Science.gov

Sample records for culturas da soja

  1. Cultura Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Gilberte; English, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Two of the original authors of "Giving a Virtual Voice to the Silent Language of Culture: The Cultura Project", published in "Language Learning & Technology" in 2001, look back on the origin of the Cultura project, its goals, and the approach and materials used. Their commentary then focuses on the features and the…

  2. ACTION OF CYCLOHEXIMIDE ON ZYGOSACCHAROMYCES SOJA

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, Yoji; Sugimori, Tsunetake; Imai, Kazutami; Katagiri, Hideo

    1962-01-01

    Tsukada, Yoji (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan), Tsunetake Sugimori, Kazutami Imai, and Hideo Katagiri. Action of cycloheximide on Zygosaccharomyces soja. J. Bacteriol. 83:70–75. 1962.—Cycloheximide is known to inhibit the growth of some species of Saccharomyces and other fungi. A new type of action of this antibiotic, with Zygosaccharomyces soja as the test organism, is described in this paper. Growth of Z. soja was completely inhibited under aerobic conditions by cycloheximide in concentrations of more than 5 μg per ml of culture solution. Continued shaking of the culture for more than 96 hr in the presence of an inhibitory amount of cycloheximide restored growth, accompanied by the excretion of riboflavin to the extent of 30 μg per ml of culture solution. In the cells recovering from cycloheximide inhibition, the type of glucose metabolism differed from that in the mother strain; a respiratory quotient of 4 with the mother strain fell to 1 in the progeny. Glucose metabolism (O2 uptake and CO2 evolution) by resting cells was investigated, and it was concluded that inhibition of glycolysis was not significant. This was verified by comparing various dehydrogenase activities in the cell-free extract. There were essentially no differences between riboflavin-forming and nonriboflavin-forming cells. The presence of the hexose monophosphate shunt was deduced from the fact that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was the strongest of the various dehydrogenase activities. PMID:13922890

  3. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  4. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  5. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains. PMID:26930612

  6. Novel glucose dehydrogenase from Mucor prainii: Purification, characterization, molecular cloning and gene expression in Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Satake, Ryoko; Ichiyanagi, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Keiichi; Hirokawa, Kozo; Araki, Yasuko; Yoshimura, Taro; Gomi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is of interest for its potential applications in the field of glucose sensors. To improve the performance of glucose sensors, GDH is required to have strict substrate specificity. A novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent GDH was isolated from Mucor prainii NISL0103 and its enzymatic properties were characterized. This FAD-dependent GDH (MpGDH) exhibited high specificity toward glucose. High specificity for glucose was also observed even in the presence of saccharides such as maltose, galactose and xylose. The molecular masses of the glycoforms of GDH ranged from 90 to 130 kDa. After deglycosylation, a single 80 kDa band was observed. The gene encoding MpGDH was cloned and expressed in Aspergillus sojae. The apparent kcat and Km values of recombinant enzyme for glucose were found to be 749.7 s(-1) and 28.3 mM, respectively. The results indicated that the characteristics of MpGDH were suitable for assaying blood glucose levels.

  7. Pre-termination in aflR of Aspergillus sojae inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, K; Chang, P K; Yu, J; Abe, K; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E

    2001-05-01

    The aflR gene product is the main transcriptional regulator of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Although A. sojae strains do not produce aflatoxins, they do have an aflR homologue. When compared with the aflR of A. parasiticus, the A. sojae gene contains two mutations: an HAHA motif and a premature stop codon. To investigate the functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene product, we used a GAL4 one-hybrid system in yeast. The transcription-activating activity of AflR from A. sojae was 15% of that from A. parasiticus. The introduction of an additional aflR from A. sojae into an A. parasiticus strain did not affect aflatoxin productivity. A hybrid aflR comprising the amino-terminal region of A. sojae aflR and the carboxy-terminal region of A. parasiticus aflR suppressed the effect associated with pre-termination of the A. sojae AflR. We conclude that the premature stop codon of the A. sojae aflR is the key to its functionality and leads to prevention of aflatoxin biosynthesis through loss of the transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis-related genes.

  8. Coffee pulp koji of Aspergillus sojae as stable immobilized catalyst of chlorogenate hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Osao; Ano, Yoshitaka; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Shinagawa, Emiko; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2008-11-01

    Chlorogenate hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.42, CHase) was highly induced in mycelia of Aspergillus sojae AKU 3312 grown in Czapek medium containing either instant coffee powder or coffee pulp as inducer. No CHase formation was observed in the mycelia when cultivated without the inducer. CHase was purified readily from CHase-induced mycelia to high homogeneity, and the purified CHase revealed the molecular weight of 180,000 consisting of two identical subunits of 88 kDa. Equimolar quinate (QA) and caffeate (CA) were confirmed on hydrolysis of chlorogenate (CGA). The purified CHase was only useful for a laboratory scale hydrolysis of CGA. For practical QA and CA production using scaled up hydrolysis of vegetable extracts of natural CGA resources, the enzyme activity of purified CHase decreased and denatured irreversibly. Preparation of coffee pulp koji and its application to QA and CA production were proposed instead of purified CHase. When coffee pulp koji was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, CHase survived without any appreciable loss of enzyme activity while vegetative mycelial growth and spore germination were terminated. The heated coffee pulp koji thus prepared was effective itself as stable immobilized catalyst of CHase for QA and CA production from vegetable CGA resources such as coffee powders, coffee pulp, and others.

  9. Effect of a benzothiadiazole on inducing resistance of soybean to Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Han, Qingmei; Feng, Hao; Zhao, Haiyan; Huang, Lili; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiaodong; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-04-01

    Effects of benzothidiazole (BTH), an inducer of resistance, were examined in a compatible interaction of soybean seedlings and Phytophthora sojae using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques. Seedlings were sprayed with BTH 2 days before inoculation of hypocotyls with zoospore suspension of P. sojae. In hypocotyls treated with BTH, the infection process of P. sojae was significantly delayed, and also the structures of hyphae and haustorium-like bodies were remarkably altered. These changes included increased vacuolation, plasmolysis, degeneration of cytoplasm, and collapse of hyphae and haustorium-like bodies. Large morphological differences were detected in P. sojae-infected hypocotyl tissue treated with BTH compared with infected but non-treated control tissue. Very thick layers of wall appositions were formed in the host cells contacting with hyphae, whereas such structures were never observed in only P. sojae-infected control hypocotyls. In addition, five pathogenesis-related (PR)-genes were selected to detect their transcription changes using qRT-PCR. Expression of PR-1, PR-3a, PR-3b, PR-9, and PR-10 genes were induced in BTH-treated and P. sojae-inoculated tissue at different times and levels. The up-regulated expression of these genes as well as the morphological defense structures may contribute to disease resistance in soybean hypocotyls to P. sojae. PMID:22777214

  10. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens. PMID:27412925

  11. Roles of small RNAs in soybean defense against Phytophthora sojae infection.

    PubMed

    Wong, James; Gao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhai, Jixian; Arikit, Siwaret; Yu, Yu; Duan, Shuyi; Chan, Vicky; Xiong, Qin; Yan, Jun; Li, Shengben; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Tang, Guiliang; Meyers, Blake C; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many notorious pathogens of crops and forestry trees. At present, battling Phytophthora diseases is challenging due to a lack of understanding of their pathogenesis. We investigated the role of small RNAs in regulating soybean defense in response to infection by Phytophthora sojae, the second most destructive pathogen of soybean. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes. We identified known and novel small RNAs that differentially accumulated during P. sojae infection in soybean roots. Among them, miR393 and miR166 were induced by heat-inactivated P. sojae hyphae, indicating that they may be involved in soybean basal defense. Indeed, knocking down the level of mature miR393 led to enhanced susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae; furthermore, the expression of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes was drastically reduced in miR393 knockdown roots. These data suggest that miR393 promotes soybean defense against P. sojae. In addition to miRNAs, P. sojae infection also resulted in increased accumulation of phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that are predominantly generated from canonical resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat proteins and genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. This work identifies specific miRNAs and phasiRNAs that regulate defense-associated genes in soybean during Phytophthora infection.

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequences and comparative genomics ofPhytophthora ramorum and P. sojae

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Frank N.; Douda, Bensasson; Tyler, Brett M.; Boore,Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of theoomycetes of Phytophthora ramorum and P. sojae were determined during thecourse of their complete nuclear genome sequencing (Tyler, et al. 2006).Both are circular, with sizes of 39,314 bp for P. ramorum and 42,975 bpfor P. sojae. Each contains a total of 37 identifiable protein-encodinggenes, 25 or 26 tRNAs (P. sojae and P. ramorum, respectively)specifying19 amino acids, and a variable number of ORFs (7 for P. ramorum and 12for P. sojae) which are potentially additional functional genes.Non-coding regions comprise approximately 11.5 percent and 18.4 percentof the genomes of P. ramorum and P. sojae, respectively. Relative to P.sojae, there is an inverted repeat of 1,150 bp in P. ramorum thatincludes an unassigned unique ORF, a tRNA gene, and adjacent non-codingsequences, but otherwise the gene order in both species is identical.Comparisons of these genomes with published sequences of the P. infestansmitochondrial genome reveals a number of similarities, but the gene orderin P. infestans differs in two adjacent locations due to inversions.Sequence alignments of the three genomes indicated sequence conservationranging from 75 to 85 percent and that specific regions were morevariable than others.

  13. Purification and characterization of a glutaminase enzyme accounting for the majority of glutaminase activity in Aspergillus sojae under solid-state culture.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kotaro; Hanya, Yoshiki; Koyama, Yasuji

    2013-10-01

    Glutaminase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes L-glutamine to L-glutamate, plays an important role in the production of fermented foods by enhancing the umami taste. In this study, we found ten glutaminase genes in the Aspergillus sojae genome by conducting a BLAST search of the characterized glutaminase sequence. We subsequently constructed glutaminase gene disruptants. The glutaminase activity of the gahB disruptant was decreased by approximately 90 % in A. sojae and Aspergillus oryzae, indicating that this enzyme (GahB) accounted for the majority of the glutaminase activity in Aspergillus species. Subsequently, GahB protein was purified from the AsgahB-overexpressing transformant and characterized. The molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 110 and 259 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively, indicating that the native form of AsGahB was a dimer. The optimal pH was 9.0, and the optimal temperature was 50 °C. Analysis of substrate specificity revealed that AsGahB had peptidoglutaminase-asparaginase activity, similar to AsGahA, but preferred free L-glutamine to free L-asparagine, C-terminal glutaminyl, and asparaginyl residues in peptides.

  14. System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA) as a tool in rational and transparent drug-decision making.

    PubMed

    Janknegt, Robert; Scott, Mike; Mairs, Jill; Timoney, Mark; McElnay, James; Brenninkmeijer, Rob

    2007-10-01

    Drug selection should be a rational process that embraces the principles of evidence-based medicine. However, many factors may affect the choice of agent. It is against this background that the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA) process for rational drug-selection was developed. This article describes how the information on which the SOJA process is based, was researched and processed.

  15. Genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean plant introductions from the Republic of Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot is one of the most yield-limiting diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr], caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Partial resistance is controlled by several genes and, compared to single gene (Rps gene) resistance to P. sojae, places less selection pressure on...

  16. Molecular mapping and characterization of two genes conferring resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean landrace PI 567139B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR), caused by the soil-borne oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean. PRR can be effectively controlled by race-specific genes conferring resistance to P. sojae (Rps). However, the Rps genes are usually non-durable, a...

  17. The System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA). A tool in rational drug selection for formulary inclusion.

    PubMed

    Janknegt, R; Steenhoek, A

    1997-04-01

    Rational drug selection for formulary purposes is important. Besides rational selection criteria, other factors play a role in drug decision making, such as emotional, personal financial and even unconscious criteria. It is agreed that these factors should be excluded as much as possible in the decision making process. A model for drug decision making for formulary purposes is described, the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA). In the SOJA method, selection criteria for a given group of drugs are prospectively defined and the extent to which each drug fulfils the requirements for each criterion is determined. Each criterion is given a relative weight, i.e. the more important a given selection criterion is considered, the higher the relative weight. Both the relative scores for each drug per selection criterion and the relative weight of each criterion are determined by a panel of experts in this field. The following selection criteria are applied in all SOJA scores: clinical efficacy, incidence and severity of adverse effects, dosage frequency, drug interactions, acquisition cost, documentation, pharmacokinetics and pharmaceutical aspects. Besides these criteria, group specific criteria are also used, such as development of resistance when a SOJA score was made for antimicrobial agents. The relative weight that is assigned to each criterion will always be a subject of discussion. Therefore, interactive software programs for use on a personal computer have been developed, in which the user of the system may enter their own personal relative weight to each selection criterion and make their own personal SOJA score. The main advantage of the SOJA method is that all nonrational selection criteria are excluded and that drug decision making is based solely on rational criteria. The use of the interactive SOJA discs makes the decision process fully transparent as it becomes clear on which criteria and weighting decisions are based. We have seen that the use of

  18. Chemotactic Preferences and Strain Variation in the Response of Phytophthora sojae Zoospores to Host Isoflavones

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, B. M.; Wu, M.; Wang, J.; Cheung, W.; Morris, P. F.

    1996-01-01

    The zoospores of Phytophthora sojae are chemotactically attracted to the isoflavones genistein and daidzein that are released by soybean roots. In this study we have examined the response of P. sojae zoospores to a wide range of compounds having some structural similarity to genistein and daidzein, including isoflavones, flavones, chalcones, stilbenes, benzoins, benzoates, benzophenones, acetophenones, and coumarins. Of 59 compounds examined, 43 elicited some response. A comparison of the chemotactic responses elicited by the various compounds revealed a primary role for the phenolic 4(prm1)- and 7-hydroxyl groups on the isoflavone structure. A few compounds acted as repellents, notably methylated flavones with a hydrophobic B ring. The chemotactic response to many of the analogs was markedly different among different strains of P. sojae. PMID:16535375

  19. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  20. Amino terminal region of Phytophthora sojae cel12 endoglucanase confers tissue collapse function in Nicotiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora encodes an unusually large number of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), with many large gene families resulting from duplication events. There are ten copies of GH 12 (cel12) present in Phytophthora sojae. This is the only pathogen endoglucanase family to which plants produce an inhibitory pr...

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis among Four Representative Isolates of Phytophthora sojae Reveals Genes under Evolutionary Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Tyler, Brett M.; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomic analysis is useful for identifying genes affected by evolutionary selection and for studying adaptive variation in gene functions. In Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen, the related study is lacking. We compared sequence data among four isolates of P. sojae, which represent its four major genotypes. These isolates exhibited >99.688%, >99.864%, and >98.981% sequence identities at genome, gene, and non-gene regions, respectively. One hundred and fifty-three positive selection and 139 negative selection candidate genes were identified. Between the two categories of genes, the positive selection genes were flanked by larger intergenic regions, poorly annotated in function, and less conserved; they had relatively lower transcription levels but many genes had increased transcripts during infection. Genes coding for predicted secreted proteins, particularly effectors, were overrepresented in positive selection. Several RxLR effector genes were identified as positive selection genes, exhibiting much stronger positive selection levels. In addition, candidate genes with presence/absence polymorphism were analyzed. This study provides a landscape of genomic variation among four representative P. sojae isolates and characterized several evolutionary selection-affected gene candidates. The results suggest a relatively covert two-speed genome evolution pattern in P. sojae and will provide clues for identification of new virulence factors in the oomycete plant pathogens. PMID:27746768

  2. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-01

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  3. Novel quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 398841

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdmann is one of the most severe soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] diseases in the US. Partial resistance is as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of t...

  4. Astronomía en la cultura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    La Astronomía en la Cultura es el estudio interdisciplinario a nivel global de la astronomía prehistórica, antigua y tradicional, en el marco de su contexto cultural. Esta disciplina abarca cualquier tipo de estudios o líneas de investigación en que se relacione a la astronomía con las ciencias humanas o sociales. En ella se incluyen tanto fuentes escritas, relatos orales como fuentes arqueológicas, abarcando entre otros, los siguientes temas: calendarios, observación práctica, cultos y mitos, representación simbólica de eventos, conceptos y objetos astronómicos, orientación astronómica de tumbas, templos, santuarios y centros urbanos, cosmología tradicional y la aplicación ceremonial de tradiciones astronómicas, la propia historia de la astronomía y la etnoastronomía (Krupp, 1989) (Iwaniszewski, 1994). En nuestro trabajo abordamos la historia y situación actual de esta disciplina, sus métodos y sus relaciones con otras áreas de investigación.

  5. Fine-scale phylogenetic structure and major events in the history of the current wild soybean (Glycine soja) and taxonomic assignment of semi-wild type (Glycine gracilis Skvortz.) within the Chinese subgenus Soja.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Wild and cultivated species of soybeans have coexisted for 5000 years in China. Despite this long history, there is very little information on the genetic relationship of Glycine soja and G. max. To gain insight into the major events in the history of the subgenus Soja, we examined 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of a large number of accessions (910). The results showed no significant differences between wild and semi-wild soybeans in genetic diversity but significant differences between G. soja and G. max. Ancestry and cluster analyses revealed that semi-wild soybeans should belong to the wild category and not to G. max. Our results also showed that differentiation had occurred not only among G. soja, G. gracilis, and G. max but also within G. soja and within G. gracilis. Glycine soja had 3 clear genetic categories: typical small-seeded (≤2.0 g 100-seed weight), dual-origin middle-seeded (2.0-2.5 g), and large-seeded plants (2.51-3.0 g). These last were genetically close to G. gracilis, their defining some traits having been acquired mainly by introgression from soybeans. Small-seeded G. gracilis (3.01-3.5 g) were genetically different from larger seeded ones (from 3.51 to 4.0 to over 10 g). Seed size predominated over seed coat color in evolutionary degree. Typical and large-seeded G. soja were found to have 0.7% and 12% introgressive cultivar genes, respectively. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis was at the range of 2.51-3.0 g of G. soja. In the great majority of wild accessions, traits such as white flowers, gray pubescences, no-seed bloom, and colored seed coats were likely introgressive from domesticated soybeans.

  6. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  7. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  8. The Pectin Methylesterase Gene Complement of Phytophthora sojae: Structural and Functional Analyses, and the Evolutionary Relationships with Its Oomycete Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Brent B.; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D.

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete pathogen that causes the disease known as root and stem rot in soybean plants, frequently leading to massive economic damage. Additionally, P. sojae is increasingly being utilized as a model for phytopathogenic oomycete research. Despite the economic and scientific importance of P. sojae, the mechanism by which it penetrates the host roots is not yet fully understood. It has been found that oomycetes are not capable of penetrating the cell wall solely through mechanical force, suggesting that alternative factors facilitate breakdown of the host cell wall. Pectin methylesterases have been suggested to be important for Phytophthora pathogenicity, but no data exist on their role in the P. sojae infection process. We have scanned the newly revised version of the annotated P. sojae genome for the presence of putative pectin methylesterases genes and conducted a sequence analysis of all gene models found. We also searched for potential regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the proposed P. sojae models, and investigated the gene expression levels throughout the early course of infection on soybean plants. We found that P. sojae contains a large repertoire of pectin methylesterase-coding genes and that most of these genes display similar motifs in the promoter region, indicating the possibility of a shared regulatory mechanism. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the evolutionary relatedness of the pectin methylesterase-coding genes within and across Phytophthora spp. In addition, the gene duplication events that led to the emergence of this gene family appear to have occurred prior to many speciation events in the genus Phytophthora. Our results also indicate that the highest levels of expression occurred in the first 24 hours post inoculation, with expression falling after this time. Our study provides evidence that pectin methylesterases may be important for the early action of the P. sojae infection process. PMID:26544849

  9. The Pectin Methylesterase Gene Complement of Phytophthora sojae: Structural and Functional Analyses, and the Evolutionary Relationships with Its Oomycete Homologs.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Brent B; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete pathogen that causes the disease known as root and stem rot in soybean plants, frequently leading to massive economic damage. Additionally, P. sojae is increasingly being utilized as a model for phytopathogenic oomycete research. Despite the economic and scientific importance of P. sojae, the mechanism by which it penetrates the host roots is not yet fully understood. It has been found that oomycetes are not capable of penetrating the cell wall solely through mechanical force, suggesting that alternative factors facilitate breakdown of the host cell wall. Pectin methylesterases have been suggested to be important for Phytophthora pathogenicity, but no data exist on their role in the P. sojae infection process. We have scanned the newly revised version of the annotated P. sojae genome for the presence of putative pectin methylesterases genes and conducted a sequence analysis of all gene models found. We also searched for potential regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the proposed P. sojae models, and investigated the gene expression levels throughout the early course of infection on soybean plants. We found that P. sojae contains a large repertoire of pectin methylesterase-coding genes and that most of these genes display similar motifs in the promoter region, indicating the possibility of a shared regulatory mechanism. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the evolutionary relatedness of the pectin methylesterase-coding genes within and across Phytophthora spp. In addition, the gene duplication events that led to the emergence of this gene family appear to have occurred prior to many speciation events in the genus Phytophthora. Our results also indicate that the highest levels of expression occurred in the first 24 hours post inoculation, with expression falling after this time. Our study provides evidence that pectin methylesterases may be important for the early action of the P. sojae infection process.

  10. Dissection of two soybean QTL conferring partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae through sequence and gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae ( Rps) genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in the soybean cultivar ‘Conrad’ that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates. Results In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad) and susceptible (‘Sloan’) genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance. Conclusions These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for resistance to P. sojae

  11. Improved biomass and protein production in solid-state cultures of an Aspergillus sojae strain harboring the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Mora-Lugo, Rodrigo; Madrigal, Marvin; Yelemane, Vikas; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-11-01

    The biotechnological value of Aspergillus sojae ATCC 20235 (A. sojae) for production of pectinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been demonstrated recently. However, a common drawback of fungal solid-state cultures is the poor diffusion of oxygen into the fungi that limits its growth and biological productivity. The bacterial Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) has favored the metabolism and productivities of various bacterial and yeast strains besides alleviating hypoxic conditions of its native host, but the use of VHb in filamentous fungi still remains poor explored. Based on the known effects of VHb, this study assessed its applicability to improve A. sojae performance in SSF. The VHb gene (vgb) under control of the constitutive Aspergillus nidulants gpdA promoter was introduced into the genome of A. sojae by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful fungal transformants were identified by fluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In solid-state cultures, the content of protease, exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG), and exo-polymethylgalacturonase (exo-PMG) of the transformed fungus (A. sojae vgb+) improved were 26, 60, and 44 % higher, respectively, in comparison to its parental strain (A. sojae wt). Similarly, biomass content was also 1.3 times higher in the transformant strain. No significant difference was observed in endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) content between both fungal strains, suggesting dissimilar effects of VHb towards different enzymatic productions. Overall, our results show that biomass, protease, and exo-pectinase content of A. sojae in SSF can be improved by transformation with VHb.

  12. Whole-genome sequencing and intensive analysis of the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Sunghoon; Van, Kyujung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Dae-Soo; Lee, Yong-Seok; Park, Daeui; Ma, Jianxin; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Kil Hyun; Shin, Jin Hee; Jang, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Do; Liu, Wei Xian; Chaisan, Tanapon; Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jackson, Scott A; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2010-12-21

    The genome of soybean (Glycine max), a commercially important crop, has recently been sequenced and is one of six crop species to have been sequenced. Here we report the genome sequence of G. soja, the undomesticated ancestor of G. max (in particular, G. soja var. IT182932). The 48.8-Gb Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina-GA) short DNA reads were aligned to the G. max reference genome and a consensus was determined for G. soja. This consensus sequence spanned 915.4 Mb, representing a coverage of 97.65% of the G. max published genome sequence and an average mapping depth of 43-fold. The nucleotide sequence of the G. soja genome, which contains 2.5 Mb of substituted bases and 406 kb of small insertions/deletions relative to G. max, is ∼0.31% different from that of G. max. In addition to the mapped 915.4-Mb consensus sequence, 32.4 Mb of large deletions and 8.3 Mb of novel sequence contigs in the G. soja genome were also detected. Nucleotide variants of G. soja versus G. max confirmed by Roche Genome Sequencer FLX sequencing showed a 99.99% concordance in single-nucleotide polymorphism and a 98.82% agreement in insertion/deletion calls on Illumina-GA reads. Data presented in this study suggest that the G. soja/G. max complex may be at least 0.27 million y old, appearing before the relatively recent event of domestication (6,000∼9,000 y ago). This suggests that soybean domestication is complicated and that more in-depth study of population genetics is needed. In any case, genome comparison of domesticated and undomesticated forms of soybean can facilitate its improvement.

  13. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity. PMID:26635848

  14. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  15. Cross-species global proteomics reveals conserved and unique processes in Phytophthora sojae and P. ramorum

    SciTech Connect

    Savidor, Alon; Donahoo, Ryan S; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar; Land, Miriam L; Shah, Manesh B; Lamour, Kurt H; McDonald, W Hayes

    2008-08-01

    Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae are destructive plant pathogens. Phytophthora sojae has a narrow host range whereas P. ramorum has a wide host range. A global proteomic comparison of the vegetative (mycelium) and infective (germinating-cyst) life-stages of P. sojae and P. ramorum was conducted to identify candidate proteins involved in host range, early infection and vegetative growth. Sixty-two candidates for early infection, 26 candidates for vegetative growth, and numerous proteins that may be involved in defining host specificity were identified. In addition, common life stage proteomic trends between the organisms were observed. In mycelia, proteins involved in transport and metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and other small molecules were up-regulated. In the germinating cysts, up-regulated proteins associated with lipid transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis were observed. It appears that the germinating cyst catabolizes lipid reserves through the -oxidation pathway to drive the extensive protein synthesis necessary to produce the germ tube and initiate infection. Once inside the host, the pathogen switches to vegetative growth, where energy is derived from glycolysis and utilized for synthesis of amino acids and other molecules that assist survival in the plant tissue.

  16. Microarray profiling reveals microRNAs involving soybean resistance to Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Ye, Wen-Wu; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Dan-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Chao; Xing, Han; Dou, Dao-Long

    2011-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small noncoding RNAs, may serve as a class of post-transcriptional regulators in plant immune systems. Nevertheless, little is known about their roles in plant immune response to the oomycete pathogens. To identify miRNAs involved in the response of soybean to Phytophthora sojae, we examined expressional patterns of miRNAs upon infection by P. sojae by microarray analysis in three soybean cultivars: Williams (susceptible), Conrad (quantitative resistance), and Williams 82 (qualitative resistance). Expression of a number of miRNAs was significantly altered upon infection and (or) in the different genotypes. qRT-PCR data with some miRNAs further confirmed the microarray results. Comparative analysis of the selected miRNAs and their targeted gene expression datasets uncovered many reciprocally expressed miRNA-target pairs, which could proposed a feedback circuit between miRNA(s) and protein-coding genes. These results may serve as a basis for further in-depth studies of miRNAs involved in soybean resistance to P. sojae.

  17. Phytophthora sojae TatD nuclease positively regulates sporulation and negatively regulates pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linlin; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Nannan; Xu, Jing; Wang, Wen; Dou, Daolong

    2014-10-01

    During pathogenic interactions, both the host and pathogen are exposed to conditions that induce programmed cell death (PCD). Certain aspects of PCD have been recently examined in eukaryotic microbes but not in oomycetes. Here, we identified conserved TatD proteins in Phytophthora sojae; the proteins are key components of DNA degradation in apoptosis. We selected PsTatD4 for further investigation because the enzyme is unique to the oomycete branch of the phylogenetic tree. The purified protein exhibited DNase activity in vitro. Its expression was upregulated in sporangia and later infective stages but downregulated in cysts and during early infection. Functional analysis revealed that the gene was required for sporulation and zoospore production, and the expression levels were associated with the numbers of hydrogen-peroxide-induced terminal dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PsTatD4 gene reduced the virulence in a susceptible soybean cultivar. Together, these data suggest that apoptosis may play different roles in the early and late infective stages of P. sojae, and that PsTatD4 is a key regulator of infection. The association of PsTatD4 and apoptosis will lay a foundation to understanding the basic biology of apoptosis and its roles in P. sojae disease cycle.

  18. Two cytoplasmic effectors of Phytophthora sojae regulate plant cell death via interactions with plant catalases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixiang; Li, Qi; Liu, Tingli; Liu, Li; Shen, Danyu; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Peihan; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora sojae, secrete an arsenal of host cytoplasmic effectors to promote infection. We have shown previously that P. sojae PsCRN63 (for crinkling- and necrosis-inducing proteins) induces programmed cell death (PCD) while PsCRN115 blocks PCD in planta; however, they are jointly required for full pathogenesis. Here, we find that PsCRN63 alone or PsCRN63 and PsCRN115 together might suppress the immune responses of Nicotiana benthamiana and demonstrate that these two cytoplasmic effectors interact with catalases from N. benthamiana and soybean (Glycine max). Transient expression of PsCRN63 increases hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, whereas PsCRN115 suppresses this process. Transient overexpression of NbCAT1 (for N. benthamiana CATALASE1) or GmCAT1 specifically alleviates PsCRN63-induced PCD. Suppression of the PsCRN63-induced PCD by PsCRN115 is compromised when catalases are silenced in N. benthamiana. Interestingly, the NbCAT1 is recruited into the plant nucleus in the presence of PsCRN63 or PsCRN115; NbCAT1 and GmCAT1 are destabilized when PsCRN63 is coexpressed, and PsCRN115 inhibits the processes. Thus, PsCRN63/115 manipulates plant PCD through interfering with catalases and perturbing H(2)O(2) homeostasis. Furthermore, silencing of catalase genes enhances susceptibility to Phytophthora capsici, indicating that catalases are essential for plant resistance. Taken together, we suggest that P. sojae secretes these two effectors to regulate plant PCD and H(2)O(2) homeostasis through direct interaction with catalases and, therefore, overcome host immune responses.

  19. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China. PMID:25052953

  20. C239S Mutation in the β-Tubulin of Phytophthora sojae Confers Resistance to Zoxamide

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Meng; Miao, Jianqiang; Song, Xi; Lin, Dong; Bi, Yang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Xili; Tyler, Brett M.

    2016-01-01

    Zoxamide is the sole β-tubulin inhibitor registered for the control of oomycete pathogens. The current study investigated the activity of zoxamide against Phytophthora sojae and baseline sensitivity was established with a mean EC50 of 0.048 μg/ml. The data is critical for monitoring changes in zoxamide-sensitivity in the field. Three stable resistant mutants with a high resistance level were obtained by selection on zoxamide amended media. Although the development of resistance occurred at a low frequency, there were no apparent fitness penalty in the acquired mutants in terms of growth rate, sporulation, germination and pathogenicity. Based on the biological profiles and low mutagenesis rate, the resistance risk of P. sojae to zoxamide can be estimated as low to medium. Further investigation revealed all the zoxamide-resistant mutants had a point mutation of C239S in their β-tubulin. Zoxamide also exhibited high activity against most species from the genus Pythium in which only Pythium aphanidermatum was found naturally resistant to zoxamide and harboring the natural point mutation S239 in the β-tubulin. Back-transformation in P. sojae with the mutated allele (S239) confirmed the C239S mutation can induce resistance to zoxamide, and the resistance level was positively related to the expression level of the mutated gene. In contrast, the overexpression of the wild type gene was unable to cause zoxamide resistance. It is the first report on the resistance molecular mechanism of zoxamide in oomycetes. Based on our study, C239 is supposed to be a key target site of zoxamide, which distinguishes zoxamide from benzimidazoles and accounts for its low resistance risk. The result can provide advice on the design of new β-tubulin inhibitors in future. PMID:27242773

  1. C239S Mutation in the β-Tubulin of Phytophthora sojae Confers Resistance to Zoxamide.

    PubMed

    Cai, Meng; Miao, Jianqiang; Song, Xi; Lin, Dong; Bi, Yang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Xili; Tyler, Brett M

    2016-01-01

    Zoxamide is the sole β-tubulin inhibitor registered for the control of oomycete pathogens. The current study investigated the activity of zoxamide against Phytophthora sojae and baseline sensitivity was established with a mean EC50 of 0.048 μg/ml. The data is critical for monitoring changes in zoxamide-sensitivity in the field. Three stable resistant mutants with a high resistance level were obtained by selection on zoxamide amended media. Although the development of resistance occurred at a low frequency, there were no apparent fitness penalty in the acquired mutants in terms of growth rate, sporulation, germination and pathogenicity. Based on the biological profiles and low mutagenesis rate, the resistance risk of P. sojae to zoxamide can be estimated as low to medium. Further investigation revealed all the zoxamide-resistant mutants had a point mutation of C239S in their β-tubulin. Zoxamide also exhibited high activity against most species from the genus Pythium in which only Pythium aphanidermatum was found naturally resistant to zoxamide and harboring the natural point mutation S239 in the β-tubulin. Back-transformation in P. sojae with the mutated allele (S239) confirmed the C239S mutation can induce resistance to zoxamide, and the resistance level was positively related to the expression level of the mutated gene. In contrast, the overexpression of the wild type gene was unable to cause zoxamide resistance. It is the first report on the resistance molecular mechanism of zoxamide in oomycetes. Based on our study, C239 is supposed to be a key target site of zoxamide, which distinguishes zoxamide from benzimidazoles and accounts for its low resistance risk. The result can provide advice on the design of new β-tubulin inhibitors in future. PMID:27242773

  2. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China.

  3. The Structure and Enzyme Characteristics of a Recombinant Leucine Aminopeptidase rLap1 from Aspergillus sojae and Its Application in Debittering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Qian; Zhong, Li-Fen; Meng, Zhi-Zhong; You, Zi-Juan; Li, Jia-Zhou; Luo, Xiao-Chun

    2015-09-01

    A leucine aminopeptidase Lap1 was cloned from Aspergillus sojae GIM3.30. The truncated Lap1 without a signal peptide was over-expressed in P. pastoris, and the enzymatic characteristics of recombinant Lap1 (rLap1) were tested. The rLap1 was about 36.7 kDa with an optimal pH 8.0 and optimal temperature 50 °C for substrate Leu-p-nitroanilide and it sustained 50 % activity after 1 h incubation at 50 °C. The activity of rLap1 was significantly inhibited by EDTA, whereas Co(2+), Mn(2+), and Ca(2+) ions, but not Zn(2+) ions, restored its activity. rLap1 showed the highest activity against Arg-pNA and then Leu-, Lys-, Met-, and Phe-pNA. The 3D structure of rLap1 showed it had a conserved functional charge/dipole complex and a hydrogen bond network of Zn2-D179-S228-Q177-D229-S158 around its active center. An acidic Asp residue was found at the bottom of the substrate binding pocket, which explains its preference for basic N-terminal amino acid substrates such as Arg and Lys. rLap1 improved the degree of hydrolysis of casein and soy protein hydrolysates and also decreased their bitterness, indicating its potential utility in food production.

  4. QTL associated with horizontal resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Glycine soja PI464925B.

    PubMed

    Winter, Shawn M J; Shelp, Barry J; Anderson, Terry R; Welacky, Tom W; Rajcan, Istvan

    2007-02-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is the primary disease responsible for yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Resistant cultivars are an effective management tool; however, the sources currently available have common resistant genes. Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc., the wild ancestor of domesticated soybean, represents a diverse germplasm pool with known SCN resistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the genetic variation and inheritance of SCN resistance in a G. max ('S08-80') x G. soja (PI464925B) F (4:5) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; and (2) identify and evaluate quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SCN resistance. Transgressive segregation for resistance was observed, although neither parent was resistant to the Chatham and Ruthven SCN isolates. Broad sense heritability was 0.81 for the Ruthven and 0.91 for the Chatham isolate. Root dry weight was a significant covariate that influenced cyst counts. One RIL [female index (FI) = 5.2 +/- 1.11] was identified as resistant to the Chatham isolate (FI < 10). Seventeen and three RILs infected with Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively, had mean adjusted cyst counts of zero. Unique and novel QTL, which derived resistance from G. soja, were identified on linkage groups I, K, and O, and individually explained 8, 7 and 5% (LOD = 2.1-2.7) of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. Significant epistatic interactions were found between pairs of SSR markers that individually may or may not have been associated with SCN resistance, which explained between 10 and 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Best-fit regression models explained 21 and 31% of the total phenotypic variation in the RIL population to the Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively. The results of this study help to improve the understanding of the genetic control of SCN resistance in soybean caused by minor genes resulting in horizontal resistance. The incorporation of

  5. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  6. Efficient disruption and replacement of an effector gene in the oomycete Phytophthora sojae using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yufeng; Tyler, Brett M

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete pathogen of soybean. As a result of its economic importance, P. sojae has become a model for the study of oomycete genetics, physiology and pathology. The lack of efficient techniques for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement have long hampered genetic studies of pathogenicity in Phytophthora species. Here, we describe a CRISPR/Cas9 system enabling rapid and efficient genome editing in P. sojae. Using the RXLR effector gene Avr4/6 as a target, we observed that, in the absence of a homologous template, the repair of Cas9-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in P. sojae was mediated by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), primarily resulting in short indels. Most mutants were homozygous, presumably as a result of gene conversion triggered by Cas9-mediated cleavage of non-mutant alleles. When donor DNA was present, homology-directed repair (HDR) was observed, which resulted in the replacement of Avr4/6 with the NPT II gene. By testing the specific virulence of several NHEJ mutants and HDR-mediated gene replacements in soybean, we have validated the contribution of Avr4/6 to recognition by soybean R gene loci, Rps4 and Rps6, but also uncovered additional contributions to resistance by these two loci. Our results establish a powerful tool for the study of functional genomics in Phytophthora, which provides new avenues for better control of this pathogen.

  7. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jie; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure. PMID:25265539

  8. Molecular response to the pathogen Phytophthora sojae among ten soybean near isogenic lines revealed by comparative transcriptomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is effectively controlled by Rps genes in soybean. Rps genes are race-specific, yet the mechanism of resistance, as well as susceptibility, remains largely unclear. Taking advantage of RNA-seq technology, we sequenced the...

  9. Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with partial resistance to phytophthora sojae and flooding tolerance in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufm. & Gerd. and flooding can limit growth and productivity, of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], especially on poorly drained soils. The primary objective of this research project was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with f...

  10. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jie; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  11. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  12. Nonfunctionality of Aspergillus sojae aflR in a strain of Aspergillus parasiticus with a disrupted aflR gene.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Yu, Jiujiang; Abe, Keietsu; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E; Koyama, Yasuji

    2002-08-01

    Aspergillus sojae belongs to the Aspergillus section Flavi but does not produce aflatoxins. The functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene (aflRs) was examined by transforming it into an DeltaaflR strain of A. parasiticus, derived from a nitrate-nonutilizing, versicolorin A (VERA)-accumulating strain. The A. parasiticus aflR gene (aflRp) transformants produced VERA, but the aflRs transformants did not. Even when aflRs was placed under the control of the amylase gene (amyB) promoter of Aspergillus oryzae, the amy(p)::aflRs transformants did not produce VERA. A chimeric construct containing the aflRs promoter plus the aflRs N- and aflRp C-terminal coding regions could restore VERA production, but a construct containing the aflRp promoter plus the aflRp N- and aflRs C-terminal coding regions could not. These results show that the A. sojae aflR promoter is functional in A. parasiticus and that the HAHA motif does not affect the function of the resulting hybrid AflR. We conclude that the lack of aflatoxin production by A. sojae can be attributed, at least partially, to the premature termination defect in aflRs, which deletes the C-terminal transcription activation domain that is critical for the expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes.

  13. Race-specific molecules that protect soybeans from Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae*

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Mark; Albersheim, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae (A. A. Hildebrand) is a fungal stem and root rot-causing pathogen of soybeans. Glycoproteins secreted into the medium of the aseptically cultured fungus have been partially purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and by column chromatography on norleucine-substituted Sepharose 4B and on DEAE-cellulose. Glycoprotein preparations from P. megasperma var. sojae races 1, 2, and 3 have been tested on four cultivars of soybeans. The partially purified glycoproteins from incompatible races of the pathogen (races that cannot successfully infect the plant), but not those from compatible races (races that can kill the plant), protect soybean seedlings from attack by compatible races. The seedlings are protected by introducing the glycoproteins into hypocotyl wounds of seedlings either 90 min prior to or at the time of inoculation of the wounds with mycelia of one of the pathogens. The glycoprotein preparations are poor nonspecific elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation; the glycoproteins have less than 1.0% of the elicitor activity of the glucans present in the mycelial walls of the pathogen. Images PMID:16592713

  14. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  15. PsAAT3, an oomycete-specific aspartate aminotransferase, is required for full pathogenicity of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongbo; Zhang, Meixiang; Liu, Hong; Xu, Jing; Yu, Jia; He, Feng; Zhang, Xiong; Dong, Suomeng; Dou, Daolong

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen nutrient acquisition and metabolism are critical for successful infection and colonization. However, the nutrient requirements and metabolic pathways related to pathogenesis in oomycete pathogens are unknown. In this study, we bioinformatically identified Phytophthora sojae aspartate aminotransferases (AATs), which are key enzymes that coordinate carbon and nitrogen metabolism. We demonstrated that P. sojae encodes more AATs than the analysed fungi. Some of the AATs contained additional prephenate dehydratase and/or prephenate dehydrogenase domains in their N-termini, which are unique to oomycetes. Silencing of PsAAT3, an infection-inducible expression gene, reduced P. sojae pathogenicity on soybean plants and affected the growth under N-starving condition, suggesting that PsAAT3 is involved in pathogen pathogenicity and nitrogen utilisation during infection. Our results suggest that P. sojae and other oomycete pathogens may have distinct amino acid metabolism pathways and that PsAAT3 is important for its full pathogenicity. PMID:27020161

  16. Multigene family for Bowman-Birk type proteinase inhibitors of wild soja and soybean: the presence of two BBI-A genes and pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Deshimaru, Masanobu; Yoshimi, Shingo; Shioi, Seijiro; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2004-06-01

    Genes for Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitors (BBIs) of wild soja (Glycine soja) and soybean (Glycine max) comprise a multigene family. The organization of the genes for wild soja BBIs (wBBIs) was elucidated by an analysis of their cDNAs and the corresponding genomic sequences, and compared with the counterparts in the soybean. The cDNAs encoding three types of wild soja BBIs (wBBI-A, -C, and -D) were cloned. Two subtypes of cDNAs for wBBI-A, designated wBBI-A1 and -A2, were further identified. Similar subtypes (sBBI-A1 and -A2) were also found in the soybean genome. cDNA sequences for wBBIs were highly homologous to those for the respective soybean homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of these cDNAs demonstrated the evolutional proximity between these two leguminae strains.

  17. A Phytophthora sojae Glycoside Hydrolase 12 Protein Is a Major Virulence Factor during Soybean Infection and Is Recognized as a PAMP.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhenchuan; Song, Tianqiao; Zhu, Lin; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shao, Yuanyuan; Dong, Suomeng; Zhang, Zhengguang; Dou, Daolong; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-07-01

    We identified a glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12) protein, XEG1, produced by the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae that exhibits xyloglucanase and β-glucanase activity. It acts as an important virulence factor during P. sojae infection but also acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in soybean (Glycine max) and solanaceous species, where it can trigger defense responses including cell death. GH12 proteins occur widely across microbial taxa, and many of these GH12 proteins induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. The PAMP activity of XEG1 is independent of its xyloglucanase activity. XEG1 can induce plant defense responses in a BAK1-dependent manner. The perception of XEG1 occurs independently of the perception of ethylene-inducing xylanase. XEG1 is strongly induced in P. sojae within 30 min of infection of soybean and then slowly declines. Both silencing and overexpression of XEG1 in P. sojae severely reduced virulence. Many P. sojae RXLR effectors could suppress defense responses induced by XEG1, including several that are expressed within 30 min of infection. Therefore, our data suggest that PsXEG1 contributes to P. sojae virulence, but soybean recognizes PsXEG1 to induce immune responses, which in turn can be suppressed by RXLR effectors. XEG1 thus represents an apoplastic effector that is recognized via the plant's PAMP recognition machinery.

  18. A Phytophthora sojae Glycoside Hydrolase 12 Protein Is a Major Virulence Factor during Soybean Infection and Is Recognized as a PAMP[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhenchuan; Song, Tianqiao; Zhu, Lin; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shao, Yuanyuan; Dong, Suomeng; Zhang, Zhengguang; Dou, Daolong; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M.; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    We identified a glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GH12) protein, XEG1, produced by the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae that exhibits xyloglucanase and β-glucanase activity. It acts as an important virulence factor during P. sojae infection but also acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) in soybean (Glycine max) and solanaceous species, where it can trigger defense responses including cell death. GH12 proteins occur widely across microbial taxa, and many of these GH12 proteins induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. The PAMP activity of XEG1 is independent of its xyloglucanase activity. XEG1 can induce plant defense responses in a BAK1-dependent manner. The perception of XEG1 occurs independently of the perception of ethylene-inducing xylanase. XEG1 is strongly induced in P. sojae within 30 min of infection of soybean and then slowly declines. Both silencing and overexpression of XEG1 in P. sojae severely reduced virulence. Many P. sojae RXLR effectors could suppress defense responses induced by XEG1, including several that are expressed within 30 min of infection. Therefore, our data suggest that PsXEG1 contributes to P. sojae virulence, but soybean recognizes PsXEG1 to induce immune responses, which in turn can be suppressed by RXLR effectors. XEG1 thus represents an apoplastic effector that is recognized via the plant’s PAMP recognition machinery. PMID:26163574

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Pathogenesis-Related Protein Gene (GmPRP) with Induced Expression in Soybean (Glycine max) during Infection with Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Fan, Sujie; Li, Wenbin; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) play crucial roles in the plant defense system. A novel PRP gene was isolated from highly resistant soybean infected with Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae) and was named GmPRP (GenBank accession number: KM506762). The amino acid sequences of GmPRP showed identities of 74%, 73%, 72% and 69% with PRP proteins from Vitis vinifera, Populus trichocarpa, Citrus sinensis and Theobroma cacao, respectively. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) data showed that the expression of GmPRP was highest in roots, followed by the stems and leaves. GmPRP expression was upregulated in soybean leaves infected with P. sojae. Similarly, GmPRP expression also responded to defense/stress signaling molecules, including salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA). GmPRP was localized in the cell plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Recombinant GmPRP protein exhibited ribonuclease activity and significant inhibition of hyphal growth of P. sojae 1 in vitro. Overexpression of the GmPRP gene in T2 transgenic tobacco and T2 soybean plants resulted in enhanced resistance to Phytophthora nicotianae (P. nicotianae) and P. sojae race 1, respectively. These results indicated that the GmPRP protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection. PMID:26114301

  20. A Questao da Moral na Cultura Contemporanea (The Moral Question in Contemporary Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcellos, Carine

    2000-01-01

    Extends the debate concerning the discussion about the possibility of ethics on the present configuration of a social ethos based on the reflection of the circumscription of morality within contemporary culture. Turns to the internal debate in psychology, for clarification. (BT)

  1. Levels of Polyamines and Kinetic Characterization of Their Uptake in the Soybean Pathogen Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Chibucos, M. Constantine; Morris, Paul F.

    2006-01-01

    Polyamines are ubiquitous biologically active aliphatic cations that are at least transiently available in the soil from decaying organic matter. Our objectives in this study were to characterize polyamine uptake kinetics in Phytophthora sojae zoospores and to quantify endogenous polyamines in hyphae, zoospores, and soybean roots. Zoospores contained 10 times more free putrescine than spermidine, while hyphae contained only 4 times as much free putrescine as spermidine. Zoospores contained no conjugated putrescine, but conjugated spermidine was present. Hyphae contained both conjugated putrescine and spermidine at levels comparable to the hyphal free putrescine and spermidine levels. In soybean roots, cadaverine was the most abundant polyamine, but only putrescine efflux was detected. The selective efflux of putrescine suggests that the regulation of polyamine availability is part of the overall plant strategy to influence microbial growth in the rhizosphere. In zoospores, uptake experiments with [1,4-14C]putrescine and [1,4-14C]spermidine confirmed the existence of high-affinity polyamine transport for both polyamines. Putrescine uptake was reduced by high levels of exogenous spermidine, but spermidine uptake was not reduced by exogenous putrescine. These observations suggest that P. sojae zoospores express at least two high-affinity polyamine transporters, one that is spermidine specific and a second that is putrescine specific or putrescine preferential. Disruption of polyamine uptake or metabolism has major effects on a wide range of cellular activities in other organisms and has been proposed as a potential control strategy for Phytophthora. Inhibition of polyamine uptake may be a means of reducing the fitness of the zoospore along with subsequent developmental stages that precede infection. PMID:16672477

  2. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  3. A Novel Pathogenesis-Related Class 10 Protein Gly m 4l, Increases Resistance upon Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae), is a destructive disease in many soybean planting regions worldwide. In a previous study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) homolog of the major allergen Pru ar 1 in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) was identified up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10' infected with P. sojae. Here, the full length of the EST was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It showed the highest homology of 53.46% with Gly m 4 after comparison with the eight soybean allergen families reported and was named Gly m 4-like (Gly m 4l, GenBank accession no. HQ913577.1). The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was 707 bp containing a 474 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 157 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggests that Gly m 4l contains a conserved 'P-loop' (phosphate-binding loop) motif at residues 47-55 aa and a Bet v 1 domain at residues 87-120 aa. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P. sojae, salicylic acid (SA), NaCl, and also responded to methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. sojae. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. Over-expression of Gly m 4l in susceptible 'Dongnong 50' soybean showed enhanced resistance to P. sojae. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection.

  4. A Novel Pathogenesis-Related Class 10 Protein Gly m 4l, Increases Resistance upon Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    PubMed

    Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae), is a destructive disease in many soybean planting regions worldwide. In a previous study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) homolog of the major allergen Pru ar 1 in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) was identified up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10' infected with P. sojae. Here, the full length of the EST was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It showed the highest homology of 53.46% with Gly m 4 after comparison with the eight soybean allergen families reported and was named Gly m 4-like (Gly m 4l, GenBank accession no. HQ913577.1). The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was 707 bp containing a 474 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 157 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggests that Gly m 4l contains a conserved 'P-loop' (phosphate-binding loop) motif at residues 47-55 aa and a Bet v 1 domain at residues 87-120 aa. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P. sojae, salicylic acid (SA), NaCl, and also responded to methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. sojae. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. Over-expression of Gly m 4l in susceptible 'Dongnong 50' soybean showed enhanced resistance to P. sojae. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection. PMID:26474489

  5. Cross-species Global Proteomics Reveals Conserved and Unique Processes in Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Savidor, Alon; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar; Land, Miriam L.; Shah, Manesh B.; Lamour, Kurt H.; McDonald, W. Hayes

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae are destructive plant pathogens. P. sojae has a narrow host range, whereas P. ramorum has a wide host range. A global proteomics comparison of the vegetative (mycelium) and infective (germinating cyst) life stages of P. sojae and P. ramorum was conducted to identify candidate proteins involved in host range, early infection, and vegetative growth. Sixty-two candidates for early infection, 26 candidates for vegetative growth, and numerous proteins that may be involved in defining host specificity were identified. In addition, common life stage proteomic trends between the organisms were observed. In mycelia, proteins involved in transport and metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and other small molecules were up-regulated. In the germinating cysts, up-regulated proteins associated with lipid transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton, and protein synthesis were observed. It appears that the germinating cyst catabolizes lipid reserves through the β-oxidation pathway to drive the extensive protein synthesis necessary to produce the germ tube and initiate infection. Once inside the host, the pathogen switches to vegetative growth in which energy is derived from glycolysis and utilized for synthesis of amino acids and other molecules that assist survival in the plant tissue. PMID:18316789

  6. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora sojae isolates in Heilongjiang Province in China assessed by RAPD and EST-SSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. J.; Xu, P. F.; Liu, L. J.; Wang, J. S.; Lin, W. G.; Zhang, S. Z.; Wei, L.

    Random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and EST-SSR markers were used to estimate the genetic relationship among thirty-nine P.sojae isolates from three locations in Heilongjiang Province, and nine isolates from Ohio in America were made as reference strains. 10 of 50 RAPD primers and 5 of 33 EST-SSR were polymorphic across 48 P.sojae isolates. Similarity values among P.sojae isolates were from 49% to 82% based on the RAPD data. The similarities based on EST-SSR markers ranged from 47% to 85%. The genetic diversity revealed by EST-SSR marker analysis was higher than that obtained from RAPD. The similarity matrices for the SSR data and the RAPD data were moderately correlated (r = 0.47). Genetic similarity coefficients were also relatively lower, which demonstrated complicated genetic background within each location. The high similarity values range revealed the ability of RAPD/EST-SSR markers to distinguish even among morphological similar phytophthora.

  7. Differential sensitivity to chloride and sodium ions in seedlings of Glycine max and G. soja under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingyun; Yu, Bingjun; Liu, Youliang

    2005-09-01

    High Na+ and Cl- concentrations in soil cause hyperionic and hyperosmotic stress effects, the consequence of which can be plant demise. Ion-specific stress effects of Na+ and Cl- on seedlings of cultivated (Glycine max (L.) Merr) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) were evaluated and compared in isoosmotic solutions of Cl-, Na+ and NaCl. Results showed that under NaCl stress, Cl- was more toxic than Na+ to seedlings of G. max. Injury of six G. max cultivars, including 'Jackson' (salt sensitive) and 'Lee 68' (salt tolerant), was positively correlated with the content of Cl- in the leaves, and negatively with that in the roots. In subsequent research, seedlings of two G. max cultivars (salt-tolerant Nannong 1138-2, and salt-sensitive Zhongzihuangdou-yi) and two G. soja populations (BB52 and N23232) were subjected to isoosmotic solutions of 150mM Na+, Cl- and NaCl, respectively. G. max cv. Nannong 1138-2 and Zhongzihuangdou-yi were damaged much more heavily in the solution of Cl- than in that of Na+. Their Leaves were found to be more sensitive to Cl- than to Na+, and salt tolerance of these two G. max cultivars was mainly due to successful withholding of Cl- in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. The reverse response to isoosmotic stress of 150 mM Na+ and Cl- was shown in G. soja populations of BB52 and N23232; their leaves were not as susceptible to toxicity of Cl- as that of Na+. Salt tolerance of BB52 and N23232 was mainly due to successful withholding of Na+ in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. These results indicate that G. soja have advantages over G. max in those traits associated with the mechanism of Cl-tolerance, such as its withholding in roots and vacuoles of leaves. It is possible to use G. soja to improve the salt tolerance of G. max.

  8. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2010-10-01

    • The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.

  9. Genetic diversity of nodulating and non-nodulating rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in different ecoregions of China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li Juan; Wang, Hai Qing; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu

    2011-06-01

    A total of 99 bacterial isolates that originated from root nodules of Glycine soja were characterized with restriction analyses of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (ITS), and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB, atpD, recA and nodC genes. When tested for nodulation of G. soja, 72 of the isolates were effective symbionts, and these belonged to five species: Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Sinorhizobium fredii. All of these, except some B. yuanmingense strains, also formed effective nodules on the domesticated soybean Glycine max. The remaining 27 isolates did not nodulate either host, but were identified as Rhizobium. Phylogeny nodC in the G. soja symbionts suggested that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. Different nodC sublineages and rrs-ITS clusters reflected the geographic origins of isolates in this study.

  10. Functional characterization of a Glycine soja Ca(2+)ATPase in salt-alkaline stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Cui, Na; Wen, Yidong; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Qingyue; Xiao, Jialei; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanming

    2016-03-01

    It is widely accepted that Ca(2+)ATPase family proteins play important roles in plant environmental stress responses. However, up to now, most researches are limited in the reference plants Arabidopsis and rice. The function of Ca(2+)ATPases from non-reference plants was rarely reported, especially its regulatory role in carbonate alkaline stress responses. Hence, in this study, we identified the P-type II Ca(2+)ATPase family genes in soybean genome, determined their chromosomal location and gene architecture, and analyzed their amino acid sequence and evolutionary relationship. Based on above results, we pointed out the existence of gene duplication for soybean Ca(2+)ATPases. Then, we investigated the expression profiles of the ACA subfamily genes in wild soybean (Glycine soja) under carbonate alkaline stress, and functionally characterized one representative gene GsACA1 by using transgenic alfalfa. Our results suggested that GsACA1 overexpression in alfalfa obviously increased plant tolerance to both carbonate alkaline and neutral salt stresses, as evidenced by lower levels of membrane permeability and MDA content, but higher levels of SOD activity, proline concentration and chlorophyll content under stress conditions. Taken together, for the first time, we reported a P-type II Ca(2+)ATPase from wild soybean, GsACA1, which could positively regulate plant tolerance to both carbonate alkaline and neutral salt stresses.

  11. A Phytophthora sojae cytoplasmic effector mediates disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixiang; Ahmed Rajput, Nasir; Shen, Danyu; Sun, Peng; Zeng, Wentao; Liu, Tingli; Juma Mafurah, Joseph; Dou, Daolong

    2015-06-03

    Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation. Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. Here, we generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that express a Phytophthora sojae CRN (crinkling and necrosis) effector, PsCRN115. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. benthamiana, but significantly improved disease resistance and tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P450 encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRN115-transgenic N. benthamiana based on digital gene expression profiling analyses, suggesting the increased plant defence may be achieved by upregulation of these stress-related genes in transgenic plants. Thus, PsCRN115 may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  12. [Relationship between chloride tolerance and polyamine accumulation in Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid seedlings].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan-Qin; Yu, Bing-Jun; Liu, You-Liang

    2007-02-01

    The seedlings of the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' selected for salt tolerance generation by generation, their parents Glycine max cv. Jackson and Glycine soja population 'BB52' were treated with different NaCl concentrations and iso-osmotic (-0.53 MPa) PEG-6000, NaCl, Na+ (without Cl-) and Cl- (without Na+) solutions for 6 d. The results showed that: (1) The relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of the above three soybean seedlings showed an increase trend when the NaCl concentration was elevated, but chlorophyll contents decreased except the significant increase in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under NaCl 50 mmol/L stress. The change in 'JB185' was between its parents. (2) Under different iso-osmotic stresses, the relative electrolyte leakage and MDA contents in leaves of three soybean seedlings also increased mostly, the changes in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under Na+ (without Cl-) stress were more than those under Cl- (without Na+) stress. The free and bound Put, Spd and Spm contents in leaves all increased when compared with the control, the ratios of free (Spd+Spm)/Put and total bound polyamines in 'BB52' and 'JB185' seedlings under Na+ (without Cl-) treatment were the lowest one among three iso-osmotic salt stresses. The results indicate that the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' is more sensitive to Na+ than Cl- as its wild parent 'BB52' population.

  13. Effects of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean to Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Nedukha, O M; Leach, J E; Ryba-White, M; Hilaire, E; Guikema, J; Kordyum, E L

    1998-07-01

    The study of pathogenicity of higher plants under conditions of microgravity is of great importance for the future production of food in space. Previous work suggests that microgravity affects both microbes and plants. Bacterial numbers increased after 17 days in an algae-bacterium association on the biosatellite "Kosmos-1887". This was speculated to result from an increase in the multiplication rate of the bacteria. Sporangia of both Actinomices brevis, in the shuttles "Soyuz-19" and "Appolon", and Phycomyces blakes, in biosatellite "Kosmos-936", formed after 10 days in microgravity. Sporangia did not form in the ground controls in the same time suggesting that the rate of fungal development is enhanced in microgravity. Plant responses to pathogens in microgravity have not been studied, however, microgravity profoundly impacts plant cell development, cytology, and physiology. In microgravity, developing cell walls are thinner and contain less lignin than ground-grown plants. The demonstrated effects of microgravity on both plants and microbes lead us to hypothesize that plants may be more susceptible to pathogens under conditions of microgravity. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microgravity on the susceptibility of soybean to the fungal root rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae.

  14. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K.; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  15. [Influence of bean yellow mosaic virus on metabolism of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and carbohydrates in Glycine soja L].

    PubMed

    Kyrychenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data on BYMV effects on some physiological processes of Glycine soja L. cultivated in the right-bank forest-steppe regions. Pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and water soluble carbohydrates were estimated and, as has been shown, are subjected to significant changes as compared with control plants, namely: a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids was 64%, 53% and 36% compared with the control plants. The significant increase in carbohydrates (56% compared to the control) was observed at the end of the test period.

  16. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size (< 0.03 g), were directly collected in the field and came from all parts of Japan where wild soybeans grow, except Hokkaido. Japanese wild soybean showed significant reduction in observed heterozygosity, low outcrossing rate (mean 3.4%) and strong genetic differentiation among populations. However, the individual assignment test revealed evidence of rare long-distance seed dispersal (> 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed.

  17. Molecular analysis and physicochemical properties of electrophoretic variants of wild soybean Glycine soja storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takako; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Kanazawa, Akira; Abe, Jun; Shimamoto, Yoshiya; Hiemori, Miki; Tsuji, Hideaki; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2005-05-01

    Cultivated soybeans (Glycine max) are derived from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) and can be crossed with them to produce fertile offspring. The latter exhibit greater genetic variation than the former, suggesting a possibility that wild soybeans contain storage proteins with properties different from and better than those of cultivated soybeans. To identify a wild soybean suitable for breeding a new soybean cultivar, we analyzed seed proteins from 390 lines of wild soybeans by electrophoresis. We found some lines containing electrophoretic variants of glycinin and beta-conglycinin subunits: one line containing a small alpha' subunit of beta-conglycinin and two and five lines containing small A3 and large A4 polypeptides of glycinin, respectively. Beta-Conglycinin and glycinin containing such variant subunits exhibited solubility and emulsifying ability similar to those of the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans. Glycinins containing small A3 and large A4 gave a shoulder derived from the start of denaturation at a temperature 4 degrees C lower than that of glycinin from the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans, although their thermal denaturation midpoint temperatures were very similar to each other. Cloning and sequencing of the predominant and variant subunit cDNAs revealed that the small alpha' and the small A3 lacked 24 amino acid residues in the extension region and four amino acid residues in the hypervariable region, respectively, and that the large A4 did not have an insert corresponding to the difference in the electrophoretic mobility but Arg279 and Gln305 were replaced by glutamine and histidine, respectively, in the hypervariable region. These suggest that small differences even in the hypervariable region can affect the thermal stability, as well as the electrophoretic mobilities, of the proteins.

  18. Identification of Candidate Signaling Genes Including Regulators of Chromosome Condensation 1 Protein Family Differentially Expressed in the Soybean - Phytophthora Sojae Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem and root rot caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytopthora sojae, is a serious soybean disease. Use of Phytophthora resistance genes (Rps) in soybean cultivars has been very effective in controlling this pathogen. Resistance encoded by Rps genes is manifested through activation of defense resp...

  19. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Dos Santos, Leandro Vieira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  20. De Novo Assembly of Candida sojae and Candida boidinii Genomes, Unexplored Xylose-Consuming Yeasts with Potential for Renewable Biochemical Production

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Guilherme; José, Juliana; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; dos Santos, Leandro Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects. Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. PMID:26769937

  1. The Effect of Potassium Nitrate on the Reduction of Phytophthora Stem Rot Disease of Soybeans, the Growth Rate and Zoospore Release of Phytophthora Sojae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of potassium nitrate (KNO3) application on Phytophthora stem rot disease reduction of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. Chusei-Hikarikuro and Sachiyutaka, and fungal growth and zoospore release of a Phytophthora sojae isolate were investigated under laboratory conditions. The application of 4-...

  2. The histone acetyltransferase PsGcn5 mediates oxidative stress responses and is required for full virulence of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Shusen; Chen, Qingqing; Qi, Rende

    2015-10-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histone acetyltransferase complexes are coactivators that are important for transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin. In this study, a gene (PsGcn5) from Phytophthora sojae encoding a histone acetyltransferase was identified as a homolog of one component of the histone acetyltransferase complex from yeasts to mammals. PsGcn5 was constitutively expressed in each stage tested, but had a slightly higher expression in sporulating hyphae and 3 h after infection. PsGcn5-silenced mutants were generated using polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast stable transformation. These mutants had normal development, but compared to wild type strains they had higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and significantly reduced virulence in soybean. Diaminobenzidine staining revealed an accumulation of H2O2 around the infection sites of PsGcn5-silenced mutants but not for wild type strains. Inhibition of the plant NADPH oxidase by diphenyleneiodonium prevented host-derived H2O2 accumulation in soybean cells and restored infectious hyphal growth of the mutants. Thus, we concluded that PsGcn5 is important for growth under conditions of oxidative stress and contributes to the full virulence of P. sojae by suppressing the host-derived reactive oxygen species.

  3. Environmental versus geographical effects on genomic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja) across its native range in northeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Song, Qijian; Mujacic, Ibro; Luo, Yan; Chen, Charles Y; Li, Changbao; Kjemtrup, Susanne; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how various evolutionary factors interact to affect the population structure of diverse species, especially those of ecological and/or agricultural importance such as wild soybean (Glycine soja). G. soja, from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout diverse habitats in East Asia (Russia, Japan, Korea, and China). Here, we utilize over 39,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 99 ecotypes of wild soybean sampled across their native geographic range in northeast Asia, to understand population structure and the relative contribution of environment versus geography to population differentiation in this species. A STRUCTURE analysis identified four genetic groups that largely corresponded to the geographic regions of central China, northern China, Korea, and Japan, with high levels of admixture between genetic groups. A canonical correlation and redundancy analysis showed that environmental factors contributed 23.6% to population differentiation, much more than that for geographic factors (6.6%). Precipitation variables largely explained divergence of the groups along longitudinal axes, whereas temperature variables contributed more to latitudinal divergence. This study provides a foundation for further understanding of the genetic basis of climatic adaptation in this ecologically and agriculturally important species. PMID:27648247

  4. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-09-21

    Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  5. Environmental versus geographical effects on genomic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja) across its native range in northeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Song, Qijian; Mujacic, Ibro; Luo, Yan; Chen, Charles Y; Li, Changbao; Kjemtrup, Susanne; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how various evolutionary factors interact to affect the population structure of diverse species, especially those of ecological and/or agricultural importance such as wild soybean (Glycine soja). G. soja, from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout diverse habitats in East Asia (Russia, Japan, Korea, and China). Here, we utilize over 39,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 99 ecotypes of wild soybean sampled across their native geographic range in northeast Asia, to understand population structure and the relative contribution of environment versus geography to population differentiation in this species. A STRUCTURE analysis identified four genetic groups that largely corresponded to the geographic regions of central China, northern China, Korea, and Japan, with high levels of admixture between genetic groups. A canonical correlation and redundancy analysis showed that environmental factors contributed 23.6% to population differentiation, much more than that for geographic factors (6.6%). Precipitation variables largely explained divergence of the groups along longitudinal axes, whereas temperature variables contributed more to latitudinal divergence. This study provides a foundation for further understanding of the genetic basis of climatic adaptation in this ecologically and agriculturally important species.

  6. Giving a Virtual Voice to the Silent Language of Culture: The "Cultura" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Gilberte; Levet, Sabine; English, Kathryn; Maillet, Katherine

    2001-01-01

    Presents a Web-based, cross-cultural, curricular initiative entitled, "Cultura," designed to develop foreign language students' understanding of foreign cultural attitudes, concepts, beliefs, and ways of interacting and looking at the world. Focuses on the pedagogy of electronic media, with particular emphasis on the ways the Web can be used to…

  7. Experiences of Serveis de Cultura Popular in the Field of Co-Production and Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuni, Lluis

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts of Serveis de Cultura Popular, a nonprofit foundation in Barcelona (Spain), in the coproduction of educational videos. Highlights include contests that awarded prizes for completed videos, video scripts, or ideas for videos; coproduction with educational television; coproduction of an interactive videodisc; and international…

  8. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: BICEP Intercambio de la Cultura.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Marietta Saravia; Nafus, Charles

    This content analysis schedule for BICEP Intercambio de la Cultura (San Bernardino, California), presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  9. A Phytophthora sojae effector suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated immunity by stabilizing plant Binding immunoglobulin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Maofeng; Guo, Baodian; Li, Haiyang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Haonan; Kong, Guanghui; Zhao, Yao; Xu, Huawei; Wang, Yan; Ye, Wenwu; Dong, Suomeng; Qiao, Yongli; Tyler, Brett M.; Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora pathogens secrete an array of specific effector proteins to manipulate host innate immunity to promote pathogen colonization. However, little is known about the host targets of effectors and the specific mechanisms by which effectors increase susceptibility. Here we report that the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae uses an essential effector PsAvh262 to stabilize endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-luminal binding immunoglobulin proteins (BiPs), which act as negative regulators of plant resistance to Phytophthora. By stabilizing BiPs, PsAvh262 suppresses ER stress-triggered cell death and facilitates Phytophthora infection. The direct targeting of ER stress regulators may represent a common mechanism of host manipulation by microbes. PMID:27256489

  10. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Justin E.; Kono, Thomas J. Y.; Stupar, Robert M.; Kantar, Michael B.; Morrell, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections. PMID:26818076

  11. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections.

  12. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. PMID:26717241

  13. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. PMID:26717241

  14. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Lv, De-Kang; Bai, Xi; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ao-Xue; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO(3) stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress treatment. GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell structure, protein synthesis, energy, and secondary metabolism. Another enrichment test revealed that the response of G. soja to NaHCO(3) highlights specific transcription factors, such as the C2C2-CO-like, MYB-related, WRKY, GARP-G2-like, and ZIM families. Co-expressed genes were clustered into ten classes (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, one cluster of 188 genes displayed a unique expression pattern that increases at an early stage (0.5 and 3 h), followed by a decrease from 6 to 12 h. This group was enriched in regulation of transcription components, including AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB/MYB-related, C2C2-CO-like, C2C2-DOF, C2C2, C3H, and GARP-G2-like transcription factors. Analysis of the 1-kb upstream regions of transcripts displaying similar changes in abundance identified 19 conserved motifs, potential binding sites for transcription factors. The appearance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream of co-expression genes reveals that ABA-mediated signaling participates in the signal transduction in alkaline response.

  15. Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zixiang; Ding, Yanlai; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2009-07-01

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean.

  16. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  17. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

  18. [Study of interaction of wild soybean subpopulations (Glycine soja) in the valley of the Tsukanovka river in the south of Far East of Russia].

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of the genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic populations of G. soja gives significant information about formation of different populations, and allows developing measures for preservation of unique natural gene bank of wild soybean, the species closely related to cultivated soybean. In this study, ISSR markers were used to carry out a comparative analysis of genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic subpopulations of G. soja for studying possible mutual influence of subpopulations of anthropogenic and natural phytocenosis on the formation of their genetic diversity and to study genetic structure of natural subpopulations of wild soybean in the contact places between the two types ofcenoses. As a result, the characteristics that describe the genetic diversity of studied populations have been identified and the important role of an interaction between subpopulations of different phytocenoses on formation of the spatial genetic structure of population in the valley of Tsukanovka river has been demonstrated.

  19. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  20. Integration of the Draft Sequence and Physical Map as a Framework for Genomic Research in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.).

    PubMed

    Ha, Jungmin; Abernathy, Brian; Nelson, William; Grant, David; Wu, Xiaolei; Nguyen, Henry T; Stacey, Gary; Yu, Yeisoo; Wing, Rod A; Shoemaker, Randy C; Jackson, Scott A

    2012-03-01

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community because of its importance as a crop, densely populated genetic maps, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole-genome shotgun sequence and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution, chromosome-based physical map linked to the sequence assemblies is still needed for whole-genome alignments and to facilitate map-based gene cloning. Three independent G. max BAC libraries combined with genetic and gene-based markers were used to construct a minimum tiling path (MTP) of BAC clones. A total of 107,214 clones were assembled into 1355 FPC (FingerPrinted Contigs) contigs, incorporating 4628 markers and aligned to the G. max reference genome sequence using BAC end-sequence information. Four different MTPs were made for G. max that covered from 92.6% to 95.0% of the soybean draft genome sequence (gmax1.01). Because our purpose was to pick the most reliable and complete MTP, and not the MTP with the minimal number of clones, the FPC map and draft sequence were integrated and clones with unpaired BES were added to build a high-quality physical map with the fewest gaps possible (http://soybase.org). A physical map was also constructed for the undomesticated ancestor (G. soja) of soybean to explore genome variation between G. max and G. soja. 66,028 G. soja clones were assembled into 1053 FPC contigs covering approximately 547 Mbp of the G. max genome sequence. These physical maps for G. max and its undomesticated ancestor, G. soja, will serve as a framework for ordering sequence fragments, comparative genomics, cloning genes, and evolutionary analyses of legume genomes.

  1. Overexpression of GmERF5, a new member of the soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor, enhances resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Yingxin; Wu, Junjiang; Cheng, Qun; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Xu, Zhaolong; Kong, Fanjiang; Zhang, Dayong; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, is a destructive disease throughout the soybean planting regions in the world. Here, we report insights into the function and underlying mechanisms of a novel ethylene response factor (ERF) in soybean, namely GmERF5, in host responses to P. sojae. GmERF5-overexpressing transgenic soybean exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to P. sojae and positively regulated the expression of the PR10, PR1-1, and PR10-1 genes. Sequence analysis suggested that GmERF5 contains an AP2/ERF domain of 58 aa and a conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. Following stress treatments, GmERF5 was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA). The activity of the GmERF5 promoter (GmERF5P) was upregulated in tobacco leaves with ET, ABA, Phytophthora nicotianae, salt, and drought treatments, suggesting that GmERF5 could be involved not only in the induced defence response but also in the ABA-mediated pathway of salt and drought tolerance. GmERF5 could bind to the GCC-box element and act as a repressor of gene transcription. It was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts. GmERF5 interacted with a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (GmbHLH) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor (GmEIF) both in yeast cells and in planta. To the best of our knowledge, GmERF5 is the first soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor demonstrated to be involved in the response to pathogen infection. PMID:25779701

  2. Overexpression of GmERF5, a new member of the soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor, enhances resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Yingxin; Wu, Junjiang; Cheng, Qun; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Xu, Zhaolong; Kong, Fanjiang; Zhang, Dayong; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, is a destructive disease throughout the soybean planting regions in the world. Here, we report insights into the function and underlying mechanisms of a novel ethylene response factor (ERF) in soybean, namely GmERF5, in host responses to P. sojae. GmERF5-overexpressing transgenic soybean exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to P. sojae and positively regulated the expression of the PR10, PR1-1, and PR10-1 genes. Sequence analysis suggested that GmERF5 contains an AP2/ERF domain of 58 aa and a conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. Following stress treatments, GmERF5 was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA). The activity of the GmERF5 promoter (GmERF5P) was upregulated in tobacco leaves with ET, ABA, Phytophthora nicotianae, salt, and drought treatments, suggesting that GmERF5 could be involved not only in the induced defence response but also in the ABA-mediated pathway of salt and drought tolerance. GmERF5 could bind to the GCC-box element and act as a repressor of gene transcription. It was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts. GmERF5 interacted with a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (GmbHLH) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor (GmEIF) both in yeast cells and in planta. To the best of our knowledge, GmERF5 is the first soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor demonstrated to be involved in the response to pathogen infection.

  3. PsHint1, associated with the G-protein α subunit PsGPA1, is required for the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhai, Chunhua; Hua, Chenlei; Qiu, Min; Hao, Yujuan; Nie, Pingping; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-02-01

    Zoospore chemotaxis to soybean isoflavones is essential in the early stages of infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Previously, we have identified a G-protein α subunit encoded by PsGPA1 which regulates the chemotaxis and pathogenicity of P. sojae. In the present study, we used affinity purification to identify PsGPA1-interacting proteins, including PsHint1, a histidine triad (HIT) domain-containing protein orthologous to human HIT nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). PsHint1 interacted with both the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)- and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound forms of PsGPA1. An analysis of the gene-silenced transformants revealed that PsHint1 was involved in the chemotropic response of zoospores to the isoflavone daidzein. During interaction with a susceptible soybean cultivar, PsHint1-silenced transformants displayed significantly reduced infectious hyphal extension and caused a strong cell death in plants. In addition, the transformants displayed defective cyst germination, forming abnormal germ tubes that were highly branched and exhibited apical swelling. These results suggest that PsHint1 not only regulates chemotaxis by interacting with PsGPA1, but also participates in a Gα-independent pathway involved in the pathogenicity of P. sojae.

  4. A novel Glycine soja tonoplast intrinsic protein gene responds to abiotic stress and depresses salt and dehydration tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiao-Li; Chen, Lian-Jiang; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-07-15

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a subfamily of the aquaporin (AQP), also known as major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, and regulates water movement across vacuolar membranes. Some reports have implied that TIP genes are associated with plant tolerance to some abiotic stresses that cause water loss, such as drought and high salinity. In our previous work, we found that an expressed sequence tag (EST) representing a TIP gene in our Glycine soja EST library was inducible by abiotic stresses. This TIP was subsequently isolated from G. soja with cDNA library screening, EST assembly and PCR, and named as GsTIP2;1. The expression patterns of GsTIP2;1 in G. soja under low temperature, salt and dehydration stress were different in leaves and roots. Though GsTIP2;1 is a stress-induced gene, overexpression of GsTIP2;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stress, but did not affect seedling growth under cold or favorable conditions. Higher dehydration speed was detected in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GsTIP2;1, implying GsTIP2;1 might mediate stress sensitivity by enhancing water loss in the plant. Such a result is not identical to previous reports, providing some new information about the relationship between TIP and plant abiotic stress tolerance.

  5. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  6. Characterization of storage proteins in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds using proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S; Xu, Chenping; Bae, Hanhong; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M

    2006-04-19

    A combined proteomic approach was applied for the separation, identification, and comparison of two major storage proteins, beta-conglycinin and glycinin, in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) with three different immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips was an effective method to separate a large number of abundant and less-abundant storage proteins. Most of the subunits of beta-conglycinin were well-separated in the pH range 3.0-10.0, while acidic and basic glycinin polypeptides were well-separated in pH ranges 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-11.0, respectively. Although the overall distribution pattern of the protein spots was similar in both genotypes using pH 3.0-10.0, variations in number and intensity of protein spots were better resolved using a combination of pH 4.0-7.0 and pH 6.0-11.0. The total number of storage protein spots detected in wild and cultivated genotypes was approximately 44 and 34, respectively. This is the first study reporting the comparison of protein profiles of wild and cultivated genotypes of soybean seeds using proteomic tools.

  7. Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

    2015-04-01

    The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme. PMID:25352336

  8. [Isolation and functional analysis of GsTIFY11b relevant to salt and alkaline stress from Glycine soja].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Chen, Chao; An, Lin; Zhu, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Using homologous cloning and RT-PCR technology, we isolated a novel TIFY family gene, GsTIFY11b, from Glycine soja L. G07256, a species that is tolerant to saline and alkaline environments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GsTIFY11b was closely related to AtTIFY11a with 56% similarity in amino acid identity. Protein sequence analysis showed that GsTIFY11b protein also had conserved TIFY domain, N-terminal domain, and a C-terminal Jas motif. Quantitative realtime PCR analysis indicated that the expression of GsTIFY11b was induced by both saline and alkaline stresses. Two homozygous GsTIFY11b over-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis indicated that over-expressing GsTIFY11b in Arabidopsis did not enhance plant tolerance to saline and alkaline stresses, whereas it showed an increased sensitivity to saline stress during seed germination and seedling development. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in transgenic and wild-type plants under stress condition indicated that GsTIFY11b regulated the expression of RD29B, KIN1, and DREB. The transient expression of a GsTIFY11b-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells showed that GsTIFY11b was localized to the nucleus, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator in the saline stress response pathway.

  9. Soybean Stem Fly, Melanagromyza sojae (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in the New World: detection of high genetic diversity from soybean fields in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arnemann, J A; Tay, W T; Walsh, T K; Brier, H; Gordon, K; Hickmann, F; Ugalde, G; Guedes, J V C

    2016-01-01

    Soybean Stem Fly (SSF), Melanagromyza sojae (Zehntner), belongs to the family Agromyzidae and is highly polyphagous, attacking many plant species of the family Fabaceae, including soybean and other beans. SSF is regarded as one of the most important pests in soybean fields of Asia (e.g., China, India), North East Africa (e.g., Egypt), parts of Russia, and South East Asia. Despite reports of Agromyzidae flies infesting soybean fields in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil) in 1983 and 2009 and periodic interceptions of SSF since the 1940s by the USA quarantine authorities, SSF has not been officially reported to have successfully established in the North and South Americas. In South America, M. sojae was recently confirmed using morphology and its complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was characterized. In the present study, we surveyed the genetic diversity of M. sojae, collected directly from soybean host plants, using partial mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and provide evidence of multiple (>10) maternal lineages in SSF populations in South America, potentially representing multiple incursion events. However, a single incursion involving multiple-female founders could not be ruled out. We identified a haplotype that was common in the fields of two Brazilian states and the individuals collected from Australia in 2013. The implications of SSF incursions in southern Brazil are discussed in relation to the current soybean agricultural practices, highlighting an urgent need for better understanding of SSF population movements in the New World, which is necessary for developing effective management options for this significant soybean pest. PMID:27420989

  10. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. Results B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. Conclusions B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be

  11. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  12. Chemotaxis and oospore formation in Phytophthora sojae are controlled by G-protein-coupled receptors with a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhao, W; Hua, C; Zheng, X; Jing, M; Li, D; Govers, F; Meijer, H J G; Wang, Y

    2013-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key cellular components that mediate extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Genome mining revealed that Phytophthora spp. have over 60 GPCR genes among which a prominent class of 12 encoding novel proteins with an N-terminal GPCR domain fused to a C-terminal phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) domain. This study focuses on two GPCR-PIPKs (GKs) in Phytophthora sojae. PsGK4 and PsGK5 are differentially expressed during the life cycle with the highest expression in cysts and during cyst germination, and at late infection stages. In P. sojae transformants that constitutively express RFP-tagged PsGK4 and PsGK5, the fusion proteins in hyphae reside in small, rapidly moving vesicular-like structures. Functional analysis using gene silencing showed that PsGK4-silenced transformants displayed higher levels of encystment and a reduced cyst germination rate when compared with the recipient strain. Moreover, GK4 deficiency (or reduction) resulted in severe defects in zoospore chemotaxis towards isoflavones and soybean roots. In contrast, PsGK5-silenced transformants exhibited no obvious defects in asexual development but oospore production was severely impaired. Both, PsGK4- and PsGK5-silenced transformants showed reduced pathogenicity. These results point to involvement of GKs in zoospore behaviour, chemotaxis and oospore development, and suggest that PsGK4 and PsGK5 each head independent signalling pathways. PMID:23448757

  13. The heat shock transcription factor PsHSF1 of Phytophthora sojae is required for oxidative stress tolerance and detoxifying the plant oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yuting; Wang, Yonglin; Meijer, Harold J G; Yang, Xinyu; Hua, Chenlei; Ye, Wenwu; Tao, Kai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Govers, Francine; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-04-01

    In the interaction between plant and microbial pathogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS) rapidly accumulate upon pathogen recognition at the infection site and play a central role in plant defence. However, the mechanisms that plant pathogens use to counteract ROS are still poorly understood especially in oomycetes, filamentous organisms that evolved independently from fungi. ROS detoxification depends on transcription factors (TFs) that are highly conserved in fungi but much less conserved in oomycetes. In this study, we identified the TF PsHSF1 that acts as a modulator of the oxidative stress response in the soybean stem and root rot pathogen Phytophthora sojae. We found that PsHSF1 is critical for pathogenicity in P. sojae by detoxifying the plant oxidative burst. ROS produced in plant defence can be detoxified by extracellular peroxidases and laccases which might be regulated by PsHSF1. Our study extends the understanding of ROS detoxification mechanism mediated by a heat shock TF in oomycetes.

  14. The importin α subunit PsIMPA1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is required for the pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyu; Ding, Fa; Zhang, Lei; Sheng, Yuting; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-09-01

    The sensing of extracellular signals and their transduction into an appropriate response are crucial for the survival and virulence of plant pathogens. Eukaryotic plant pathogens must overcome the obstacles posed by nuclear membranes to manipulate gene expression to adapt to the host challenge. A highly sophisticated mechanism is the use of importins to transport proteins into the nucleus. In this study, we identified a conserved importin α gene, PsIMPA1, in Phytophthora sojae that was differentially expressed during the life cycle of this soybean pathogen. PsIMPA1 expression was lowest in zoospores and cysts but relatively consistent during the other life cycle stages, except for a slight increase at 6h post infection. Silenced mutants Psimpa1 had a decreased growth rate, an aberrant mycelial morphology, and a severely impaired ability to form oospores and sporangia. In addition, the Psimpa1 mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild type. 3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining and in vitro hydrogen peroxide tolerance assays showed that the scavenging of reactive oxygen species by these mutants was significantly impaired. Taken together, these results indicate that PsIMPA1 regulates multiple processes during the life cycle of P. sojae.

  15. Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yanming; Ji, Wei; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions. A review of our Glycine soja expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset revealed that abiotic stress stimulated expression of a PIP, herein designated as GsPIP2;1 (GenBank_Accn: FJ825766). To understand the roles of this PIP in stress tolerance, we generated a coding sequence for GsPIP2;1 by in silico elongation and cloned the cDNA by 5'-RACE. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that GsPIP2;1 expression was stimulated in G. soja leaves by cold, salt, or dehydration stress, whereas the same stresses suppressed GsPIP2;1 expression in the roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. thaliana shoots, implying that GsPIP2;1 may negatively impact stress tolerance by regulating water potential. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  16. Chemotaxis and oospore formation in Phytophthora sojae are controlled by G-protein-coupled receptors with a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase domain.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Zhao, W; Hua, C; Zheng, X; Jing, M; Li, D; Govers, F; Meijer, H J G; Wang, Y

    2013-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key cellular components that mediate extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Genome mining revealed that Phytophthora spp. have over 60 GPCR genes among which a prominent class of 12 encoding novel proteins with an N-terminal GPCR domain fused to a C-terminal phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) domain. This study focuses on two GPCR-PIPKs (GKs) in Phytophthora sojae. PsGK4 and PsGK5 are differentially expressed during the life cycle with the highest expression in cysts and during cyst germination, and at late infection stages. In P. sojae transformants that constitutively express RFP-tagged PsGK4 and PsGK5, the fusion proteins in hyphae reside in small, rapidly moving vesicular-like structures. Functional analysis using gene silencing showed that PsGK4-silenced transformants displayed higher levels of encystment and a reduced cyst germination rate when compared with the recipient strain. Moreover, GK4 deficiency (or reduction) resulted in severe defects in zoospore chemotaxis towards isoflavones and soybean roots. In contrast, PsGK5-silenced transformants exhibited no obvious defects in asexual development but oospore production was severely impaired. Both, PsGK4- and PsGK5-silenced transformants showed reduced pathogenicity. These results point to involvement of GKs in zoospore behaviour, chemotaxis and oospore development, and suggest that PsGK4 and PsGK5 each head independent signalling pathways.

  17. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau" (Barcelona,…

  18. Title VII Enhancement Project for Compartiendo Culturas/Sharing Cultures 1995-96. Research Report on Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    Compartiendo Culturas/Sharing Cultures, a Title VII Two-Way Developmental Bilingual Education Program at the Gary L. Herod Elementary School in the Houston Independent School District (Texas) was designed to end the isolation typically experienced by language minority students in traditional bilingual education and to provide language majority…

  19. Synthesis and structure analysis of novel disaccharides containing D-psicose produced by endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase from Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hisaka; Kimura, Isao; Izumori, Ken

    2006-03-01

    Xylosylpsicoses (XPs) were synthesized by transglycosylation (TG) with arabinoxylan (AX) and D-psicose (D-psi) using endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from Aspergillus sojae. The structures of XPs were analyzed by HPLC to determine sugar composition and molecular mass, by methylation analysis using GC-MS to determine linkage, and by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectrometries to obtain the anomeric configuration of glycosidic linkage. By chemical analysis, it was found that the structures of XPs are Xylp beta1-4Psip, Xylp beta1-5Psip, Xylp beta1-1Psif and Xylp beta1-6Psif.

  20. RNA Interference of Soybean Isoflavone Synthase Genes Leads to Silencing in Tissues Distal to the Transformation Site and to Enhanced Susceptibility to Phytophthora sojae1

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Senthil; Graham, Madge Y.; Yu, Oliver; Graham, Terrence L.

    2005-01-01

    Isoflavones are thought to play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are also potentially important to human nutrition and medicine. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is a key enzyme for the formation of the isoflavones. Here, we examined the consequences of RNAi silencing of genes for this enzyme in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean cotyledon tissues were transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying an RNAi silencing construct designed to silence expression of both copies of IFS genes. Approximately 50% of emerging roots were transformed with the RNAi construct, and most transformed roots exhibited >95% silencing of isoflavone accumulation. Silencing of IFS was also demonstrated throughout the entire cotyledon (in tissues distal to the transformation site) both by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of isoflavones and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. This distal silencing led to a nearly complete suppression of mRNA accumulation for both the IFS1 and IFS2 genes and of isoflavone accumulations induced by wounding or treatment with the cell wall glucan elicitor from Phytophthora sojae. Preformed isoflavone conjugates were not reduced in distal tissues, suggesting little turnover of these stored isoflavone pools. Distal silencing was established within just 5 d of transformation and was highly efficient for a 3- to 4-d period, after which it was no longer apparent in most experiments. Silencing of IFS was effective in at least two genotypes and led to enhanced susceptibility to P. sojae, disrupting both R gene-mediated resistance in roots and nonrace-specific resistance in cotyledon tissues. The soybean cotyledon system, already a model system for defense signal-response and cell-to-cell signaling, may provide a convenient and effective system for functional analysis of plant genes through gene silencing. PMID:15778457

  1. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  2. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  3. A novel Glycine soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14, interacting with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK, regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Yang, Shanshan; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Sunting; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dan; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhao, Chaoyue; Wang, Xuedong; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that cystatins regulated plant stress tolerance through inhibiting the cysteine proteinase activity under environmental stress. However, there was limited information about the role of cystatins in plant alkali stress response, especially in wild soybean. Here, in this study, we focused on the biological characterization of a novel Glycine soja cystatin protein GsCPI14, which interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and positively regulated plant alkali stress tolerance. The protein-protein interaction between GsCBRLK and GsCPI14 was confirmed by using split-ubiquitin based membrane yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Expression of GsCPI14 was greatly induced by salt, ABA and alkali stress in G. soja, and GsCBRLK overexpression (OX) in Glycine max promoted the stress induction of GmCPI14 expression under stress conditions. Furthermore, we found that GsCPI14-eGFP fusion protein localized in the entire Arabidopsis protoplast and onion epidermal cell, and GsCPI14 showed ubiquitous expression in different tissues of G. soja. In addition, we gave evidence that the GST-GsCPI14 fusion protein inhibited the proteolytic activity of papain in vitro. At last, we demonstrated that OX of GsCPI14 in Arabidopsis promoted the seed germination under alkali stress, as evidenced by higher germination rates. GsCPI14 transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings also displayed better growth performance and physiological index under alkali stress. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the G. soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14 interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

  4. Ectopic Expression of a Glycine soja myo-Inositol Oxygenase Gene (GsMIOX1a) in Arabidopsis Enhances Tolerance to Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Liu, Ailin; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol participates in various aspects of plant physiology, and myo-inositol oxygenase is the key enzyme of the myo-inositol oxygenation pathway. Previous studies indicated that myo-inositol oxygenase may play a role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, we focused on the functional characterization of GsMIOX1a, a remarkable alkaline stress-responsive gene of Glycine soja 07256, based on RNA-seq data. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we demonstrated that GsMIOX1a is rapidly induced by alkaline stress and expressed predominantly in flowers. We also elucidated the positive function of GsMIOX1a in the alkaline response in the wild type, atmiox1 mutant as well as GsMIOX1a-overexpressing Arabidopsis. We determined that atmiox1 mutant decreased Arabidopsis tolerance to alkaline stress, whereas GsMIOX1a overexpression increased tolerance. Moreover, the expression levels of some alkaline stress-responsive and inducible marker genes, including H+-Ppase, NADP-ME, KIN1 and RD29B, were also up-regulated in GsMIOX1a overexpression lines compared with the wild type and atmiox1 mutant. Together, these results suggest that the GsMIOX1a gene positively regulates plant tolerance to alkaline stress. This is the first report to demonstrate that ectopic expression of myo-inositol oxygenase improves alkaline tolerance in plants. PMID:26091094

  5. A Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN63 forms homo-/hetero-dimers to suppress plant immunity via an inverted association manner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Chen, Yanyu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection. Their mode of action are largely unknown. Here we show that a Phytophthora sojae effector, PsCRN63, suppresses flg22-induced expression of FRK1 gene, a molecular marker in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). However, PsCRN63 does not suppress upstream signaling events including flg22-induced MAPK activation and BIK1 phosphorylation, indicating that it acts downstream of MAPK cascades. The PsCRN63-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 and oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The callose deposition were suppressed in PsCRN63-transgenic plants compared with the wild-type control plants. Genes involved in PTI were also down-regulated in PsCRN63-transgenic plants. Interestingly, we found that PsCRN63 forms an dimer that is mediated by inter-molecular interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in an inverted association manner. Furthermore, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains required for the dimerization are widely conserved among CRN effectors, suggesting that homo-/hetero-dimerization of Phytophthora CRN effectors is required to exert biological functions. Indeed, the dimerization was required for PTI suppression and cell death-induction activities of PsCRN63. PMID:27243217

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure: Implications for Conservation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Variation

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-01-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority. PMID:23202917

  7. GsSKP21, a Glycine soja S-phase kinase-associated protein, mediates the regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailin; Yu, Yang; Duan, Xiangbo; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Plant SKP1-like family proteins, components of the SCF complex E3 ligases, are involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Little is known about the precise function of SKP genes in plant responses to environmental stresses. GsSKP21 was initially identified as a potential stress-responsive gene based on the transcriptome sequencing of Glycine soja. In this study, we found that GsSKP21 protein contains highly conserved SKP domains in its N terminus and an extra unidentified domain in its C terminus. The transcript abundance of GsSKP21, detected by quantitative real-time PCR, was induced under the treatment of alkali and salt stresses. Overexpression of GsSKP21 in Arabidopsis dramatically increased plant tolerance to alkali stress. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsSKP21 resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity during both the seed germination and early seedling growth stages. GsSKP21 mediated ABA signaling by altering the expression levels of the ABA signaling-related and ABA-induced genes. We also investigated the tissue expression specificity and subcellular localization of GsSKP21. These results suggest that GsSKP21 is important for plant tolerance to alkali stress and plays a critical regulatory role in the ABA-mediated stress response.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  9. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  10. Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura. Trinta Anos de Organizacao e Situacao Atual (Ministry of Education and Culture [Brazil]. Thirty Years Ago and Now). Volumes I and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Norma Carneiro Monteiro

    The economic rather than the educational aspect of Brazil's Ministry of Education and Culture is presented in this historical summary. The study was done as part of Brazil's national program of educational reform. Brazil is currently re-evaluating its school system with the view of adopting a nationally-administered system similar to that in…

  11. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  12. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction.

  13. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  14. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction. PMID:27582748

  16. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean. PMID:26934088

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L.; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D.; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction. PMID:27582748

  18. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J.; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M.; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A.; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  19. A Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o participates in stomatal and root hair development and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Mingzhe; Chen, Chao; Ding, Xiaodong; Wang, Xuedong; Yang, Shanshan; Yu, Qingyue; Jia, Bowei; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.

  20. A Glycine soja ABA-responsive receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, GsRLCK, positively controls plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Sun, XiaoLi; Sun, Mingzhe; Luo, Xiao; Ding, XiaoDong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Liu, XiaoFei; Zhu, YanMing

    2013-06-01

    Receptor such as protein kinases are proposed to work as sensors to initiate signaling cascades in higher plants. However, little is known about the precise functions of receptor such as protein kinases in abiotic stress response in plants, especially in wild soybean. Here, we focused on characterization of the biological functions of a receptor-like cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase gene, GsRLCK, which was previously identified as a putative salt-alkali stress-related gene from the transcriptome profiles of Glycine soja. Bioinformatic analysis showed that GsRLCK protein contained a conserved kinase catalytic domain and two transmembrane domains at the N-terminus, but no typical extracellular domain. Consistently, GsRLCK-eGFP fusion protein was observed on the plasma membrane, but eGFP alone was distributing throughout the cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the induced expression of GsRLCK by ABA, salt, alkali, and drought stresses. However, the expression levels of GsRLCK seemed to be similar in different tissues, except soybean pod. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that GsRLCK overexpression decreased ABA sensitivity and altered expression levels of ABA-responsive genes. Furthermore, we also found that GsRLCK conferred increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses and increased expression levels of a handful of stress-responsive genes, when overexpressing in Arabidopsis. In a word, we gave exact evidence that GsRLCK was a novel receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase and played a crucial role in plant responses to ABA, salt, and drought stresses.

  1. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    PubMed

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  3. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  4. Biological safety of liposome-fullerene consisting of hydrogenated lecithin, glycine soja sterols, and fullerene-C60 upon photocytotoxicity and bacterial reverse mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Aoshima, H; Saitoh, Y; Miwa, N

    2009-04-01

    Various water-soluble derivatives of fullerene-C60 (C60) have been developed as detoxifiers for reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas C60 incorporated in liposome (Lpsm) has not been reported yet. We prepared the liposome-fullerene (0.2% aqueous phase, Lpsm-Flln) which was composed of hydrogenated lecithin, glycine soja (soybean) sterols, and C60 in the weight ratio of 89.7:10:0.3, then examined the photocytotoxicity and bacterial reverse mutagenicity, as comparing with the Lpsm containing no C60. Photocytoxicity of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm was examined using Balb/3T3 fibroblastic cells at graded doses of 0.49-1000 microg/mL under the condition of UVA- or sham-irradiation. The cells were irradiated with UVA (5 J/cm2, 320-400 nm, lambda max = 360 nm) at room temperature for 50 min. The resultant cell viability (% of control) did not decrease dose-dependently to 50% or less regardless of the UVA-irradiation. These results show that Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm does not possess photocytotoxicity to Balb/3T3 fibroblasts, and Lpsm-Flln may not exert a UVA-catalytic ROS-increasing action. A possibility for the reverse mutation by Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm was examined on four histidine-demanding strains of Salmonella typhimurium and a tryptophan-demanding strain of Escherichia coli. As for the dosages of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm (313-5000 microg/plate), the dose-dependency of the number of reverse mutation colonies of each strain did not show a twice or more difference versus the negative control regardless of the metabolic activation, and, in contrast, marked differences for five positive controls (sodium azide, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 2-nitrofluorene, 9-aminoacridine, and 2-aminoanthracene). The growth inhibition of bacterial strains and the deposition of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm were not found. As a result, the bacterial reverse mutagenicity of Lpsm-Flln or Lpsm was judged to be negative under the conditions of this test. Thus, Lpsm-Flln and Lpsm may not give any significant biological toxic

  5. Allele-specific marker development and selection efficiencies for both flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes in soybean subgenus soja.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-06-01

    Color is one of the phenotypic markers mostly used to study soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genetic, molecular and biochemical processes. Two P450-dependent mono-oxygenases, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H; EC1.14.3.21) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H, EC1.14.13.88), both catalyzing the hydroxylation of the B-ring in flavonoids, play an important role in coloration. Previous studies showed that the T locus was a gene encoding F3'H and the W1 locus co-segregated with a gene encoding F3'5'H in soybean. These two genetic loci have identified to control seed coat, flower and pubescence colors. However, the allelic distributions of both F3'H and F3'5'H genes in soybean were unknown. In this study, three novel alleles were identified (two of four alleles for GmF3'H and one of three alleles for GmF3'5'H). A set of gene-tagged markers was developed and verified based on the sequence diversity of all seven alleles. Furthermore, the markers were used to analyze soybean accessions including 170 cultivated soybeans (G. max) from a mini core collection and 102 wild soybeans (G. soja). For both F3'H and F3'5'H, the marker selection efficiencies for pubescence color and flower color were determined. The results showed that one GmF3'H allele explained 92.2 % of the variation in tawny and two gmf3'h alleles explained 63.8 % of the variation in gray pubescence colors. In addition, two GmF3'5'H alleles and one gmF3'5'h allele explained 94.0 % of the variation in purple and 75.3 % in white flowers, respectively. By the combination of the two loci, seed coat color was determined. In total, 90.9 % of accessions possessing both the gmf3'h-b and gmf3'5'h alleles had yellow seed coats. Therefore, seed coat colors are controlled by more than two loci.

  6. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P. sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. PMID:24889742

  7. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P. sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean.

  8. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  9. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity.

  10. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  11. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Liu, Ailin; Jia, Bowei; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs) encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+) content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses.

  12. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Liu, Ailin; Jia, Bowei; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs) encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+) content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. PMID:26550992

  13. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la

  14. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  15. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  16. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  17. The Supernova Impostor SN 2010da

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova impostors are optical transients that, despite being assigned a supernova designation, do not signal the death of a massive star or accreting white dwarf. Instead, many impostors are thought to be major eruptions from luminous blue variables. Although the physical cause of these eruptions is still debated, tidal interactions from a binary companion has recently gained traction as a possible explanation for observations of some supernova impostors. In this talk, I will discuss the particularly interesting impostor SN 2010da, which exhibits high-luminosity, variable X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is consistent with accretion onto a neutron star, making SN 2010da a likely high mass X-ray binary in addition to a supernova impostor. SN 2010da is a unique laboratory for understanding both binary interactions as drivers of massive star eruptions and the evolutionary processes that create high mass X-ray binaries.

  18. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  19. Common colds on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Shibli, M.; Gooch, S.; Lewis, H. E.; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight epidemics of respiratory disease have been observed among islanders of Tristan da Cunha. They seem to be initiated by the arrival of ships and transmission seemed to occur as a result of close human contact but could not always be traced. Islanders suffered from less colds than those in less isolated communities. PMID:5282927

  20. DA White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-meter, and Bok 2.3-meter telescopes. Using atmospheric models we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows: i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these eleven happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 days. ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation timescales.

  1. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  2. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  4. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  5. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  6. Identification of the absorbed components and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Yin, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), consisting of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Rheum palmatum L., Citrus aurantium L. and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine preparation for the treatment of acute or chronic hepatic diseases. In the present study, a sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed to separate and identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ZZDHD. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. By comparing the retention time, high resolution mass data of blank plasma and dosed plasma, a total of 43 constituents, including 21 prototype compounds and 22 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized. Results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones, glucuronidation was the main metabolic pathways of flavanone-related compounds. It is concluded the developed UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the absorbed components and metabolites of ZZDHD, and the results will provide essential data for further studying the relationship between the chemical components and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. PMID:25912849

  7. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  8. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  9. [Leonardo da Vinci--a dyslectic genius?].

    PubMed

    Røsstad, Anna

    2002-12-10

    Leonardo da Vinci's texts consist almost exclusively of scientific notes. Working on a book on Leonardo's art, I studied all Leonardo's published texts carefully for any new information. In some prefaces I came to suspect that Leonardo might have suffered from dyslexia. This article considers the question of whether it is possible to find indications of dyslexia in Leonardo's texts and in the accounts of his life.

  10. The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

  11. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-08-20

    Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

  12. Turbocharging the DA465 gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-Qi; Zong, Li-Jun; Wang, Yin-Yan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve performance of the DA465Q gasoline engine, a substantial amount of research was done to optimize its turbocharging system. The research led to the GT12 turbocharger being selected and its turbocharging parameters being settled. Based on these tests, rational matching was worked out for respective components of the turbocharging system. Results show that this turbocharger allows the engine to easily meet the proposed requirements for power and economic performance, giving insight into further performance improvements for gasoline engines.

  13. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  14. 40 CFR 60.52Da - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 60.52Da Section 60.52Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units for...

  15. Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15,...

  16. DA-6034 Induces [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, Hyewon; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-04-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca(2+) signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca(2+)]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca(2+)]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca(2+) entry from extracellular and Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling via extracellular Ca(2+) entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores in epithelial cells.

  17. Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

  18. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  19. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA...

  20. 75 FR 75868 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR 52292). That NPRM proposed to require a retrofit of the rear passenger... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  1. Metal Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.; Hünsch, M.

    2003-10-01

    We report Keck telescope HIRES echelle observations of DA white dwarfs in a continuation of an extensive search for metals. These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. Of the DA white dwarfs not in binary or common proper motion systems, about 25% show Ca II lines. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits. We compare the data to predictions of previously published models involving the accretion/diffusion of interstellar matter and of comets. The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. Because comet accretion appears unlikely to be the primary cause of the DAZ phenomenon, the data suggest that no more than about 20% of F-type main-sequence stars are accompanied by Oort-like comet clouds. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction. A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in 1990 to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G29-38. An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The HIRES data indicate that in close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries not known to be cataclysmic variables there is, nonetheless, significant mass

  2. Characterization of the isolated 20 kDa and 50 kDa fragments of the myosin head.

    PubMed

    Muhlrad, A; Kasprzak, A A; Ue, K; Ajtai, K; Burghardt, T P

    1986-01-30

    We have isolated two proteolytic fragments of subfragment 1 (S-1) of myosin from rabbit skeletal muscle. These fragments, identified by their molecular weights of 20 and 50 kDa, may be functional domains that, when isolated, retain their specific function. We have studied several structural and functional features of the 20 and 50 kDa fragments. Considerable secondary structure in both fragments has been observed in CD spectrum studies. Previously CD spectra showed 64% ordered structure for the 20 kDa fragment (Muhlrad and Morales, M.F. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81, 1003) and here we show 71% ordered structures for the 50 kDa fragment. Fluorescence lifetime studies of tryptophan residues in the 50 kDa fragment and 1,5-IAEDANS-labeled SH-1 in the 20 kDa fragment are used to investigate the tertiary structure of the fragments. We find the tertiary structure relating to this measurement of both fragments to be intact; however, the reaction of 1,5-IAEDANS with SH-1 on the isolated 20 kDa fragment is less specific than with S-1. Furthermore, the fragments showed a tendency to aggregate. The domain concept of S-1 was supported by the characteristic biochemical function of the isolated fragments. Both of the fragments were effective in competing with S-1 for binding to actin in acto-S-1 ATPase measurements. From these studies and in direct binding measurement the 20 kDa fragment proved to bind with higher affinity to actin than did the 50 kDa fragment.

  3. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  4. Cloning of the 52-kDa chitinase gene from Serratia marcescens KCTC2172 and its proteolytic cleavage into an active 35-kDa enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gal, S W; Choi, J Y; Kim, C Y; Cheong, Y H; Choi, Y J; Lee, S Y; Bahk, J D; Cho, M J

    1998-03-01

    A chitinase gene (pCHI52) encoding the 52-kDa chitinase was isolated from a Serratia marcescens KCTC2172 cosmid library. This chitinase gene consists of 2526 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 485 amino acids. Escherichia coli harboring the pCHI52 gene secreted not only a 52-kDa but also a 35-kDa chitinase into the culture supernatant. We purified both 52-kDa and 35-kDa chitinases using a chitin affinity column and Sephacryl-S-300 gel filtration chromatography. We determined that the 17 N-terminal amino acid sequences of the 52-kDa and the 35-kDa chitinase are identical. Furthermore, a protease obtained from S. marcescens KCTC2172 cleaved the 52-kDa chitinase into the 35-kDa protein with chitinase activity. These results suggest that the 35-kDa chitinase derives from the 52-kDa chitinase by post-translational proteolytic modification. The optimal reaction temperature of 45 degrees C and the optimal pH of 5.5 were identical for both enzymes. The specific activities of the 52-kDa and 35-kDa chitinases on natural swollen chitin were 67 mumol min-1 mg-1 and 60 mumol min-1 mg-1, respectively.

  5. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect.

  6. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  7. Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

  8. 1991 DA: An asteroid in a bizarre orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steel, Duncan; Mcnaught, Robert H.; Asher, David

    1992-01-01

    Asteroidal object 1991 DA has an orbit of high inclination, crossing the planets from Mars to Uranus. This is unique for an asteroid, but not unusual for a comet of the Halley-type: it therefore seems likely that 1991 DA is an extinct or dormant comet. Previous CCD imaging has shown no indication of a coma; spectroscopic observations of 1991 DA which lack any evidence of strong comet-like emissions are reported. Numerical integrations of the orbit of this object were performed which show that is has been remarkably stable for the past approximately 20,000 yr, but chaotic before that. This may allow a new estimate to be made of the physical lifetimes of comets.

  9. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  10. Situação da Mulher na Astronomia Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana V. R.

    2007-07-01

    O conteúdo desse texto surgiu de uma apresentação de mesmo título que fiz na XXXI Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB) em 2005. Esse tema foi inspirado originalmente pela minha participação no "2nd UIPAP International Conference on Women in Physics" realizado entre 23 e 25 de maio de 2005 no Rio de Janeiro. Essa é uma conferência internacional que acontece de três em três anos, sendo que a primeira ocorreu em 2002 na cidade de Paris, França. Participei dessa conferência como membro da delegação da Sociedade Brasileira de Física e um dos trabalhos que apresentei versava sobre a situação das mulheres na Astronomia brasileira, cujos resultados principais discorro a seguir. A situação das astrônomas, baseada nos dados dos sócios da SAB coletados no final de 2004, é comparada com a das físicas brasileiras e também com as nossas colegas americanas. Os dados identificam ainda uma maior evasão da carreira por parte das mulheres do que os homens. Alguns dos possíveis motivos da evasão são discutidos, como o desejo de constituir família e/ou isolamento. Resultados um tanto preocupantes com relação à distribuição de bolsas de produtividade do CNPq também são apresentados. As principais discussões e estratégias recomendadas nesse congresso são mencionadas de forma resumida ao final.

  11. Publishing Planetary Data to the VO using DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-04-01

    Publishing to the Virtual Observatory has many advantages, but between standards compliance, registration, data organisation, and server operation it is also requires a nontrivial effort if starting from scratch. The DaCHS software from the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory offers a packaged solution letting publishers concentrate on working with their own data and metadata as much as possible. For the planetary community, publishing is further facilitated by built-in support for the EPN-TAP data model. This contribution will show a typical publishing workflow together with a brief overview of how DaCHS meshes in with the VO and Web-based data usage.

  12. The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-05-01

    GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

  13. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)), by the hourly heat input rate (measured according to the provisions of § 60.49Da(n)), and dividing... shall conduct the performance test required under § 60.8 using the appropriate methods in appendix A of... second sampling site shall be located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating...

  14. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission rate in lb/MMBtu (measured by the CEMS required under § 60.49Da(c) and (d)), by the hourly heat... section may be used: (1) The owner or operator of an affected duct burner shall conduct the performance... located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating unit. Measurements shall be taken at...

  15. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)), by the hourly heat input rate (measured according to the provisions of § 60.49Da(n)), and dividing... shall conduct the performance test required under § 60.8 using the appropriate methods in appendix A of... second sampling site shall be located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating...

  16. Leonardo da Vinci and the sinuses of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Robicsek, F

    1991-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that eddy currents generated by the sinuses of Valsalva play an important role in the physiologic closure of the aortic valve. This process is briefly discussed and evidence is presented that this fact was well known and elaborated upon by the renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. This fact is illustrated with his words and drawings.

  17. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  18. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da Commercial... potential combustion concentration (80 percent reduction) for each 24-hour period of steam generator... owner or operator of a fluidized bed combustion electric utility steam generator (atmospheric...

  19. Infrared applications for portable devices using IrDA transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sanjay M.; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Tan, Wee S.

    2001-11-01

    The internet has been the mantra in last decade and digital convergence is the latest talk on the tech streets. Features that once clearly discerned a mobile phone from a PDA or a PDA from a laptop are being replaced with multi-functional overlapping features and there is a growing need for wireless access and interoperability. Infrared communications has been addressing these needs for quite some time. The technology has matured through standardization efforts of IrDA (Infrared Data Association) and is widely used in PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, printers and digital cameras to name a few. This paper explores some new application scenarios for an IrDA transceiver. The first part of the paper describes a reference architecture for using infrared wireless communication for MP3 file exchange and the various possible user models. The second part of the paper discusses various configurations for implementing an ambient light detection scheme using IrDA transceivers, to turn off the backlighting of a LCD panel of a PDA or mobile phone in the presence of ambient light. The third part of the paper discusses various techniques of enabling extended link distance operation of IrDA transceivers for toy and remote control applications.

  20. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  1. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  2. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  3. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  4. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  5. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  6. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  7. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combined cycle systems, either of the procedures described in paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section may... carbon dioxide (CO2)) and meet the requirements of § 60.49Da. Alternatively, data from a NOX emission... shall constitute the NOX emission rate from the duct burner of the combined cycle system. (k)...

  8. Da Que Hablar (Something To Talk About), 1991-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Que Hablar, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of all 14 issues of a bimonthly serial, from its inception in May 1991 through November 1993. "Da Que Hablar" provides numerous authentic materials from magazines and newspapers to stimulate discussion in Spanish in the foreign language classroom. The articles cover topics such as current events, cultural issues, sports,…

  9. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  10. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  11. Roles and Delegation of Authority (R/DA) System

    SciTech Connect

    ABBOTT,JOHN P.; HUTCHINS,JAMES C.; SCHOCH,DAVID G.

    1999-11-01

    The processes of defining managerial roles and providing for delegation of authority are essential to any enterprise. At most large organizations, these processes are defined in policy manuals and through sets of standard operating procedures for many, if not all, business and administrative functions. Many of these staff-initiated, administrative functions require the routing of documents for approval to one or more levels of management. These employee-oriented, back office types of workflows tend to require more flexibility in determining to whom these documents should go to, while, at the same time, providing the responsible parties with the flexibility to delegate their approval authority or allow others to review their work. Although this practice is commonplace in manual, paper-based processes that exist in many organizations, it is difficult to provide the same flexibility in the more structured, electronic-based, workflow systems. The purpose of this report is to present a framework or architecture for creating a R/DA system and provide some insights associated with its design and utilization. To improve understanding and clarify subsequent discussion, the goals and requirements for the major R/DA system components, namely, the database and interface modules, are initially presented along with the identification of important concepts and the definition of critical terms. Next high-level functions relating the types of inputs to the outputs of the R/DA interface module are introduced and discussed. Then the relationships between the major R/DA modules and the primary components associated with its creation and maintenance are presented and analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn relative to the advantages associated with developing a R/DA system for use in implementing an enterprise-wide, work-facilitating information system.

  12. 32 CFR 635.23 - DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary or Administrative Action).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DA Form 4833 within 45 days of receipt. (1) Appropriate blocks will be checked and blanks annotated... the disposition on DA Form 4833 as appropriate. That portion of the signature block of DA Form 4833... the format and at the frequency specified by the supported commander....

  13. In vivo breakdown products of the 32 kDa thylakoid herbicide binding protein. [Spirodela oligorrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Mattoo, A.K.; Gaba, V.; Edelman, M.

    1986-04-01

    The 32 kDa herbicide binding protein of PSII is degraded rapidly in the light. This phenomenon was investigated in Spirodela oligorrhiza. When fronds were radiolabeled in the presence of cycloheximide only the chloroplast-encoded proteins were labeled. Under these conditions, a breakdown product of 23.5 kDa was observed. This polypeptide was further degraded with kinetics similar to that of the 32 kDa protein. The 23.5 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with an antibody specific to the 32 kDa protein. By protease digestion it was determined that the 23.5 kDa polypeptide is the intact N-terminal piece of the 32 kDa protein. Thus, this product corresponds to the membrane anchor of the 32 kDa protein. Using the same antibody, breakdown products of 16 kDa, 14 kDa and 12 kDa were observed. These products have also been observed in Zea mays and Solanum nigrum. Using DCMU during pulse-chase experiments at different light intensities, evidence was obtained that the 23.5 kDa breakdown product is generated in vivo.

  14. PanDaTox: a tool for accelerated metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2012-04-18

    Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E. coli. Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. coli host. We have developed PanDaTox (www.weizmann.ac.il/pandatox), a web-based resource that provides experimental toxicity information for more than 1.5 million genes from hundreds of different microbial genomes. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. coli as part of the Sanger whole genome shotgun sequencing process. PanDaTox can accelerate metabolic engineering projects by allowing researchers to exclude toxic genes from the engineering plan and verify the clonability of selected genes before the actual metabolic engineering experiments are conducted.

  15. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  16. A novel 29-kDa chicken heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Einat, M F; Haberfeld, A; Shamay, A; Horev, G; Hurwitz, S; Yahav, S

    1996-12-01

    The family of small heat shock proteins is the more variable among the highly conserved superfamily of heat shock proteins (HSP). Using a metabolic labeling procedure with tissue explants, we have detected in chickens a new member of the small HSP family with an apparent molecular weight of 29-kDa. This protein was induced in broiler chickens' heart muscle and lungs following an in vivo heat stress. The 29-kDa band appears after 3 h of heat stress, much later than the induction of HSP 90, HSP 70, and HSP 27. The late onset of induction suggests that HSP 29 plays a more specific role of a "second stage defense protein". PMID:9000279

  17. The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine.

  18. TA-DA: A Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  19. TA-DA: A TOOL FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  20. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems.

  1. 16-kDa prolactin and bromocriptine in postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Struman, Ingrid; Hoch, Melanie; Podewski, Edith; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening heart disease emerging toward the end of pregnancy or in the first postpartal months in previously healthy women. Recent data suggest a central role of unbalanced peri-/postpartum oxidative stress that triggers the proteolytic cleavage of the nursing hormone prolactin (PRL) into a potent antiangiogenic, proapoptotic, and proinflammatory 16-kDa PRL fragment. This notion is supported by the observation that inhibition of PRL secretion by bromocriptine, a dopamine D2-receptor agonist, prevented the onset of disease in an animal model of PPCM and by first clinical experiences where bromocriptine seem to exert positive effects with respect to prevention or treatment of PPCM patients. Here, we highlight the current state of knowledge on diagnosis of PPCM, provide insights into the biology and pathophysiology of 16-kDa PRL and bromocriptine, and outline potential consequences for the clinical management and treatment options for PPCM patients.

  2. DA-9801 promotes neurite outgrowth via ERK1/2-CREB pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Kyong Hoon; Back, Moon Jung; Ha, Hae Chan; Jang, Ji Min; Kim, Ha Hyung; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA-9801 on neurite outgrowth. We found that DA-9801 elicits its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. DA-9801, an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. To investigate DA-9801 action, specific inhibitors targeting the ERK signaling cascade were used. No cytotoxicity was observed in PC12 cells at DA-9801 concentrations of less than 30 µg/mL. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/mL), DA-9801 promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the relative mRNA levels of neurofilament-L (NF-L), a marker of neuronal differentiation. The Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuated DA-9801-induced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor SL327 significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells induced by DA-9801 treatment. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate the DA-9801 treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. DA-9801 enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in PC12 cells incubated with and without NGF. Pretreatment with PD98059 blocked the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In conclusion, DA-9801 induces neurite outgrowth by affecting the ERK1/2-CREB signaling pathway. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA-9801 may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.

  3. On the sexual intercourse drawings of Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Morris, A G

    1986-04-12

    Leonardo da Vinci's marvellous anatomical drawings have been praised by both artists and medical historians over the centuries. Specific reference is made here to Leonardo's drawings of the act of sexual intercourse. It is shown that his illustrations are not based purely on original observation. Rather, they are an attempt to illustrate and clarify anatomy and physiology as presented in the textbooks of the time.

  4. Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Borg, Keith

    2012-08-01

    We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation.

  5. Is there any mantle plume beneath Tristan da Cunha?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloemer, A.; Geissler, W. H.; Jegen, M. D.; Jokat, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island in the South Atlantic located very close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Generally, it is accepted to be the location of a mantle plume, which has been active at least since the breakup of Gondwana at 130 Ma, the time when the Paraná/Etendeka flood basalts were emplaced. Furthermore, it is associated with the formation of the Walvis Ridge and the Rio Grande Rise, and therefore it's one of the key examples of a hot spot track linking a flood basalt province to an active ocean island volcano. However, global tomography models are contradicting about the origin of Tristan da Cunha: Whether it is a deep mantle plume or caused by shallow plate tectonics. To gain a better understanding, we deployed 24 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers, 26 ocean-bottom electromagnetic stations and 2 seismological land stations in January 2012 with the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. We acquired continuous seismological data for one year and recovered the instruments in January 2013.We use cross-correlated travel time residuals of teleseismic earthquakes to perform a finite-frequency tomography to resolve the P wave velocity upper mantle structure beneath the island. Here we show our preliminary results of the 3-D velocity perturbations in the upper mantle: We do not image a plume-like structure directly beneath the island. Instead we observe a low velocity region in the southwest of our array that might be related to a local mantle upwelling (mantle plume). Additionally we show the local seismicity in the Tristan da Cunha region.Chen et al. and Baba et al. will present the first results on the magnetotelluric experiment and Ryberg et al. will present the crustal structure around the Tristan da Cunha hotspot.

  6. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  7. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  8. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  9. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  10. Reconstitution of surfactant activity by using the 6 kDa apoprotein associated with pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, S H; Possmayer, F

    1986-01-01

    Lipid extracts of bovine pulmonary surfactant containing the 6 kDa apoprotein, but lacking the 35 kDa apoprotein, can mimic the essential characteristics of pulmonary surfactant on a pulsating-bubble surfactometer. Reconstituted surfactant can be produced by combining silicic acid fractions containing 6 kDa apoprotein and phosphatidylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of the protein-containing fraction with proteolytic enzymes abolishes its efficacy. These results indicate that the presence of the 6 kDa apoprotein can account for some of the essential physical and biological characteristics of pulmonary surfactant. Immunodiffusion studies indicate that, contrary to earlier suggestions, the 6 kDa apoprotein is not structurally related to the major surfactant apoprotein that has a molecular mass of 35 kDa. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3098235

  11. Accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin during brain development and injury in Hyphantria cunea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Ja; Je, Hyun Jeong; Cheon, Hyang Mi; Kong, Sun Young; Han, JikHyun; Yun, Chi Young; Han, Yeon Su; Lee, In Hee; Kang, Young Jin; Seo, Sook Jae

    2005-10-01

    The cDNA corresponding to a novel lipocalin was identified from the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. This lipocalin cDNA encodes a 194 residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 23 kDa. Sequence analyses revealed that the 23 kDa lipocalin cDNA is most similar to Drosophila lazarillo, human apolipoprotein D, and Bombyrin. Northern blot analyses showed that 23 kDa lipocalin transcript is expressed in the whole body only in 4- and 6-day-old pupae. By Western blot analysis it was confirmed that 23 kDa lipocalin is mainly accumulated in brain and subesophageal ganglion, though it is detected in a small amount in fat body and epidermis of Hyphantria cunea. The accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain tissue was upregulated in response to injury. The putative function of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain is discussed.

  12. An epidemic of influenza on Tristan da Cunha.

    PubMed

    Mantle, J; Tyrrell, D A

    1973-03-01

    Respiratory disease on Tristan da Cunha has been observed since the islanders returned in 1962. An epidemic of unprecedented severity occurred in the winter of 1971 and involved 273 (96%) of 284 islanders, 92 of whom had two attacks.The epidemic was apparently introduced by the Tristania.The illness of both first and second attacks ranged from mild to severe but there were some differences. There were two deaths, both in elderly persons with chronic chest disease and heart failure. Serological evidence suggests that this was due to influenza A2 of the Hong Kong serotype H(3)N(2).

  13. An epidemic of influenza on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, John; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Respiratory disease on Tristan da Cunha has been observed since the islanders returned in 1962. An epidemic of unprecedented severity occurred in the winter of 1971 and involved 273 (96%) of 284 islanders, 92 of whom had two attacks. The epidemic was apparently introduced by the Tristania. The illness of both first and second attacks ranged from mild to severe but there were some differences. There were two deaths, both in elderly persons with chronic chest disease and heart failure. Serological evidence suggests that this was due to influenza A2 of the Hong Kong serotype H3N2. PMID:4511951

  14. TA-DA: A Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    TA-DA is a pre-compiled IDL widget-based application which greatly simplifies and improves the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models and allows the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. It is flexible and can address a number of problems, from the interpolation of stellar models or sets of stellar physical parameters in general to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units. It also analyzes observed color-magnitude diagrams and allows a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data.

  15. Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel

    2012-01-01

    In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham.

  16. LEONARDO DA VINCI AND THE ORIGIN OF SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-12-20

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  17. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  18. High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

    We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

  19. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy. PMID:27494016

  20. Josephson D/A converter with fundamental accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.A.; Burroughs, C.J.; Kautz, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    A binary sequence of series arrays of shunted Josephson junctions is used to make a 14-bit D/A converter. With thirteen bias lines any step number in the range -8192 to +8192 (1.2 to -1.2 V) can be selected in the time required to stabilize the bias current (a few microseconds). The circuit makes possible the digital synthesis of very-accurate ac wave-forms whose amplitude derives directly from the internationally accepted definition of the volt.

  1. Identification of sequence similarity between 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones: evidence for a common evolutionary background?

    PubMed Central

    Flores, A I; Cuezva, J M

    1997-01-01

    Recent findings support the premise that chaperonins (60 kDa stress-proteins) and alpha-subunits of F-type ATPases (alpha-ATPase) are evolutionary related protein families. Two-dimensional gel patterns of synthesized proteins in unstressed and heat-shocked embryonic Drosophila melanogaster SL2 cells revealed that antibodies raised against the alpha-subunit of the F1-ATPase complex from rat liver recognize an inducible p71 member of the 70 kDa stress-responsive protein family. Molecular recognition of this stress-responsive 70 kDa protein by antibodies raised against the F1-ATPase alpha-subunit suggests the possibility of partial sequence similarity within these ATP-binding protein families. A multiple sequence alignment between alpha-ATPases and 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones is presented. Statistical evaluation of sequence similarity reveals a significant degree of sequence conservation within the three protein families. The finding suggests a common evolutionary origin for the ATPases and molecular chaperone protein families of 60 kDa and 70 kDa, despite the lack of obvious structural resemblance between them. PMID:9065788

  2. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  3. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.; Yu, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  4. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  5. Culture and Illness (Cultura y Enfermedad)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Pedro Daniel

    1975-01-01

    Every culture has unique attitudes and values toward health and sickness. This article explores Mexican medical culture on native, folk and scientific levels, and its effect on national health and medical practice. (In Spanish). (CK)

  6. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of Hispanic artists. (SB)

  7. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  8. DA/DSM{trademark} focuses on utility restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, E.

    1995-03-01

    Debate about restructuring the electric industry and the proposal for retail wheeling in California dominated discussion at DA/DSM `95, the fifth annual symposium on distribution automation and demand-side management. The basic goal is to introduce competition and reduce costs by providing choices for consumers between regulated utilities and direct contracts with other providers. All customers will have some means of direct access to outside generation sources. However, for residential customers, direct access will probably come through an aggregation of interests. Focusing on the future of demand-side management, there is concern that California`s restructuring may spell doom for DSM. DSM spending has declined over the past year and a major question raised was the fate of uneconomic DSM, environmental, renewable and other social programs. There was great interest at DA/DSM `95 in sessions devoted to electric utility activity on the information superhighway, loosely defined as methods to improve communications between customers and utilities. Several projects are described.

  9. A PEG-DA microfluidic device for chemotaxis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Traore, Mahama; Behkam, Bahareh

    2013-08-01

    The study of cells in a well-defined and chemically programmable microenvironment is essential for a complete and fundamental understanding of the cell behaviors with respect to specific chemical compounds. Flow-free microfluidic devices that generate quasi-steady chemical gradients (spatially varying but temporally constant) have been demonstrated as effective chemotaxis assay platforms due to dissociating the effect of chemical cues from mechanical shear forces caused by fluid flow. In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of a flow-free microfluidic platform made of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel. We have demonstrated that the mass transport properties of these devices can be customized by fabricating them from PEG-DA gels of four distinct molecular weights. In contrast to microfluidic devices developed using soft lithography; this class of devices can be realized using a more cost-effective approach of direct photopolymerization with fewer microfabrication steps. This microfluidic platform was tested by conducting a quantitative study of the chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) RP437, a model microorganism, in presence of the chemo-effector, casamino-acids. Using the microfabrication and characterization methodology presented in this work, microfluidic platforms with well-defined and customizable diffusive properties can be developed to accommodate the study of a wide range of cell types.

  10. D-A and D-2 dopamine receptor function in the rabbit retina: a model for the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Hensler, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done investigating the effect of the synaptic concentration of the transmitter DA, modified by changes in the frequency of electrical field stimulation and by the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine, on the modulation of /sup 3/H-DA release by D-2 DA autoreceptors and by melatonin receptor sites. At lower synaptic concentrations of the transmitter dopamine, D-2 DA receptor agonists were more potent, while antagonists were more potent when the synaptic concentration of transmitter was higher. The potency of melatonin to inhibit DA release was not altered by the frequency of field stimulation of by frequency-dependent changes in the synaptic concentration of the transmitter.

  11. 28 kDa adenosine-binding proteins of brain and other tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Ravid, K; Rosenthal, R A; Doctrow, S R; Lowenstein, J M

    1989-01-01

    Membranes prepared from calf brain were solubilized and chromatographed on a column containing 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine covalently linked to agarose through the 5'-amino group. When the column was eluted with adenosine, a pure protein emerged with subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa. The protein was extracted from the membranes with sodium cholate, but not with 100 microM-adenosine or 0.5 M-NaCl. A similar 28 kDa protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of calf brain. The yield of membrane-bound and soluble 28 kDa protein per gram of tissue was about the same. The 28 kDa protein was also found in membrane and soluble fractions of rabbit heart, rat liver and vascular smooth muscle from calf aorta. The yield per gram of tissue fell into the order brain greater than heart approximately vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the membrane fraction, and brain approximately heart greater than vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction. Polyclonal antibodies to pure 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes cross-reacted with the 28 kDa protein from calf brain soluble fraction and with 28 kDa proteins isolated from other tissues. The 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes was also eluted from the affinity column by AMP and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, but at a concentration higher than that at which adenosine eluted the protein, but N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, ADP, ATP, GTP, NAD+, cyclic AMP and inosine failed to elute the protein at concentrations up to 1 mM. The 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction was not eluted by 3 mM-AMP or 1 mM-N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine,-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine or -cyclic AMP. Unexpectedly, the soluble 28 kDa protein was eluted by AMP in the presence of sodium cholate. Soluble 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD for adenosine of 12 microM. Membrane 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD of 14 microM in the

  12. Axonal patterns and targets of dA1 interneurons in the chick hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2012-04-25

    Hindbrain dorsal interneurons that comprise the rhombic lip relay sensory information and coordinate motor outputs. The progenitor dA1 subgroup of interneurons, which is formed along the dorsal-most region of the caudal rhombic lip, gives rise to the cochlear and precerebellar nuclei. These centers project sensory inputs toward upper-brain regions. The fundamental role of dA1 interneurons in the assembly and function of these brainstem nuclei is well characterized. However, the precise en route axonal patterns and synaptic targets of dA1 interneurons are not clear as of yet. Novel genetic tools were used to label dA1 neurons and trace their axonal trajectories and synaptic connections at various stages of chick embryos. Using dA1-specific enhancers, two contralateral ascending axonal projection patterns were identified; one derived from rhombomeres 6-7 that elongated in the dorsal funiculus, while the other originated from rhombomeres 2-5 and extended in the lateral funiculus. Targets of dA1 axons were followed at later stages using PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition. dA1 axons were found to project and form synapses in the auditory nuclei and cerebellum. Investigation of mechanisms that regulate the patterns of dA1 axons revealed a fundamental role of Lim-homeodomain (HD) proteins. Switch in the expression of the specific dA1 Lim-HD proteins Lhx2/9 into Lhx1, which is typically expressed in dB1 interneurons, modified dA1 axonal patterns to project along the routes of dB1 subgroup. Together, the results of this research provided new tools and knowledge to the assembly of trajectories and connectivity of hindbrain dA1 interneurons and of molecular mechanisms that control these patterns.

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  16. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60.44Da Section 60.44Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test...

  17. A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2005-01-01

    The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…

  18. Expression and purification of 15 kDa granulysin utilizing an insect cell secretion system.

    PubMed

    Finn, Michael W; Clayberger, Carol; Krensky, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    Granulysin is an antimicrobial and proinflammatory protein expressed in activated human T cells and natural killer cells. A single mRNA produces the 15 kDa isoform which is then cleaved at the amino and carboxy termini to produce the 9 kDa isoform. Recombinant 9 kDa granulysin has been studied in detail but little is known about the function of the 15 kDa isoform, and no protocol has been published describing expression and purification of this form. Two commercially available preparations of the recombinant 15 kDa granulysin contain tags that may affect function. Here we describe for the first time a method to produce 15 kDa granulysin as a secreted protein from insect cells. The 15 kDa granulysin is purified using a HiTrap Heparin column and a Resource S column. A typical a yield of purified 15 kDa granulysin is 0.6 mg/L of insect cell supernatant.

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  1. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  2. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  3. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda. PMID:19580108

  4. The Indicative and Subjunctive "da"-complements in Serbian A Syntactic-Semantic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorovic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative "da"-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project. After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with "da"-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…

  5. Binding and endocytosis of 39 kDa protein by MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Vettenranta, K; Bu, G; Schwartz, A L

    1995-08-01

    A 39 kDa protein copurifies with the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and regulates ligand interactions with LRP. In our recent studies on the clearance of the 39 kDa protein in vivo, we demonstrated that once the liver LRP receptors were saturated, the kidney became the major organ responsible for the 39 kDa protein clearance (Warshawsky et al., 1993, J. Clin. Invest., 92:937-944). The current study was undertaken in order to investigate the potential binding and cellular processing of the 39 kDa protein by kidney-derived MDBK cells. Herein we demonstrate specific, high-affinity, saturable, and Ca(2+)-dependent binding of the 125I-39 kDa protein to MDBK cells (Kd approximately 10-15 nM, 50-70,000 binding sites per cell). Cellular uptake and degradation of the 125I-39 kDa protein by MDBK cells was also demonstrated with kinetics typical of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Using chemical crosslinking we show that LRP in part mediates the binding of 125I-39 kDa protein to the MDBK cell surface. In addition, the presence of functional LRP on the MDBK cell surface was confirmed by the specific binding of activated alpha 2-macroglobulin, another ligand of LRP. Our data thus demonstrate the ability of kidney-derived MDBK cells to specifically bind, endocytose, and degrade the 39 kDa protein.

  6. Growth-Promoting Hormone DA-6 Assists Phytoextraction and Detoxification of Cd by Ryegrass.

    PubMed

    He, Shanying; Wu, Qiuling; He, Zhenli

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of growth-promoting hormone diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) on Cd phytoextraction and detoxification in ryegrass. Foliar spray of DA-6 significantly enhanced Cd extraction efficiency (P<0.05), with 1 μM DA-6 the most effective. At the subcellular level, 43-53% of Cd was soluble fraction and 23-46% in cell wall, and 9-25% in organelles. Chemical speciation analysis showed that 52.7-58.5% of Cd was NaCl extractable, 12.1-22.7% ethanol extractable, followed by other fractions. DA-6 alleviated metal toxicity by fixing more Cd in cell wall and decreasing Cd migration in plant. In conclusion, ryegrass tolerates Cd by cell wall compartmentalization along with protein and organic acids combination, and the treatment of 1 μM DA-6 appears to be optimal for enhancing the remediation efficiency of ryegrass for Cd contaminated soil.

  7. Kinship structure and heterozygosity on Tristan da Cunha.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E A; Roberts, D F

    1980-01-01

    Although there are many factors influencing the genotype proportions in a small population [1], a heterozygote excess, caused by avoidance of incestuous matings, will often be the expected observation. In the population of the small South-Atlantic islands of Tristan da Cunha, such an excess if observed [2], and we have investigated its origin, partitioning the population by sex and by generation. Although for such a small population the test for random pairing of genes [3, 4] is not sufficiently powerful to produce significant results, the pattern of homozygote deficiency is suggestive of avoidance of close matings. We have also investigated the effect of current nuclear family structure and family-size distribution. PMID:7386464

  8. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kickhöfel, Eduardo H P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease. We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

  9. Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul.

    PubMed

    Del Maestro, R F

    1998-11-01

    The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart ("cardiocentric soul") and others who supported the brain ("cephalocentric soul") as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul." The method he used to resolve this anatomical problem involved the accumulation of information from ancient and contemporary sources, careful notetaking, discussions with acknowledged experts, and his own personal search for the truth. Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him.

  10. [Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Heitz, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him.

  11. Evolving understanding of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO).

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Liu, Jian; Garavito, R Michael; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2015-09-01

    The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the focus of intense research by the biomedical community and the pharmaceutical industry because of its apparent involvement in many disease-related processes. These include steroidogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, neurological disease and cancer, resulting in the use of TSPO as a biomarker and its potential as a drug target. Despite more than 30 years of study, the precise function of TSPO remains elusive. A recent breakthrough in determining the high-resolution crystal structures of bacterial homologs of mitochondrial TSPO provides new insight into the structural and functional properties at a molecular level and new opportunities for investigating the significance of this ancient and highly conserved protein family. The availability of atomic level structural information from different species also provides a platform for structure-based drug development. Here we briefly review current knowledge regarding TSPO and the implications of the new structures with respect to hypotheses and controversies in the field.

  12. DBS -- An rlogin multiplexer and output logger for DA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-04-01

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system -- the DA for the 96` round of experiments at Fermilab -- though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications. dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) log files (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session -- dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start.

  13. A 92-kDa human immunostimulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fontan, E; Briend, E; Saklani-Jusforgues, H; d'Alayer, J; Vandekerckhove, J; Fauve, R M

    1994-01-01

    We purified to apparent homogeneity a human urinary glycoprotein of 92 kDa (HGP.92) that, administered intravenously at 250 micrograms/kg, fully protected mice against a lethal inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes. Since HGP.92 protected scid mice, which lack B and T lymphocytes, this increased resistance to Listeria did not appear to be lymphocyte mediated. Furthermore, inflammatory macrophages incubated with 6 nM HGP.92 inhibited the growth of Lewis carcinoma cells in vitro. These two activities appeared to depend on an oligosaccharide moiety, as they were lost after N-Glycanase treatment of HGP.92. Thus, the biological activity of HGP.92 was in some way related to a glycan moiety. Images PMID:8078887

  14. VLBI Radar of the 2012 DA14 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M. B.; Dugin, N. A.; Antipenko, A. A.; Bezrukov, D. A.; Bezrukov, V. V.; Voytyuk, V. V.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Jekabsons, N.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Nabatov, A. S.; Nesteruk, V. N.; Putillo, D.; Reznichenko, A. M.; Salerno, E.; Snegirev, S. D.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Khutornoy, R. V.; Skirmante, K.; Shmeld, I.; Chagunin, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment on VLBI radar of the 2012 DA14 asteroid was carried out on February 15-16, 2011 at the time of its closest approach to the Earth. The research teams of Kharkov (Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Evpatoria (National Space Facilities Control and Test Center), Nizhny Novgorod (Radiophysical Research Institute), Bologna (Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF)), and Ventspils (Ventspils International Radioastronomy Center) took part in the experiment. The asteroid was irradiated by the RT-70 planetary radar (Evpatoria) at a frequency of 5 GHz. The reflected signal was received using two 32-m radio telescopes in Medicina (Italy) and Irbene (Latvia) in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

  15. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors. PMID:25980179

  16. Human MHC class I antigens are associated with a 90-kDa cell surface protein.

    PubMed

    Ferm, M T; Grönberg, A

    1991-08-01

    Human MHC class I proteins are expressed on almost all nucleated cells as a heavy chain (about 45 kDa) non-covalently associated with beta 2-microglobulin (12 kDa). In this report we show that MHC class I (MHC-I) proteins can also be associated with a 90-kDa protein in the cell membrane. Surface-radiolabelled cells were treated with dithiobis succinimidyl propionate (DSP) in order to preserve multimer protein complexes during cell lysis. The lysates were immunoprecipitated and analysed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Immunoprecipitation of human MHC-I proteins co-precipitated another protein of about 90 kDa in molecular weight-p90. p90 was coprecipitated from all the MHC-I expressing cells tested: U937, Raji, Molt-4 and IFN-gamma treated K562, but not from untreated, MHC-I negative K562. A 90-kDa protein was also co-precipitated with MHC-I from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Furthermore, p90 was coprecipitated by different MoAbs to the MHC-I heavy chain or beta 2-microglobulin, but not by control antibodies. Two additional co-precipitating proteins at 34 kDa and 28 kDa were seen in MHC-I precipitates from Raji cells. Our results suggest that MHC-I proteins and the 90-kDa protein are associated in the cell membrane, probably by a close but weak, non-covalent interaction. Two additional cell surface proteins at 34 kDa and 28 kDa seem to be MHC-I associated on Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

  17. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity.

  18. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors.

  19. Endogenous dopamine (DA) modulates (3H)spiperone binding in vivo in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Krauss, J.; Grunenwald, C.; Gunst, F.; Heinrich, M.; Schaub, M.; Stoecklin, K.V.; Vassout, A.; Waldmeier, P.; Maitre, L. )

    1991-01-01

    (3H)spiperone (SPI) binding in vivo, biochemical parameters and behavior were measured after modulating DA levels by various drug treatments. DA releasers and uptake inhibitors increased SPI binding in rat striatum. In other brain areas, the effects were variable, but only the pituitary remained unaffected. Surprisingly, nomifensine decreased SPI binding in frontal cortex. The effects of these drugs were monitored by measuring DA, serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the same rats. The increased SPI binding in striatum was parallel to the locomotor stimulation with the following rank order: amfonelic acid greater than nomifensine greater than D-amphetamine greater than or equal to methylphenidate greater than amineptine greater than bupropion. Decreasing DA levels with reserpine or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine reduced SPI binding by 45% in striatum only when both drugs were combined. In contrast, reserpine enhanced SPI binding in pituitary. Thus, the amount of releasable DA seems to modulate SPI binding characteristics. It is suggested that in vivo, DA receptors are submitted to dynamic regulation in response to changes in intrasynaptic concentrations of DA.

  20. Essential Roles of Da Transactivation Domains in Neurogenesis and in E(spl)-Mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Zarifi, Ioanna; Kiparaki, Marianthi; Koumbanakis, Konstantinos A.; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Alexiadis, Anastasios; Livadaras, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    E proteins are a special class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that heterodimerize with many bHLH activators to regulate developmental decisions, such as myogenesis and neurogenesis. Daughterless (Da) is the sole E protein in Drosophila and is ubiquitously expressed. We have characterized two transcription activation domains (TADs) in Da, called activation domain 1 (AD1) and loop-helix (LH), and have evaluated their roles in promoting peripheral neurogenesis. In this context, Da heterodimerizes with proneural proteins, such as Scute (Sc), which is dynamically expressed and also contributes a TAD. We found that either one of the Da TADs in the Da/Sc complex is sufficient to promote neurogenesis, whereas the Sc TAD is incapable of doing so. Besides its transcriptional activation role, the Da AD1 domain serves as an interaction platform for E(spl) proteins, bHLH-Orange family repressors which antagonize Da/Sc function. We show that the E(spl) Orange domain is needed for this interaction and strongly contributes to the antiproneural activity of E(spl) proteins. We present a mechanistic model on the interplay of these bHLH factors in the context of neural fate assignment. PMID:22949507

  1. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  2. Antimicrobial Properties of an Immunomodulator - 15 kDa Human Granulysin

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hung-Mu; Lin, Li-Chih; Wang, Chiu-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Liao, You-Di

    2016-01-01

    Granulysin, a cationic protein expressed by human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, is a mediator for drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and graft-versus-host disease. Some 15 kDa granulysin are processed into 9 kDa forms and sequestered in cytolytic granules, while others are constitutively secreted into body fluids. Both 9 and 15 kDa granulysin have been shown to be a serum marker for cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, 15 kDa is able to activate monocyte differentiation. However, its antimicrobial properties have not been clearly addressed. Here, we report a novel method to prepare both the soluble 9 and 15 kDa granulysin and show that the 15 kDa form is more effective than the 9 kDa form in exerting specific antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a range of few micromolars. We also show that the 15 kDa granulysin is able to hyperpolarize the membrane potential and increase membrane permeability of treated bacteria. Interestingly, the bactericidal activity and membrane permeability of the granulysins were markedly reduced at lower pH (pH 5.4) as a result of probable increase in hydrophobicity of the granulysins. Additionally, we’ve also shown the granulysin to inhibit biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that the 15 kDa granulysin exhibits a novel mechanism in bacteria killing in a way that’s different from most antimicrobial peptides. Our novel granulysin preparation methodology will be useful for further study of action mechanisms of other antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulating properties in granulysin-mediated diseases. PMID:27276051

  3. Therapeutic effect of infused Fluosol-DA/carbogen with ephedrine, flunarizine, or nitroprusside

    SciTech Connect

    Teicher, B.A.; Holden, S.A.; Northey, D.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Herman, T.S.

    1993-04-30

    The perfluorochemical emulsion Fluosol-DA plus carbogen breathing has been shown to increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy in preclinical solid tumors when the emulsion was administered by i.v. bolus injection. Much of the enhancement in tumor radiation response was lost when the emulsion was administered slowly. The authors hypothesized that an increase in tumor perfusion resulted when Fluosol-DA was administered rapidly. In the present study, the [alpha]/[beta] agonist ephedrine, the Ca[sup 2+] channel blocker flunarizine and the nitric oxide producing vasodilating drug nitroprusside have been tested. Ephedrine administration resulted in a decrease in the radiation plus Fluosol-DA [+-] carbogen antitumor effects in both the Lewis lung carcinoma and FSaIIC tumor systems. In contrast, flunarizine administration resulted in an increase in the efficacy of the radiation plus carbogen and the radiation plus Fluosol-DA/carbogen in both emulsion was given rapidly. Even with flunarizine administration Fluosol-DA delivered slowly was less effective than when the emulsion was given rapidly. Flunarizine with Fluosol-DA infused i.v. over 30 min followed by carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy resulted in a 1.7-1.6-fold increase in response compared with 2.4-2.2-fold with Fluosol-DA administered by injection i.v. and carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy using growth delay of the Lewis lung carcinoma. The effects of nitroprusside were complex. This drug had considerably more effect at 10 Gy than at higher radiation doses. These studies suggest that Fluosol-DA given by i.v. injection may increase tumor perfusion and that a drug like flunarizine may be beneficial if the Fluosol-DA is administered slowly followed by carbogen breathing and radiation therapy. 45 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  5. Myelin management by the 18.5-kDa and 21.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein isoforms.

    PubMed

    Harauz, George; Boggs, Joan M

    2013-05-01

    The classic myelin basic protein (MBP) splice isoforms range in nominal molecular mass from 14 to 21.5 kDa, and arise from the gene in the oligodendrocyte lineage (Golli) in maturing oligodendrocytes. The 18.5-kDa isoform that predominates in adult myelin adheres the cytosolic surfaces of oligodendrocyte membranes together, and forms a two-dimensional molecular sieve restricting protein diffusion into compact myelin. However, this protein has additional roles including cytoskeletal assembly and membrane extension, binding to SH3-domains, participation in Fyn-mediated signaling pathways, sequestration of phosphoinositides, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Of the diverse post-translational modifications of this isoform, phosphorylation is the most dynamic, and modulates 18.5-kDa MBP's protein-membrane and protein-protein interactions, indicative of a rich repertoire of functions. In developing and mature myelin, phosphorylation can result in microdomain or even nuclear targeting of the protein, supporting the conclusion that 18.5-kDa MBP has significant roles beyond membrane adhesion. The full-length, early-developmental 21.5-kDa splice isoform is predominantly karyophilic due to a non-traditional P-Y nuclear localization signal, with effects such as promotion of oligodendrocyte proliferation. We discuss in vitro and recent in vivo evidence for multifunctionality of these classic basic proteins of myelin, and argue for a systematic evaluation of the temporal and spatial distributions of these protein isoforms, and their modified variants, during oligodendrocyte differentiation.

  6. Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina

    2010-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke.

  7. Stability of new carbapenem DA-1131 to renal dipeptidase (dehydropeptidase I).

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Wook; We, Jeoung Soon; Kim, Gye Won; Choi, Seong Hak; Park, Haeng Soon

    2002-02-01

    The stability of DA-1131 to renal dipeptidase (RDPase) (EC 3.4.13.19) was compared with that of imipenem and meropenem by V(max)/K(m) ratios as an index of the enzyme's preference for substrates. Our results showed a decreasing order of imipenem (6.24), meropenem (2.41), and DA-1131 (1.39). The biochemical evaluation of DA-1131 as the least preferred substrate of RDPase suggests its potential use as a novel beta-lactam antibiotic which may be usable without coadministration of RDPase inhibitors once its clinical suitability is proven.

  8. Augusto Celestino da Costa (1884-1956) - professor, scientist and science promoter.

    PubMed

    David-Ferreira, José-Francisco

    2009-01-01

    At the dawn of the 20th century in Lisbon, Augusto Celestino da Costa advocated a model of university practice based on research and defended the promotion of a scientific culture and the dissemination of Science in society. As a scientist, Celestino da Costa made numerous original descriptions of the cytology, histology and embryology of endocrine glands and the sympathetic nervous system. Celestino da Costa authored seminal textbooks on histology and embryology, and was responsible for launching in Portugal the first governmental agency to finance scientific activities.

  9. Arbitrary Amplitude DIA and DA Solitary Waves in Adiabatic Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Jahan, N.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    The dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) as well as the dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in an adiabatic dusty plasma are investigated by the pseudo-potential approach which is valid for arbitrary amplitude SWs. The role of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions in modifying the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of arbitrary amplitude DIA and DA SWs are explicitly examined. It is found that the effects of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions significantly modify the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of the DIA and DA SWs. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.

  10. 2012 DA14 and Chelyabinsk: Same Day Coincidence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2013-10-01

    A long anticipated near-miss by near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2012 DA14 on 15 February 2013 was upstaged 16 hours earlier by the impact and atmospheric explosion of a ~20 m NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia. DA14 was earlier estimated to be 45 m across and passage at a distance under geosynchronous satellites was considered to be a record close approach by an object of that size, a once-in-40-years event. Actual Earth impact by a 20 m NEA had been estimated to be a once-in-200-years event. A simplistic calculation gives a probability of these happening on the same day of 1-in-a-billion. Within hours of the Chelyabinsk impact, it was recognized and widely reported that the two asteroids were in very different orbits and could not, at least in any readily understandable way, be physically related to each other (e.g. fragments of the same precursor body). Also, some early reports suggested that the two asteroids had very different compositions, further undermining the possibility they were pieces of the same body. (It seems unlikely, though certainly conceivable, that the two NEAs could have different compositions yet have some kind of causal connection resulting in the same-day events.) Nevertheless, incredibly tiny probabilities beg for an explanation. Here, with the benefit of hindsight, I re-examine issues that affect the probabilities, such as size, albedo, probable composition, and numbers of NEAs of these sizes. I also consider difficult issues of framing the apparent coincidence, which dominate other uncertainties. Updated information about the physical nature of the two asteroids somewhat modifies the original estimates of probabilities. Moreover, more proper ways of framing elements of the coincidence considerably reduce the improbability of the same-day events, but not nearly to the level (e.g. 1-in-1000 or perhaps 1-in-10,000) where we could rationalize dismissing the events as “just a coincidence.” The events of 15 February 2013 deserve more sophisticated

  11. Audio annotation watermarking with robustness against DA/AD conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Kraetzer, Christian; Biermann, Michael; Dittmann, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we present a watermarking scheme developed to meet the specific requirements of audio annotation watermarking robust against DA/AD conversion (watermark detection after playback by loudspeaker and recording with a microphone). Additionally the described approach tries to achieve a comparably low detection complexity, so it could be embedded in the near future in low-end devices (e.g. mobile phones or other portable devices). We assume in the field of annotation watermarking that there is no specific motivation for attackers to the developed scheme. The basic idea for the watermark generation and embedding scheme is to combine traditional frequency domain spread spectrum watermarking with psychoacoustic modeling to guarantee transparency and alphabet substitution to improve the robustness. The synchronization and extraction scheme is designed to be much less computational complex than the embedder. The performance of the scheme is evaluated in the aspects of transparency, robustness, complexity and capacity. The tests reveals that 44% out of 375 tested audio files pass the simulation test for robustness, while the most appropriate category shows even 100% robustness. Additionally the introduced prototype shows an averge transparency of -1.69 in SDG, while at the same time having a capacity satisfactory to the chosen application scenario.

  12. DA WHITE DWARFS OBSERVED IN THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong; Lepine, Sebastien; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Jin Ge

    2013-08-01

    A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

  13. Voltammetric classification of ciders with PLS-DA.

    PubMed

    Górski, Łukasz; Sordoń, Wanda; Ciepiela, Filip; Kubiak, Władysław W; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Voltammograms recorded on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) may be a chemical fingerprints of food samples, enabled distinguishing the origin of the considered products. In this work the objects of the study was 5 Polish ciders of various brands. For each sample 10 scans were recorded by DPV in the potential range between -0.2 and 1.0 V in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 2.0. The signals preprocessing realized by baseline correction with 4-th degree polynomial and normalization (in 0 to 1 interval), performed to reduce problems with insufficient signal's repeatability associated with mechanical renovation of the electrode surface before each measurement. The PLS-DA classification models were built using the training set and then validated using the samples absent in the learning process. The final multi-class model with optimized complexity enables classification of the ciders with 100% sensitivity and specificity, with the exception of one cider, where specificity was 95% (for validation set). PMID:26695257

  14. GOoDA: The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafiura, P.; Eranian, S.; Levinthal, D.; Kama, S.; Vitillo, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Modern superscalar, out-of-order microprocessors dominate large scale server computing. Monitoring their activity, during program execution, has become complicated due to the complexity of the microarchitectures and their IO interactions. Recent processors have thousands of performance monitoring events. These are required to actually provide coverage for all of the complex interactions and performance issues that can occur. Knowing which data to collect and how to interpret the results has become an unreasonable burden for code developers whose tasks are already hard enough. It becomes the task of the analysis tool developer to bridge this gap. To address this issue, a generic decomposition of how a microprocessor is using the consumed cycles allows code developers to quickly understand which of the myriad of microarchitectural complexities they are battling, without requiring a detailed knowledge of the microarchitecture. When this approach is intrinsically integrated into a performance data analysis tool, it enables software developers to take advantage of the microarchitectural methodology that has only been available to experts. The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer (GOoDA) project integrates this expertise into a profiling tool in order to lower the required expertise of the user and, being designed from the ground up with large-scale object-oriented applications in mind, it will be particularly useful for large HENP codebases

  15. [Project Leonardo-da-Vinci for better nursing care].

    PubMed

    Gábor, Katalin; Csanádi, Lajosné; Helembai, Kornélia; Szögi, Zoltánné; Tulkán, Ibolya; Unginé, Kántor Katalin

    2002-08-18

    The aim of the present paper is to inform physicians about the work completed by nurses and professors of baccalaureat nurses in the framework of Leonardo da Vinci project, organised and sponsored by the European Union. The goal of the project was to increase the effectiveness of chief nurses throughout their further training programme in the field of management. The team of Szeged chose the human resource management, since in this field is possible to achieve the greatest improvement with the smallest financial investment. We measured the fluctuations and the absentees of the nurses, the changes in the degree of education, the nurse' and patient' satisfaction at the beginning and at the end of the period studied. Except the patient's satisfaction all the other parameters improved by the end of tested period. The project provided a unique possibility to compare the state of the Hungarian nursing with that of the countries belonging to the European Union, to exchange the experience and to learn some new methods. In the framework of this project a book of two volumes was prepared containing the suggestions of EU. This book is widely available in English and in French.

  16. Near-UV absorption in very cool DA white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M. E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-07-20

    The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman α line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H{sub 2}. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 μm) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman α line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T{sub eff} and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

  17. Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably

  18. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider.

  19. DaG 1066: A Newfound Anomalous Ureilite with Chondritic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi Cecchi, V.; Caporali, S.; Pratesi, G.

    2015-07-01

    General description, textural, and compositional features of the polymict ureilite DaG 1066, recovered in 1999 in Libya, are provided. The meteorite contains various inclusions, among which almost pure forsterite and enstatite-bearing chondrules.

  20. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider. PMID:24228380

  1. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  5. Load evaluation of the da Vinci surgical system for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery, performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), is a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view and ability to see and work around curves or angles. However, the current da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. This is problematic because the potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury and mandibular fracture. To assess the potential for intraoperative injuries, we measured the load of the endoscope and the instrument of the da Vinci Si surgical system. We pressed the endoscope and instrument of the da Vinci Si against Load cell six times each and measured the dynamic load and the time-to-maximum load. We also struck the da Vinci Si endoscope and instrument against the Load cell six times each and measured the impact load. The maximum dynamic load was 7.27 ± 1.31 kg for the endoscope and 1.90 ± 0.72 for the instrument. The corresponding time-to-maximum loads were 1.72 ± 0.22 and 1.29 ± 0.34 s, but the impact loads were significantly lower than the dynamic load. It remains possible that a major load is exerted on adjacent structures by continuous contact with the endoscope and instrument of da Vinci Si. However, there is a minor delay in reaching the maximum load. Careful monitoring by an on-site assistant may, therefore, help prevent contiguous injury.

  6. OpenDA: Open Source Generic Data Assimilation Environment and its Application in Geophysical Process Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, A.; van Velzen, N.; Verlaan, M.; Sumihar, J.; Hummel, S.; El Serafy, G.; Dhondia, J.; Gerritsen, H.; Vermeer-Ooms, S.; Loots, E.; Markus, A.; Kockx, A.

    2011-12-01

    Data Assimilation techniques are essential elements in state-of-the-art development of models and their use in operational forecasting and real-time control in the fields of groundwater, surface water and soil systems. In meteorological and atmospheric sciences, steady improvements in numerical weather forecasting and climate prediction over the last couple of decades have been enabled to a large degree by the development of community-based models and data assimilation systems. The hydrologic community should learn from the experiences of the meteorological and atmospheric communities by accelerating the transition of hydrologic DA research into operations and developing community-supported, open-source modeling and forecasting systems and data assimilation tools. In 2010, a community based open source initiative named OpenDA was started. The openDA initiative bears similarities with the well-known openMI initiative. OpenDA makes use of a set of interfaces that describe the interaction between models, observations and data assimilation algorithms. It focuses on flexible applications in portable systems for modeling geophysical processes. It provides a generic interfacing protocol that allows combination of the implemented data assimilation techniques with, in principle, any time-stepping model describing a process (atmospheric processes, 3D circulation, 2D water flow, rainfall-runoff, unsaturated flow, groundwater flow, etc.). Presently, openDA features filtering techniques and calibration techniques. The presentation will give an overview of openDA and the results of some of its practical applications.

  7. The 32 kDa Enamelin Undergoes Conformational Transitions upon Calcium Binding

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The 32 kDa hydrophilic and acidic enamelin, the most stable cleavage fragment of the enamel specific glycoprotein, is believed to play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation or growth during enamel biomineralization. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrate that the secondary structure of the 32 kDa enamelin has a high content of α-helix (81.5%). Quantitative analysis on the circular dichroism data revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin undergoes conformational changes with a structural preference to β-sheet as a function of calcium ions. We suggest that the increase of β-sheet conformation upon presence of Ca2+ may allow preferable interaction of the 32 kDa enamelin with apatite crystal surfaces during enamel biomineralization. The calcium association constant of the 32 kDa enamelin calculated from the fitting curve of ellipticity at 222 nm is Ka = 1.55 (±0.13) × 103 M−1, indicating a relatively low affinity. Our current biophysical studies on the 32 kDa enamelin structure provide novel insights towards understanding the enamelin-mineral interaction and subsequently the functions of enamelin during enamel formation. PMID:18508280

  8. Isolation and characterization of two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (DA strain).

    PubMed

    Oleszak, E L; Leibowitz, J L; Rodriguez, M

    1988-09-01

    We have isolated two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) strain DA. One variant, TMEV-CL (CL), produced large plaques, while the other, TMEV-DS (DS), produced small plaques in L-2 cells. The DS variant yielded a lower titre in BHK cells and had a significantly slower growth rate when compared to CL and DA. In contrast, DS replicated to a higher titre in the central nervous system (CNS) of infected mice than the large plaque counterpart and DA. Furthermore, the DS (but not CL) variant was temperature-sensitive, replicating 130- to 500-fold more at 37 degrees C than at 39 degrees C. Although DS, CL and DA were able to establish persistent CNS infections in mice, only the DS variant and DA induced demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. Therefore persistence of TMEV in the CNS is not sufficient to produce demyelinating disease. These two variants of the DA strain of TMEV will be useful for study of the viral genetic elements important in the mechanism of virus-induced demyelination.

  9. Investigation of hydrophobic organic carbon (HOC) partitioning to 1 kDa fractionated municipal wastewater colloids.

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Kerry N; Seth, Rajesh; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-03-19

    Natural organic matter from the aquatic environment passing a 1 kDa filter has been hypothesized to not contribute appreciably to hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) partitioning; however, to our knowledge this limit has not been verified experimentally for any sorbate/sorbent system. Presently, colloidal organic carbon (COC) < 1 kDa approached 70% of the total COC (<1.5 μm) mass in primary effluent (PE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Partitioning of HOCs 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene to COC for both 1.5 μm and 1 kDa filtrates of PE was investigated using the gas-stripping technique. Contrary to the hypothesis, significant HOC-COC partitioning to the 1 kDa filtrate was observed with organic carbon-normalized partitioning coefficients (logKCOC) of 4.30, 4.36, and 3.74 for 1,2,4,5-TeCB, PeCB, and HCB, respectively. Further, partitioning to COC < 1 kDa dominated the overall partitioning of the three chlorobenzenes in the 1.5 μm filtrate, and the partitioning behavior did not follow the trend based on hydrophobicity (KOW). The results show that significant partitioning of HOC may occur to OC < 1 kDa and highlights the need for further experiments with other HOCs and COC characterization to better understand and explain the observed partitioning.

  10. In vitro degradation of the 32kDa PS II reaction centre protein

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenswiller, L.C.; Greenberg, B.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The 32kDa thylakoid membrane protein is an integral component of the PS II reaction centre. The protein, although stable in the dark, undergoes light dependent turnover. Light from the UV, visible and far-red spectral regions induce 32kDa protein degradation. To better understand 32kDa protein metabolism, an in vitro degradation system is being developed. It consists of isolated thylakoid membranes than contain radiolabelled protein. The 32kDa protein is actively and specifically degraded when the thylakoid preparation is exposed to UV or visible radiation. The protein is stable in the dark. The herbicides (atrazine and DCMU) inhibit degradation in the in vitro system as they do in vivo. Additionally, several methods of isolating thylakoids are being compared to optimize the 32kDa protein degradation reaction. The preparations will be evaluated based on their ability to permit light dependent degradation of the 32kDa protein without affecting the other membrane components.

  11. DA 5505: a novel topical formulation of terbinafine that enhances skin penetration and retention.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Han, Sang-Duk; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon Ho; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    Topical fungal infections can become severe if left untreated. Efficient treatment modalities for topical fungal infections aid the penetration of antifungal agents deep into viable skin layers. Terbinafine is a fungicidal agent that inhibits ergosterol, an essential fungal component. The main objective of this study was to evaluate skin permeation and retention of a terbinafine-loaded solution containing chitosan as a film former. Comparative assessment of skin permeation and retention was performed using a prepared formulation (DA 5505) and marketed formulations of terbinafine in murine and porcine skin. To mimic fungal infection of skin, keratinized skin was induced in NC/Nga mice. In comparison with the marketed formulations, DA 5505 exhibited significantly better skin permeation. The flux, permeation coefficient, and enhancement ratio of terbinafine were remarkably increased by DA 5505 in comparison with the marketed formulations, and lag time was dramatically reduced. DA 5505 significantly increased cumulative terbinafine retention in viable skin layers in comparison with the marketed solution, suggesting enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, DA 5505 exhibited superior skin permeation in normal skin and keratinized skin. Thus, the DA 5505 formulation has the potential to effectively deliver terbinafine to superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  12. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

  13. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  14. Antiapoptotic activity of 30 kDa lipoproteins family from fat body tissue of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Singh, Nitin Kumar; König, Simone; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2015-10-01

    The family of 30 kDa lipoproteins (LP1-5) is abundant in silkworm pupa fat body (FB) and hemolymph. One of its members, the 29 kDa protein decreased in concentration from peripheral (PP) FB tissue but was sustained in perivisceral (PV) FB tissue at the time of apoptosis. This study investigated the correlation of the 30 kDa proteins with FB apoptosis. Two protein fractions were purified, a 29 and a 30/31 kDa protein fraction, and they were used to test for activity against actinomycin D-induced apoptosis in the FB tissues. Concentrations as little as 50 μg/mL of the 29 kDa protein fraction efficiently inhibited apoptosis. Less antiapoptotic activity was detected for the higher MW fraction; DNA fragmentation was observed in FB tissue treated with 50 μg/mL of the 30/31 kDa fraction. The viability of the cells in the 29 kDa protein-supplemented culture was 40% higher than in the 31 kDa protein-supplemented culture. However, the 30 kDa lipoproteins were not able to prevent scheduled FB degeneration during silkworm metamorphosis. Thus, it is hypothesized that the antiapoptotic 29 kDa protein needs to be proteolytically degraded by a regulatory mechanism to allow programmed cell death of FB tissue.

  15. Leonardo da Vinci and the first hemodynamic observations.

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was a genius whose accomplishments and ideas come down to us today, five centuries later, with the freshness of innovation and the fascination of discovery. This brief review begins with a summary of Leonardo's life and a description of the most important works of art that he bequeathed us, and then concentrates on his last great challenge. There was a point at which Leonardo's passion for art gave way to the study of human anatomy, not only to improve his drawing but to go beyond what had been simply a representation of form to understand the underlying functioning. Among his many interests, we focus on his study of the heart and blood vessels, which he observed carefully in animals and human autopsies, and reproduced in drawings of great quality with annotations of astonishing acuteness. The experience that he had acquired from observing the flow of water in currents and around obstacles, and the conclusions that he drew concerning hydrodynamics, were central to his interpretation of the mechanisms of the heart and of blood flow, to which he devoted much of his time between 1508 and 1513. From these studies, immortalized in drawings of great clarity, come what are acknowledged to be the first hemodynamic records, in which Leonardo demonstrates the characteristics of blood flow in the aorta and great vessels and the importance of blood reflux and the formation of eddies in the sinus in aortic valve his assiduous and careful observations, and his subsequent deductions, Leonardo put forward detailed findings on hemodynamic questions that advanced technology has only recently enabled us to confirm.

  16. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  17. An Introduction to the DA-T Gibbs Sampler for the Two-Parameter Logistic (2PL) Model and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo M.

    2005-01-01

    The DA-T Gibbs sampler is proposed by Maris and Maris (2002) as a Bayesian estimation method for a wide variety of "Item Response Theory (IRT) models". The present paper provides an expository account of the DA-T Gibbs sampler for the 2PL model. However, the scope is not limited to the 2PL model. It is demonstrated how the DA-T Gibbs sampler for…

  18. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions.

    PubMed

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1-42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1-42-exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1-42-induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1-42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ-exposure. PMID:27052102

  19. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions

    PubMed Central

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A.; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M.; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R. Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1–42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1–42 -exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1–42 -induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1–42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ -exposure. PMID:27052102

  20. High resolution structure of cleaved Serpin 42 Da from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drosophila melanogaster Serpin 42 Da gene (previously Serpin 4) encodes a serine protease inhibitor that is capable of remarkable functional diversity through the alternative splicing of four different reactive centre loop exons. Eight protein isoforms of Serpin 42 Da have been identified to date, targeting the protease inhibitor to both different proteases and cellular locations. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that Serpin 42 Da inhibits target proteases through the classical serpin ‘suicide’ inhibition mechanism, however the crystal structure of a representative Serpin 42 Da isoform remains to be determined. Results We report two high-resolution crystal structures of Serpin 42 Da representing the A/B isoforms in the cleaved conformation, belonging to two different space-groups and diffracting to 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å. Structural analysis reveals the archetypal serpin fold, with the major elements of secondary structure displaying significant homology to the vertebrate serpin, neuroserpin. Key residues known to have central roles in the serpin inhibitory mechanism are conserved in both the hinge and shutter regions of Serpin 42 Da. Furthermore, these structures identify important conserved interactions that appear to be of crucial importance in allowing the Serpin 42 Da fold to act as a versatile template for multiple reactive centre loops that have different sequences and protease specificities. Conclusions In combination with previous biochemical and genetic studies, these structures confirm for the first time that the Serpin 42 Da isoforms are typical inhibitory serpin family members with the conserved serpin fold and inhibitory mechanism. Additionally, these data reveal the remarkable structural plasticity of serpins, whereby the basic fold is harnessed as a template for inhibition of a large spectrum of proteases by reactive centre loop exon ‘switching’. This is the first structure of a Drosophila serpin reported to date

  1. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  2. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Mergy, Marc A; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J; Gantz, Stephanie C; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L; Wheeler, C Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D; Hahn, Maureen K; Blakely, Randy D

    2014-11-01

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness.

  3. Localization, biosynthesis, processing and isolation of a major 126 kDa antigen of the parasitophorous vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Delplace, P; Fortier, B; Tronchin, G; Dubremetz, J F; Vernes, A

    1987-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies prepared against a 50 kDa antigen found in Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatants identify a 126 kDa polypeptide which can be localized by immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy at the periphery of the schizonts. This polypeptide is released from the infected erythrocytes by mild saponin lysis and is probably a component of the parasitophorous vacuole. Pulse chase kinetic analysis demonstrated its disappearance from the parasitized red blood cell from 6 to 10 h after being synthesized and the concomitant appearance of the 50 kDa molecule in the culture supernatant. Purification of metabolically labeled, schizont infected cells demonstrated that spontaneous release of merozoites is needed for the processing of the 126 to the 50 kDa whereas reinvasion is not. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbit against affinity purified 126 kDa protein. These antibodies, together with another 126 kDa specific monoclonal antibody have enabled us to characterize two other cleavage products of the 126 kDa antigen in culture supernatants, namely 47 and 18 kDa polypeptides. We believe that the processing of the 126 kDa protein into low molecular weight fragments reflects a proteolytic event which may participate in merozoite release.

  4. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  5. Metagonimus yokogawai: a 100-kDa Somatic Antigen Commonly Reacting with Other Trematodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jin; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the properties of a 100 kDa somatic antigen from Metagonimus yokogawai. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against this 100 kDa antigen, and their immunoreactivity was assessed by western blot analysis with patients' sera. The mAbs against the 100 kDa antigen commonly reacted with various kinds of trematode antigens, including intestinal (Gymnophalloides seoi), lung (Paragonimus westermani), and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica). However, this mAb showed no cross-reactions with other helminth parasites, including nematodes and cestodes. To determine the topographic distribution of the 100 kDa antigen in worm sections, indirect immunoperoxidase staining was performed. A strong positive reaction was observed in the tegumental and subtegumental layers of adult M. yokogawai and C. sinensis. The results showed that the 100 kDa somatic protein of M. yokogawai is a common antigen which recognizes a target epitope present over the tegumental layer of different trematode species. PMID:24850966

  6. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  7. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  8. In vitro study on the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Du, Chang; Sun, Zhi; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Enamel extracelluar matrix components play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation and growth during enamel formation. We investigated the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin fragment and amelogenin using immunochemical and biophysical methods. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin eluted together from a Protein A column. Dynamic light scattering results showed that the 32 kDa enamelin had a profound effect on amelogenin assembly at pH 8.0, causing partial dissociation of the nanospheres, in a dose-dependent manner. The appearance of an isodichroic point and the shifting and intensity decrease of the ellipticity minima in the circular dichroism spectra of amelogenin following the addition of the 32 kDa enamelin were indicative of conformational changes in amelogenin and of a direct interaction between the two macromolecules. Our results collectively demonstrate that the 32 kDa enamelin has a direct interaction with amelogenin in vitro. Our current studies provide novel insights into understanding possible cooperation between enamelin and amelogenin in macromolecular self-assembly and in controlling enamel mineral formation. PMID:19263522

  9. Alternative translation initiation site in the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, W P; Roos, R P

    1991-01-01

    Polyprotein processing studies of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a group of mouse picornaviruses, demonstrated synthesis of a protein we have called l during in vitro translations from the RNA of DA, a demyelinating strain of TMEV, but not GDVII, an acute neurovirulent strain. We have proposed that l is synthesized from an alternative initiation site in the DA leader (L) coding area out of phase with the polyprotein reading frame (R. P. Roos, W.-P. Kong, B. L. Semler, J. Virol. 63:5344-5353, 1989). We now provide support for this proposal from experiments involving in vitro translation of three separate mutations of an infectious DA cDNA clone: DA"l"-1, which contains a base mismatch at the putative initiation codon of l, DAL-1, which contains a base mismatch at the presumed authentic initiation site of L at the beginning of the polyprotein; and DAL:NheI, which contains nucleotides coding for a four-amino-acid insertion in the L coding area with a termination codon in the l reading frame. Our results demonstrate that the DA strain uses an alternative initiation site and reading frame to in vitro synthesize l. l may have a role in the biological activity of the virus. Images PMID:2033677

  10. Audio watermarking robust against D/A and A/D conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shijun

    2011-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking robust against digital-to-analog (D/A) and analog-to-digital (A/D) conversions is an important issue. In a number of watermark application scenarios, D/A and A/D conversions are involved. In this article, we first investigate the degradation due to DA/AD conversions via sound cards, which can be decomposed into volume change, additional noise, and time-scale modification (TSM). Then, we propose a solution for DA/AD conversions by considering the effect of the volume change, additional noise and TSM. For the volume change, we introduce relation-based watermarking method by modifying groups of the energy relation of three adjacent DWT coefficient sections. For the additional noise, we pick up the lowest-frequency coefficients for watermarking. For the TSM, the synchronization technique (with synchronization codes and an interpolation processing operation) is exploited. Simulation tests show the proposed audio watermarking algorithm provides a satisfactory performance to DA/AD conversions and those common audio processing manipulations.

  11. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  12. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chu, Sao-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry.

  13. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Doi, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. The authors propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits.

  14. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; De, Kaushik; Hover, John; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-02-01

    After a scheduled maintenance and upgrade period, the world's largest and most powerful machine - the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) - is about to enter its second run at unprecedented energies. In order to exploit the scientific potential of the machine, the experiments at the LHC face computational challenges with enormous data volumes that need to be analysed by thousand of physics users and compared to simulated data. Given diverse funding constraints, the computational resources for the LHC have been deployed in a worldwide mesh of data centres, connected to each other through Grid technologies. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It is currently running steadily up to 200 thousand simultaneous cores (limited by the available resources for ATLAS), up to two million aggregated jobs per day and processes over an exabyte of data per year. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is triggering the widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. In this contribution we will give an overview of the PanDA components and focus on the new features and upcoming challenges that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  15. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    SciTech Connect

    Thakker, A.B.; Cowles, B.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  16. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H

    1990-01-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. We propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits. Images PMID:2107547

  17. gLExec Integration with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavakis, E.; Barreiro, F.; Campana, S.; De, K.; Di Girolamo, A.; Litmaath, M.; Maeno, T.; Medrano, R.; Nilsson, P.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS user jobs are executed on Worker Nodes (WNs) by pilots sent to sites by pilot factories. This paradigm serves to allow a high job reliability and although it has clear advantages, such as making the working environment homogeneous, the approach presents security and traceability challenges. To address these challenges, gLExec can be used to let the payloads for each user be executed under a different UNIX user id that uniquely identifies the ATLAS user. This paper describes the recent improvements and evolution of the security model within the ATLAS PanDA system, including improvements in the PanDA pilot, in the PanDA server and their integration with MyProxy, a credential caching system that entitles a person or a service to act in the name of the issuer of the credential. Finally, it presents results from ATLAS user jobs running with gLExec and describes the deployment campaign within ATLAS.

  18. Detection of trace helium in G104 - 27, a 26,000 K DA white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, J.B.; Kidder, K.M.; Wesemael, F. Montreal Universite, Montreal )

    1990-12-01

    The detection of the He I 4471 A feature in the moderately hot DA white dwarf G104 - 27 places this star within the rather sparse class of DAB white dwarfs. It does not appear possible, on the basis of the present data, to distinguish between a stratified and a homogeneously mixed atmosphere. While a stratified structure would be natural for a DA white dwarf, G104 - 27 resides near the red edge of the DB gap, in a region where DA stars could transform into DB stars through convective mixing in the underlying He envelope and thereby destroy envelope stratification. Both atmospheres are consistent with the existing soft X-ray flux limit for this star. 37 refs.

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with PARAFAC and PLS DA for characterization and classification of honey.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Lea; Bro, Rasmus; Zeković, Ivana; Dramićanin, Tatjana; Dramićanin, Miroslav D

    2015-05-15

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and Partial least squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS DA) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. The number of fluorophores present in honey, excitation and emission spectra of each fluorophore, and their relative concentration are determined using a six-component PARAFAC model. Emissions from phenolic compounds and Maillard reaction products exhibited the largest difference among classes of honey of different botanical origin. The PLS DA classification model, constructed from PARAFAC model scores, detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Honey samples were also classified using PLS DA with errors of 0.5% for linden, 10% for acacia, and about 20% for both sunflower and meadow mix.

  20. The coolest DA white dwarfs detected at soft X-ray wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Tweedy, R. W.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-01-01

    New soft X-ray/EUV photometric observations of the DA white dwarfs KPD 0631 + 1043 = WD 0631 + 107 and PG 1113 + 413 = WD 1113 + 413 are analyzed. Previously reported soft X-ray detections of three other DAs and the failure to detect a fourth DA in deep Exosat observations are investigated. New ground-based spectra are presented for all of the objects, with IUE Ly-alpha spectra for some. These data are used to constrain the effective temperatures and surface gravities. The improved estimates of these parameters are employed to refer a photospheric He abundance for the hotter objects and to elucidate an effective observational low-temperature threshold for the detection of pure hydrogen DA white dwarfs at soft X-ray wavelengths.

  1. Detection of trace helium in G104 - 27, a 26,000 K DA white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Kidder, K. M.; Wesemael, F.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of the He I 4471 A feature in the moderately hot DA white dwarf G104 - 27 places this star within the rather sparse class of DAB white dwarfs. It does not appear possible, on the basis of the present data, to distinguish between a stratified and a homogeneously mixed atmosphere. While a stratified structure would be natural for a DA white dwarf, G104 - 27 resides near the red edge of the DB gap, in a region where DA stars could transform into DB stars through convective mixing in the underlying He envelope and thereby destroy envelope stratification. Both atmospheres are consistent with the existing soft X-ray flux limit for this star.

  2. Characterization of the 70 kDa polypeptide of the Na/Ca exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Saba, R I; Bollen, A; Herchuelz, A

    1999-01-01

    The Na/Ca exchanger is associated with 160, 120 and 70 kDa polypeptides whose nature is poorly understood. We have purified and characterized the Na/Ca exchanger from bovine cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles (SLVs) by using ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. The Na/Ca exchanger-enriched fraction was reconstituted into asolectin liposomes [lipid to protein ratio 10:1 (w/w)] that showed Na/Ca exchange activity. Under non-reducing conditions, SDS/PAGE showed a single 70 kDa polypeptide, which was further characterized by immunoblots with different antibodies: SWant, raised against the purified exchanger protein; NH2-terminus, residues 1-21; NCX1, residues 393-406; and Exon F, residues 622-644. Immunoblots under reducing conditions with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 showed three bands migrating at 160, 120 and 70 kDa for SLV preparations, whereas Exon F reacted only with the 160 and 120 kDa bands. Under non-reducing conditions, immunoblots with purified reconstituted Na/Ca exchanger showed a single band at 70 kDa reacting with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 but not with Exon F. We conclude that the 70 kDa protein is associated with Na/Ca exchange activity, has the same N-terminal sequence as the cloned bovine cardiac exchanger, and has its length decreased by at least 35% from its C-terminal portion as compared with that of the wild-type exchanger. PMID:9931309

  3. Recurring X-ray outbursts in the supernova impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Kong, A. K. H.; Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Skillman, E. D.; Dolphin, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present new observations of the `supernova impostor' SN 2010da using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. During the initial 2010 outburst, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity was observed by Swift to be ˜5 × 1038 erg s-1 and faded by a factor of ˜25 in a four month period. Our two new Chandra observations show a factor of ˜10 increase in the 0.35-8 keV X-ray luminosity, from ˜4 × 1036 to 4 × 1037 erg s-1 in ˜6 months, and the X-ray spectrum is consistent in both observations with a power-law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 0. We find evidence of X-ray spectral state changes: when SN 2010da is in a high-luminosity state, the X-ray spectrum is harder (Γ ˜0) compared to the low-luminosity state (Γ ˜ 1.2 ± 0.8). Using our Hubble observations, we fit the colour-magnitude diagram of the coeval stellar population to estimate a time since formation of the SN 2010da progenitor system of ≲5 Myr. Our observations are consistent with SN 2010da being a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) composed of a neutron star and a luminous blue variable-like companion, although we cannot rule out the possibility that SN 2010da is an unusually X-ray bright massive star. The ≲5 Myr age is consistent with the theoretically predicted delay time between the formation of a massive binary and the onset of the HMXB phase. It is possible that the initial 2010 outburst marked the beginning of X-ray production in the system, making SN 2010da possibly the first massive progenitor binary ever observed to evolve into an HMXB.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of chlorogenic acid and corydaline in DA-9701, a new botanical gastroprokinetic agent, in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Won; Kim, Ju Myung; Jeong, Jin Seok; Son, Miwon; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Myung Gull; Kang, Hee Eun

    2014-07-01

    1.Few studies describing the pharmacokinetic properties of chlorogenic acid (CA) and corydaline (CRD) which are marker compounds of a new prokinetic botanical agent, DA-9701, have been reported. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties CA and CRD following intravenous and oral administration of pure CA (1-8 mg/kg) or CRD (1.1-4.5 mg/kg) and their equivalent dose of DA-9701 to rats. 2.  Dose-proportional AUC and dose-independent clearance (10.3-12.1 ml/min/kg) of CA were observed following its administration. Oral administration of CA as DA-9701 did not influence the oral pharmacokinetic parameters of CA. Incomplete absorption of CA, its decomposition in the gastrointestinal tract, and/or pre-systemic metabolism resulted in extremely low oral bioavailability (F) of CA (0.478-0.899%). 3.  CRD showed greater dose-normalized AUC in the higher dose group than that in lower dose group(s) after its administration due to saturation of its metabolism via decreased non-renal clearance (by 51.3%) and first-pass extraction. As a result, the F of CRD following 4.5 mg/kg oral CRD (21.1%) was considerably greater than those of the lower dose groups (9.10 and 13.8%). However, oral administration of CRD as DA-9701 showed linear pharmacokinetics as a result of increased AUC and F in lower-dose groups (by 182% and 78.5%, respectively) compared to those of pure CRD. The greater oral AUC of CRD for DA-9701 than for pure CRD could be due to decreased hepatic and/or GI first-pass extraction of CRD by other components in DA-9701.

  5. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  6. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2013-06-01

    Rice, the staple food of south and east Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16, 26, 33, and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Recently, it was documented that the 56 kDa rice allergen was responsible for rice-induced anaphylaxis. The 14-16 kDa allergens have been identified as α-amylase inhibitors; the 26 kDa protein has been identified as α-globulin; and the 33 kDa protein has been identified as glyoxalase I. However, the identity of the 56 kDa rice allergen has not yet been determined. In this study, we demonstrate that serum from patients allergic to maize shows IgE binding to a 56 kDa protein that was present in both maize and rice but not in the oil seeds soybean and peanut. The 56 kDa IgE-binding protein was abundant in the rice endosperm. We have purified this protein from rice endosperm and demonstrated its reactivity to IgE antibodies from the serum of maize-allergic patients. The purified protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, resulting in identification of this rice allergen as granule-bound starch synthase, a product of the Waxy gene. Immunoblot analysis using protein extracts from a waxy mutant of rice revealed the absence of the 56 kDa IgE-binding protein. Our results demonstrate that the 56 kDa rice allergen is granule-bound starch synthase and raise the possibility of using waxy mutants of rice as a potential source of the hypoallergenic diet for patients sensitized to the 56 kDa rice allergen.

  7. Infectious cDNA clones of the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, R P; Stein, S; Ohara, Y; Fu, J L; Semler, B L

    1989-01-01

    The DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses cause a persistent demyelinating infection, whereas the GDVII strain and other GDVII subgroup strains cause an acute lethal polioencephalomyelitis. We generated an infectious DA cDNA clone inserted into a transcription vector. Virus derived from transfection of transcripts produced a demyelinating disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus. The infectious clone provides a critical reagent for the production of interstrain recombinant viruses to help identify genetic loci responsible for the biological activities of the strains. Images PMID:2555569

  8. Spectroscopy of the DA white dwarfs - Automatic atmospheric parameterization and mass distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the automatic calculation of the atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g) of hydrogen-rich degenerate stars from low-resolution spectra is described, and then applied to the spectra of 53 DA white dwarfs. A value for the width of the DA mass distribution of sigma M/solar-M not greater than +0.10 is obtained using the proposed approach. The data indicate that the distribution is asymmetrically skewed to low masses; however, there is also evidence of a high-mass non-Gaussian tail.

  9. Evolution of robots throughout history from Hephaestus to Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegke, Xanthi-Ekaterini D; Iavazzo, Paraskevi-Evangelia; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robot is increasingly used for operations adding the advantages of robots to the favor of medicine. This is a historical article with the aim to present the evolution of robots in the medical area from the time of ancient myths to Renaissance and finally to the current revolutionary applications. We endeavored to collect several elegant narratives on the topic. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities. A trip from the Greek myths of Hephaestus through Aristotle and Leonardo Da Vinci to the robots of Karel Capek and Isaac Asimov and finally the invention of the medical robots is presented.

  10. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Keun-Ki; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2008-01-01

    A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation. PMID:24031195

  11. Evolution of robots throughout history from Hephaestus to Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegke, Xanthi-Ekaterini D; Iavazzo, Paraskevi-Evangelia; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robot is increasingly used for operations adding the advantages of robots to the favor of medicine. This is a historical article with the aim to present the evolution of robots in the medical area from the time of ancient myths to Renaissance and finally to the current revolutionary applications. We endeavored to collect several elegant narratives on the topic. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities. A trip from the Greek myths of Hephaestus through Aristotle and Leonardo Da Vinci to the robots of Karel Capek and Isaac Asimov and finally the invention of the medical robots is presented. PMID:25811686

  12. DAEdALUS: A New Search for CP Violation in the Neutrino Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Rachel; DAEdALUS Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The DAEdALUS experiment offers a novel approach to measuring CP violation in the neutrino sector. The design uses multiple cyclotrons to produce intense beams of neutrinos from the decay-at-rest of pions and muons. Short-baseline muon- to electron-antineutrino oscillations are observed via inverse beta decay in an ultra-large water Cerenkov detector at DUSEL. The experiment's high-statistics, low-background output yields a CP violation sensitivity competitive with that of LBNE. Together, the complementary designs of DAEdALUS and LBNE provide the highest sensitivity of any presently proposed CP violation search.

  13. The Drosophila 110-kDa transcription factor TFIID subunit directly interacts with the N-terminal region of the 230-kDa subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, T; Gong, D W; Roeder, R G; Horikoshi, M; Nakatani, Y

    1993-01-01

    Transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multimeric protein complex that plays a central role in transcriptional regulation by facilitating promoter responses to various activators. cDNAs encoding the 110-kDa subunit of Drosophila TFIID (p110) were isolated with a degenerate oligodeoxynucleotide probe based on an amino acid sequence of the purified protein. The entire cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame encoding a 921-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 99,337 Da. The recombinant protein expressed in Sf9 cells via a baculovirus vector interacts directly with the 230-kDa subunit of TFIID (p230). Together with the previous observation that the TATA box-binding subunit of TFIID (TFIID tau or TBP) interacts directly with only p230 among the TFIID subunits, this result suggests that p110 forms a complex with TFIID tau via p230. A binding study using various p230 mutants indicated that both p110 and TFIID tau interact with the N-terminal 352-amino acid portion of p230, suggesting a functional communication between p110 and TFIID tau via p230 interactions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8327460

  14. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  15. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section 60.45Da Protection of Environment... standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a) The owner or operator of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section 60.45Da Protection of Environment... standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a) The owner or operator of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section 60.45Da Protection of Environment... standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a) The owner or operator of...

  18. Authentication of official Da-huang by sequencing and multiplex allele-specific PCR of a short maturase K gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guojie; Wang, Xueyong; Liu, Chunsheng; Li, Weidong; Wei, Shengli; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Rhubarb (official Da-huang) is an important medicinal herb in Asia. Many adulterants of official Da-huang have been discovered in Chinese markets in recent years, which has resulted in adverse effects in medicinal treatment. Here, novel molecular markers based on a short maturase K (matK) gene were developed for authenticating official Da-huang. This study showed that all the species from official Da-huang were clustered together in one clade in the polygenetic trees based on short matK. Two highly conserved single nucleotide polymorphisms of short matK were mined in the species from official Da-huang. Based on these polymophisms, four improved specific primers of official Da-huang were successfully developed that generated reproducible specific bands. These results suggest that the short matK sequence can be considered as a favorable candidate for distinguishing official Da-huang from its adulterants. The established multiplex allele-specific PCR was determined to be simple and accurate and may serve as a preferable tool for authentication of official Da-huang. In addition, we suggest that short-sized specific bands be developed to authenticate materials used in traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mahalakshmi; Kern, Beatrice; Vogel, Simone; Klose, Verena; Schneider, Gaby; Roeper, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for a causal role of dysfunctional UPS in familial PD comes from mutations in parkin, which results in a loss of function of an E3-ubiquitin-ligase. In a mouse model, genetic inactivation of an essential component of the 26S proteasome lead to widespread neuronal degeneration including DA midbrain neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion bodies, another hallmark of PD. Studies using pharmacological UPS inhibition in vivo had more mixed results, varying from extensive degeneration to no loss of DA SN neurons. However, it is currently unknown whether UPS impairment will affect the neurophysiological functions of DA midbrain neurons. To answer this question, we infused a selective proteasome inhibitor into the ventral midbrain in vivo and recorded single DA midbrain neurons 2 weeks after the proteasome challenge. We found a selective increase in the mean in vivo firing frequencies of identified DA SN neurons in anesthetized mice, while those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were unaffected. Our results demonstrate that a single-hit UPS inhibition is sufficient to induce a stable and selective hyperexcitability phenotype in surviving DA SN neurons in vivo. This might imply that UPS dysfunction sensitizes DA SN neurons by enhancing 'stressful pacemaking'.

  20. 32 CFR 644.425 - Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies. 644.425 Section 644.425 National Defense Department of Defense... property by DA to eligible public agencies. FPMR 101-47.303-2 provides that the disposal agency shall...

  1. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  2. Effect of DA-9701 on the Normal Motility and Clonidine-induced Hypomotility of the Gastric Antrum in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Je Wook; Han, Dae Kyeong; Kim, Ock Nyun; Lee, Kwang Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-9701 is a novel prokinetic agent. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DA-9701 on the motility of the gastric antrum in the normal and clonidine-induced hypomotility in an in vivo animal model. Methods A strain gauge force transducer was sutured on the gastric antrum to measure the contractile activity in rats. A total of 28 rats were subclassified into the 4 groups: (1) the placebo group, (2) the DA-9701 group, (3) the placebo group in the clonidine-pretreated rats, and (4) the DA-9701 group in the clonidine-pretreated rats. After the basal recording, either placebo (3% [w/v] hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) or DA-9701 was administered. Contractile signals were measured after the administration and after a meal. In the clonidine-pretreated rats, either placebo or DA-9701 was administered. Contractile signals were measured after the administration and after a meal. Results Oral administration of DA-9701 did not significantly alter the motility index of the gastric antrum in the preprandial and postprandial periods, compared with the placebo group. The administration of clonidine decreased the motility index of the gastric antrum in the preprandial and postprandial periods, compared with the administration of placebo. This reduction of the antral motility by the administration of clonidine was not observed in the clonidine-pretreated DA-9701 group. The percentage of the motility index in the postprandial period was significantly greater in the clonidine-pretreated DA-9701 group, compared with the clonidine-pretreated placebo group. Conclusions DA-9701 improves the hypomotility of the gastric antrum induced by clonidine, suggesting its gastroprokinetic effect in the pathologic condition. PMID:26755679

  3. Effect of Fluosol-DA hemodilution on the kinetics of hepatically eliminated drugs.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, R P

    1987-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of four hepatically eliminated drugs were determined in the rat following moderate hemodilution with either Fluosol-DA or normal saline. The drugs, antipyrine, phenytoin, indocyanine green, and d-propranolol, have extraction ratios from 0.01 to 0.99 in the rat. Animals received an intravenous dose of the drug 0.5, 24, 48, or 72 hours after hemodilution and drug disposition was compared to non-exchanged animals. Antipyrine clearance was increased 48 and 72 hours after Fluosol-DA exchange probably due to enhanced microsomal enzymatic activity. Indocyanine green clearance was decreased 24 hours after Fluosol-DA exchange more likely by a change in its extraction ratio than by alterations in hepatic blood flow. Phenytoin and d-propranolol clearances were decreased at 24 and 72 hours respectively after Fluosol-DA hemodilution due to a decreased apparent volume of distribution. Saline hemodilution decreased phenytoin clearance 24, 48, and 72 hours after exchange also by decreasing the apparent volume of distribution. This volume change was thought to be due to hypovolemia or a microcirculation redistribution which was secondary to hemodilution.

  4. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  5. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.44Da Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) Except as provided in... 50 percent or more of the total heat input to the combined cycle combustion turbine, the owner...

  6. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.44Da Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) Except as provided in... 50 percent or more of the total heat input to the combined cycle combustion turbine, the owner...

  7. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.44Da Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) Except as provided in... 50 percent or more of the total heat input to the combined cycle combustion turbine, the owner...

  8. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  9. Long-term evolution of 1991 DA: A dynamically evolved extinct Halley-type comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Gerhard; Bailey, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term dynamical evolution of 21 variational orbits for the intermediate-period asteroid 1991 DA was followed for up to +/-10(exp 5) years from the present. 1991 DA is close to the 2:7 resonance with Jupiter; it has avoided close encounters, within 1 AU, with this planet for at least the past 30,000 years, even at the node crossing. The future evolution typically shows no close encounters with Jupiter within at least 50,000 years. This corresponds to the mean time between node crossings with either Jupiter or Saturn. Close encounters with Saturn and Jupiter lead to a chaotic evolution for the whole ensemble, while secular perturbations cause large-amplitude swings in eccentricity and inclination (the latter covering the range 15 deg approximately less than i approximately less than 85 deg) which correlate with deep excursions of the perihelion distance to values much less than 1 AU. These variations are similar to those found in P/Machholz and a variety of other high-inclination orbits, e.g., P/Hartley-IRAS. We emphasize the connection between the orbital evolution of 1991 DA and that of Halley-type comets. If 1991 DA was once a comet, it is not surprising that it is now extinct.

  10. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  11. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  12. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  13. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  14. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  15. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  16. Views and Voices of the Working Class: Aída and Rosario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Spanish television audiences saw the debut of the nation's first spinoff, the sitcom "Aída." The show featured the tribulations of its title character and her working-class family in their struggle to "llegar a fin de mes." It seemed to promise a sensibility enacted in the US series "Roseanne," where…

  17. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  18. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  19. Wearable augmented reality system using an IrDA device and a passometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenmoku, Ryuhei; Kanbara, Masayuki; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes a wearable augmented reality system with an IrDA device and a passometer. To realize augmented reality systems, the position and orientation of user's viewpoint should be obtained in real time for aligning the real and virtual coordinate systems. In the proposed system, the orientation of user's viewpoint is measured by an inertial sensor attached to the user's glasses, and the position is measured by using an IrDA device and a passometer. First, the user's position is specified exactly when the user comes into the infrared ray range of the IrDA markers which are set up to the appointed points. When the user goes out of the infrared ray range, the user's position is estimated by using a passometer. The passometer is constructed of an electronic compass and acceleration sensors. The former can detect the user's walking direction. The latter can count how many steps the user walks. These data and the user's pace make it possible to estimate the user's position in the neighborhood of the IrDA markers. We have developed a navigation system based on using the techniques above and have proven the feasibility of the system with experiments.

  20. Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Magazine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)

  1. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  2. Uniform remote control of front end processors in PAN-DA

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.; Berman, E.; MacKinnon, B.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Slimmer, D.; Streets, J.; White, V.

    1991-06-01

    The PAN-DA data acquisition software system encompasses support for a variety of front end processors including the Struck General Purpose Master (GPM), the Fermilab Smart Crate Controller (FSCC), and the Motorola MVME133-A VME single board computer. PAN-DA provides support for the remote control of these processors through its Remote Procedure eXecution (RPX) software. This software runs over serial lines, and in some PAN-DA environments, over the Ethernet and TCP/IP as well. Experiments E791 and E771 have successfully used RPX software in both FSCC software development and data collection during the 1990--1991 fixed target run at Fermilab. RPX software has facilitated development and testing of the Fermilab Silicon Strip Detector readout system, for which the FSCC is an integral component. RPX based control and monitoring of the GPM and the MVME133-A are essential parts of the PAN-DA data acquisition system used by E687 and E773 during the 1990--1991 run. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Translocation of an 89-kDa periplasmic protein is associated with Holospora infection

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Koichi; Dohra, Hideo; Lang, B. Franz; Burger, Gertraud; Hori, Manabu; Fujishima, Masahiro . E-mail: fujishim@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2005-12-02

    The symbiotic bacterium Holospora obtusa infects the macronucleus of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. After ingestion by its host, an infectious form of Holospora with an electron-translucent tip passes through the host digestive vacuole and penetrates the macronuclear envelope with this tip. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of this process, we raised a monoclonal antibody against the tip-specific 89-kDa protein, sequenced this partially, and identified the corresponding complete gene. The deduced protein sequence carries two actin-binding motifs. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy shows that during escape from the host digestive vacuole, the 89-kDa proteins translocates from the inside to the outside of the tip. When the bacterium invades the macronucleus, the 89-kDa protein is left behind at the entry point of the nuclear envelope. Transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of fine fibrous structures that co-localize with the antibody-labeled regions of the bacterium. Our findings suggest that the 89-kDa protein plays a role in Holospora's escape from the host digestive vacuole, the migration through the host cytoplasm, and the invasion into the macronucleus.

  4. Brominated and radioiodinated derivatives of methylphenidate (MP): Potential imaging agents for the dopamine (DA) transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Gatley, S.J.; Dewey, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    MP (Ritalin) is a psychomotor stimulant used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The therapeutic properties of MP are thought to be mediated by its binding to a site on the DA transporter, resulting in inhibition of DA reuptake and enhanced levels of synaptic dopamine. MP also inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) in vitro. MP has two chiral centers, but its pharmacological activity is believed due solely to the d-threo isomer. We have found that d,l-threo-C-11 MP has favorable properties for PET studies, and therefore examined the effects of incorporating halogen atoms into the phenyl ring of MP, with a view to preparing C-11 and I-123 MP analogs as potential PET/SPECT tracers. We synthesized the 2-, 3- and 4-bromo MP analogs from the corresponding bromophenylacetonitriles by modification of the original synthesis of MP. In in vitro binding assays all three d,l-threo bromo compounds had higher affinities than MP for DA transporter sites labeled with tritiated WIN 35,428 (3->4-, 2->MP). They also showed high activity with NE reuptake sites labeled with tritiated nisoxetine. They were active in vivo as demonstrated by inhibition of heart uptake of tritiated NE in the mouse, and elevation of striatal extracellular DA (microdialysis) and stimulation of locomotor activity in the rat.

  5. Assessments of the economic impacts of natural hazards in Albania: application of DaLA methodology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Toto, Emanuela; Deda, Miranda; Prenci, Shemsi; Dhima, Maksimiljan

    2015-04-01

    Disaster loss datasets are built using economic assessments done by different parties and using different approaches which are in many cases inconsistent. This is observed in more than 75% of the Alabanian records with missing economic evaluations. To assess the economic impact of disasters at all scales in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011 and 2013 has used the DaLA methodology that takes advantage of a common and homogeneous set of quantitative physical damage indicators contained in the disaster databases. These have to be taken as the lower bound of the damage, which in general is higher. The UN-ECLAC DaLA Methodology takes into account in its assessments the overall status of economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. Similarly to national disaster loss databases DaLA assessments have a national level of observation and data produced at sub-national resolution, resulting in highly detailed and accurate data sets. In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. We applied the DaLa methodology to the Albanian database of impacts of natural disasters.

  6. Computerized Dynamic Assessment (C-DA): Diagnosing L2 Development According to Learner Responsiveness to Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehner, Matthew E.; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA) derives from the sociocultural theory of mind as elaborated by Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky. By offering mediation when individuals experience difficulties and carefully tracing their responsiveness, Vygotsky (1998) proposed that diagnoses may uncover abilities that have fully formed as well as those still in the…

  7. Understanding and Interpreting Japanese NP1 "wa" NP2 "da" Sentences: Mechanism and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the contextual factors that affect the understanding and interpretation of one Japanese topicalized construction, NP[subscript 1] wa NP[subscript 2] da sentences, by native speakers of Japanese. The construction allows two possibilities in the relation between the NP[subscript 1] and the NP[subscript 2]. When the two…

  8. Validation of the Delvotest SP NT DA. Performance Tested Method 011101.

    PubMed

    Hennart, Stephen L A; Faragher, John

    2012-01-01

    Delvotest SP NT DA is designed to test milk for the presence of antibacterial substances, such as antibiotics. The test is made of an agar gel containing bacterial spores and a color indicator. The milk sample is added onto the agar gel, and the test is incubated at 64 degrees C. The principle of the test is based on the diffusion of possible inhibitory substances that may be present in the milk sample into agar. This reduces growth and acid production by the test organism, and delays or prevents the agar from changing color from purple to yellow. The Delvotest Accelerator is an automated system in which the plates containing the milk to be analyzed are placed for incubation. The Accelerator automatically detects the end of the incubation and reads the results. A sample containing antibiotic will be noted as "positive." A sample without antibiotics or with antibiotics at concentrations below detection level will be noted as "negative." The present report includes all technical details about the Delvotest SP NT DA, and the results of the validation study. The validation study demonstrates that the Delvotest SP NT DA conforms to the product performance claims and confirms the robustness of the test. The Delvotest SP NT DA is, therefore, granted Performance Tested Method certification.

  9. Validation of the Delvotest SP NT DA. Performance Tested Method 011101.

    PubMed

    Hennart, Stephen L A; Faragher, John

    2012-01-01

    Delvotest SP NT DA is designed to test milk for the presence of antibacterial substances, such as antibiotics. The test is made of an agar gel containing bacterial spores and a color indicator. The milk sample is added onto the agar gel, and the test is incubated at 64 degrees C. The principle of the test is based on the diffusion of possible inhibitory substances that may be present in the milk sample into agar. This reduces growth and acid production by the test organism, and delays or prevents the agar from changing color from purple to yellow. The Delvotest Accelerator is an automated system in which the plates containing the milk to be analyzed are placed for incubation. The Accelerator automatically detects the end of the incubation and reads the results. A sample containing antibiotic will be noted as "positive." A sample without antibiotics or with antibiotics at concentrations below detection level will be noted as "negative." The present report includes all technical details about the Delvotest SP NT DA, and the results of the validation study. The validation study demonstrates that the Delvotest SP NT DA conforms to the product performance claims and confirms the robustness of the test. The Delvotest SP NT DA is, therefore, granted Performance Tested Method certification. PMID:22468368

  10. Specific binding of victorin to a 100-kDa protein from oats

    SciTech Connect

    Wolpert, T.J.; Macko, V. )

    1989-06-01

    Susceptibility of oats to victoria blight, caused by the fungus Cochliobolus victoriae, and sensitivity to the host-specific toxin victorin, produced by the fungus, are controlled by the dominant allele at the Vb locus. It has been postulated that the Vb locus encodes a toxin receptor, although direct evidence for such a receptor is not available. Recent studies on structure-activity relationships of the toxin established a methodology for producing {sup 125}I-labeled victorin. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from isogenic susceptible and resistant oat genotypes following treatment of leaves with radiolabeled victorin showed that victorin binds in a covalent and a genotype-specific manner to a 100-kDa protein only in susceptible oat leaf slices. This in vivo binding was competitively displaced by reduced victorin, a nontoxic protective compound, and appeared to be correlated with biological activity. In vitro binding to the 100-kDa protein in leaf extracts showed several differences from in vivo binding. Binding was not genotype specific and required a reducing agent that was not required for in vivo binding. Differential centrifugation showed that the 100-kDa victorin binding protein was not a cytosolic protein but was enriched in a high-speed particulate fraction. The data support the hypothesis that the 100-kDa protein is the victorin receptor.

  11. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  12. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  13. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  14. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  15. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

  16. Modifications of transaxillary approach in endoscopic da Vinci-assisted thyroid and parathyroid gland surgery.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be

  17. Observation campaign for the near-Earth object 2012 DA_{14} in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, S.; Terai, T.; Takahashi, J.; Fujii, M.; Hanayama, H.; Yoshida, F.; Hoshi, H.; Sato, T.; Ushioda, K.; Oasa, Y.; Arai, A.; Honda, S.; Takagi, Y.; Itoh, Y.; Ishiguro, M.

    2014-07-01

    We present the observation campaign for the near-Earth object 2012 DA_{14} (hereafter, DA_{14}). The asteroid DA_{14} came close to the Earth's surface on 2013 February 15, 19:33 UT, at a distance of 27,700 km. DA_{14}'s altitude from the horizon in Japan was ˜ 30° at the closest approach time. The estimated diameter of DA_{14} is ˜50 m. The close encounter and the horizontal altitude made it possible to conduct a variety of observations for this tiny asteroid using small- and medium-sized telescopes. There have been few detailed observations, including spectroscopy, of asteroids smaller than 100 m in diameter. Moreover, the close encounter might results in a change for the rotational period and the surface spectrum due to the tidal forces. The observations around the closest approach are useful to investigate such physical changes. We performed visible spectroscopy, near-infrared photometry, and time-series photometry in the visible wavelength region. The visible spectroscopy was conducted using the 0.4-m F/10 telescope at the Fujii Kurosaki Observatory. The observations aimed to deduce the taxonomy of DA_{14}. The near-infrared photometry was made by Nishiharima Infrared Camera (NIC) attached to the 2.0-m Nayuta telescope at the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory. The NIC achieves three-band (i.e., J, H, and K_{s}) simultaneous observations, which allowed us to reliably deduce the colors of this fast-moving object. The time-series photometry was carried out using the 0.55-m telescope at Saitama University. The solar phase angle of DA_{14} had varied widely around its closest approach but was almost constant during the following night. The R-band images were obtained continuously over 2 h at the closest approach and for about 5 h on the subsequent night. Those two nights of observations allow us to determine the rotational properties and the phase effect. We found, from the visible spectroscopy [1], that DA_{14} is an L-type asteroid. The flatness of the

  18. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Hover, John; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wenaus, Torre; Frey, Jaime; Tannenbaum, Todd; Livny, Miron; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA "AutoPilot" scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  19. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao X.; Hover John; Wlodek Tomasz; Wenaus Torre; Frey Jaime; Tannenbaum Todd; Livny Miron

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA 'AutoPilot' scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  20. Site effects inferred from HVSR methodology in Praia da Vitória city (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontiela, João; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Rodrigues, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Terceira island (Azores) have experienced several strong earthquakes, especially on the eastern and south-eastern part of the island with maximum MM intensity of VIII in 1800, 1801 and 1912 and IX in 1614 and 1841. Seismicity of the eastern part of the island is largely dominated by the tectonic of the NW-SE Lajes graben where are located Praia da Vitória and other setlements. Praia da Vitória is settled partially over pyroclastic material(pumice and ignimbrite) deposited around 20'000 years ago and forming part of the UpperTerceira Group. Its thickness is 15m on the north but in Praia da Vitoria has less than one meter.. It is sited on by basaltic flow of the upper Basaltic Terceira Group (2,000y BP) and a thick andesitic lava flow. A narrow band with sand dunes and beach crossed this deposits along Praia da Vitória and behind it appear a flat area with 7-10m of round cobbles that is interpreted as an old boulders'beach. Thickness of these different deposits are tricky to estimate in urban areas since very few outcrops are present. In order to assess site amplification of seismic waves due to the soil conditions, we perform horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method from broad band ambient noise measurements in 51 different sites within Praia da Vitoria. The first results show that the frequencies of the study area are variable, lying between 0.6-12 Hz. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 provided by the Regional Science Fund of the Azores Regional Government. This study was partially funded by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Portugal, under the contract with the FCT, ICT-UID/GEO/04683/2013 (Portugal).

  1. Local classification: Locally weighted-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (LW-PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Marini, Federico

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of devising a simple, flexible and accurate non-linear classification method, by extending the locally weighted partial least squares (LW-PLS) approach to the cases where the algorithm is used in a discriminant way (partial least squares discriminant analysis, PLS-DA), is presented. In particular, to assess which category an unknown sample belongs to, the proposed algorithm operates by identifying which training objects are most similar to the one to be predicted and building a PLS-DA model using these calibration samples only. Moreover, the influence of the selected training samples on the local model can be further modulated by adopting a not uniform distance-based weighting scheme which allows the farthest calibration objects to have less impact than the closest ones. The performances of the proposed locally weighted-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (LW-PLS-DA) algorithm have been tested on three simulated data sets characterized by a varying degree of non-linearity: in all cases, a classification accuracy higher than 99% on external validation samples was achieved. Moreover, when also applied to a real data set (classification of rice varieties), characterized by a high extent of non-linearity, the proposed method provided an average correct classification rate of about 93% on the test set. By the preliminary results, showed in this paper, the performances of the proposed LW-PLS-DA approach have proved to be comparable and in some cases better than those obtained by other non-linear methods (k nearest neighbors, kernel-PLS-DA and, in the case of rice, counterpropagation neural networks).

  2. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  3. The Effect of DA-6034 on Intestinal Permeability in an Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dong Shin; Lee, Oh Young; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-6034 has anti-inflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects in acute gastric injury models. However, explanations for the protective effects of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability are limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury model and its protective effect against small intestinal injury. Methods Rats in the treatment group received DA-6034 from days 0 to 2 and indomethacin from days 1 to 2. Rats in the control group received indomethacin from days 1 to 2. On the fourth day, the small intestines were examined to compare the severity of inflammation. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Western blotting was performed to confirm the association between DA-6034 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Results The inflammation scores in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Hemorrhagic lesions in the treatment group were broader than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Intestinal permeability was lower in the treatment group than in the control group. DA-6034 enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression, and intestinal permeability was negatively correlated with ERK expression. Conclusions DA-6034 may decrease intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced intestinal injury model via the ERK pathway. PMID:27114435

  4. Dioscorea Extract (DA-9801) Modulates Markers of Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunjung; Lee, Sung Ok; Kang, Tong Ho; Kim, Hye Ju; Choi, Sang Zin; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of DA-9801, an optimized extract of Dioscorea species, on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a type 2 diabetic animal model. In this study, db/db mice were treated with DA-9801 (30 and 100 mg/kg, daily, p.o.) for 12 weeks. DA-9801 reduced the blood glucose levels and increased the withdrawal latencies in hot plate tests. Moreover, it prevented nerve damage based on increased nerve conduction velocity and ultrastructural changes. Decrease of nerve growth factor (NGF) may have a detrimental effect on diabetic neuropathy. We previously reported NGF regulatory properties of the Dioscorea genus. In this study, DA-9801 induced NGF production in rat primary astrocytes. In addition, it increased NGF levels in the sciatic nerve and the plasma of type 2 diabetic animals. DA-9801 also increased neurite outgrowth and mRNA expression of Tieg1/Klf10, an NGF target gene, in PC12 cells. These results demonstrated the attenuation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy by oral treatment with DA-9801 via NGF regulation. DA-9801 is currently being evaluated in a phase II clinical study.

  5. The alpha- and beta-subunits of the jacalins are cleavage products from a 17-kDa precursor.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, L D; Brillard, M; Hoebeke, J

    1993-02-13

    The jacalins of three Artocarpus species were purified by affinity chromatography on a desialylated mucin-CNBr-Sepharose 4B column. The beta-chains and the 14 kDa alpha-chains were separated by high pressure liquid chromatography and the 17 kDa chains by preparative electrophoresis. The 17 kDa and 14 kDa chains had a similar highly conserved N-terminal sequence. The beta-chains were different for the three species and Artocarpus champeden contained two different beta-chains. CNBr cleavage of the 17 kDa polypeptide of Artocarpus tonkinensis yielded one peptide more than the 14 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of this fragment was similar to that of the beta-chain proving that this chain results from a proteolytic cleavage at the C-terminus of the 17 kDa peptide. The large heterogeneity of the beta-chains of jacalins from different species could be used as a marker for evolutionary studies on the Artocarpus family.

  6. Approaches to Sample Size Determination for Multivariate Data: Applications to PCA and PLS-DA of Omics Data.

    PubMed

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2016-08-01

    Sample size determination is a fundamental step in the design of experiments. Methods for sample size determination are abundant for univariate analysis methods, but scarce in the multivariate case. Omics data are multivariate in nature and are commonly investigated using multivariate statistical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). No simple approaches to sample size determination exist for PCA and PLS-DA. In this paper we will introduce important concepts and offer strategies for (minimally) required sample size estimation when planning experiments to be analyzed using PCA and/or PLS-DA. PMID:27322847

  7. Approaches to Sample Size Determination for Multivariate Data: Applications to PCA and PLS-DA of Omics Data.

    PubMed

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2016-08-01

    Sample size determination is a fundamental step in the design of experiments. Methods for sample size determination are abundant for univariate analysis methods, but scarce in the multivariate case. Omics data are multivariate in nature and are commonly investigated using multivariate statistical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). No simple approaches to sample size determination exist for PCA and PLS-DA. In this paper we will introduce important concepts and offer strategies for (minimally) required sample size estimation when planning experiments to be analyzed using PCA and/or PLS-DA.

  8. Hunting for the Tristan plume - An upper mantle tomography around the volcanic island Tristan da Cunha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlömer, Antje; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island in the South Atlantic close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is part of an area consisting of widely scattered seamounts and small islands at the western and youngest end of the aseismic Walvis Ridge. Tristan da Cunha together with the Walvis Ridge represents the classical example of a mantle plume track, because of the connection to the Cretaceous Etendeka flood basalt province in NW Namibia. The genesis of the island has so far remained enigmatic. It is hotly debated, if Tristan da Cunha sits actually above a deep mantle plume or if it is only originated by upwelling material from weak (leaky) fracture zones. It also has to be clarified if there are any indications for a plume-ridge interaction. Geochemical investigations have shown complex compositions of magmatic samples from Tristan da Cunha, which could be interpreted as a mixing of plume-derived melts and depleted upper mantle sources. To improve our understanding about the origin of Tristan and to test the mantle plume hypothesis, we deployed 24 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers and 2 seismological land stations around and on the island during an expedition in January 2012 with the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. After acquiring continuous seismological data for almost one year, the seismometers were recovered in early January 2013. We cross-correlated the arrival times of teleseismic P and PKP phases to perform a finite-frequency tomography of the upper mantle beneath the study area. Here we show the 3D mantle structure in terms of velocity variations: We do not image a "classical" plume-like structure directly beneath Tristan da Cunha, but we observe regions of low velocities at the edges of our array that we relate to local mantle upwelling from potentially deeper sources. Additionally we discuss local seismicity within the Tristan da Cunha region, which show processes along the nearby mid-ocean ridge and transform faults. Furthermore, the local seismicity

  9. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  10. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  11. Knock-Down of the 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor LRP/LR Impedes Telomerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Kerrilyn; Malindisa, Sibusiso T; Otgaar, Tyrone C; Bernert, Martin; Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Ferreira, Eloise; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F T; Letsolo, Boitelo T

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a major problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence and mortality rates. Both the 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) and telomerase are overexpressed in cancer cells. LRP/LR enhances the invasiveness of cancer cells thereby promoting metastasis, supporting angiogenesis and hampering apoptosis. An essential component of telomerase, hTERT is overexpressed in 85-90% of most cancers. hTERT expression and increased telomerase activity are associated with tumor progression. As LRP/LR and hTERT both play a role in cancer progression, we investigated a possible correlation between LRP/LR and telomerase. LRP/LR and hTERT co-localized in the perinuclear compartment of tumorigenic breast cancer (MDA_MB231) cells and non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. FLAG® Co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed an interaction between LRP/LR and hTERT. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that both cell lines displayed high cell surface and intracellular LRP/LR and hTERT levels. Knock-down of LRP/LR by RNAi technology significantly reduced telomerase activity. These results suggest for the first time a novel function of LRP/LR in contributing to telomerase activity. siRNAs targeting LRP/LR may act as a potential alternative therapeutic tool for cancer treatment by (i) blocking metastasis (ii) promoting angiogenesis (iii) inducing apoptosis and (iv) impeding telomerase activity. PMID:26545108

  12. Identification of a major PAF acetylhydrolase in human serum/plasma as a 43 kDa glycoprotein containing about 9 kDa asparagine-conjugated sugar chain(s).

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Sugatani, J; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Miwa, M

    1998-05-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase from human serum/plasma was identified on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane by electroblotting proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme activity was detected in the 43 kDa region on the membrane as a decrease in the beta-radioluminescence of [3H]acetyl-PAF or by the convenient method for determining PAF acetylhydrolase activity (the TCA precipitation method). The enzyme activity on treatment with N-glycosidase F shifted to the 34 kDa region on the PVDF membrane. On the other hand, only one band was observed, corresponding to a molecular mass of 53 kDa, on analysis by SDS-PAGE with silver staining. Treatment of the 53 kDa protein with N-glycosidase F changed its molecular mass to 43 kDa (protein A). The NH2-terminal 32 amino acid sequence of protein A completely corresponds to that of the heterogenous enzyme with 54 amino acids deleted from the NH2 terminus reported by Tjoelker et al. (Nature 374, 549-553, 1995). Even after trypsin treatment of the N-glycosidase F-digested enzyme, its PAF-AH activity remained in the 34 kDa region, but the contaminating protein A disappeared, on the PVDF membrane. In addition, the majority of serum PAF-AH was retained on a Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin (SSA)-agarose column and was eluted with the hapten sugar, lactose. These results indicate that PAF acetylhydrolase consisting of a 34 kDa protein and about 9 kDa asparagine-conjugated sugar chain(s) is a major enzyme in human serum/plasma. PMID:9562606

  13. A 9 kDa antifreeze protein from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni.

    PubMed

    Hawes, T C; Marshall, C J; Wharton, D A

    2014-08-01

    A 9 kDA antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated and purified from the Antarctic springtail, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni. By combining selective sampling procedures and a modified ice affinity purification protocol it was possible to directly isolate a single AFP protein without recourse to chromatographic separation techniques. Mass spectrometry identified a single 9 kDa component in the purified ice fraction. Intramolecular disulphide bonding was suggested by the presence of 12 cysteine residues. The specific amino acid composition is unique, particularly with regard to the presence of histidine (11.5%). But it also shows noticeable commonalities with insect AFPs in the abundance of cysteine (13.8%), while simultaneously hinting, through the presence of glycine (11.5%), that the metabolic building blocks of AFPs in Collembola may have a phylogenetically-determined component. PMID:25025820

  14. Crosslinking of hemin to a specific site on the 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jihjing; Thach, R.E. ); Patino, M.M.; Gaffield, L.; Walden. W.E. ); Smith, A. )

    1991-07-15

    Incubation of a 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein (FRP) with small amounts of radiolabeled hemin resulted in the formation of a strong interaction between the two that was stable to SDS/PAGE. Of seven other proteins tested individually, only apohemopexin and bovine serum albumin showed similar crosslinking ability, albeit to a much lower extent. ({sup 14}C)Hemin specifically crosslinked to FRP in the presence of a 50-fold excess of total wheat germ proteins. Inclusion of catalase did not prevent the reaction of hemin with FRP, suggesting that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not involved. The subsequent addition of a stoichiometric amount of apohemopexin did not reverse the reaction. Exhaustive digestion of the complex with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease produced a major labeled peptide of 17 kDa. These results show the existence of a highly specific, uniquely reactive hemin binding site on FRP.

  15. Towards the Implementation of an Autonomous Camera Algorithm on the da Vinci Platform.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Shahab; Reisner, Luke A; King, Brady W; Pandya, Abhilash K

    2016-01-01

    Camera positioning is critical for all telerobotic surgical systems. Inadequate visualization of the remote site can lead to serious errors that can jeopardize the patient. An autonomous camera algorithm has been developed on a medical robot (da Vinci) simulator. It is found to be robust in key scenarios of operation. This system behaves with predictable and expected actions for the camera arm with respect to the tool positions. The implementation of this system is described herein. The simulation closely models the methodology needed to implement autonomous camera control in a real hardware system. The camera control algorithm follows three rules: (1) keep the view centered on the tools, (2) keep the zoom level optimized such that the tools never leave the field of view, and (3) avoid unnecessary movement of the camera that may distract/disorient the surgeon. Our future work will apply this algorithm to the real da Vinci hardware.

  16. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  17. From Jacobeaus to the da Vinci: thoracoscopic applications of the robot.

    PubMed

    Al-Mufarrej, Faisal; Margolis, Marc; Tempesta, Barbara; Strother, Eric; Najam, Farzad; Gharagozloo, Farid

    2010-02-01

    With the increasing recognition of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, surgical technology has evolved significantly since Jacobeaus' first attempt at thoracoscopy 100 years ago. Currently, video-assisted thoracic surgery occupies a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant diseases of the chest. However, the clinical application of video-assisted thoracic surgery is limited by the technical shortcomings of the approach. Although the da Vinci system (Intuitive Surgical) is not the first robotic surgical system, it has been the most successful and widely applicable. After early applications in general and urologic surgery, the da Vinci robot extended its arms into the field of thoracic surgery, broadening the applicability of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. We review the available literature on robot-assisted thoracic surgery in attempt to better define the current role of the robot in pulmonary, mediastinal, and esophageal surgeries.

  18. Iron abundance in the hot DA white dwarfs Feige 24 and G191 B2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Chayer, Pierre; Thorstensen, John R.; Bowyer, Stuart; Shipman, Harry L.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to model calculations of the far- and extreme-UV line spectra of highly ionized Fe species (Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI) for hot high-gravity H-rich stars. A spectral analysis of 31 hr of exposure of the DA white dwarf Feige 24 with IUE in the echelle mode reveals the presence of Fe with an abundance relative to H by number of (5-10) x 10 exp -6 with an uncertainty dominated by the determination of stellar parameters. An analysis of IUE data from the white dwarf G191 B2B results in a similar Fe abundance if this star shares similar atmospheric parameters (Teff, g) with Feige 24. Fe is thus the second most abundant photospheric element in hot DA white dwarfs.

  19. Solid state of a new PDE-5 inhibitor DA-8159: characterization, dissolution, transformation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Yoon; Sohn, Young-Taek

    2012-05-01

    The polymorphic forms of a new PDE-5 inhibitor DA-8159 were prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Two crystal forms and one amorphous form of DA-8159 have been isolated by recrystallization and characterized by DSC, TG and PXRD. From the TG data it was confirmed that two crystal forms are neither solvates nor hydrates. The PXRD patterns of the two crystal forms were different. In the dissolution studies in simulated intestinal fluid at 37 ± 0.5°C, the solubility decreased in the order of amorphous form > Form 1 > Form 2. After storage of 60 days, Form 1 was transformed to Form 2. Form 2 was not transformed. The amorphous form was transformed to Form 2 at 52% R.H. and 95% R.H., but it did not transform at 0% R.H. PMID:22644853

  20. Optimizing IrDA throughput by including processing time with physical layer consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pi; Chatzimisios, P.; Boucouvalas, A. C.

    2005-06-01

    Feature Issue on Optical Wireless Communications (OWC) We derive new equations linking the Infrared Data Association (IrDA) data link layer (IrLAP) throughput to the physical layer by providing the bit error rate in relation to link distance and various physical layer parameters. Furthermore, we optimize the link by simultaneously adapting the frame and window size. The optimum equations include the effect of processor speed. The mathematical analysis is validated by comparison with exact numerical methods. Analytical results presented in the paper explore the effect of frame processing time on improving the performance of IrDA links and identify the improvement in throughput performance by utilizing the derived optimum values.

  1. Towards the Implementation of an Autonomous Camera Algorithm on the da Vinci Platform.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Shahab; Reisner, Luke A; King, Brady W; Pandya, Abhilash K

    2016-01-01

    Camera positioning is critical for all telerobotic surgical systems. Inadequate visualization of the remote site can lead to serious errors that can jeopardize the patient. An autonomous camera algorithm has been developed on a medical robot (da Vinci) simulator. It is found to be robust in key scenarios of operation. This system behaves with predictable and expected actions for the camera arm with respect to the tool positions. The implementation of this system is described herein. The simulation closely models the methodology needed to implement autonomous camera control in a real hardware system. The camera control algorithm follows three rules: (1) keep the view centered on the tools, (2) keep the zoom level optimized such that the tools never leave the field of view, and (3) avoid unnecessary movement of the camera that may distract/disorient the surgeon. Our future work will apply this algorithm to the real da Vinci hardware. PMID:27046563

  2. Development of noSQL data storage for the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekhin, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    For several years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, typically exceeding 500k completed jobs/day by June 2011. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. These challenges are being met with a R&D effort aimed at implementing a scalable and efficient monitoring data storage based on a noSQL solution (Cassandra). We present our motivations for using this technology, as well as data design and the techniques used for efficient indexing of the data. We also discuss the hardware requirements as they were determined by testing with actual data and realistic loads.

  3. Visual degradation in Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait: A nanoscale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Misiti, M. C.; Lojewska, J.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Missori, M.

    2014-06-01

    The discoloration of ancient paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation in ancient artifacts. By adopting a non-destructive approach based on the combination of optical reflectance measurements and time-dependent density functional theory ab-initio calculations, we describe and quantify the chromophores affecting Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait. Their relative concentrations are very similar to those measured in modern and ancient samples aged in humid environments. This analysis quantifies the present level of optical degradation of the Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait which, compared with future measurements, will assess its degradation rate. This is a fundamental information in order to plan appropriate conservation strategies.

  4. Pressure effects on the Cl 2 (D'-A') transition at 258 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nee, J. B.; Hubinger, S.

    1996-11-01

    UV emission at 258 nm from the transition of Cl 2(D'-A') was investigated by photoexcitation of the Rydberg states at pressures between 1 and 100 Torr. The intensity of the UV fluorescence produced was increased by a factor of two when the pressure of the buffer gas N 2 was increased from 1 to 20 Torr. Characteristic pressures for quenching and fluorescence enhancement were derived. Kinetic studies revealed the mechanism of the interstate transitions about the generation of the D'-A' transition. A vibrational state redistribution in the excitation spectra for the 2 1Σu+ state at high pressure was observed. The cause of this is explained in terms of state-dependent quenching.

  5. Surgical techniques: robot-assisted laparoscopic colposacropexy with the da Vinci(®) surgical system.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Catherine A

    2009-03-01

    Colposacropexy is the gold-standard operation for repair of apical vaginal support defects. While it is feasible to perform this operation using conventional laparoscopic techniques, a limited number of surgeons have mastered the advanced minimally invasive skills that are required. Introduction of the da Vinci(®) robotic system with instruments that have improved dexterity and precision and a camera system with three-dimensional imaging presents an opportunity for more surgeons treating women with pelvic organ prolapse to perform the procedure laparoscopically. This paper will outline a technique that is exactly modeled after the open procedure for completion of a robotic-assisted colposacropexy using the da Vinci(®) surgical system. PMID:27628451

  6. STRESS AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF RAPIDLY ROTATING ASTEROID (29075) 1950 DA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Rozitis et al. recently reported that near-Earth asteroid (29075) 1950 DA, whose bulk density ranges from 1.0 g cm{sup –3} to 2.4 g cm{sup –3}, is a rubble pile and requires a cohesive strength of at least 44-76 Pa to keep from failing due to its fast spin period. Since their technique for giving failure conditions required the averaged stress over the whole volume, it discarded information about the asteroid's failure mode and internal stress condition. This paper develops a finite element model and revisits the stress and failure analysis of 1950 DA. For the modeling, we do not consider material hardening and softening. Under the assumption of an associated flow rule and uniform material distribution, we identify the deformation process of 1950 DA when its constant cohesion reaches the lowest value that keeps its current shape. The results show that to avoid structural failure the internal core requires a cohesive strength of at least 75-85 Pa. It suggests that for the failure mode of this body, the internal core first fails structurally, followed by the surface region. This implies that if cohesion is constant over the whole volume, the equatorial ridge of 1950 DA results from a material flow going outward along the equatorial plane in the internal core, but not from a landslide as has been hypothesized. This has additional implications for the likely density of the interior of the body.

  7. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using turbine (jet) fuel. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a diesel cycle engine utilizing turbine (jet) fuel. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate......

  8. The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

  9. On the interpretation of the Exosat photometry of two hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Shipman, Harry L.; Petre, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Exosat photometric observations of the hot DA white dwarfs GD 2 and EG 70 are presented and analyzed using model atmosphere and synthetic spectrum calculations. The numerical accuracy of the calculations and their impact on the reliability of the results are addressed. The optimum atmospheric parameters that explain the complete spectral coverage are derived. The consequences of these conjectures for the spectral evolution theory of white dwarf stars are considered.

  10. Diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT: a clinical follow up study.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Tavares, Francisco; Zeidan, Nahla; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The [(123)I]ioflupane-a dopamine transporter radioligand-SPECT (DaT-SPECT) has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of tremor. Here, we investigate the diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT. Therefore, 30 patients with tremor and normal DaT-SPECT were followed up for 2 years. In 18 cases we were able to make a diagnosis. The residual 12 patients underwent a second DaT-SPECT, were then followed for additional 12 months and thereafter the diagnosis was reconsidered again. The final diagnoses included cases of essential tremor, dystonic tremor, multisystem atrophy, vascular parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, psychogenic parkinsonism, iatrogenic parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. However, for 6 patients the diagnosis remained uncertain. Larger series are needed to better establish the relative frequency of the different conditions behind these cases. PMID:24744729

  11. Diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT: a clinical follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Tavares, Francisco; Zeidan, Nahla; Salas-Pacheco, José M.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The [123I]ioflupane—a dopamine transporter radioligand—SPECT (DaT-SPECT) has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of tremor. Here, we investigate the diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT. Therefore, 30 patients with tremor and normal DaT-SPECT were followed up for 2 years. In 18 cases we were able to make a diagnosis. The residual 12 patients underwent a second DaT-SPECT, were then followed for additional 12 months and thereafter the diagnosis was reconsidered again. The final diagnoses included cases of essential tremor, dystonic tremor, multisystem atrophy, vascular parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, fragile X–associated tremor ataxia syndrome, psychogenic parkinsonism, iatrogenic parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. However, for 6 patients the diagnosis remained uncertain. Larger series are needed to better establish the relative frequency of the different conditions behind these cases. PMID:24744729

  12. Formation of P-Rich Olivine in DaG 978 Carbonaceous Chondrite Through Fluid-Assisted Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. C.; Li, Y.; Chen, J. N.; Gu, L. X.; Wang, R. C.

    2016-08-01

    We describe an occurrence of P-rich olivine in the DaG 978 carbonaceous chondrite. Different from other natural P-rich olivine, the P-rich olivine should have formed through fluid-assisted metamorphism.

  13. Caulis Sinomenii extracts activate DA/NE transporter and inhibit 5HT transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Bi, Cheng; Qin, Guo-Wei; Guo, Li-He

    2009-08-01

    Caulis Sinomenii (QFT) has analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic-like actions, and is proven effective for improving drug dependence that is known to be associated with abnormal monoaminergic transmission. We assessed whether QFT would be biologically active in functionally regulating monoamine transporters using CHO cells expressing dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), or serotonin transporter (SERT) (i.e. D8, N1, or S6 cells, respectively). Here, we showed that its primary extracts, such as QA, QC, QE, QD, and QB (QFT ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alkaloid-free chloroform, and alkaloid-containing chloroform extract, respectively), and secondary extracts, such as QE-2, - 3, - 5, - 7, QD-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5, and QB-1, - 2, - 3, - 4, - 5 (fractioned from QE, QD, and QB, respectively), in differing degrees, either increased DA/ NE uptake by corresponding D8/N1 cells or decreased 5HT uptake by S6 cells; wherein, QE-2, QD-3, and QE-7 were potent DA/NE uptake activators while both QE-7 and QB-5 were potent 5HT uptake inhibitors. Furthermore, the enhancement of DA/NE uptake was dependent of DAT/NET activity, and the inhibition of 5HT uptake was typical of competition. Thus, QFT extracts, especially QE-2 and QE-7 (both with stronger potencies), are novel monoamine transporter modulators functioning as DAT/ NET activators and/or SERT inhibitors, and would likely improve neuropsychological disorders through regulating monoamine transporters.

  14. OnDA: online data analysis and feedback for serial X-ray imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Valerio; Morgan, Andrew; Yoon, Chun Hong; Lane, Thomas J.; White, Thomas A.; O’Grady, Christopher; Kuhn, Manuela; Aplin, Steve; Koglin, Jason; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a free and open-source data analysis utility designed for fast online feedback during serial X-ray diffraction and scattering experiments: OnDA (online data analysis). Three complete real-time monitors for common types of serial X-ray imaging experiments are presented. These monitors are capable of providing the essential information required for quick decision making in the face of extreme rates of data collection. In addition, a set of modules, functions and algorithms that allow developers to modify the provided monitors or develop new ones are provided. The emphasis here is on simple, modular and scalable code that is based on open-source libraries and protocols. OnDA monitors have already proven to be invaluable tools in several experiments, especially for scoring and monitoring of diffraction data during serial crystallography experiments at both free-electron laser and synchrotron facilities. It is felt that in the future the kind of fast feedback that OnDA monitors provide will help researchers to deal with the expected very high throughput data flow at next-generation facilities such as the European X-ray free-electron laser. PMID:27275150

  15. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery.

  16. Regolith grain size and cohesive strength of near-Earth Asteroid (29075) 1950 DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-09-01

    Due to its fast rotation period of 2.12 h, about half of the surface of near-Earth Asteroid (29075) 1950 DA experiences negative (i.e., outward directed) acceleration levels (Rozitis, B., Maclennan, E., Emery, J.P. [2014]. Nature 512, 174-176). Thus, cohesion of the surface material is mandatory to prevent rotational breakup of the asteroid. Rozitis et al. (Rozitis, B., Maclennan, E., Emery, J.P. [2014]. Nature 512, 174-176) concluded that a grain size of ∼6 cm or lower is needed to explain the required cohesive strength of 64-20+12Pa . Here, we present another approach to determine the grain size of near-Earth Asteroid (29075) 1950 DA by using the thermal inertia value from Rozitis et al. (Rozitis, B., Maclennan, E., Emery, J.P. [2014]. Nature 512, 174-176) and a model of the heat conductivity of the surface regolith (Gundlach, B., Blum, J. [2013]. Icarus 223, 479-492). This method yields a mean particle radius ranging from 32 μm to 117 μm. The derived grain sizes are then used to infer the cohesive strength of the surface material of Asteroid (29075) 1950 DA (ranging from 24 Pa to 88 Pa), by using laboratory measurements of the tensile strength of powders.

  17. [History of robotics: from archytas of tarentum until Da Vinci robot. (Part II)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, F M; Jiménez Schlegl, P; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador-Bayarri, J; Monllau Font, V; Palou Redorta, J; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

    2007-03-01

    Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws. Mechanics, electronics and informatics advances at XXth century developed robots to be able to do very complex self governing works. At 1985 the robot PUMA 560 was employed to introduce a needle inside the brain. Later on, they were designed surgical robots like World First, Robodoc, Gaspar o Acrobot, Zeus, AESOP, Probot o PAKI-RCP. At 2000 the FDA approved the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. Currently urological procedures like prostatectomy, cystectomy and nephrectomy are performed with the da Vinci, so urology has become a very suitable speciality to robotic surgery.

  18. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery. PMID:25516094

  19. Attachment of group B streptococci to macrophages is mediated by a 21-kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Smith, L M; Laganas, V; Pistole, T G

    1998-02-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is able to bind to human macrophages in vitro in the absence of exogenous opsonins. The exact mechanisms that mediate this attachment are unclear. This study was undertaken to determine what protein adhesins are present on the surface of GBS that mediate attachment to macrophages. We have identified a 21-kDa protein from the envelope of GBS type III that directly binds to macrophages as determined by Western blot analysis. Antiserum against this protein was able to inhibit binding of GBS to macrophages by greater than 80% as measured by flow cytometry. Antiserum against the 21-kDa protein cross-reacted with 21-kDa proteins from GBS type Ib, type II, type III (COH31 and MR732) and type IV, as well as Staphyloccus epidermidis, but not GBS type Ia, Listeria monocytogenes or Enterococcus faecalis. This protein may be important in mediating the attachment of GBS to macrophages in an opsonin-poor environment.

  20. Co-activation of VTA DA and GABA neurons mediates nicotine reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tolu, S; Eddine, R; Marti, F; David, V; Graupner, M; Pons, S; Baudonnat, M; Husson, M; Besson, M; Reperant, C; Zemdegs, J; Pagès, C; Hay, Y A H; Lambolez, B; Caboche, J; Gutkin, B; Gardier, A M; Changeux, J-P; Faure, P; Maskos, U

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all drugs of abuse, nicotine acts on several different cell types and afferents. Identifying the precise action of nicotine on this microcircuit, in vivo, is important to understand reinforcement, and finally to develop efficient smoking cessation treatments. We used a novel lentiviral system to re-express exclusively high-affinity nAChRs on either dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons, or both, in the VTA. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we show that, contrary to widely accepted models, the activation of GABA neurons in the VTA plays a crucial role in the control of nicotine-elicited DAergic activity. Our results demonstrate that both positive and negative motivational values are transmitted through the dopamine (DA) neuron, but that the concerted activity of DA and GABA systems is necessary for the reinforcing actions of nicotine through burst firing of DA neurons. This work identifies the GABAergic interneuron as a potential target for smoking cessation drug development.

  1. Enhanced efficacy and immunogenicity of 78kDa antigen formulated in various adjuvants against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2010-05-21

    Leishmania infection causes localized cutaneous to severe visceral disease in humans and animals. Current control measures, based on antimonial compounds, are not effective because of resistance in Leishmania. Vaccination would be a feasible alternative, but as yet no vaccine to protect humans against infection has been commercialized. Parasite antigens that preferentially stimulate the induction of significant protection through Th1 response presents a rational approach for a vaccine against leishmaniasis. With this view in mind, we investigated the potential of 78kDa antigen of Leishmania donovani alone and along with different adjuvants against murine visceral leishmaniasis. Various adjuvants used along with 78kDa antigen include monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL-A), liposomal encapsulation, recombinant IL-12, autoclaved Leishmania antigen (ALD) and Freund's adjuvant (FCA). BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously thrice with respective vaccine formulation. Challenge infection was given intracardially after 2 weeks of second booster. A significant decrease in parasite burden was seen in vaccinees over the infected controls on all post challenge days and was found that maximum protection was provided by 78kDa+rIL-12 vaccine and it was highly immunogenic as depicted by the reduction in parasite load (71-94.8%), reduction in infection rate of peritoneal macrophages (92.9-98%), enhanced DTH response (6.5-10.5 fold), increase in IgG2a anti-leishmanial antibody production (3-3.7 fold) and up-regulation of IFN-gamma (3.7-6.5 fold) and IL-2 levels (7.7-12.3 fold), which demonstrate the generation of protective Th1 type of immune response. Comparable results were also observed in 78kDa+MPL-A and liposome-encapsulated 78kDa vaccines with 56.5-92% and 62.9-93.4% reduction in parasite load respectively. Significant results have also been obtained with 78kDa antigen+ALD, 78kDa antigen+FCA and 78kDa antigen alone group but the protective efficacy was reduced as compared to the

  2. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 623 - Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R) D Appendix D to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. D Appendix D to Part 623—Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 623 - Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R) D Appendix D to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. D Appendix D to Part 623—Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) C Appendix C to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) C Appendix C to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) C Appendix C to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 623 - Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form 4881-1-R) D Appendix D to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. D Appendix D to Part 623—Certificate for Signature by an Alternate (DA Form...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form... ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) EC24OC91.013 EC24OC91.014 EC24OC91.015 EC24OC91.016...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form... ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) EC24OC91.013 EC24OC91.014 EC24OC91.015 EC24OC91.016...

  10. A 33 kDa molecular marker of sperm acrosome differentiation and maturation in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    PubMed

    Wade, M A; Lin, M

    1999-09-01

    This study was undertaken to identify potential molecular markers of acrosomal biogenesis and post-testicular maturation in marsupials, using the tammar wallaby as a model species. A two-step sperm extraction procedure yielded two protein extracts of apparent acrosomal origin and a tail extract. The extracts were analysed by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Several prominent polypeptide bands (45, 38 and 33 kDa) appeared common to both acrosomal extracts. Antiserum raised against the 33 kDa polypeptide from the inner acrosomal membrane matrix (IAMM) extract showed immunoreactivity with 45, 38 and 33 kDa polypeptides in both acrosomal extracts, indicating that the 33 kDa polypeptide was related to the proteins in the 45 and 38 kDa bands. Therefore, the antiserum was used as a molecular probe. Indirect immuno-fluorescence indicated that the acrosome was the major location of the 33 kDa polypeptide. This contention was confirmed by ultrastructural study: immunogold labelling indicated that the 33 kDa polypeptide associated with acrosomal matrix components throughout acrosomal development in the testes and throughout post-testicular maturation in the epididymis. The label clearly delineated the changing morphology of the maturing marsupial acrosome. This is the first study to use immunocytochemical techniques to chart testicular and post-testicular development of any sperm organelle in a marsupial. As a result of this study, a 33 kDa molecular marker of marsupial acrosome differentiation and maturation has been identified. It may be possible to chart similar events in other marsupial species and identify opportunities for manipulating fertility. PMID:10645248

  11. Effect of DA-8159, a Selective Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor, on Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Koo; Ahn, Gook Jun; Shim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Won Bae

    2004-01-01

    DA-8159, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5, was developed as a new drug for erectile dysfunction. The effect of DA-8159 on the electroretinogram (ERG) and the retinal histopathology were evaluated in rabbits. The ERG was performed prior to, and 1 and 5 hr after DA-8159 (5 to 30 mg/kg) administration. The plasma concentration of DA-8159 was determined at each time point, and retinal microscopic examination was also performed. There was no statistically significant ERG change at any dose or at any time. Though the 30 Hz flicker showed a prolongation of the implicit time at 5 hr after the administration of either DA-8159 15 mg or 30 mg/kg (p<0.05), but concurrent amplitude decreases were not statistically significant. At a dose of 5 mg/kg, no test drug was detected in the blood after either 1 or 5 hr. At either 15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg, there was a dose-dependent increase in the blood concentration after 1 hr of drug administration, which decreased with time. In light and electron microscopic examinations of the retina, there was no remarkable change at any dose. These results suggest DA-8159 has a low risk potential to the retina, but further evaluation on the visual functions in human is needed. PMID:15308852

  12. The human 64-kDa polyadenylylation factor contains a ribonucleoprotein-type RNA binding domain and unusual auxiliary motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Takagaki, Y; MacDonald, C C; Shenk, T; Manley, J L

    1992-01-01

    Cleavage stimulation factor is one of the multiple factors required for 3'-end cleavage of mammalian pre-mRNAs. We have shown previously that this factor is composed of three subunits with estimated molecular masses of 77, 64, and 50 kDa and that the 64-kDa subunit can be UV-crosslinked to RNA in a polyadenylylation signal (AAUAAA)-dependent manner. We have now isolated cDNAs encoding the 64-kDa subunit of human cleavage stimulation factor. The 64-kDa subunit contains a ribonucleoprotein-type RNA binding domain in the N-terminal region and a repeat structure in the C-terminal region in which a pentapeptide sequence (consensus MEARA/G) is repeated 12 times and the formation of a long alpha-helix stabilized by salt bridges is predicted. An approximately 270-amino acid segment surrounding this repeat structure is highly enriched in proline and glycine residues (approximately 20% for each). When cloned 64-kDa subunit was expressed in Escherichia coli, an N-terminal fragment containing the RNA binding domain bound to RNAs in a polyadenylylation-signal-independent manner, suggesting that the RNA binding domain is directly involved in the binding of the 64-kDa subunit to pre-mRNAs. Images PMID:1741396

  13. [Clinical curative efficacy of inducing remission for the newly diagnosed aged AML patients by chemotherapy with IA and DA regimens].

    PubMed

    Tian, Dong-Hua; Gan, Si-Lin; Xing, Hai-Zhou; Liu, Yan-Fang; Xie, Xin-Sheng; Sun, Hui

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the clinical efficacy and toxicity of idarubicin (IA regimen) and daunoru-bicin combined with cytarabine (DA regimen) for treating aged patients with AML as induction chemotherapy. The clinical data of 60 newly diagnosed AML aged patients treated with IA or DA regimen were analyzed retrospectively. IA regimen group included 22 patients (8 male and 14 females with median age of 66 yrs), while the DA regimen group included 38 patients (20 males and 18 females with median age of 64 yrs). The complete remission rate, total effective rate and adverse effects after one chemotherapy course were compared. The results showed that the CR rate in IA regimen group was 63.63%, which was significantly higer than that in DA regimen group (31.58%) (P < 0.05). The total effective rate was 63.63% and 36.84% respectively in IA and DA regimen groups, there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Both the hematological and non-hematological adverse effects were observed and no difference was found in the two regimen groups, neither in myelosupression (P > 0.05), the major hematological adverse effects, nor in non-hematological adverse effects (P > 0.05). It is concluded that for aged AML patients, IA regimen can achieve a higher CR rate and higher total effective rate than that in DA regimen without increase of adverse effects after one induction chemotherapy course.

  14. Histopathological effects and determination of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Da toxin in Spodoptera littoralis midgut.

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Saadaoui, Marwa; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Saadaoui, Imen; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain HD133, known by its effectiveness against Spodoptera species, produces many insecticidal proteins including Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of Cry1Da against Spodoptera littoralis was investigated. It showed toxicity with an LC(50) of 224.4 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (178.61-270.19) and an LC(90) of 467.77 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (392.89-542.65). The midgut histopathology of Cry1Da fed larvae showed vesicle formation in the apical region, vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells. Biotinylated-activated Cry1Da toxin bound protein of about 65 kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. This putative receptor differs in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C and Vip3A which are active against this polyphagous insect. This difference in midgut receptors strongly supports the use of Cry1Da as insecticidal agent, particularly in case of Cry and/or Vip-resistance management. PMID:23220238

  15. OpenDA Open Source Generic Data Assimilation Environment and its Application in Process Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Serafy, Ghada; Verlaan, Martin; Hummel, Stef; Weerts, Albrecht; Dhondia, Juzer

    2010-05-01

    Data Assimilation techniques are essential elements in state-of-the-art development of models and their optimization with data in the field of groundwater, surface water and soil systems. They are essential tools in calibration of complex modelling systems and improvement of model forecasts. The OpenDA is a new and generic open source data assimilation environment for application to a choice of physical process models, applied to case dependent domains. OpenDA was introduced recently when the developers of Costa, an open-source TU Delft project [http://www.costapse.org; Van Velzen and Verlaan; 2007] and those of the DATools from the former WL|Delft Hydraulics [El Serafy et al 2007; Weerts et al. 2009] decided to join forces. OpenDA makes use of a set of interfaces that describe the interaction between models, observations and data assimilation algorithms. It focuses on flexible applications in portable systems for modelling geophysical processes. It provides a generic interfacing protocol that allows combination of the implemented data assimilation techniques with, in principle, any time-stepping model duscribing a process(atmospheric processes, 3D circulation, 2D water level, sea surface temperature, soil systems, groundwater etc.). Presently, OpenDA features filtering techniques and calibration techniques. The presentation will give an overview of the OpenDA and the results of some of its practical applications. Application of data assimilation in portable operational forecasting systems—the DATools assimilation environment, El Serafy G.Y., H. Gerritsen, S. Hummel, A. H. Weerts, A.E. Mynett and M. Tanaka (2007), Journal of Ocean Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s10236-007-0124-3, pp.485-499. COSTA a problem solving environment for data assimilation applied for hydrodynamical modelling, Van Velzen and Verlaan (2007), Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Volume 16, Number 6, December 2007 , pp. 777-793(17). Application of generic data assimilation tools (DATools) for flood

  16. [Analysis of algal blooms in Da-Ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Huang, Min-Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou

    2009-11-01

    According to the survey conducted from Apr. to Jun. 2007 and from Apr. to May. 2008, the changes of water quality, forms and distributions of nutrient salts and characters of algal blooms in Da-ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient were abundant during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values are 0.84-3.21 mg/L and 0.011-0.531 mg/L respectively, and the nutrients concentrations become high gradually from upstream to downstream. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is the major form of TN accounting for 84%, and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) is dominant (TDP/TP = 60%). Algal blooms bring phosphorus nutrient bio-concentration. The rates of TN and TP are all in excess of 16, which show eutrophication is limited by phosphorus. Potassium permanganate index and dissolved oxygen (DO) are at low levels and change stably. But chlorophyll a (Chl-a) becomes frequently, the value is 1.41-219.04 mg x m(-3). Significant positive correlations are all observed by correlation analysis between Chl-a and the main parameters (r(Chla-TP) = 0.453, r(Chla-potassium permanganate index) = 0.641, r(Chla-DO) = 0.584, r(Chla-pH) = 0.409, p < 0.01), but significant negative correlations are observed between Chl-a and Secchi depth (SD) (r(Chla-SD) = - 0.392, p < 0.01). The pH is fluctuated by multiparameter esp. in algal blooms. Widespread algae are observed by microscope during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River accounting for 8 phylum 82 genus 124 species, which Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta are dominant, and then Cyanophyta and Pyrrophyta. Three whole watershed algal blooms break out in Da-ning River during the period, and the highest values of algal density are 14-1 427 times as many as the normal values. The dominant species of algal blooms are mostly involved with O. borgei, C. microporum, Chlorococcum humicola, P

  17. The Near-Earth Flyby of Asteroid 2012 DA14 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, N. A.; Endicott, T.; Lister, T.; Ryan, B.; Ryan, E. V.; Willman, M.; Hergenrother, C.; Binzel, R. P.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Bennechi, S.; Sheppard, S.; Marchis, F.; Angusteijn, T.; Birthwhistle, P.; Verveer, A.; Gulbis, A.; Nagayama, T.; Gilmore, A.; Kilmartin, P.

    2013-12-01

    On UT 2013 February 15, the elongated 20x40 meter near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 made a close flyby of the Earth at a distance of approximately 27,000 km or 4 Earth-radii. This passage was inside the orbital distance of geosynchronous satellites and close to the Earth's Roche limit. This close encounter was unprecedented in our advance knowledge of the incoming trajectory, thereby allowing us to forge a detailed coordinated plan for observation and testing of physical models predicting tidal effects near our planet's Roche limit. Predicted outcomes of such close encounters include tidal disruption, changes in rotation state, and mass loss or mass redistribution due to seismic shaking. Each of these effects sensitively depend on how tidal energy is dissipated in the interior of the asteroid: a rubble pile will dissipate tidal energy differently than a solid or partially fractured monolith. The internal properties of asteroids in general and particularly those in the size range of 2012 DA14 are largely unknown. This encounter represents one of the first ever opportunities to observationally test models of the interior structure of small planetary bodies. We will present the results of a large multi-observatory campaign focused on 2012 DA14. This campaign includes data from shortly after discovery in 2012 and surrounding the close approach of the asteroid in February of 2013. These data were collected with over a dozen telescopes worldwide, ranging in aperture from 1m to 8m and include major facilities in Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Israel, Hawaii, Arizona, New Mexico, and the Canary Islands. We will highlight the outcome of pre- and post-flyby visible-wavelength photometric and spectroscopic observations. This will include clear evidence that 2012 DA14 is now in a non-principal axis rotation state, requiring a multi-periodic tumbling model to fit its post-flyby rotational light curve. Such a complex rotation state is consistent with models for the

  18. The Greek Database of Seismogenic Sources (GreDaSS): the new version.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Riccardo; Pavlides, Spyros; GreDaSS Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The Greek Database of Seismogenic Sources (GreDaSS) is a repository of geological, tectonic and active fault data for the Greek territory and its surroundings including sectors of western Anatolia, southern Bulgaria, FYR of Macedonia and Albania. The principal aim of this international project is to create a homogenized framework of all data relevant to the seismotectonics, and especially the seismic hazard assessment, of Greece and its surroundings as well as a common research platform for performing seismic hazard analyses, modelling and scenarios from specific seismogenic structures. GreDaSS represents an on-going project based on the results of decades of investigations by the GreDaSS Working Group* and by numerous other researchers working on the active tectonics of the broader Aegean Region. Members of the WG have contributed in several national and European projects like FAUST (Faults as a seismological tool, 1998-2000) and SHARE (Seismic Hazard and Armonization in Europe, 2009-2012). The database is continuously updated by the WG, with the aim of improving its completeness in terms of seismogenic sources analysed and included, but also of enriching and better defining all parametric and ancillary information on each source. Preliminary and partial versions of GreDaSS have been already presented at previous congresses (Pavlides et al., 2010; Caputo et al., 2012; Sboras et al., 2013), but at next EGU the whole area and the most recent version of the database will be displayed. *) the principal scientific contributors belonging to the GreDaSS WG are: Sboras. S., Chatzipetros A., Koukouvelas I., Michailidou A., Valkaniotis S., Tarabusi G. Caputo R., Chatzipetros A., Pavlides S. and Sboras S. (2012): Ann. Geophysics, 55(5), 859-894, doi: 10.4401/ag-5168 Pavlides S., Caputo R., Sboras S., Chatzipetros A., Papathanasiou G. & Valkaniotis S. (2010): Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece, 43(1), 486-494 Sboras S., Pavlides S., Caputo R., Chatzipetros A., Michailidou A

  19. Gastric parietal cell antigens of 60-90, 92, and 100-120 kDa associated with autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia. Role of N-glycans in the structure and antigenicity of the 60-90-kDa component.

    PubMed

    Goldkorn, I; Gleeson, P A; Toh, B H

    1989-11-01

    Thirty-four human sera containing parietal cell autoantibodies (PCA) specifically immunoprecipitated two antigens, with apparent molecular masses of 60-90 kDa and 100-120 kDa under nonreducing conditions and 60-90 kDa and 120-150 kDa under reducing conditions, from porcine gastric membrane extracts. A third antigen of 92 kDa was only observed in immunoprecipitates analyzed under reducing conditions. By immunoblotting, 24 of the 34 PCA-positive sera reacted with only the 60-90-kDa antigen, three reacted with a broad 60-120-kDa smear, one reacted only with a 92-kDa antigen and six did not react. Reactivity with the 60-90-kDa antigen was observed with gastric membranes from dog, pig, rat, and rabbit. Twenty PCA-negative sera did not react with these components by immunoprecipitation or immunoblotting. PCA reactivity with the 60-90-kDa antigen was abolished when the gastric membranes were (a) digested with Pronase, (b) reduced with 100 mM dithiothreitol, (c) treated with sodium periodate, or (d) digested with N-glycanase. The 60-90-kDa and 100-120-kDa components were insensitive to neuraminidase treatment. N-glycanase digestion of 125I-labeled antigens purified by immunoprecipitation and preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis collapsed the 60-90-kDa antigen to a sharp 34-kDa band; the 100-120-kDa component was unaffected. These observations suggest that (i) parietal cell antigens comprise three components of 60-90, 92, and 100-120 kDa; (ii) the epitopes differ in conformational sensitivity; (iii) the 60-90-kDa antigen is a conserved molecule comprising a 34-kDa core protein extensively glycosylated with N-linked oligosaccharides; (iv) sialic acid residues are not present in the 60-90- and 100-120-kDa molecules, and (v) the carbohydrate and protein moieties of the 60-90-kDa molecule are required for antibody binding.

  20. Analyzing the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and the turbidity spoilage of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Li, Sha; Cheng, Lili; Luo, Lixin

    2014-07-01

    Vinegar is a traditional fermented condiment, and the microbial diversity of DaQu makes the quality of vinegar products. Recently, turbidity spoilage of vinegar sharply tampered with the quality of vinegar. In this study, the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar was analyzed by plating technique, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 16S rRNA sequencing and DGGE analysis indicated that Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus thuringiensis) and Lactobacillus (including Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Lactobacillus pobuzihii) species were the dominant contaminants in vinegar products. Meanwhile, DGGE analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in DaQu belonged to genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, Saccharopolyspora, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. However, only two yeast species (Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera) and seven mold species including Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus candidus, Rhizopus microspores, Eurotium herbariorum, Absidia corymbifera, and Eupenicillium javanicum were detected in the DaQu. The population level of fungi was below 5 log CFU/g in DaQu. The chemical and physical properties of vinegar and sediments were also determined. On the basis of a combined microbial diversity-chemical analysis, we demonstrated that turbidity spoilage of vinegar was a result of cooperation among the low population level and abundance of fungal species in DaQu, the suitable climate conditions, and the contaminants in vinegar. This is the first report to analyze the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar.

  1. Analyzing the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and the turbidity spoilage of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Li, Sha; Cheng, Lili; Luo, Lixin

    2014-07-01

    Vinegar is a traditional fermented condiment, and the microbial diversity of DaQu makes the quality of vinegar products. Recently, turbidity spoilage of vinegar sharply tampered with the quality of vinegar. In this study, the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar was analyzed by plating technique, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 16S rRNA sequencing and DGGE analysis indicated that Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus thuringiensis) and Lactobacillus (including Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Lactobacillus pobuzihii) species were the dominant contaminants in vinegar products. Meanwhile, DGGE analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in DaQu belonged to genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, Saccharopolyspora, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. However, only two yeast species (Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera) and seven mold species including Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus candidus, Rhizopus microspores, Eurotium herbariorum, Absidia corymbifera, and Eupenicillium javanicum were detected in the DaQu. The population level of fungi was below 5 log CFU/g in DaQu. The chemical and physical properties of vinegar and sediments were also determined. On the basis of a combined microbial diversity-chemical analysis, we demonstrated that turbidity spoilage of vinegar was a result of cooperation among the low population level and abundance of fungal species in DaQu, the suitable climate conditions, and the contaminants in vinegar. This is the first report to analyze the relation between the microbial diversity of DaQu and turbidity spoilage of vinegar. PMID:24691870

  2. Synergetic effects of DA-6/GA₃ with EDTA on plant growth, extraction and detoxification of Cd by Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    He, Shanying; Wu, Qiuling; He, Zhenli

    2014-12-01

    Research is needed to improve efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. A pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) (diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (C18H33NO8, DA-6) and gibberellic acid 3 (C19H22O6, GA3)) and/or EDTA on Cd extraction, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in Lolium perenne. The addition of EDTA or PGRs significantly enhanced Cd extraction efficiency (P<0.05), with the decreasing order of: 1 μM DA-6>10 μM DA-6>10 μM GA3>2.5 mmol kg(-1) EDTA>other treatments of PGR alone. PGRs+EDTA resulted in a further increase in Cd extraction efficiency, with EDTA+1 μM DA-6 being the most efficient. At the subcellular level, about 44-57% of Cd was soluble fraction, 18-44% in cell walls, and 12-25% in cellular organelles fraction. Chemical speciation analysis showed that 40-54% of Cd was NaCl extractable, 7-23% HAc extractable, followed by other fractions. EDTA increased the proportions of Cd in soluble and cellular organelles fraction, as well as the metal migration in shoot; therefore, the toxicity to plant increased and plant growth was inhibited. Conversely, PGRs fixed more Cd in cell walls and reduced Cd migration in shoot; thus, metal toxicity was reduced. In addition, PGRs promoted plant biomass growth significantly (P<0.05), with 1 μM DA-6 being the most effective. A combination of DA-6/GA3 with EDTA can alleviate the adverse effect of EDTA on plant growth, and the treatment of EDTA+1 μM DA-6 appears to be optimal for improving the remediation efficiency of L. perenne for Cd contaminated soil. PMID:24999226

  3. Synergetic effects of DA-6/GA₃ with EDTA on plant growth, extraction and detoxification of Cd by Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    He, Shanying; Wu, Qiuling; He, Zhenli

    2014-12-01

    Research is needed to improve efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. A pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) (diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (C18H33NO8, DA-6) and gibberellic acid 3 (C19H22O6, GA3)) and/or EDTA on Cd extraction, subcellular distribution and chemical forms in Lolium perenne. The addition of EDTA or PGRs significantly enhanced Cd extraction efficiency (P<0.05), with the decreasing order of: 1 μM DA-6>10 μM DA-6>10 μM GA3>2.5 mmol kg(-1) EDTA>other treatments of PGR alone. PGRs+EDTA resulted in a further increase in Cd extraction efficiency, with EDTA+1 μM DA-6 being the most efficient. At the subcellular level, about 44-57% of Cd was soluble fraction, 18-44% in cell walls, and 12-25% in cellular organelles fraction. Chemical speciation analysis showed that 40-54% of Cd was NaCl extractable, 7-23% HAc extractable, followed by other fractions. EDTA increased the proportions of Cd in soluble and cellular organelles fraction, as well as the metal migration in shoot; therefore, the toxicity to plant increased and plant growth was inhibited. Conversely, PGRs fixed more Cd in cell walls and reduced Cd migration in shoot; thus, metal toxicity was reduced. In addition, PGRs promoted plant biomass growth significantly (P<0.05), with 1 μM DA-6 being the most effective. A combination of DA-6/GA3 with EDTA can alleviate the adverse effect of EDTA on plant growth, and the treatment of EDTA+1 μM DA-6 appears to be optimal for improving the remediation efficiency of L. perenne for Cd contaminated soil.

  4. The prolactin gene is expressed in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system and the protein is processed into a 14-kDa fragment with activity like 16-kDa prolactin.

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, C; Torner, L; Gutiérrez-Ospina, G; Alcántara, E; López-Gómez, F J; Nagano, M; Kelly, P A; Mejía, S; Morales, M A; Martínez de la Escalera, G

    1994-01-01

    The 23-kDa form of prolactin (PRL) has been proposed to function as both a mature hormone and a prohormone precursor for different uniquely bioactive forms of the molecule. We have shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of PRL (16K PRL) inhibits angiogenesis via a specific receptor. In addition, 16K PRL stimulates natriuresis and diuresis in the rat, and kidney membranes contain high-affinity specific binding sites for this PRL fragment. 16K PRL can be derived from an enzymatically cleaved form of PRL (cleaved PRL). With the use of a specific 16K PRL antiserum, we have localized a 14-kDa immunoreactive protein in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the neurohypophysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of RNA from isolated paraventricular nuclei showed the expression of the full-length PRL mRNA. The neurohypophysis was found to contain the enzymes that produce cleaved PRL, small amounts of PRL, and cleaved PRL. Medium conditioned by neurohypophyseal cultures, enriched with the 14-kDa immunoreactive protein, has antiangiogenic effects that are blocked by the 16K PRL antiserum. These results are consistent with the expression of PRL in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system, and the preferential processing of the protein into a 14-kDa fragment with biological and immunological properties of 16K PRL. Images PMID:7937959

  5. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  6. Structural requirements to obtain highly potent and selective 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) Ligands.

    PubMed

    Taliani, Sabrina; Pugliesi, Isabella; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-01-01

    The (18 kDa) Translocator Protein (TSPO), was initially identified in 1977 as peripheral binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam and named "Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)". It is an evolutionarily well-conserved protein particularly located at the outer/inner mitochondrial membrane contact sites, in closely association with the 32 kDa voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and the 30 kDa adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), thus forming the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). TSPO is ubiquitary expressed in peripheral tissues (steroid producing tissues, liver, heart, kidney, lung, immune system) and in lower levels in the central nervous system, where it is mainly located in glial cells, and in neurons. TSPO is involved in a variety of biological processes such as cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, calcium homeostasis, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial oxidation, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis induction, and regulation of immune functions. In the last decade, many studies have reported that TSPO basal expression is altered in a number of human pathologies, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders (Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases), as well as in various forms of brain injury and inflammation and anxiety. Consequently, TSPO has not only been suggested as a promising drug target for a number of therapeutic applications (anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, immunomodulating, etc.), but also as valid diagnostic marker for related-disease state and progression, prompting the development of specific labelled ligands as powerful tools for imaging techniques. A number of structurally different classes of ligands have been reported, showing high affinity and selectivity towards TSPO. Indeed, most of these ligands have been designed starting from selective CBR ligands which were structurally modified in order to shift their affinity towards TSPO. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies were performed allowing to

  7. Abnormality of epiphyseal plate induced by selenium deficiency diet in two generation DA rats.

    PubMed

    Min, Zixin; Zhao, Wenxiang; Zhong, Nannan; Guo, Yuanxu; Sun, Mengyao; Wang, Quancheng; Zhang, Rui; Yan, Jidong; Tian, Lifang; Zhang, Fujun; Han, Yan; Ning, Qilan; Meng, Liesu; Sun, Jian; Lu, Shemin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to observe the effects of Se deficiency on epiphyseal plates of two generation DA rats fed with artificial total synthetic low Se diet. All F0 and F1 DA rats were fed with synthetic low Se diet (SeD group) and low Se diet supplied with Se (SeS group). The levels of selenium and enzyme activities of GPx were detected in plasma of the rats. General growth of bone and articular cartilage was measured macroscopically and microscopically. The epiphyseal plate of femur heads or tibia were obtained to histological and immunohistochemical examinations. The cartilage from left knee joints and femur heads was used to detect the gene expression of collagens, ADAMTSs and several selenoproteins by RT-qPCR. Two generation SeD rats showed Se insufficiency status. The thicknesses of the femur and tibial epiphyseal plates in both F0 and F1 SeD rats were significantly less than that of SeS rats. In F1 generation, SeD rats showed much fewer proliferative chondrocyte layers than SeS ones. Importantly, two generation SeD rats both showed significantly more serious pathological changes of epiphyseal plates. In two generation rats, gene expressions of COL II, GPx1 and GPx4 were significantly down-regulated in SeD rats than SeS ones; meanwhile ADAMTS-4 showed an up-regulated expression in cartilage. Dietary Se deficiency can apparently cause epiphyseal plate lesion and decrease cartilage type II collagen production and GPx1 activity in two generation DA rats fed with the artificial total synthesis low Se diet.

  8. [The Vitruvian Man: an anatomical drawing for proportions by Leonardo Da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to find out and to analyse the text by Vitruvius which inspired the famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1490) kept in the Galleria dell'Accademia, in Venezia, Italy: the man inscribed in one circle and in one square. The book "de Architectura" by Vitruvius Marcus Pollio was printed several times since the Renaissance when both the roman architecture of antiquity and this text became very popular. From a French translation by Claude Perrault in 1864, it became easy to find a French translation with the original text in Latin (Paris, 2003, Les Belles Lettres, French text by Pierre Gros). The drawing by Leonardo da Vinci illustrates with great accuracy and fidelity the quotation of Vitruvius (with the exception of two of the 12 main relationships). The genius of Leonardo da Vinci was to keep only one trunk, head and neck for two pairs of limbs: scapular and pelvic; to make the circle tangent to the lower edge of the square; to adjust a few features of the quotation for the equilibrium of the whole figure; and of course to bring his incredible skill as a drawer (one of the best of his century). The drawing was made on a sheet of paper 344x245mm, in black ink which became dark brown with time; several lines complete the figure above and below; a short caption and a horizontal scale appear just under the drawing. The celebrity of the drawing, a symbol of the Renaissance, of the equilibrium of man and mankind, of the universality of the artists and intellectuals of the time (Humanism) made it iconic and it has been constantly reproduced and adapted especially for advertisement and logos, not only in the medical field.

  9. Identification and characterization of a novel 34 kDa merozoite protein in Babesia orientalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Fan, Lizhe; Liu, Qin; Hu, Jinfang; Miao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yuan; He, Pei; He, Junwei; Yu, Long; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Zhou, Yanqin; Shen, Bang; Zhao, Junlong

    2015-09-15

    A novel Babesia orientalis 34 kDa protein (designated BoP34) was obtained by immunoscreening of a cDNA expression library using B. orientalis infected water buffalo serum. The complete nucleotide sequence of the BoP34 was 1088 bp, which contained one open reading frame (ORF), two untranslated regions (UTRs) and a poly (A) tail. The length of ORF was 933 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 310 aa with a predicted size of 34 kDa. BLAST analysis showed that the nucleotide sequence of BoP34 had 71% similarity with that of the Babesia bovis gene XM_001611335, which encodes a nuclear movement family protein. This suggested that BoP34 is a homologous of the movement family protein. Structural analysis of the BoP34 protein indicated a CS domain which may interact with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein 90. A truncated version of BoP34 was cloned into the expression vector pET-32a and subsequently expressed and purified from the Escherichia coli Rosetta™ (DE3) pLysS stain as a Trx-fusion (designated rBoP34-T). Antibodies in the serum of a B. orientalis-infected water buffalo were able to recognize this protein in immune-bloting analysis. Rabbit antibodies raised against rBoP34-T could detecte native BoP34 (34 kDa) in B. orientalis-infected water buffalo erythrocytes. These results suggested that BoP34 might be a good diagnostic antigen for the specific detection of anti-B. orientalis antibody in water buffalo. Further research is required to explore the biological function and diagnostic potential of this molecule.

  10. 11 CFR 111.15 - Motions to quash or modify a subpoena (2 U.S.C. 437d(a) (3), (4)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Motions to quash or modify a subpoena (2 U.S.C. 437d(a) (3), (4)). 111.15 Section 111.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROCEDURE (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Enforcement § 111.15 Motions to quash or modify a subpoena (2 U.S.C. 437d(a) (3), (4)). (a) Any person...

  11. 11 CFR 111.15 - Motions to quash or modify a subpoena (2 U.S.C. 437d(a) (3), (4)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Motions to quash or modify a subpoena (2 U.S.C. 437d(a) (3), (4)). 111.15 Section 111.15 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROCEDURE (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Enforcement § 111.15 Motions to quash or modify a subpoena (2 U.S.C. 437d(a) (3), (4)). (a) Any person...

  12. Associated Da Vinci and magellan robotic systems for successful treatment of nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thaveau, Fabien; Nicolini, Philippe; Lucereau, Benoit; Georg, Yannick; Lejay, Anne; Chakfe, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman suffering from nutcracker syndrome with concurrent disabling pelvic congestion syndrome. She was given the minimally invasive treatment of left renal vein transposition with the Da Vinci(®) robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), followed the next day by a gonadal vein and pelvic varicose embolization using a robotic intraluminal navigation with the Magellan™ robotic system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA). The procedure was uneventful, and the patient had good results at 6 months of follow-up, including a patent left renal vein and complete relief of symptoms.

  13. Microfossils in micrites from Serra da Bodoquena (MS), Brazil: taxonomy and paleoenvironmental implications.

    PubMed

    Utida, Giselle; Petri, Setembrino; Oliveira, Emiliano C; Boggiani, Paulo C

    2012-06-01

    Microfossils present in Quaternary micrites from Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, are here described for the first time. The studied taxa are: a) ostracods: Candona sp., Candonopsis sp., Cyclocypris sp., Cypria sp., Cypridopsis sp., Notodromas sp., Ilyocypris sp., Cyprideis sp., Wolburgiopsis cf. chinamuertensis (Musacchio 1970), Darwinula sp. and 5 morphotypes; b) microgastropod Acrobis sp., and c) Characeae remains and gyrogonites Chara sp.. The presence of these microfossils suggests clear-water shallow lacustrine paleoenvironments and the presence of aquatic vegetation. Similarities between microfossils and the living taxa suggest possible Holocene ages for these deposits, which is in accordance with previous C(14) dates.

  14. Molluscan mega-hemocyanin: an ancient oxygen carrier tuned by a ~550 kDa polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The allosteric respiratory protein hemocyanin occurs in gastropods as tubular di-, tri- and multimers of a 35 × 18 nm, ring-like decamer with a collar complex at one opening. The decamer comprises five subunit dimers. The subunit, a 400 kDa polypeptide, is a concatenation of eight paralogous functional units. Their exact topology within the quaternary structure has recently been solved by 3D electron microscopy, providing a molecular model of an entire didecamer (two conjoined decamers). Here we study keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH2) tridecamers to unravel the exact association mode of the third decamer. Moreover, we introduce and describe a more complex type of hemocyanin tridecamer discovered in fresh/brackish-water cerithioid snails (Leptoxis, Melanoides, Terebralia). Results The "typical" KLH2 tridecamer is partially hollow, whereas the cerithioid tridecamer is almost completely filled with material; it was therefore termed "mega-hemocyanin". In both types, the staggering angle between adjoining decamers is 36°. The cerithioid tridecamer comprises two typical decamers based on the canonical 400 kDa subunit, flanking a central "mega-decamer" composed of ten unique ~550 kDa subunits. The additional ~150 kDa per subunit substantially enlarge the internal collar complex. Preliminary oxygen binding measurements indicate a moderate hemocyanin oxygen affinity in Leptoxis (p50 ~9 mmHg), and a very high affinity in Melanoides (~3 mmHg) and Terebralia (~2 mmHg). Species-specific and individual variation in the proportions of the two subunit types was also observed, leading to differences in the oligomeric states found in the hemolymph. Conclusions In cerithioid hemocyanin tridecamers ("mega-hemocyanin") the collar complex of the central decamer is substantially enlarged and modified. The preliminary O2 binding curves indicate that there are species-specific functional differences in the cerithioid mega-hemocyanins which might reflect different physiological

  15. The morphostructure of the South Atlantic Ridge in the Tristan da Cunha hot spot area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Investigation of the rift zone and flanks of the South Atlantic midoceanic ridge in the Tristan da Cunha hot spot area revealed that their morphostructure is atypical of slow spreading ridges. Feeding the spreading center with magmatic material, the hot spot changes the morphology of the axial zone and transform faults. It itself forms a relief ensemble that differs from the rift one as well. The continuous migration of the spreading center in the westerly direction stimulates the formation of a spacious volcanic highland, which is responsible for the regional asymmetry of ridge flanks in its extended segments (hundreds kilometers long).

  16. Surgical treatment of parietal defects with “da Vinci” surgical robot

    PubMed Central

    Vasilescu, D; Paun, S

    2012-01-01

    The robotic surgery has come through the development of telemedicine and minimally invasive surgery concepts, being developed in the military medicine by NASA during the years 1970-1980. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present our experience in the new field of the robotic surgery, by analyzing the results obtained over a lot of 20 patients operated with the “da Vinci” robot within the last 5 years in the Clinical Emergency Hospital Bucharest for various abdominal defects PMID:22802899

  17. The first Brazilian neuropsychiatrist, José Martins da Cruz Jobim, tuberculous meningitis and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota; Engelhardt, Eliasz; Chimelli, Leila

    2013-03-01

    The intersection between infectious diseases, poverty and mental disease was an important subject to the Brazilian Neuropsychiatry in the early 19th century. José Martins da Cruz Jobim (1802-1878) was engaged in a hygienist approach based on symptomatological and anatomopathological studies. He wrote "Insânia loquaz" (Loquacious insanity), 1831, the first written text about mental illness in Brazil, founded on clinical and pathological data, compatible with tuberculous meningitis. Thus, Jobim deserves the title of the first neuropsychiatrist in Brazil. The authors critically studied the clinical history and the autopsy findings of his cases, and the main health policies at the time.

  18. The magmatic source of the Tristan da Cunha hotspot: Implication from electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Baba, Kiyoshi; Jegen, Marion; Utada, Hisashi; Geissler, Wolfram; Jokat, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    Tristan da Cunha Island is one of the classical hot spots in the Atlantic Ocean, situated at the western end of the aseismic Walvis Ridge which forms a connection to the Cretaceous Etendeka flood basalt province in northwestern Namibia. The discussion about its source (in shallow asthenosphere or deeper mantle) have not reached consensus yet because of lack of the geophysical observations in the area. A marine magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted together with seismological observations in the area in 2012-2013 through a German-Japanese collaboration with the goal to constrain the physical state of the mantle beneath the area. A total of 26 MT seafloor stations were deployed around the Tristan da Cunha Islands and available data were retrieved and processed from 24 stations. We applied iterative topographic effect correction and one-dimensional (1-D) conductivity structure inversion to the data. Then, three-dimensional (3-D) inversion analysis incorporating the topographic effect was carried out, using the 1-D model as the initial model. The local small-scale topography and the far continental coast effects are incorporated as the distortion term in the 3-D inversion. The preliminary result of our analysis shows no evidence of a significant conductive anomaly arising from the mantle transition zone, suggesting that the current magmatic source (major place of melting) of the hotspot activity is in the shallow upper mantle. This is in contrast to results from geochemical analysis, in which samples along the Tristan track exhibit an ocean-island-basalt-type incompatible element pattern pointing to a deep mantle source of the melt. Our findings therefore might indicate that the deep mantle up-welling underneath Tristan da Cunha Islands may be almost dead. A conductive anomaly at approx. 100 km depth in our derived conductivity model to the southwest of Tristan da Cunha Islands suggests an interaction between the mid-ocean ridge and/or up-welling further south

  19. [The anatomy of a reduced skull model--visualisation of Leonardo da Vinci's anthropology].

    PubMed

    Ahner, E

    2008-04-01

    The article focuses on a rare example of a miniature skull of unknown origin. The profoundness of the anatomical details, conjoint with outstanding virtuosity, reminds of Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical skull studies and asks for additional interpretation beside the emblematic "memento mori"-character. Following the miscellaneous topics of his skull studies an anatomical-anthropological interpretation is proposed. For such a project the mergence of anthropology, history of medicine and history of art was mandatory. Concerning some discrepancies within the anatomical realism, the depiction of a pathology is discussed and beyond the visualisation of a historic concept of brain function.

  20. Early experience with telemanipulative robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy using da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Kim, Victor B; Chapman, William H H; Albrecht, Robert J; Bailey, B Marcus; Young, James A; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2002-02-01

    In the past decade, robot-assisted surgery has become increasingly used to assist in minimally invasive surgical procedures. In this article we review the evolution of robotic devices, from the first use of an industrial robot for stereotactic biopsies to pioneering work with robots used for hip and prostate surgery, to the development of robotic guidance systems that enabled solo endoscopic surgery, to telemanipulative surgery with master-servant computer-enhanced robotic devices. In addition, we review our early experience with da Vinci Robotic Surgical Systems (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Mountain View, CA, U.S.A.), which we used to perform robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomies.

  1. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing.

  2. Is the DA white dwarf 1910 + 047 a soft X-ray source?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the recently discovered DA white dwarf WD 1910 + 047 might be an Einstein soft X-ray source is studied, applying a complete model atmosphere analyis to both the optical and the soft X-ray data. It is found that the X-ray source in question is at least one order of magnitude too strong to be compatible with the estimated atmospheric parameters of the possible optical counterpart. The spatial coincidence between the two, however, remains extremely intriguing and has left us with the dilemma of accepting the relatively improbable coincidence of two unrelated objects or rejoicing over the discovery of a highly unusual one.

  3. [Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, a pioneer in medical historiography].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Amanda; Nicolini, Gabriel Baptista

    2007-01-01

    I(It? This?) presents the general characteristics of the Revista Brasileira de História da Medicina, which contributed for the emergence of the field of medicine history in Brazil by inciting bibliographic production on the subject. The purpose of our analysis is to foster research on the history of medicine and of the sciences. From the description of the editorial aspects of the journal one can have an idea of how the research field was organized between 1940 and 1960. The periodical also allows for an overview of the exchange occurring between Brazilian and foreign historian physicians at that time.

  4. Complexes of 3.6 kDa maltodextrin with some metals.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Piotr; Anderegg, James W; Schilling, Christopher H

    2004-06-30

    Preparation of magnesium, lanthanum, and bismuth(III) complexes of 3.6 kDa maltodextrin and some properties of the resulting materials are presented. The metal derivatives contain metals bound to the oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl groups of maltodextrin. Additionally, the metal atoms are coordinated to the hydroxyl groups of the D-glucose units of the macroligand. Such coordination stabilized the metal - oxygen bond against hydrolysis, even in boiling water. The presence of magnesium and lanthanum atoms increased the thermal stability of maltodextrin, whereas bismuth atoms decreased it.

  5. The strainrange partitioning behavior of an advanced gas turbine disk alloy, AF2-1DA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Nachtigall, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The low-cycle, creep-fatigue characteristics of the advanced gas turbine disk alloy, AF2-1DA have been determined at 1400 F and are presented in terms of the method of strainrange partitioning (SRP). The mean stresses which develop in the PC and CP type SRP cycles at the lowest inelastic strainrange were observed to influence the cyclic lives to a greater extent than the creep effects and hence interfered with a conventional interpretation of the results by SRP. A procedure is proposed for dealing with the mean stress effects on life which is compatible with SRP.

  6. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kaszewska, Ewa A.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    2013-05-01

    Madonna dei Fusi (`Madonna of the Yarnwider') is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer will be shown.

  7. Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer for Masses of 2 to 50 Da

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, William; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew; Harrison, Willard

    2005-01-01

    A customized quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) has been built to satisfy a need for a compact, rugged instrument for measuring small concentrations of hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon in a nitrogen atmosphere. This QITMS can also be used to perform quantitative analyses of other gases within its molecular-mass range, which is 2 to 50 daltons (Da). (More precisely, it can be used to perform quantitative analysis of gases that, when ionized, are characterized by m/Z ratios between 2 and 50, where m is the mass of an ion in daltons and Z is the number of fundamental electric charges on the ion.

  8. The discontinuity near 1600 A in the spectra of DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of two relatively cool DA white dwarfs, L481 - 60 (= WD 1544 - 37) and BPM 1266 ( = WD 2105 - 82), with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite show a strong drop in their spectral energy distributions below 1600 A. Published model atmospheres and thier visual spectra suggest that these two stars have effective temperatures in the vicinity of 9,000-10,000 K, and it is proposed that the 1600 A feature could be due to the 342(1S) 3s2(1S) photoionization edge of Mg I.

  9. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  10. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. PMID:17632802

  11. [Science and nation: romanticism and natural history in the works of E. J. da Silva Maia].

    PubMed

    Kury, L

    1998-01-01

    The works of physician and naturalist Emílio Joaquim da Silva Maia (1808-59) can be viewed as a scientific project that discovers Brazil and its inhabitants. Maia's nationalism and his romantic view of nature formed the underpinnings of his scientific theories, especially his studies on zoological geography. He subordinated the issue of the biological specificity of different regions of the world to his era's debates on the construction of Brazil as an independent nation. In his interpretations of European natural history, Maia endeavored to understand Brazilian nature as a specific achievement of the Cosmos, in keeping with Alexander von Humboldt's approach. PMID:16676427

  12. Circulating non-22 kDa growth hormone isoforms after a repeated GHRH stimulus in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Coya, R; Algorta, J; Boguszewski, C L; Vela, A; Carlsson, L M S; Aniel-Quiroga, A; Busturia, M A; Martul, P

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of non-22 kDa GH isoforms in relation to total GH concentration after a repeated GHRH stimulus in healthy subjects. We studied 25 normal volunteers (12 males and 13 females, mean age 13.1 years, range 6-35), who received two GHRH bolus (1.5 mug/kg body weight, i.v.) administered separately by an interval of 120 minutes. The proportion of non-22 kDa GH was determined by the 22 kDa GH exclusion assay (GHEA), which is based on immunomagnetic extraction of monomeric and dimeric 22 kDa GH from serum, and quantitation of non-22 kDa GH isoforms using a polyclonal GH assay. Samples were collected at baseline and at 15-30 min intervals up to 240 min for total GH concentration. Non-22 kDa GH isoforms were measured in samples where peak GH after GHRH was observed. Total GH peaked after the first GHRH bolus in all subjects (median 37.2 ng/ml; range: 10.4-94.6). According to GH response to the second GHRH stimulus, the study group was divided in "non-responders" (n=7; 28%), with GH peak levels lower than 10 ng/ml (median GH: 8.7 ng/ml; range 7.3-9.6) and "responders" (n=18; 72%), who showed a GH response greater than 10 ng/ml (median 17 ng/ml; range 10.1-47.0). The median proportion of non-22 kDa GH on the peak of GH secretion after the first GHRH administration was similar in both groups ("responders" median: 8.6%, range 7-10.9%; "non-responders" median: 8.7%, range 6.7-10.3%), independently of the type of response after the second GHRH. In contrast, the median proportion of non-22 kDa GH was greater at time of GH peak after the second GHRH bolus in the "non-responders" (median 11.4%; range 9.1-14.3%) in comparison with the "responders" (median 9.1%; range 6.7-11.9%; p=0.003). A significant negative correlation between the total GH secreted and the percentage of non-22 kDa isoforms was seen in the "non-responders" (p=0.003). These differences in GH response to repeated GHRH stimulation and in the pattern of GH isoforms at GH

  13. Rising from the Ashes: Mid-infrared Re-brightening of the Impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Bond, Howard E.; Smith, Nathan; Fox, Ori D.; Carlon, Robert; Cody, Ann Marie; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin; Gehrz, Robert; Hsiao, Eric; Jencson, Jacob; Khan, Rubab; Masci, Frank; Monard, L. A. G.; Monson, Andrew J.; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Ressler, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    We present multi-epoch mid-infrared (IR) photometry and the optical discovery observations of the “impostor” supernova (SN) 2010da in NGC 300 using new and archival Spitzer Space Telescope images and ground-based observatories. The mid-infrared counterpart of SN 2010da was detected as Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transient Survey (SPIRITS) 14bme in the SPIRITS, an ongoing systematic search for IR transients. Before erupting on 2010 May 24, the SN 2010da progenitor exhibited a constant mid-IR flux at 3.6 and only a slight ∼10% decrease at 4.5 μm between 2003 November and 2007 December. A sharp increase in the 3.6 μm flux followed by a rapid decrease measured ∼150 days before and ∼80 days after the initial outburst, respectively, reveal a mid-IR counterpart to the coincident optical and high luminosity X-ray outbursts. At late times, after the outburst (∼2000 days), the 3.6 and 4.5 μm emission increased to over a factor of two times the progenitor flux and is currently observed (as of 2016 Feb) to be fading, but still above the progenitor flux. We attribute the re-brightening mid-IR emission to continued dust production and increasing luminosity of the surviving system associated with SN 2010da. We analyze the evolution of the dust temperature (T d ∼ 700–1000 K), mass (M d ∼ 0.5–3.8 × 10‑7 M ⊙), luminosity (L IR ∼ 1.3–3.5 × 104 L ⊙), and the equilibrium temperature radius (R eq ∼ 6.4–12.2 au) in order to resolve the nature of SN 2010da. We address the leading interpretation of SN 2010da as an eruption from a luminous blue variable high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) system. We propose that SN 2010da is instead a supergiant (sg)B[e]-HMXB based on similar luminosities and dust masses exhibited by two other known sgB[e]-HMXB systems. Additionally, the SN 2010da progenitor occupies a similar region on a mid-IR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) with known sgB[e] stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The lower limit estimated for the orbital

  14. Pharmacological profile of DA-6886, a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic motor activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Kang Hun; Park, Hyun Min; Sung, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sunghak; Im, Weonbin

    2014-07-15

    DA-6886, the gastrointestinal prokinetic benzamide derivative is a novel 5-HT4 receptor agonist being developed for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). The purpose of this study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of DA-6886. We used various receptor binding assay, cAMP accumulation assay, organ bath experiment and colonic transit assay in normal and chemically constipated mice. DA-6886 exhibited high affinity and selectivity to human 5-HT4 receptor splice variants, with mean pKi of 7.1, 7.5, 7.9 for the human 5-HT4a, 5-HT4b and 5-HT4d, respectively. By contrast, DA-6886 did not show significant affinity for several receptors including dopamine D2 receptor, other 5-HT receptors except for 5-HT2B receptor (pKi value of 6.2). The affinity for 5-HT4 receptor was translated into functional agonist activity in Cos-7 cells expressing 5-HT4 receptor splice variants. Furthermore, DA-6886 induced relaxation of the rat oesophagus preparation (pEC50 value of 7.4) in a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist-sensitive manner. The evaluation of DA-6886 in CHO cells expressing hERG channels revealed that it inhibited hERG channel current with an pIC50 value of 4.3, indicating that the compound was 1000-fold more selective for the 5-HT4 receptor over hERG channels. In the normal ICR mice, oral administration of DA-6886 (0.4 and 2mg/kg) resulted in marked stimulation of colonic transit. Furthermore, in the loperamide-induced constipation mouse model, 2mg/kg of DA-6886 significantly improved the delay of colonic transit, similar to 10mg/kg of tegaserod. Taken together, DA-6886 is a highly potent and selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist to accelerate colonic transit in mice, which might be therapeutic agent having a favorable safety profile in the treatment of gastrointestinal motor disorders such as IBS-C and chronic constipation.

  15. Da0324, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB activation, demonstrates selective antitumor activity on human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Rong; Xia, Yiqun; Chen, Qiuxiang; Li, Wulan; Chen, Dahui; Ye, Hui; Zhao, Chengguang; Du, Xiaojing; Shi, Dengjian; Wu, Jianzhang; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is constitutively activated in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer. NF-κB inhibitors that selectively kill cancer cells are urgently needed for cancer treatment. Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation. Unfortunately, the therapeutic potential of curcumin is limited by its relatively low potency and poor cellular bioavailability. In this study, we presented a novel NF-κB inhibitor named Da0324, a synthetic asymmetric mono-carbonyl analog of curcumin. The purpose of this study is to research the expression of NF-κB in gastric cancer and the antitumor activity and mechanism of Da0324 on human gastric cancer cells. Methods The expressions between gastric cancer tissues/cells and normal gastric tissues/cells of NF-κB were evaluated by Western blot. The inhibition viability of compounds on human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803, and normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell line GES-1 was assessed with the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Absorption spectrum method and high-performance liquid chromatography method detected the stability of the compound in vitro. The compound-induced changes of inducible NF-κB activation in the SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells were examined by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence methods. The antitumor activity of compound was performed by clonogenic assay, matrigel invasion assay, flow cytometric analysis, Western blot analysis, and Hoechst 33258 staining assay. Results High levels of p65 were found in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Da0324 displayed higher growth inhibition against several types of gastric cancer cell lines and showed relatively low toxicity to GES-1. Moreover, Da0324 was more stable than curcumin in vitro. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence methods showed that Da0324 blocked NF-κB activation. In addition, Da0324 significantly inhibited tumor proliferation

  16. IrBurst Modeling and Performance Evaluation for Large Data Block Exchange over High-Speed IrDA Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Shawkat, Shamim Ara; Kitazumi, Gontaro; Matsumoto, Mitsuji

    IrBurst, recently proposed by IrDA, is a high speed information transmission protocol. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed which leads to derivation of the IrBurst throughput over the IrDA protocol stack. Based on this model, we compare the performance of IrBurst and existing OBEX protocol in order to investigate the suitability of IrBurst protocol for exchange of large data blocks over high-speed IrDA links. Furthermore, the model allows the evaluation of the impact of the link layer parameters, such as window size and frame length, and physical layer parameters, such as minimum turnaround time, on system through-put for high-speed IrDA links and in the presence of transmission errors. Consequently, an effective Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) scheme is proposed at link layer to maximize the throughput efficiency for IrBurst protocol as well as for next generation high speed IrDA links. Simulation result indicates that employment of our proposed ARQ scheme results in significant improvement of IrBurst throughput efficiency at high bit error rates.

  17. New paleomagnetic constraints on the extrusion of Indochina: Late Cretaceous results from the Song Da terrane, northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Halim, Nadir; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro; Van Tri, Tran; Van De, Le; Hada, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    Samples were collected for paleomagnetic investigations from the Upper Cretaceous Yen Chau Formation in the Song Da terrane (21.7°N, 103.9°E) bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault system and Song Ma fault, in an attempt to examine extrusion tectonics of East Asia. Primary nature of the high-temperature (600-690 °C) component of magnetization from 13 sites is supported by a positive fold test. The tectonic corrected data provides the characteristic Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic direction for the Song Da terrane ( D=6.4°, I=32.0° with α95=8.5°, N=13 sites), corresponding to a paleopole lying at 82.9°N, 220.7°E ( A95=6.9°). Comparison with coeval paleomagnetic poles for the neighboring tectonic blocks indicates no latitudinal translation of the Son Da terrane with respect to the South China Block, whereas the Shan-Thai Block and the southern part of the Indochina Block revealed a southward displacement of 10.5±9.5° in latitude with respect to the Song Da terrane. We conclude that the southeastern segment of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault system to the east of the Dien Bien Phu fault is not a demarcation of the extruded Indochina Peninsula. The Indochina Block extruded probably along some faults between the Song Da terrane and the Khorat Plateau.

  18. Vŗkşăyurvĕda of parăśara--an ancient treatise on plant science.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G P; Neelima, G; Pratap, G P; Swamy, G K

    2006-01-01

    Vŗkşăyurvĕda of Parăśara is a great contribution to the Botany in ancient India. N.N. Sircar and Roma sarkar edited this text with English translation. Notes with comparative references of modern botany were added. This book can be placed in all probability in between 1st century B.C to 4th century A.D by its linguistic style. Many scientific branches of Botany including origin of life, ecology, distribution of forests, morphology, classification, nomenclature, histology and physiology were dealt in this ancient work. Though it is presumed that this book was written by Parăśara to teach Botany to preparatory to Ayurvĕda studies to ancient Ayurvĕda students, it is true to the Ayurvĕda personals and other disciplines related to Botany of present day as well. Aim of this article is to attract the attention of all scholars who are related to Ayurvĕda and Botany and to feel the depth of the knowledge of ancient Indian botany.

  19. DREADD Modulation of Transplanted DA Neurons Reveals a Novel Parkinsonian Dyskinesia Mechanism Mediated by the Serotonin 5-HT6 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Aldrin-Kirk, Patrick; Heuer, Andreas; Wang, Gang; Mattsson, Bengt; Lundblad, Martin; Parmar, Malin; Björklund, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Transplantation of DA neurons is actively pursued as a restorative therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Pioneering clinical trials using transplants of fetal DA neuroblasts have given promising results, although a number of patients have developed graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs), and the mechanism underlying this troublesome side effect is still unknown. Here we have used a new model where the activity of the transplanted DA neurons can be selectively modulated using a bimodal chemogenetic (DREADD) approach, allowing either enhancement or reduction of the therapeutic effect. We show that exclusive activation of a cAMP-linked (Gs-coupled) DREADD or serotonin 5-HT6 receptor, located on the grafted DA neurons, is sufficient to induce GIDs. These findings establish a mechanistic link between the 5-HT6 receptor, intracellular cAMP, and GIDs in transplanted PD patients. This effect is thought to be mediated through counteraction of the D2 autoreceptor feedback inhibition, resulting in a dysplastic DA release from the transplant.

  20. Gene duplication confers enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein for endosperm modification in quality protein maize.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Chuanlong; Gong, Hao; Fan, Xingming; Qiu, Fazhan; Huang, Xuehui; Feng, Qi; Zheng, Xixi; Yuan, Ningning; Li, Changsheng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Deng, Yiting; Wang, Jiechen; Pan, Guangtang; Han, Bin; Lai, Jinsheng; Wu, Yongrui

    2016-05-01

    The maize opaque2 (o2) mutant has a high nutritional value but it develops a chalky endosperm that limits its practical use. Genetic selection for o2 modifiers can convert the normally chalky endosperm of the mutant into a hard, vitreous phenotype, yielding what is known as quality protein maize (QPM). Previous studies have shown that enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein in QPM is essential for endosperm modification. Taking advantage of genome-wide association study analysis of a natural population, linkage mapping analysis of a recombinant inbred line population, and map-based cloning, we identified a quantitative trait locus (qγ27) affecting expression of 27-kDa γ-zein. qγ27 was mapped to the same region as the major o2 modifier (o2 modifier1) on chromosome 7 near the 27-kDa γ-zein locus. qγ27 resulted from a 15.26-kb duplication at the 27-kDa γ-zein locus, which increases the level of gene expression. This duplication occurred before maize domestication; however, the gene structure of qγ27 appears to be unstable and the DNA rearrangement frequently occurs at this locus. Because enhanced expression of 27-kDa γ-zein is critical for endosperm modification in QPM, qγ27 is expected to be under artificial selection. This discovery provides a useful molecular marker that can be used to accelerate QPM breeding.