebae were used in parallel to isolate L. pneumophila and recovery standard curves for both methods were produced for each sample. Results The co-culture proved to be more sensitive than the reference method, detecting 102-103 L. pneumophila cells in 1 g of spiked compost or 1 m3 of spiked air, as compared to 105-106 cells in 1 g of spiked compost and 1 m3 of spiked air. Conclusions Co-culture with amoebae is a useful, sensitive and reliable technique to enrich L. pneumophila in environmental samples that contain only low amounts of bacterial cells. PMID:23442526

  7. Culture methods of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples in Australian bacteriology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are cultured by bacteriology laboratories to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. In Australia, this testing is performed by 6 TGA-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories with samples received from 10 tissue banks. Culture methods of swab and tissue samples employ a combination of solid agar and/or broth media to enhance micro-organism growth and maximise recovery. All six Australian laboratories receive Amies transport swabs and, except for one laboratory, a corresponding biopsy sample for testing. Three of the 6 laboratories culture at least one allograft sample directly onto solid agar. Only one laboratory did not use a broth culture for any sample received. An international literature review found that a similar combination of musculoskeletal tissue samples were cultured onto solid agar and/or broth media. Although variations of allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples, culture media and methods are used in Australian and international bacteriology laboratories, validation studies and method evaluations have challenged and supported their use in recovering fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  8. Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects.

  9. Molecular Signatures of Methanogens in Cultures and Environmental Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Baumgartner, M.

    2002-12-01

    The core lipids of methanogens comprise C20 and C40 isoprenoid chains, linked through ether bonds to glycerol. Additional structural diversity is encoded into the polar head groups that are attached to the glycerol ether cores. These compounds are potentially very useful as taxonomic markers in microbial mats and other environmental samples while the nature of the hydrocarbon chains provide a means to identify methanogenic inputs to ancient sediments. The structural diversity of methanogen polar lipids is most valuable when it can be directly correlated to 16S rRNA phylogeny. On the other hand, this diversity can also leads to analytical challenges because there is no single approach that works for all structural types. While some intact methanogen lipids have been identified using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, the most common means of analysing the lipid cores involves cleavage of the ether bonds using HI and subsequent reduction of the alkyl iodides to hydrocarbons with LiAlH4. One class of methanogenic lipids, the 3?-hydroxyarchaeols, escaped detection for some years because strong acid treatments in the analysis protocols destroyed hydroxyl-containing isoprenoid chains. We have been systematically re-examining the lipids of methanogens, using milder procedures involving weak acid hydrolysis of polar head groups, derivatisation to form trimethylsilyl ethers and analysis by GC-MS. As well as archaeol, sn-2- and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol, we have tentatively identified a dihydroxyarchaeol in several Methanococcus sp. For Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus an analysis of the total lipid extracts using BBr3 as an ether cleavage reagent followed by LiBEt3H, reduction revealed a very complex mixture consisting of phytane, phytenes, biphytane, biphytenes and a suite of related alcohols. The latter compounds were analysed by GC-MS as their trimethylsilyl ethers and found to comprise a mixture tentatively identified as phytan-N-ol and biphytan-N-ol where N= 3 or 7

  10. Sample taking during orthopedic surgery: sensitivity and specificity using the BACTEC blood culture system.

    PubMed

    Podleska, L E; Lendemans, S; Schmid, E; Hussmann, B; Nast-Kolb, D; Taeger, G

    2012-02-01

    The use of blood culture systems for sterile body fluids other than blood has proven to be superior to routine culture methods. This study was conducted in order to assess the performance of the BACTEC blood culture system compared to swab/tissue sample collection for the detection of infection from intraoperative samples taken during surgical procedures. Sensitivity was determined by taking samples (BACTEC and swab/tissue samples) from patients with clinically evident infection (Infection group). Specificity was tested by taking the same sample sets from patients who had aseptic operations with no history of infection (Control group). The sensitivity was found to be much higher for the BACTEC group (50 isolates from 56 samples, sensitivity: 89%) compared to the swab/tissue samples (29 isolates out of 56 samples, sensitivity: 52%). The specificity was lower in the BACTEC group (32 isolates out of 44 samples, specificity: 27%) compared to the swab/tissue samples (1 isolate out of 44 samples, specificity: 98%). We conclude that BACTEC is useful for intraoperative sample collection in cases of low-grade infection. However, it is less specific and there is always the possibility for contamination. Therefore, it is advisable to use this technique in combination with regular tissue samples.

  11. Discussion and Reflection on Several Core Issues in the Grand Canal Heritage Conservation Planning Under the Background of Application for World Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Dai, D. S.; Tang, Y. Z.; Zhu, G. Y.; Chen, X.

    2015-08-01

    At the turn of the century, a series of new heritage concepts have appeared in the area of international cultural heritage protection, such as cultural landscape, cultural route, heritage corridor, heritage canal, which presents the development of people's recognition of cultural heritage. According to The Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, management planning must be contained in the material used to apply for world heritage. The State Administration of Cultural Heritage designed the mission and work schedule of China's Grand Canal conservation planning in 2008. This research will introduce the working system of China's Grand Canal conservation planning on three levels: city, province and nation. It will also summarize the characteristics of the core technologies in China's Grand Canal conservation planning, including key issues like the identification of the core characteristic of China's Grand Canal, value assessment and determination of the protection scope. Through reviewing, thinking and analyzing the previous accomplishments, the research will offer some advices for the similar world heritage conservation planning after.

  12. Environmental and complexation effects on the structures and spectroscopic signatures of organic pigments relevant for cultural heritage: the case of Alizarin and Alizarin-Mg(II)/Al(III) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Luciano; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Licari, Daniele; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    An integrated computational approach allowed an unbiased analysis of optical and structural properties of alizarin-based pigments, which can be directly compared with experimental results. Madder lake pigments have been modeled by Mg(II)- and Al(III)-coordinated alizarin taking into account solvation and metal-linkage effects, responsible for colour modifications. Moreover, different environmental conditions have been analyzed for free alizarin, showing in all cases semi-quantitative agreement with experimental spectroscopic data (UV-VIS). Our results point out the ability of in silico approaches to unravel the subtle interplay of stereo-electronic, dynamic, and environmental effects in tuning the physico-chemical properties of pigments relevant for cultural heritage. PMID:24424261

  13. Feasibility Study of Low-Cost Image-Based Heritage Documentation in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhonju, H. K.; Xiao, W.; Sarhosis, V.; Mills, J. P.; Wilkinson, S.; Wang, Z.; Thapa, L.; Panday, U. S.

    2017-02-01

    Cultural heritage structural documentation is of great importance in terms of historical preservation, tourism, educational and spiritual values. Cultural heritage across the world, and in Nepal in particular, is at risk from various natural hazards (e.g. earthquakes, flooding, rainfall etc), poor maintenance and preservation, and even human destruction. This paper evaluates the feasibility of low-cost photogrammetric modelling cultural heritage sites, and explores the practicality of using photogrammetry in Nepal. The full pipeline of 3D modelling for heritage documentation and conservation, including visualisation, reconstruction, and structure analysis, is proposed. In addition, crowdsourcing is discussed as a method of data collection of growing prominence.

  14. Culture-Independent Detection of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Clinical Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Scoleri, Gianny P.; Choo, Jocelyn M.; Leong, Lex E. X.; Goddard, Thomas R.; Shephard, Lisa; Burr, Lucy D.; Bastian, Ivan; Thomson, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based detection of nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) in respiratory samples is time consuming and can be subject to overgrowth by nonmycobacterial bacteria. We describe a single-reaction TaqMan quantitative PCR assay for the direct detection of NTM species in clinical samples that is specific, sensitive, and robust. PMID:27413194

  15. Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-heritage Mothers in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kulis, Stephen; Perez, Hilda Garcia; Parsai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study conducted with a sample of 136 Mexican-heritage mothers residing in a large southwestern metropolitan area. From a risk-and-resiliency perspective, hopelessness was approached as a culturally specific response to family stress and other challenges encountered by Mexican immigrants. Although Mexican-heritage women and other Latinas have higher prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders than their male counterparts, they experience disparity in accessing mental health services. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among hopelessness, depression, social support, and other variables. Culturally rooted resiliency and a sense of optimism connected to immigration appear to shelter Mexican-heritage mothers from hopelessness and depression. A very large households and nonworking status were found to elevate the risk of hopelessness. Because poverty and acculturation levels were not related to hopelessness or depression, further culturally specific research distinguishing hopelessness from depression is recommended. Given that hopelessness sometimes presents itself independently from depression, implications for practice include the need to refine mental health assessment tools to capitalize on the resiliency among immigrant mothers and avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:21446605

  16. Sustainability by Education: How Latvian Heritage Was Kept Alive in German Exile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzenburg, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is one of the core challenges for education in modern times, particularly concerning cultural heritage. The study evaluates, from a German point of view, how Latvians outside of Latvia after World War II kept their cultural heritage alive by educational concepts, which can be characterized as early roots of modern sustainable…

  17. Hernan Cortes; Conquistador and Colonizer. The Tinker Pamphlet Series for the Teaching of Mexican American Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Hubert J.

    The conquest and colonization of Mexico initiated by Hernan Cortes resulted in the fusion of the Indian and Hispanic cultures. This fusion led to the "mestizo" culture. Cortes was the bearer of the Hispanic heritage just as the Aztecs and other Indians in Mexico and the Southwest were the carriers of the Indian heritage. In studying the…

  18. Strategy to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Guadalupe; Rodriguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2004-04-01

    An efficient strategy, based on a combination of procedures, was developed to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis. Samples were initially cultured in solid ASN-10 medium, and a crude separation of major contaminants from P. animalis filaments was achieved by washing in a series of centrifugations and resuspensions in liquid medium. Then, manageable filament fragments were obtained by probe sonication. Fragmentation was followed by forceful washing, using vacuum-driven filtration through an 8-microm pore size membrane and an excess of water. Washed fragments were cultured and treated with a sequential exposure to four different antibiotics. Finally, axenic cultures were obtained from serial dilutions of treated fragments. Monitoring under microscope examination and by inoculation in Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates indicated either axenicity or the degree of contamination throughout the strategy.

  19. Heritage Education in the School Curriculum: Defining and Avoiding the Pitfalls. Heritage Education Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    Heritage education is an approach to teaching, rather than an academic discipline or subject area. It draws on history, geography, literature, the arts, architecture, and the social and natural sciences to study the evidence of the past remaining in the natural and built environment, the material culture, written documents, and in community…

  20. Heritage Education and Heritagization Processes: SHEO Methodology for Educational Programs Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontal, Olaia; Gómez-Redondo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The cultural approach that is developed at the beginning of this article about "heritagization" processes, allows profiling three different agencies involved in these processes, therefore, an institutional agency, an individual agency, and a community agency are drawn; the last three agencies also determine the characteristics of their…

  1. Diagnosis of intramammary infection in samples yielding negative results or minor pathogens in conventional bacterial culturing.

    PubMed

    Bexiga, Ricardo; Koskinen, Mikko T; Holopainen, Jani; Carneiro, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Ellis, Kathryn A; Vilela, Cristina L

    2011-02-01

    Up to half of quarter milk samples submitted for mastitis diagnosis are culture-negative results or lead to identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci or Corynebacterium bovis in conventional culturing, the so-called minor pathogens. The interpretation and usefulness of these results in terms of udder and animal health management is limited, even though the amount of resources spent is relatively high. This work aimed to test two methods of analysis of milk samples with the goal of increasing detection of intramammary pathogens. In the first study, 783 milk samples were processed in duplicate: before and after freezing at -20°C for 24 h, using standard bacteriological techniques. There was a significant difference between the two methods with samples frozen for 24 h yielding significantly fewer Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive bacilli and significantly more samples leading to no growth, than samples before freezing. The number of samples yielding Gram-positive catalase-negative cocci was not significantly affected by freezing. In the second study, a real-time PCR-based test was performed on milk samples with an individual quarter somatic cell count above 500,000 cells/ml that were either negative (n=51 samples) or that led to the isolation of minor pathogens in culturing: Corynebacterium bovis (n=79 samples) or non-aureus staphylococci (NAS, n=32). A mastitis pathogen, beyond the result obtained with standard bacteriology, was detected on 47% of the no-growth samples, on 35% of the samples from which C. bovis had been isolated and on 25% of the samples from which NAS had been isolated. The most commonly detected major pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus uberis, Arcanobacterium pyogenes/Peptoniphilus indolicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. These results suggest that simply freezing milk samples for 24 h does not increase the detection of intramammary bacteria in milk samples and therefore

  2. Culture of Airway Epithelial Cells from Neonates Sampled within 48-Hours of Birth

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David; Turner, Steve W.; Spiteri-Cornish, Daniella; McInnes, Neil; Scaife, Alison; Danielian, Peter J.; Devereux, Graham; Walsh, Garry M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about how neonatal airway epithelial cell phenotype impacts on respiratory disease in later life. This study aimed to establish a methodology to culture and characterise neonatal nasal epithelial cells sampled from healthy, non-sedated infants within 48 hours of delivery. Methods Nasal epithelial cells were sampled by brushing both nostrils with an interdental brush, grown to confluence and sub-cultured. Cultured cells were characterised morphologically by light and electron microscopy and by immunocytochemistry. As an exemplar pro-inflammatory chemokine, IL-8 concentrations were measured in supernatants from unstimulated monolayers and after exposure to IL-1β/TNF-α or house dust mite extract. Results Primary cultures were successfully established in 135 (91%) of 149 neonatal samples seeded, with 79% (n  =  117) successfully cultured to passage 3. The epithelial lineage of the cells was confirmed by morphological analysis and immunostaining. Constitutive IL-8 secretion was observed and was upregulated by IL-1β/TNF-α or house dust mite extract in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion We describe a safe, minimally invasive method of culturing nasal epithelial cells from neonates suitable for functional cell analysis offering an opportunity to study “naïve” cells that may prove useful in elucidating the role of the epithelium in the early origins of asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. PMID:24223790

  3. Design and Implementation of an Automated Illuminating, Culturing, and Sampling System for Microbial Optogenetic Applications.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cameron J; McClean, Megan N

    2017-02-19

    Optogenetic systems utilize genetically-encoded proteins that change conformation in response to specific wavelengths of light to alter cellular processes. There is a need for culturing and measuring systems that incorporate programmed illumination and stimulation of optogenetic systems. We present a protocol for building and using a continuous culturing apparatus to illuminate microbial cells with programmed doses of light, and automatically acquire and analyze images of cells in the effluent. The operation of this apparatus as a chemostat allows the growth rate and the cellular environment to be tightly controlled. The effluent of the continuous cell culture is regularly sampled and the cells are imaged by multi-channel microscopy. The culturing, sampling, imaging, and image analysis are fully automated so that dynamic responses in the fluorescence intensity and cellular morphology of cells sampled from the culture effluent are measured over multiple days without user input. We demonstrate the utility of this culturing apparatus by dynamically inducing protein production in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered with an optogenetic system that activates transcription.

  4. Expansion of Cultured Bacterial Diversity by Large-Scale Dilution-to-Extinction Culturing from a Single Seawater Sample.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Jo; Kang, Ilnam; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cultivation (HTC) based on a dilution-to-extinction method has been applied broadly to the cultivation of marine bacterial groups, which has often led to the repeated isolation of abundant lineages such as SAR11 and oligotrophic marine gammaproteobacteria (OMG). In this study, to expand the phylogenetic diversity of HTC isolates, we performed a large-scale HTC with a single surface seawater sample collected from the East Sea, the Western Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from 847 putative pure cultures demonstrated that some isolates were affiliated with not-yet-cultured clades, including the OPB35 and Puniceicoccaceae marine group of Verrucomicrobia and PS1 of Alphaproteobacteria. In addition, numerous strains were obtained from abundant clades, such as SAR11, marine Roseobacter clade, OMG (e.g., SAR92 and OM60), OM43, and SAR116, thereby increasing the size of available culture resources for representative marine bacterial groups. Comparison between the composition of HTC isolates and the bacterial community structure of the seawater sample used for HTC showed that diverse marine bacterial groups exhibited various growth capabilities under our HTC conditions. The growth response of many bacterial groups, however, was clearly different from that observed with conventional plating methods, as exemplified by numerous isolates of the SAR11 clade and Verrucomicrobia. This study showed that a large number of novel bacterial strains could be obtained by an extensive HTC from even a small number of samples.

  5. Armenian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

  6. Anxiety, depression and smoking status among adults of Mexican heritage on the Texas-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pérez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the current analysis is to examine relationships between smoking status and anxiety and depression among adults of Mexican heritage to inform the development of culturally relevant smoking cessations efforts. Mexican heritage residents (N=1,791) of the city of Brownsville, TX, aged 18 years or older, enrolled in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort, were selected through two stage cluster sampling of randomly selected census tracts from the first and third quartile of SES using Census 2000. Among current smokers, anxiety and depression scores were highest among women who had not completed high school (p<0.05). Former smoking women, but not men, with at least a high school education and former smoking women born in the United States reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than never smoking women. Negative affective states may represent a greater barrier to smoking cessation among women than men.

  7. Anxiety, depression and smoking status among adults of Mexican heritage on the Texas-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Pérez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current analysis is to examine relationships between smoking status and anxiety and depression among adults of Mexican heritage to inform the development of culturally relevant smoking cessations efforts. Mexican heritage residents (N=1,791) of the city of Brownsville, TX, aged 18 years or older, enrolled in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort, were selected through two stage cluster sampling of randomly selected census tracts from the first and third quartile of SES using Census 2000. Among current smokers, anxiety and depression scores were highest among women who had not completed high school (p<0.05). Former smoking women, but not men, with at least a high school education and former smoking women born in the United States reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than never smoking women. Negative affective states may represent a greater barrier to smoking cessation among women than men. PMID:26120245

  8. A New Approach for Documentation, Conservation and Preservation of the Monolithic Statues in San Agustín as Pilot for Outdoor Cultural Heritage Documentation in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estela, A.; Hamacher, J.

    2014-06-01

    The "Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia" (ICANH) started a new conservation project for the "San Agustín Archaeological Park" (Huila, Colombia) in 2013. The objectives of this project are the documentation, conservation, and preservation of the numerous monolithic statues mainly by integrating the use of new technologies (3D models). A first phase of the project has been completed, resulting in three-dimensional models of 66 of the monolithic sculptures in San Agustín. The methodology developed in this first phase will show the way for other heritage sites in Colombia and for subsequent phases applied to the archaeological park. The 3D data has been obtained using two types of data acquisition technology: the Mantis Vision F5 using infrared structured-light (SL) and a laser scanner based on the phase shift (PS) technology, the Z+F Imager 5010. The results show that future phases need improvement in data acquisition. Mainly the data obtained with the hand held scanner shows many lacunae. This article presents the observations during data processing on the basis of one sculpture, "Escultura 23". In conclusion, this first phase showed where to improve for the succeeding ones, for instance the detail of the meshes need to be increased if the models are to be used for detailed conservation and preservation purposes.

  9. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples. PMID:26492259

  10. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  11. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Rachel E.; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P.

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior. PMID:21927503

  12. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  13. Bringing it all Together: Networking Heritage Inventories in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, P. K.; Lee, E. S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper will look at the requirements for a future vision of networked, digital heritage inventories to support heritage protection in England. The present loose network presents several challenges for multiple organizations maintaining similar datasets on disparate IT software: Duplication of content; ownership of content and different approaches to recording practice and standards. This paper will discuss the potential use of the Arches Heritage Inventory and Management System as part of the vision for better operation of this network. Arches was developed by the Getty Conservation Institute, World Monuments Fund and Farallon Geographics as an open source web-based geographic information system (GIS) to help inventorize and manage immovable cultural heritage. The system is based around internationally recognized standards from both the heritage and IT sectors. These include: ISO 21127: 2006, commonly referred to as the CIDOC-CRM (Conceptual Reference Model); the CIDOC Core Data Standard for Archaeological and Architectural Sites; Core Data Index to Historic Buildings and Monuments of the Architectural Heritage as well as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The proposed use of Arches as a data collection and exchange platform would provide effective and useful recording systems for small heritage projects lacking in-house IT support and the finances and skills to support their development. In addition it would promote standards to support cross-searching, data exchange and digital archiving and through its use of open source a community of IT developers, standards developers and content specialists can be developed to sustain the network.

  14. Direct identification of bacteria in blood culture samples using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Trincavelli, Marco; Coradeschi, Silvia; Loutfi, Amy; Söderquist, Bo; Thunberg, Per

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a method for identification of bacteria in human blood culture samples using an electronic nose. The method uses features, which capture the static (steady state) and dynamic (transient) properties of the signal from the gas sensor array and proposes a means to ensemble results from consecutive samples. The underlying mechanism for ensembling is based on an estimation of posterior probability, which is extracted from a support vector machine classifier. A large dataset representing ten different bacteria cultures has been used to validate the presented methods. The results detail the performance of the proposed algorithm and show that through ensembling decisions on consecutive samples, significant reliability in classification accuracy can be achieved.

  15. Culture-Independent Identification of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Caverly, Lindsay J.; Carmody, Lisa A.; Haig, Sarah-Jane; Kotlarz, Nadine; Kalikin, Linda M.; Raskin, Lutgarde; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasing in prevalence and are a significant cause of lung function decline in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). NTM have been detected in culture-independent analyses of CF airway microbiota at lower rates than would be expected based on published prevalence data, likely due to poor lysing of the NTM cell wall during DNA extraction. We compared a standard bacterial lysis protocol with a modified method by measuring NTM DNA extraction by qPCR and NTM detection with bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The modified method improved NTM DNA recovery from spiked CF sputum samples by a mean of 0.53 log10 copies/mL for M. abscessus complex and by a mean of 0.43 log10 copies/mL for M. avium complex as measured by qPCR targeting the atpE gene. The modified method also improved DNA sequence based NTM detection in NTM culture-positive CF sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples; however, both qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing remained less sensitive than culture for NTM detection. We highlight the limitations of culture-independent identification of NTM from CF respiratory samples, and illustrate how alterations in the bacterial lysis and DNA extraction process can be employed to improve NTM detection with both qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:27093603

  16. Microcystin-Bound Protein Patterns in Different Cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nian; Hu, Lili; Song, Lirong; Gan, Nanqin

    2016-01-01

    Micocystin (MC) exists in Microcystis cells in two different forms, free and protein-bound. We examined the dynamic change in extracellular free MCs, intracellular free MCs and protein-bound MCs in both batch cultures and semi-continuous cultures, using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blot. The results showed that the free MC per cell remained constant, while the quantity of protein-bound MCs increased with the growth of Microcystis cells in both kinds of culture. Significant changes in the dominant MC-bound proteins occurred in the late exponential growth phase of batch cultures, while the dominant MC-bound proteins in semi-continuous cultures remained the same. In field samples collected at different months in Lake Taihu, the dominant MC-bound proteins were shown to be similar, but the amount of protein-bound MC varied and correlated with the intracellular MC content. We identified MC-bound proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL was a prominent MC-bound protein. Three essential glycolytic enzymes and ATP synthase alpha subunit were also major targets of MC-binding, which might contribute to sustained growth in semi-continuous culture. Our results indicate that protein-bound MC may be important for sustaining growth and adaptation of Microcystis sp. PMID:27754336

  17. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Boonfei; Jane Fowler, S; Laban, Nidal Abu; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities. PMID:25734684

  18. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boonfei; Fowler, S Jane; Abu Laban, Nidal; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities.

  19. Pathogen prevalence, group bias, and collectivism in the standard cross-cultural sample.

    PubMed

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Steele, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    It has been argued that people in areas with high pathogen loads will be more likely to avoid outsiders, to be biased in favor of in-groups, and to hold collectivist and conformist values. Cross-national studies have supported these predictions. In this paper we provide new pathogen codes for the 186 cultures of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample and use them, together with existing pathogen and ethnographic data, to try to replicate these cross-national findings. In support of the theory, we found that cultures in high pathogen areas were more likely to socialize children toward collectivist values (obedience rather than self-reliance). There was some evidence that pathogens were associated with reduced adult dispersal. However, we found no evidence of an association between pathogens and our measures of group bias (in-group loyalty and xenophobia) or intergroup contact.

  20. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.