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Sample records for culture cross-role consistency

  1. Culture, cross-role consistency, and adjustment: testing trait and cultural psychology perspectives.

    PubMed

    Church, A Timothy; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A; del Prado, Alicia M; Curtis, Guy J; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Valdez Medina, José L; Mastor, Khairul A; White, Fiona A; Miramontes, Lilia A; Katigbak, Marcia S

    2008-09-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on cross-role consistency and its relation to adjustment were examined in 2 individualistic cultures, the United States (N=231) and Australia (N=195), and 4 collectivistic cultures, Mexico (N=199), the Philippines (N=195), Malaysia (N=217), and Japan (N=180). Cross-role consistency in trait ratings was evident in all cultures, supporting trait perspectives. Cultural comparisons of mean consistency provided support for cultural psychology perspectives as applied to East Asian cultures (i.e., Japan) but not collectivistic cultures more generally. Some but not all of the hypothesized predictors of consistency were supported across cultures. Cross-role consistency predicted aspects of adjustment in all cultures, but prediction was most reliable in the U.S. sample and weakest in the Japanese sample. Alternative constructs proposed by cultural psychologists--personality coherence, social appraisal, and relationship harmony--predicted adjustment in all cultures but were not, as hypothesized, better predictors of adjustment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.

  2. Culturally Consistent Treatment for Late Talkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Christine; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Cordero, Kelly Nett; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kan, Pui Fong; Blaiser, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss cultural influences on clinical interactions when treating late talkers, 2- to 3-year-old children with primary language delays. They use the literature to examine the cultural relevance of core components of early language treatment and propose alternative professional actions in the cases of cultural mismatches. Alternative…

  3. Consistency.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2005-09-01

    Consistency is a reflection of having the right model, the right systems and the right implementation. As Vince Lombardi, the legendary coach of the Green Bay Packers, once said, "You don't do things right once in a while. You do them right all the time." To provide the ultimate level of patient care, reduce stress for the dentist and staff members and ensure high practice profitability, consistency is key.

  4. Prediction and Cross-Situational Consistency of Daily Behavior across Cultures: Testing Trait and Cultural Psychology Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.; Salanga, Maria Guadalupe C.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Adams, Nerissa B.

    2008-01-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on the cross-situational consistency of behavior, and the predictive validity of traits, were tested in a daily process study in the United States (N = 68), an individualistic culture, and the Philippines (N = 80), a collectivistic culture. Participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and a measure of self-monitoring, then reported their daily behaviors and associated situational contexts for approximately 30 days. Consistent with trait perspectives, the Big Five traits predicted daily behaviors in both cultures, and relative (interindividual) consistency was observed across many, although not all, situational contexts. The frequency of various Big Five behaviors varied across relevant situational contexts in both cultures and, consistent with cultural psychology perspectives, there was a tendency for Filipinos to exhibit greater situational variability than Americans. Self-monitoring showed some ability to account for individual differences in situational variability in the American sample, but not the Filipino sample. PMID:22146866

  5. Cross-Cultural Consistency of the Demand/Withdraw Interaction Pattern in Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Eldridge, Kathleen; Catta-Preta, Adriana Bokel; Lim, Veronica R.; Santagata, Rossella

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine the cross-cultural consistency of several patterns of couple communication, 363 participants from four different countries (Brazil, Italy, Taiwan, and the United States) completed self-report measures about communication and satisfaction in their romantic relationships. Across countries, constructive communication was…

  6. Are implicit causality pronoun resolution biases consistent across languages and cultures?

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki

    2013-01-01

    The referent of a nonreflexive pronoun depends on context, but the nature of these contextual restrictions is controversial. For instance, in causal dependent clauses, the preferred referent of a pronoun varies systematically with the verb in the main clause (Sally frightens Mary because she … vs. Sally loves Mary because she …). Several theories claim that verbs with similar meanings across languages should show similar pronoun resolution effects, but these claims run contrary to recent analyses on which much of linguistic and nonlinguistic cognition is susceptible to cross-cultural variation, and in fact there is little data in the literature to decide the question one way or another. Analysis of data in eight languages representing four historically unrelated language families reveals consistent pronoun resolution biases for emotion verbs, suggesting that the information upon which implicit causality pronoun resolution biases are derived is stable across languages and cultures. PMID:23261949

  7. Enhancing the Efficacy of Lecturers in Educating Student Cohorts Consisting of Culturally Diverse Groups in a Medical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Judson, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Lecturers exert a potent influence over the achievement of all students, low-income culturally diverse students in particular. Although recent research has confirmed that lecturer involvement is critical for promoting academic engagement of low-income and ethnically diverse students in America and other countries, other literature suggests that…

  8. A Comparison of Y-Chromosome Variation in Sardinia and Anatolia Is More Consistent with Cultural Rather than Demic Diffusion of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Federico; Whalen, Michael B.; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. The demic diffusion model postulates the spreading of farmers from the Middle East along a Southeast to Northeast axis. Conversely, the cultural diffusion model assumes transmission of agricultural techniques without substantial movements of people. Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. However, the data are still controversial and the analyses so far performed are prone to a number of biases. In the present study we show that the addition of a single marker, DYSA7.2, dramatically changes the shape of the R-M269 network into a topology showing a clear Western-Eastern dichotomy not consistent with a radial diffusion of people from the Middle East. We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation—defined by short tandem repeats (STRs)—in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. Overall, these results are consistent with the cultural diffusion and do not support the demic model of agriculture diffusion. PMID:20454687

  9. A comparison of Y-chromosome variation in Sardinia and Anatolia is more consistent with cultural rather than demic diffusion of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Laura; Contu, Daniela; Santoni, Federico; Whalen, Michael B; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco

    2010-04-29

    Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. The demic diffusion model postulates the spreading of farmers from the Middle East along a Southeast to Northeast axis. Conversely, the cultural diffusion model assumes transmission of agricultural techniques without substantial movements of people. Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. However, the data are still controversial and the analyses so far performed are prone to a number of biases. In the present study we show that the addition of a single marker, DYSA7.2, dramatically changes the shape of the R-M269 network into a topology showing a clear Western-Eastern dichotomy not consistent with a radial diffusion of people from the Middle East. We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation--defined by short tandem repeats (STRs)--in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. Overall, these results are consistent with the cultural diffusion and do not support the demic model of agriculture diffusion.

  10. Consistent and stable expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in transgenic Pinus radiata after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using nurse cultures.

    PubMed

    Charity, J A; Holland, L; Grace, L J; Walter, C

    2005-02-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol has been developed for embryogenic cell cultures of Pinus radiata. Transgenic lines were only produced when embryogenic tissue was placed on nurse tissue during the Agrobacterium co-cultivation and recovery stages of the procedure. Plantlets were regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from ten of the 11 transgenic lines tested and at least 20 of each line were planted in a GMO glasshouse. Expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in up to ten plants of each individual transgenic line was evaluated by molecular, biochemical and functional analysis. As expected, expression of the nptII gene varied among the ten lines, while within ten replicates of the same line, nptII expression appeared to be consistent, with the exception of one line, K3. Likewise, the level of GUS activity varied among transgenic lines, but was relatively consistent in plants derived from the same tissue, except for two lines, G4 and G5. Moreover, similar absolute values and pattern of gene expression of uidA was observed in the transgenic plants, for two consecutive years. Plantlets from eight lines survived a spray treatment with the equivalent of 2 kg/ha and 4 kg/ha of the commercial formulation Buster, whereas non-transformed controls died. Southern hybridisation analysis of embryogenic tissue and green needle tissue from putative transgenic lines demonstrated a relatively low number of gene insertions (from one to nine) of both the bar and nptII genes in the nine transgenic lines tested.

  11. Relationship between Internal Quality Audit and Quality Culture toward Implementation Consistency of ISO 9000 in Private College of Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mail, Abdul; Pratikto; Suparman, Sudjito; Purnomo; Santoso, Budi

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to find out the influence of internal quality process on the growth of quality culture in private college. This study is treated toward 178 lecturers of 25 private colleges in Sulawesi, Indonesia by means of questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis applied to assess the reliability of validity and measurement model. Relationship…

  12. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal.

  13. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal. PMID:27165413

  14. A colonisation-inhibition culture consisting of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strains protects against infection by strains of both serotypes in broilers.

    PubMed

    De Cort, W; Mot, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2014-08-01

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans and there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonisation-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain as a colonisation-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated. Administration of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and strongly reduced caecal and internal organ colonisation of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. In addition, it was verified whether a colonisation-inhibition culture could be developed that protects against both Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium. Therefore, the Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain was orally administered simultaneously with a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens, which resulted in a decreased caecal and internal organ colonisation for both a Salmonella Enteritidis and a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain short after hatching, using a seeder bird model. The combined culture was not protective against Salmonella Paratyphi B varietas Java challenge, indicating serotype-specific protection mechanisms. The data suggest that colonisation-inhibition can potentially be used as a versatile control method to protect poultry against several Salmonella serotypes. PMID:24975814

  15. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  16. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  17. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  18. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  19. Consistency relation in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2007-05-15

    We provide a consistency relation between cosmological observables in general relativity without relying on the equation of state of dark energy. The consistency relation should be satisfied if general relativity is the correct theory of gravity and dark energy clustering is negligible. As an extension, we also provide the DGP counterpart of the relation.

  20. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  1. From Chaos to Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Education designated T. C. Cherry Elementary School in Bowling Green, Kentucky, as a Blue Ribbon School, an honor awarded to only few schools across the nation. The same became possible because they changed the culture of the school from rowdy to calm, from irresponsible to responsible, from noncooperative to cooperative, from…

  2. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  3. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  4. Consistent quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  5. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  6. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition.

  7. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  8. Consistency and stability of recombinant fermentations.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, M E; Builder, S E

    1994-01-01

    Production of proteins of consistent quality in heterologous, genetically-engineered expression systems is dependent upon identifying the manufacturing process parameters which have an impact on product structure, function, or purity, validating acceptable ranges for these variables, and performing the manufacturing process as specified. One of the factors which may affect product consistency is genetic instability of the primary product sequence, as well as instability of genes which code for proteins responsible for post-translational modification of the product. Approaches have been developed for mammalian expression systems to assure that product quality is not changing through mechanisms of genetic instability. Sensitive protein analytical methods, particularly peptide mapping, are used to evaluate product structure directly, and are more sensitive in detecting genetic instability than is direct genetic analysis by nucleotide sequencing of the recombinant gene or mRNA. These methods are being employed to demonstrate that the manufacturing process consistently yields a product of defined structure from cells cultured through the range of cell ages used in the manufacturing process and well beyond the maximum cell age defined for the process. The combination of well designed validation studies which demonstrate consistent product quality as a function of cell age, and rigorous quality control of every product lot by sensitive protein analytical methods provide the necessary assurance that product structure is not being altered through mechanisms of mutation and selection.

  9. Epipolar Consistency in Transmission Imaging.

    PubMed

    Aichert, André; Berger, Martin; Wang, Jian; Maass, Nicole; Doerfler, Arnd; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas K

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the Epipolar Consistency Conditions (ECC) between two X-ray images from the Beer-Lambert law of X-ray attenuation and the Epipolar Geometry of two pinhole cameras, using Grangeat's theorem. We motivate the use of Oriented Projective Geometry to express redundant line integrals in projection images and define a consistency metric, which can be used, for instance, to estimate patient motion directly from a set of X-ray images. We describe in detail the mathematical tools to implement an algorithm to compute the Epipolar Consistency Metric and investigate its properties with detailed random studies on both artificial and real FD-CT data. A set of six reference projections of the CT scan of a fish were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of compensating for random disturbances of the ground truth projection matrix using an optimization of the consistency metric. In addition, we use three X-ray images of a pumpkin to prove applicability to real data. We conclude, that the metric might have potential in applications related to the estimation of projection geometry. By expression of redundancy between two arbitrary projection views, we in fact support any device or acquisition trajectory which uses a cone-beam geometry. We discuss certain geometric situations, where the ECC provide the ability to correct 3D motion, without the need for 3D reconstruction. PMID:25915956

  10. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  11. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  12. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Omnes, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  13. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  14. Self-consistent flattened isochrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James

    2014-05-01

    We present a family of self-consistent axisymmetric stellar systems that have analytic distribution functions (DFs) of the form f(J), so they depend on three integrals of motion and have triaxial velocity ellipsoids. The models, which are generalizations of Hénon's isochrone sphere, have four dimensionless parameters, two determining the part of the DF that is even in Lz and two determining the odd part of the DF (which determines the azimuthal velocity distribution). Outside their cores, the velocity ellipsoids of all models tend to point to the model's centre, and we argue that this behaviour is generic, so near the symmetry axis of a flattened model, the long axis of the velocity ellipsoid is naturally aligned with the symmetry axis and not perpendicular to it as in many published dynamical models of well-studied galaxies. By varying one of the DF parameters, the intensity of rotation can be increased from zero up to a maximum value set by the requirement that the DF be non-negative. Since angle-action coordinates are easily computed for these models, they are ideally suited for perturbative treatments and stability analysis. They can also be used to choose initial conditions for an N-body model that starts in perfect equilibrium, and to model observations of early-type galaxies. The modelling technique introduced here is readily extended to different radial density profiles, more complex kinematics and multicomponent systems. A number of important technical issues surrounding the determination of the models' observable properties are explained in two appendices.

  15. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. PMID:24141205

  16. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  17. [Psychometric properties of a scale: internal consistency].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi C

    2008-01-01

    Internal consistency reliability is the degree of correlation between a scale's items. Internal consistency is calculated by Kuder-Richardson's formula 20 for dichotomous choices and Cronbach's alpha for polytomous items. 0.70 to 0.90 internal consistency is acceptable. 5-25 participants are needed for each item when computing the internal consistency of a twenty-item scale. Internal consistency varies according to population and then it is necessary to report it always that scale is used. PMID:19360231

  18. Culturally Relevant Physical Education in Urban Schools: Reflecting Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle--which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant…

  19. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  20. Endocervical culture

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal culture; Female genital tract culture; Culture - cervix ... During a vaginal examination, the health care provider uses a ... fungus grow. Further tests may be done to identify the specific ...

  1. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  2. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  3. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  4. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  5. Does Acquiescence Affect Individual Items Consistently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found the effects of acquiescence to be generally consistent across item "aggregates" within a single survey (i.e., essential tau-equivalence), but it is unknown whether this phenomenon is consistent at the" individual item" level. This article evaluated the often assumed but inadequately tested…

  6. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  7. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals. PMID:23586369

  8. Consistency and Enhancement Processes in Understanding Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Asencio, Emily K.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories in the sociology of emotions assume that emotions emerge from the cognitive consistency principle. Congruence among cognitions produces good feelings whereas incongruence produces bad feelings. A work situation is simulated in which managers give feedback to workers that is consistent or inconsistent with what the workers expect to…

  9. 24 CFR 91.510 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., the proposed activities are consistent with the jurisdiction's strategic plan, and the location of the... of consistency of the application with the approved consolidated plan for the jurisdiction may be... unit of general local government that: is required to have a consolidated plan, is authorized to use...

  10. 24 CFR 91.510 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., the proposed activities are consistent with the jurisdiction's strategic plan, and the location of the... of consistency of the application with the approved consolidated plan for the jurisdiction may be... unit of general local government that: is required to have a consolidated plan, is authorized to use...

  11. [Hand Preference: Cognitive Development, Asymmetry, and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathurst, Kay; And Others

    Reported are results of three studies: (1) Hand Preference Consistency during Infancy and Preschool Years (K. Bathurst and A. W. Gottfried), (2) Asymmetry of Verbal Processing: Influence of Family Handedness (K. Bathurst and D. W. Kee), (3) Consistency of Hand Preference and Cognitive Development in Young Children (K. Bathurst and A. W.…

  12. 44 CFR 206.349 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 206.349 Consistency determinations. Section 6(a)(6) of CBRA requires that certain actions be consistent with the purposes of that statute if the actions are to be carried out on a unit of the CBRA. The... associated with the coastal barriers along with Atlantic and Gulf coasts. For those actions where...

  13. Steps toward Promoting Consistency in Educational Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The literature indicates the advantages of decisions formulated through intuition, as well as the limitations, such as lack of consistency in similar situations. The principle of consistency (invariance), requiring that two equivalent versions of choice-problems will produce the same preference, is violated in intuitive judgment. This…

  14. Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

  15. Maximizing the benefits of improved cookstoves: moving from acquisition to correct and consistent use.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Anita; Johnson, Michael; Kay, Ethan; Pannu, Raj; Beltramo, Theresa; Derby, Elisa; Harrell, Stephen; Davis, Curt; Petach, Helen

    2014-08-01

    The adoption of clean cooking technologies goes beyond mere product acquisition and requires attention to issues of cooking traditions, user engagement, gender dynamics, culture, and religion to effect correct and consistent use. PMID:25276586

  16. Maximizing the benefits of improved cookstoves: moving from acquisition to correct and consistent use.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Anita; Johnson, Michael; Kay, Ethan; Pannu, Raj; Beltramo, Theresa; Derby, Elisa; Harrell, Stephen; Davis, Curt; Petach, Helen

    2014-08-01

    The adoption of clean cooking technologies goes beyond mere product acquisition and requires attention to issues of cooking traditions, user engagement, gender dynamics, culture, and religion to effect correct and consistent use.

  17. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  18. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  19. Consistency of homogenization schemes in linear poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Bernhard; Dormieux, Luc

    2008-08-01

    In view of extending classical micromechanics of poroelasticity to the non-saturated regime, one has to deal with different pore stresses which may be affected by the size and the shape of the pores. Introducing the macrostrain and these pore stresses as loading parameters, the macrostress of a representative volume element of a porous material can be derived by means of Levin's theorem or by means of the direct formulation of the stress average rule, respectively. A consistency requirement for a given homogenization scheme is obtained from the condition that the two approaches should yield identical results. Classical approaches (Mori-Tanaka scheme, self-consistent scheme) are shown to be only conditionally consistent. In contrast, the Ponte Castañeda-Willis scheme proves to provide consistent descriptions both of porous matrix-inclusion composites and of porous polycrystals. To cite this article: B. Pichler, L. Dormieux, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  20. Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables.

    PubMed

    Montella, Alfonso; Imbriani, Lella Liana

    2015-01-01

    Highway design which ensures that successive elements are coordinated in such a way as to produce harmonious and homogeneous driver performances along the road is considered consistent and safe. On the other hand, an alignment which requires drivers to handle high speed gradients and does not meet drivers' expectancy is considered inconsistent and produces higher crash frequency. To increase the usefulness and the reliability of existing safety performance functions and contribute to solve inconsistencies of existing highways as well as inconsistencies arising in the design phase, we developed safety performance functions for rural motorways that incorporate design consistency measures. Since the design consistency variables were used only for curves, two different sets of models were fitted for tangents and curves. Models for the following crash characteristics were fitted: total, single-vehicle run-off-the-road, other single vehicle, multi vehicle, daytime, nighttime, non-rainy weather, rainy weather, dry pavement, wet pavement, property damage only, slight injury, and severe injury (including fatal). The design consistency parameters in this study are based on operating speed models developed through an instrumented vehicle equipped with a GPS continuous speed tracking from a field experiment conducted on the same motorway where the safety performance functions were fitted (motorway A16 in Italy). Study results show that geometric design consistency has a significant effect on safety of rural motorways. Previous studies on the relationship between geometric design consistency and crash frequency focused on two-lane rural highways since these highways have the higher crash rates and are generally characterized by considerable inconsistencies. Our study clearly highlights that the achievement of proper geometric design consistency is a key design element also on motorways because of the safety consequences of design inconsistencies. The design consistency measures

  1. Small Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    Presents a notion of small culture as an alternative to what has become the default notion of large culture in applied linguistics, social science, and popular usage. A small-culture view of English-language curriculum settings reveals mismatches between professional-academic and organizational cultures at the mezzo level of the institution. (VWL)

  2. Consistency relations for non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Yi

    2008-09-01

    We investigate consistency relations for non-Gaussianity. We provide a model-independent dynamical proof for the consistency relation for three-point correlation functions from the Hamiltonian and field redefinition. This relation can be applied to single-field inflation, multi-field inflation and the curvaton scenario. This relation can also be generalized to n-point correlation functions up to arbitrary order in perturbation theory and with arbitrary number of loops.

  3. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  4. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  5. Consistency-based rectification of nonrigid registrations

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Tobias; Székely, Gábor; Goksel, Orcun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a technique to rectify nonrigid registrations by improving their group-wise consistency, which is a widely used unsupervised measure to assess pair-wise registration quality. While pair-wise registration methods cannot guarantee any group-wise consistency, group-wise approaches typically enforce perfect consistency by registering all images to a common reference. However, errors in individual registrations to the reference then propagate, distorting the mean and accumulating in the pair-wise registrations inferred via the reference. Furthermore, the assumption that perfect correspondences exist is not always true, e.g., for interpatient registration. The proposed consistency-based registration rectification (CBRR) method addresses these issues by minimizing the group-wise inconsistency of all pair-wise registrations using a regularized least-squares algorithm. The regularization controls the adherence to the original registration, which is additionally weighted by the local postregistration similarity. This allows CBRR to adaptively improve consistency while locally preserving accurate pair-wise registrations. We show that the resulting registrations are not only more consistent, but also have lower average transformation error when compared to known transformations in simulated data. On clinical data, we show improvements of up to 50% target registration error in breathing motion estimation from four-dimensional MRI and improvements in atlas-based segmentation quality of up to 65% in terms of mean surface distance in three-dimensional (3-D) CT. Such improvement was observed consistently using different registration algorithms, dimensionality (two-dimensional/3-D), and modalities (MRI/CT). PMID:26158083

  6. Quantifying the Consistency of Scientific Databases

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies. PMID:25984946

  7. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi–Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  8. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  9. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  10. Temporal and kinematic consistency predict sequence awareness.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, Molly J; Schieber, Marc H; Mink, Jonathan W

    2016-10-01

    Many human motor skills can be represented as a hierarchical series of movement patterns. Awareness of underlying patterns can improve performance and decrease cognitive load. Subjects (n = 30) tapped a finger sequence with changing stimulus-to-response mapping and a common movement sequence. Thirteen subjects (43 %) became aware that they were tapping a familiar movement sequence during the experiment. Subjects who became aware of the underlying motor pattern tapped with greater kinematic and temporal consistency from task onset, but consistency was not sufficient for awareness. We found no effect of age, musical experience, tapping evenness, or inter-key-interval on awareness of the pattern in the motor response. We propose that temporal or kinematic consistency reinforces a pattern representation, but cognitive engagement with the contents of the sequence is necessary to bring the pattern to conscious awareness. These findings predict benefit for movement strategies that limit temporal and kinematic variability during motor learning. PMID:27324192

  11. Cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Consistent matter couplings for Plebanski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennie, Felix; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R.

    2010-11-01

    We develop a scheme for the minimal coupling of all standard types of tensor and spinor field matter to Plebanski gravity. This theory is a geometric reformulation of vacuum general relativity in terms of two-form frames and connection one-forms, and provides a covariant basis for various quantization approaches. Using the spinor formalism we prove the consistency of the newly proposed matter coupling by demonstrating the full equivalence of Plebanski gravity plus matter to Einstein-Cartan gravity. As a by-product we also show the consistency of some previous suggestions for matter actions.

  13. Consistent Data Distribution Over Optical Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Fiber optics combined with IDE's provide consistent data communication between fault-tolerant computers. Data-transmission-checking system designed to provide consistent and reliable data communications for fault-tolerant and highly reliable computers. New technique performs variant of algorithm for fault-tolerant computers and uses fiber optics and independent decision elements (IDE's) to require fewer processors and fewer transmissions of messages. Enables fault-tolerant computers operating at different levels of redundancy to communicate with each other over triply redundant bus. Level of redundancy limited only by maximum number of wavelengths active on bus.

  14. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  15. Accuracy and consistency of modern elastomeric pumps.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Robyn S; Missair, Andres; Pham, Phung; Gutierrez, Juan F; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2014-01-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blockade has become a popular method of achieving postoperative analgesia for many surgical procedures. The safety and reliability of infusion pumps are dependent on their flow rate accuracy and consistency. Knowledge of pump rate profiles can help physicians determine which infusion pump is best suited for their clinical applications and specific patient population. Several studies have investigated the accuracy of portable infusion pumps. Using methodology similar to that used by Ilfeld et al, we investigated the accuracy and consistency of several current elastomeric pumps. PMID:25140510

  16. Anticholinergic substances: A single consistent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Peter; Datta, Narayandas

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer-graphics analysis of 24 antagonists of acetylcholine at peripheral autonomic post-ganglionic (muscarinic) nervous junctions and at similar junctions in the central nervous system, the crystal structures of which are known, has led to the determination of a single, consistent, energetically favorable conformation for all 24 substances, although their observed crystal structure conformations vary widely. The absolute configuration and the single, consistent (ideal) conformation of the chemical groups required for maximum anticholinergic activity are described quantitatively. Images PMID:16592775

  17. Consistency of Students' Pace in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the consistency of students' behavior regarding their pace of actions over sessions within an online course. Pace in a session is defined as the number of logged actions divided by session length (in minutes). Log files of 6,112 students were collected, and datasets were constructed for examining pace…

  18. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  19. Image recognition and consistency of response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question.
    Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image.
    Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize.
    Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  20. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  1. Environmental Decision Support with Consistent Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most effective ways to pursue environmental progress is through the use of consistent metrics within a decision making framework. The US Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable Technology Division has developed TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of...

  2. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  3. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  4. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  5. 24 CFR 91.510 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistency determinations. 91.510 Section 91.510 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... HOPWA grant is a city that is the most populous unit of general local government in an EMSA, it...

  6. Effecting Consistency across Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devasagayam, P. Raj; Mahaffey, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement is the clarion call across all business schools which is driving the emphasis on assessing the attainment of learning outcomes. An issue that deems special attention in assurance of learning outcomes is related to consistency across courses and, more specifically, across multiple sections of the same course taught by…

  7. RULE GENERALITY AND CONSISTENCY IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCANDURA, JOSEPH M.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES INVOLVED WITH RULE GENERALITY (DEGREE OF NONSPECIFICITY) AND PERFORMANCE CONSISTENCY IN MATHEMATICAL PRESENTATIONS WERE STUDIED. SPECIFICALLY, THE PURPOSES WERE (1) TO DETERMINE IF TEST BEHAVIOR CONFORMS TO THE SCOPE OF A VERBALLY ADMINISTERED TEST RULE, (2) TO EXPLORE THE INTERPRETABILITY OF VERBAL TEST RULES, AND (3) TO…

  8. Taking Another Look: Sensuous, Consistent Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Mary Ross

    1983-01-01

    There is a natural progression from making single objects to creating sculpture. By modeling the forms of objects like funnels and light bulbs, students become aware of the quality of curves and the edges of angles. Sculptural form in architecture can be understood as consistency in the forms. (CS)

  9. Consistency of Toddler Engagement across Two Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study documented the consistency of child engagement across two settings, toddler child care classrooms and mother-child dyadic play. One hundred twelve children, aged 14-36 months (M = 25.17, SD = 6.06), randomly selected from 30 toddler child care classrooms from the district of Porto, Portugal, participated. Levels of engagement were…

  10. Consistency and variability in functional localisers

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Keith J.; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Knierim, Iris; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical assumption underlying the use of functional localiser scans is that the voxels identified as the functional region-of-interest (fROI) are essentially the same as those activated by the main experimental manipulation. Intra-subject variability in the location of the fROI violates this assumption, reducing the sensitivity of the analysis and biasing the results. Here we investigated consistency and variability in fROIs in a set of 45 volunteers. They performed two functional localiser scans to identify word- and object-sensitive regions of ventral and lateral occipito-temporal cortex, respectively. In the main analyses, fROIs were defined as the category-selective voxels in each region and consistency was measured as the spatial overlap between scans. Consistency was greatest when minimally selective thresholds were used to define “active” voxels (p < 0.05 uncorrected), revealing that approximately 65% of the voxels were commonly activated by both scans. In contrast, highly selective thresholds (p < 10− 4 to 10− 6) yielded the lowest consistency values with less than 25% overlap of the voxels active in both scans. In other words, intra-subject variability was surprisingly high, with between one third and three quarters of the voxels in a given fROI not corresponding to those activated in the main task. This level of variability stands in striking contrast to the consistency seen in retinotopically-defined areas and has important implications for designing robust but efficient functional localiser scans. PMID:19289173

  11. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  12. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  13. Consistent Pauli reduction on group manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguet, A.; Pope, C. N.; Samtleben, H.

    2016-01-01

    We prove an old conjecture by Duff, Nilsson, Pope and Warner asserting that the NSsbnd NS sector of supergravity (and more general the bosonic string) allows for a consistent Pauli reduction on any d-dimensional group manifold G, keeping the full set of gauge bosons of the G × G isometry group of the bi-invariant metric on G. The main tool of the construction is a particular generalised Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz in double field theory which we explicitly construct in terms of the group's Killing vectors. Examples include the consistent reduction from ten dimensions on S3 ×S3 and on similar product spaces. The construction is another example of globally geometric non-toroidal compactifications inducing non-geometric fluxes.

  14. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S.

    2012-12-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  15. Self-Consistent Scattering and Transport Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Grabowski, P. E.

    2015-11-01

    An average-atom model with ion correlations provides a compact and complete description of atomic-scale physics in dense, finite-temperature plasmas. The self-consistent ionic and electronic distributions from the model enable calculation of x-ray scattering signals and conductivities for material across a wide range of temperatures and densities. We propose a definition for the bound electronic states that ensures smooth behavior of these measurable properties under pressure ionization and compare the predictions of this model with those of less consistent models for Be, C, Al, and Fe. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DoE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by DoE OFES Early Career grant FWP-14-017426.

  16. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  17. Observers are consistent when rating image conspicuity.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Moran; Cleary, Daniel R; Peters, Robert J; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Koch, Christof

    2007-11-01

    Human perception of an image's conspicuity depends on the stimulus itself and the observer's semantic interpretation. We investigated the relative contribution of the former, sensory-driven, component. Participants viewed sequences of images from five different classes-fractals, overhead satellite imagery, grayscale and colored natural scenes, and magazine covers-and graded each numerically according to its perceived conspicuity. We found significant consistency in this rating within and between observers for all image categories. In a subsequent recognition memory test, performance was significantly above chance for all categories, with the weakest memory for satellite imagery, and reaching near ceiling for magazine covers. When repeating the experiment after one year, ratings remained consistent within each observer and category, despite the absence of explicit scene memory. Our findings suggest that the rating of image conspicuity is driven by image-immanent, sensory factors common to all observers.

  18. Consistency Test and Constraint of Quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Gu, Je-AN; Chen, Pisin; /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-04-30

    In this paper we highlight our recent work in arXiv:0803.4504. In that work, we proposed a new consistency test of quintessence models for dark energy. Our test gave a simple and direct signature if certain category of quintessence models was not consistent with the observational data. For a category that passed the test, we further constrained its characteristic parameter. Specifically, we found that the exponential potential was ruled out at the 95% confidence level and the power-law potential was ruled out at the 68% confidence level based on the current observational data. We also found that the confidence interval of the index of the power-law potential was between -2 and 0 at the 95% confidence level.

  19. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  20. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  1. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  2. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  3. Self-consistent gravitational self-force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, Adam

    2010-01-01

    I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body’s past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.

  4. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

  5. Consistent energy treatment for radiation transport methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Steven James

    The approximations used in the standard multigroup method and cross section condensation procedure introduce several known errors, such those caused by spectral core environment effects and the neglect of the energy and angular coupling of the flux when condensing the total cross section. In this dissertation, a multigroup formulation is developed which maintains direct consistency with the continuous energy or fine-group structure, exhibiting the accuracy of the detailed energy spectrum within the coarse-group calculation. Two methods are then developed which seek to invert the condensation process -- turning the standard one-way condensation (from fine-group to coarse-group) into the first step of a two-way iterative process. The first method is based on the previously published Generalized Energy Condensation, which established a framework for obtaining the finegroup flux by preserving the flux energy spectrum in orthogonal energy expansion functions, but did not maintain a consistent coarse-group formulation. It is demonstrated that with a consistent extension of the GEC, a cross section recondensation scheme can be used to correct for the spectral core environment error. This is then verified numerically in a 1D VHTR core. In addition, a more practical and efficient new method, termed the "Subgroup Decomposition (SGD) Method," is developed which eliminates the need for expansion functions altogether, and allows the fine-group flux to be decomposed from a consistent coarse-group flux with minimal additional computation or memory requirements. This method, as a special case of a more general spline-approximation for radiation transport, is shown to be highly effective in a cross section recondensation scheme, providing fine-group results in a fraction of the time generally necessary to obtain a fine-group solution. In addition, a whole-core BWR benchmark problem is generated based on operating reactor parameters, in 2D and 3D. This contributes to the furthering

  6. Consistency of the triplet seesaw model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Cesar; Fonseca, Renato M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2015-10-01

    Adding a scalar triplet to the Standard Model is one of the simplest ways of giving mass to neutrinos, providing at the same time a mechanism to stabilize the theory's vacuum. In this paper, we revisit these aspects of the type-II seesaw model pointing out that the bounded-from-below conditions for the scalar potential in use in the literature are not correct. We discuss some scenarios where the correction can be significant and sketch the typical scalar boson profile expected by consistency.

  7. Consistent Two-Dimensional Chiral Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smailagic, A.; Spallucci, E.

    We study chiral induced gravity in the light-cone gauge and show that the theory is consistent for a particular choice of chiralities. The corresponding Kac-Moody central charge has no forbidden region of complex values. Generalized analysis of the critical exponents is given and their relation to the SL(2,R) vacuum states is elucidated. All the parameters containing information about the theory can be traced back to the characteristics of the residual symmetry group in the light-cone gauge.

  8. Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large

  9. Consistency relations for the conformal mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2013-04-01

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB μ-distortion.

  10. ASTM/NBS base stock consistency study

    SciTech Connect

    Frassa, K.A.

    1980-11-01

    This paper summarizes the scope of a cooperative ASTM/NBS program established in June 1979. The contemplated study will ascertain the batch-to-batch consistency of re-refined and virgin base stocks manufactured by various processes. For one year, approximately eight to ten different base stocks samples, will be obtained by NBS every two weeks. One set of bi-monthly samples will be forwarded to each participant, on a coded basis monthly. Seven to eight samples will be obtained from six different re-refining processes and two virgin oil samples from a similar manufacturing process. The participants will report their results on a monthly basis. The second set of samples will be retained by NBS for an interim monthly sample study, if required, based on data analysis. Each sample's properties will be evaluated using various physical tests, chemical tests, and bench tests. The total testing program should define the batch-to-batch base stock consistency short of engine testing.

  11. Toward an internally consistent pressure scale

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yingwei; Ricolleau, Angele; Frank, Mark; Mibe, Kenji; Shen, Guoyin; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Our ability to interpret seismic observations including the seismic discontinuities and the density and velocity profiles in the earth's interior is critically dependent on the accuracy of pressure measurements up to 364 GPa at high temperature. Pressure scales based on the reduced shock-wave equations of state alone may predict pressure variations up to 7% in the megabar pressure range at room temperature and even higher percentage at high temperature, leading to large uncertainties in understanding the nature of the seismic discontinuities and chemical composition of the earth's interior. Here, we report compression data of gold (Au), platinum (Pt), the NaCl-B2 phase, and solid neon (Ne) at 300 K and high temperatures up to megabar pressures. Combined with existing experimental data, the compression data were used to establish internally consistent thermal equations of state of Au, Pt, NaCl-B2, and solid Ne. The internally consistent pressure scales provide a tractable, accurate baseline for comparing high pressure–temperature experimental data with theoretical calculations and the seismic observations, thereby advancing our understanding fundamental high-pressure phenomena and the chemistry and physics of the earth's interior. PMID:17483460

  12. Consistent Kaluza-Klein sphere reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, M.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2000-09-01

    We study the circumstances under which a Kaluza-Klein reduction on an n-sphere, with a massless truncation that includes all the Yang-Mills fields of SO(n+1), can be consistent at the full non-linear level. We take as the starting point a theory comprising a p-form field strength and (possibly) a dilaton, coupled to gravity in the higher dimension D. We show that aside from the previously studied cases with (D,p)=(11,4) and (10,5) (associated with the S4 and S7 reductions of D=11 supergravity, and the S5 reduction of type IIB supergravity), the only other possibilities that allow consistent reductions are for p=2, reduced on S2, and for p=3, reduced on S3 or SD-3. We construct the fully non-linear Kaluza-Klein Ansätze in all these cases. In particular, we obtain D=3, N=8, SO(8) and D=7, N=2, SO(4) gauged supergravities from S7 and S3 reductions of N=1 supergravity in D=10.

  13. Consistency check of {Lambda}CDM phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The standard model of cosmology {Lambda}CDM assumes general relativity, flat space, and the presence of a positive cosmological constant. We relax these assumptions allowing spatial curvature, a time-dependent effective dark energy equation of state, as well as modifications of the Poisson equation for the lensing potential, and modifications of the growth of linear matter density perturbations in alternate combinations. Using six parameters characterizing these relations, we check {Lambda}CDM for consistency utilizing cosmic microwave background anisotropies, cross correlations thereof with high-redshift galaxies through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, the Hubble constant, supernovae, and baryon acoustic oscillation distances, as well as the relation between weak gravitational lensing and galaxy flows. In all scenarios, we find consistency of the concordance model at the 95% confidence level. However, we emphasize that constraining supplementary background parameters and parametrizations of the growth of large-scale structure separately may lead to a priori exclusion of viable departures from the concordance model.

  14. On the consistent use of constructed observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Michael

    2015-02-01

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis (We define the concept of functional redundancy, which is distinct from the usual concept of an operator basis redundancy, in the introduction.) and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the S parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables to consistently constrain the Standard Model EFT is only expected to grow with future LHC data, as more complex processes are studied.

  15. Quantum cosmological consistency condition for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kiefer, Claus; Steinwachs, Christian F. E-mail: kiefer@thp.uni-koeln.de

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quantum cosmological tunneling scenario for inflationary models. Within a path-integral approach, we derive the corresponding tunneling probability distribution. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as the initial condition for inflation and therefore as a quantum cosmological prediction for its energy scale. This energy scale is also a genuine prediction of any inflationary model by itself, as the primordial gravitons generated during inflation leave their imprint in the B-polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this way, one can derive a consistency condition for inflationary models that guarantees compatibility with a tunneling origin and can lead to a testable quantum cosmological prediction. The general method is demonstrated explicitly for the model of natural inflation.

  16. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. PMID:27472900

  17. Toward a Fully Consistent Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2009-07-07

    Dimitri Mihalas set the standard for all work in radiation hydrodynamics since 1984. The present contribution builds on 'Foundations of Radiation Hydrodynamics' to explore the relativistic effects that have prevented having a consistent non-relativistic theory. Much of what I have to say is in FRH, but the 3-D development is new. Results are presented for the relativistic radiation transport equation in the frame obtained by a Lorentz boost with the fluid velocity, and the exact momentum-integrated moment equations. The special-relativistic hydrodynamic equations are summarized, including the radiation contributions, and it is shown that exact conservation is obtained, and certain puzzles in the non-relativistic radhydro equations are explained.

  18. Plasma Diffusion in Self-Consistent Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence ofeleclromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resuiting from an agyrotropic in itiai setting)is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (result ing from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probabi lity distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  19. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  20. Consistency tests for the cosmological constant.

    PubMed

    Zunckel, Caroline; Clarkson, Chris

    2008-10-31

    We propose consistency tests for the cosmological constant which provide a direct observational signal if Lambda is wrong, regardless of the densities of matter and curvature. As an example of its utility, our flat case test can warn of a small transition of the equation of state w(z) from w(z)=-1 of 20% from SNAP (Supernova Acceleration Probe) quality data at 4-sigma, even when direct reconstruction techniques see virtually no evidence for deviation from Lambda. It is shown to successfully rule out a wide range of non-Lambda dark energy models with no reliance on knowledge of Omega_{m} using SNAP quality data and a large range for using 10;{5} supernovae as forecasted for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. PMID:18999813

  1. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  2. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-07-29

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits.

  3. Plasma diffusion in self-consistent fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.; Rezeau, L.

    2011-10-15

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence of electromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resulting from an agyrotropic initial setting) is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (resulting from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probability distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  4. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  5. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  6. Radiometric consistency in source specifications for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Lai, Kafai; Tian, Kehan; Melville, David O. S.; Totzeck, Michael; Blahnik, Vladan; Koolen, Armand; Flagello, Donis

    2008-03-01

    There is a surprising lack of clarity about the exact quantity that a lithographic source map should specify. Under the plausible interpretation that input source maps should tabulate radiance, one will find with standard imaging codes that simulated wafer plane source intensities appear to violate the brightness theorem. The apparent deviation (a cosine factor in the illumination pupil) represents one of many obliquity/inclination factors involved in propagation through the imaging system whose interpretation in the literature is often somewhat obscure, but which have become numerically significant in today's hyper-NA OPC applications. We show that the seeming brightness distortion in the illumination pupil arises because the customary direction-cosine gridding of this aperture yields non-uniform solid-angle subtense in the source pixels. Once the appropriate solid angle factor is included, each entry in the source map becomes proportional to the total |E|^2 that the associated pixel produces on the mask. This quantitative definition of lithographic source distributions is consistent with the plane-wave spectrum approach adopted by litho simulators, in that these simulators essentially propagate |E|^2 along the interfering diffraction orders from the mask input to the resist film. It can be shown using either the rigorous Franz formulation of vector diffraction theory, or an angular spectrum approach, that such an |E|^2 plane-wave weighting will provide the standard inclination factor if the source elements are incoherent and the mask model is accurate. This inclination factor is usually derived from a classical Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, and we show that the nominally discrepant inclination factors used by the various diffraction integrals of this class can all be made to yield the same result as the Franz formula when rigorous mask simulation is employed, and further that these cosine factors have a simple geometrical interpretation. On this basis

  7. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  8. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Regin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  9. Self consistency grouping: a stringent clustering method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous types of clustering like single linkage and K-means have been widely studied and applied to a variety of scientific problems. However, the existing methods are not readily applicable for the problems that demand high stringency. Methods Our method, self consistency grouping, i.e. SCG, yields clusters whose members are closer in rank to each other than to any member outside the cluster. We do not define a distance metric; we use the best known distance metric and presume that it measures the correct distance. SCG does not impose any restriction on the size or the number of the clusters that it finds. The boundaries of clusters are determined by the inconsistencies in the ranks. In addition to the direct implementation that finds the complete structure of the (sub)clusters we implemented two faster versions. The fastest version is guaranteed to find only the clusters that are not subclusters of any other clusters and the other version yields the same output as the direct implementation but does so more efficiently. Results Our tests have demonstrated that SCG yields very few false positives. This was accomplished by introducing errors in the distance measurement. Clustering of protein domain representatives by structural similarity showed that SCG could recover homologous groups with high precision. Conclusions SCG has potential for finding biological relationships under stringent conditions. PMID:23320864

  10. Volume Haptics with Topology-Consistent Isosurfaces.

    PubMed

    Corenthy, Loc; Otaduy, Miguel A; Pastor, Luis; Garcia, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Haptic interfaces offer an intuitive way to interact with and manipulate 3D datasets, and may simplify the interpretation of visual information. This work proposes an algorithm to provide haptic feedback directly from volumetric datasets, as an aid to regular visualization. The haptic rendering algorithm lets users perceive isosurfaces in volumetric datasets, and it relies on several design features that ensure a robust and efficient rendering. A marching tetrahedra approach enables the dynamic extraction of a piecewise linear continuous isosurface. Robustness is achieved using a continuous collision detection step coupled with state-of-the-art proxy-based rendering methods over the extracted isosurface. The introduced marching tetrahedra approach guarantees that the extracted isosurface will match the topology of an equivalent isosurface computed using trilinear interpolation. The proposed haptic rendering algorithm improves the consistency between haptic and visual cues computing a second proxy on the isosurface displayed on screen. Our experiments demonstrate the improvements on the isosurface extraction stage as well as the robustness and the efficiency of the complete algorithm.

  11. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  12. Odor recognition: familiarity, identifiability, and encoding consistency.

    PubMed

    Rabin, M D; Cain, W S

    1984-04-01

    The investigation examined the association between the perceived identity of odorous stimuli and the ability to recognize the previous occurrence of them. The stimuli comprised 20 relatively familiar odorous objects such as chocolate, leather, popcorn, and soy sauce. Participants rated the familiarity of the odors and sought to identify them. At various intervals up to 7 days after initial inspection, the participants sought to recognize the odors among sets of distractor odors that included such items as soap, cloves, pipe tobacco, and so on. The recognition response entailed a confidence rating as to whether or not an item had appeared in the original set. At the time of testing, the participants also sought to identify the stimuli again. The results upheld previous findings of excellent initial recognition memory for environmentally relevant odors and slow forgetting. The results also uncovered, for the first time, a strong association between recognition memory and identifiability, rated familiarity, and the ability to use an odor label consistently at inspection and subsequent testing. Encodability seems to enhance rather than to permit recognizability. Even items identified incorrectly or inconsistently were recognized at levels above chance.

  13. Cross-Cultural Communication Patterns in Computer Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panina, Daria; Kroumova, Maya

    2015-01-01

    There are important cultural differences in attitudes towards and use of electronic text communication. Consistent with Hall's high-context/low-context conceptualization of culture, electronic inter-cultural communication, just as verbal inter-cultural communication, is affected by the culturally-specific assumptions and preferences of message…

  14. Sound practices for consistent human visual inspection.

    PubMed

    Melchore, James A

    2011-03-01

    Numerous presentations and articles on manual inspection of pharmaceutical drug products have been released, since the pioneering articles on inspection by Knapp and associates Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Drug Assoc 34:14, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (Bull Parenter Drug Assoc 34:369, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 35:176, 1981); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 37:170, 1983). This original work by Knapp and associates provided the industry with a statistical means of evaluating inspection performance. This methodology enabled measurement of individual inspector performance, performance of the entire inspector pool and provided basic suggestions for the conduct of manual inspection. Since that time, numerous subject matter experts (SMEs) have presented additional valuable information for the conduct of manual inspection Borchert et al. (J Parenter Sci Technol 40:212, 1986); Knapp and Abramson (J Parenter Sci Technol 44:74, 1990); Shabushnig et al. (1994); Knapp (1999); Knapp (2005); Cherris (2005); Budd (2005); Barber and Thomas (2005); Knapp (2005); Melchore (2007); Leversee and Ronald (2007); Melchore (2009); Budd (2007); Borchert et al. (1986); Berdovich (2005); Berdovich (2007); Knapp (2007); Leversee and Shabushing (2009); Budd (2009). Despite this abundance of knowledge, neither government regulations nor the multiple compendia provide more than minimal guidance or agreement for the conduct of manual inspection. One has to search the literature for useful information that has been published by SMEs in the field of Inspection. The purpose of this article is to restate the sound principles proclaimed by SMEs with the hope that they serve as a useful guideline to bring greater consistency to the conduct of manual inspection.

  15. Consistent scaling of persistence time in metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Yaari, Gur; Ben-Zion, Yossi; Shnerb, Nadav M; Vasseur, David A

    2012-05-01

    Recent theory and experimental work in metapopulations and metacommunities demonstrates that long-term persistence is maximized when the rate at which individuals disperse among patches within the system is intermediate; if too low, local extinctions are more frequent than recolonizations, increasing the chance of regional-scale extinctions, and if too high, dynamics exhibit region-wide synchrony, and local extinctions occur in near unison across the region. Although common, little is known about how the size and topology of the metapopulation (metacommunity) affect this bell-shaped relationship between dispersal rate and regional persistence time. Using a suite of mathematical models, we examined the effects of dispersal, patch number, and topology on the regional persistence time when local populations are subject to demographic stochasticity. We found that the form of the relationship between regional persistence time and the number of patches is consistent across all models studied; however, the form of the relationship is distinctly different among low, intermediate, and high dispersal rates. Under low and intermediate dispersal rates, regional persistence times increase logarithmically and exponentially (respectively) with increasing numbers of patches, whereas under high dispersal, the form of the relationship depends on local dynamics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the forms of these relationships, which give rise to the bell-shaped relationship between dispersal rate and persistence time, are a product of recolonization and the region-wide synchronization (or lack thereof) of population dynamics. Identifying such metapopulation attributes that impact extinction risk is of utmost importance for managing and conserving the earth's evermore fragmented populations.

  16. Comparative exoplanetology with consistent retrieval methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, Joanna Katy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Sing, David

    2016-10-01

    The number of hot Jupiters with broad wavelength spectroscopic data has finally become large enough to make comparative planetology a reasonable proposition. New results presented by Sing et al. (2016) showcase ten hot Jupiters with spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry from Spitzer, providing insights into the presence of clouds and hazes.Spectral retrieval methods allow interpretation of exoplanet spectra using simple models, with minimal prior assumptions. This is particularly useful for exotic exoplanets, for which we may not yet fully understand the physical processes responsible for their atmospheric characteristics. Consistent spectral retrieval of a range of exoplanets can allow robust comparisons of their derived atmospheric properties.I will present a retrieval analysis using the NEMESIS code (Irwin et al. 2008) of the ten hot Jupiter spectra presented by Sing et al. (2016). The only distinctive aspects of the model for each planet are the mass and radius, and the temperature range explored. All other a priori model parameters are common to all ten objects. We test a range of cloud and haze scenarios, which include: Rayleigh-dominated and grey clouds; different cloud top pressures; and both vertically extended and vertically confined clouds.All ten planets, with the exception of WASP-39b, can be well represented by models with at least some haze or cloud. Our analysis of cloud properties has uncovered trends in cloud top pressure, vertical extent and particle size with planet equilibrium temperature. Taken together, we suggest that these trends indicate condensation and sedimentation of at least two different cloud species across planets of different temperatures, with condensates forming higher up in hotter atmospheres and moving progressively further down in cooler planets.Sing, D. et al. (2016), Nature, 529, 59Irwin, P. G. J. et al. (2008), JQSRT, 109, 1136

  17. View from Europe: stability, consistency or pragmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunster, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    The last few years of this decade look like a period of reappraisal of radiation protection standards. The revised risk estimates from Japan will be available, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will be publishing new reports on biological topics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has started a review of its basic recommendations, and the new specification for dose equivalent in radiation fields of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) will be coming into use. All this is occurring at a time when some countries are still trying to catch up with committed dose equivalent and the recently recommended change in the value of the quality factor for neutrons. In Europe, the problems of adapting to new ICRP recommendations are considerable. The European Community, including 12 states and nine languages, takes ICRP recommendations as a basis and develops council directives that are binding on member states, which have then to arrange for their own regulatory changes. Any substantial adjustments could take 5 y or more to work through the system. Clearly, the regulatory preference is for stability. Equally clearly, trade unions and public interest groups favor a rapid response to scientific developments (provided that the change is downward). Organizations such as the ICRP have to balance their desire for internal consistency and intellectual purity against the practical problems of their clients in adjusting to change. This paper indicates some of the changes that might be necessary over the next few years and how, given a pragmatic approach, they might be accommodated in Europe without too much regulatory confusion.

  18. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  19. Ryukyuan Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Terry

    The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…

  20. Cultural Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  1. Consistent probabilistic outputs for protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    Obozinski, Guillaume; Lanckriet, Gert; Grant, Charles; Jordan, Michael I; Noble, William Stafford

    2008-01-01

    In predicting hierarchical protein function annotations, such as terms in the Gene Ontology (GO), the simplest approach makes predictions for each term independently. However, this approach has the unfortunate consequence that the predictor may assign to a single protein a set of terms that are inconsistent with one another; for example, the predictor may assign a specific GO term to a given protein ('purine nucleotide binding') but not assign the parent term ('nucleotide binding'). Such predictions are difficult to interpret. In this work, we focus on methods for calibrating and combining independent predictions to obtain a set of probabilistic predictions that are consistent with the topology of the ontology. We call this procedure 'reconciliation'. We begin with a baseline method for predicting GO terms from a collection of data types using an ensemble of discriminative classifiers. We apply the method to a previously described benchmark data set, and we demonstrate that the resulting predictions are frequently inconsistent with the topology of the GO. We then consider 11 distinct reconciliation methods: three heuristic methods; four variants of a Bayesian network; an extension of logistic regression to the structured case; and three novel projection methods - isotonic regression and two variants of a Kullback-Leibler projection method. We evaluate each method in three different modes - per term, per protein and joint - corresponding to three types of prediction tasks. Although the principal goal of reconciliation is interpretability, it is important to assess whether interpretability comes at a cost in terms of precision and recall. Indeed, we find that many apparently reasonable reconciliation methods yield reconciled probabilities with significantly lower precision than the original, unreconciled estimates. On the other hand, we find that isotonic regression usually performs better than the underlying, unreconciled method, and almost never performs worse

  2. Learning, Culture, and Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge about a culture is best understood as situated cognition, that is, contexts are inseparable from cognitive processes. Learning about a culture is similar to learning about a practice; both require new ways of perceiving, interpreting, and communicating experience. Successful learning depends both on individual factors and on access to…

  3. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... to prevent pain. A small sample of a fingernail or toenail may be taken. The sample is ...

  4. Bile culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, ... bacteria, virus, or fungus grew in the laboratory dish. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ...

  5. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, ... means that no germs grew in the laboratory dish. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  6. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  7. Culture, Television, and Opposition: Rethinking Cultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lembo, Ronald; Tucker, Kenneth H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses issues of culture, cultural politics, social power, and television audience in cultural studies. Argues that cultural studies as a field tends to analyze all cultural interpretation in terms of struggles between dominant and subordinate groups and that the text-centered approach of cultural studies misses much of television viewing's…

  8. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  9. From Learning Cultures to Educational Cultures: Values and Judgements in Educational Research and Educational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a new approach to the study of learning and the improvement of education. The approach consists of two elements: a theory of learning cultures and a cultural theory of learning. Learning cultures are different from learning contexts or learning environments in that they are to be understood as the social practices through…

  10. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  11. Pop Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Arthur Asa

    Popular culture in America is comprehensively reviewed in this book. The book is designed for either high school or college level social studies or English courses and includes a variety of graphic illustrations that provide a thread of continuity throughout. Basically the author has developed a method of analysis that reveals how popular culture…

  12. CULTURE SHOCK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEINSTEIN, GERALD; AND OTHERS

    IN A PANEL, GEORGE BRAGLE AND NATHAN GOULD STRESS TEACHER PREPARATION TO COPE WITH THE THREATENING IMPACT OF CULTURE OR REALITY SHOCK. THEY RECOMMEND MODIFYING THE ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS BY ALTERING THEIR PERCEPTIONS, PROVIDING THEM WITH DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH THE SOCIOCULTURAL MILIEU OF GHETTO SCHOOLS, AND REQUIRING THEM TO TAKE COURSES IN THE…

  13. Cultural Pluralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Management Training for Educational Change, Oslo (Norway).

    An historical review of cultural pluralism in the United States provides the framework for this consideration of the affirmative action program in the Dallas Independent School District (Texas). The program was designed to eliminate institutional racism through initiating structural changes in curriculum and program improvement, management,…

  14. Cultural Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

  15. On the self-consistency of the principle of profile consistency results for sawtoothing tokamak discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.; Bretz, N.L.; Efthimion, P.C.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.W.; Murakami, M.; McGuire, K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Stauffer, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    The principle of profile consistency states that for fixed limiter safety factor q/sub a/, there exists unique natural equilibrium profile shapes for the current density j(r), and the electron temperature T/sub e/(r) for any tokamak plasma independent of the shapes of the heating power deposition profiles. The mathematical statement of the three basic consequences of this principle for sawtoothing discharges are: (r/sub 1//a) = F/sub 1/ (1/q/sub a/), /T/sub eo/ = F/sub 2/(1/q/sub a/), and a unique scaling law for the central electron temperature T/sub eo/, where r/sub 1/ is the sawtooth inversion radius and is the volume average T/sub e/. Since for a given T/sub e/(r), the ohmic current j(r) can be deduced from Ohm's law, given the function F/sub 1/, the function F/sub 2/ is uniquely fixed and vice versa. Also given F/sub 1/(1/q/sub a/), the central current density j/sub o/ = (V/sub L//2..pi..bRZ/sub eff/) T/sub eo//sup 3/2/ = (I/sub p//..pi..a/sup 2/) F/sub 3/(q/sub a/), where the function F/sub 3/ = (q/sub a//q/sub o/) is uniquely fixed by F/sub 1/. Here b approx. 6.53 /times/ 10/sup 3/ ln..lambda.., and I/sub p/, V/sub L/, Z/sub eff/, R, a, and q/sub o/ are the plasma current, loop voltage, effective ion charge, major and minor radius, and the central safety factor, respectively. Thus for a fixed j(r) or T/sub e/(r), the set of functions F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ is uniquely fixed. Further, the principle of profile consistency dictates that this set of functions F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ remain the same for all sawtoothing discharges in any tokamak regardless of its size, I/sub p/, V/sub L/, B/sub T/, etc. Here, we present a rather complete and detailed theoretical examination of this self-consistency of the measured values of T/sub e/(r), F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ for sawtoothing TFTR discharges. 55 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The Sexuality Curriculum and Youth Culture. Counterpoints, Volume 392

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis, Ed.; Roseboro, Donyell L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The book aims to change the conversation about sexuality education for adolescents, making it consistent with a democratic cultural politics that is attuned to changes in youth and popular culture. Traditional sex education is nearly obsolete; sexuality curriculum is now primarily learned through popular culture and youth culture, which teach…

  17. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  18. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  19. [Cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Cipro, Simon; Groh, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Cell or tissue cultures (both terms are interchangeable) represent a complex process by which eukaryotic cells are maintained in vitro outside their natural environment. They have a broad usage covering not only scientific field but also diagnostic one since they represent the most important way of monoclonal antibodies production which are used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Cell cultures are also used as a "cultivation medium" in virology and for establishing proliferating cells in cytodiagnostics. They are well-established and easy-to-handle models in the area of research, e.g. as a precious source of nucleic acids or proteins. This paper briefly summarizes their importance and methods as well as the pitfalls of the cultivation and new trends in this field. PMID:24624984

  20. Dialysis cultures.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, R; Märkl, H

    1998-10-01

    Dialysis techniques are discussed as a means for effective removal of low-molecular-mass components from fermentation broth to reach high cell density. Reactor systems and process strategies, the relevant properties of membranes and examples for high-density fermentation with dialysis, and problems related to scale-up are addressed. The dialysis technique has turned out to be very efficient and reliable for obtaining high cell densities. As in dialysis processes the membranes are not perfused, membrane clogging is not a problem as it is for micro- and ultrafiltration. By applying a "nutrient-split" feeding strategy, the loss of nutrients can be avoided and the medium is used very efficiently. The potential of dialysis cultures is demonstrated on the laboratory scale in a membrane dialysis reactor with an integrated membrane and in reactor systems with an external dialysis loop. In dialysis cultures with different microorganisms (Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, extremophilic microorganisms, Lactobacilli) the cell densities achieved were up to 30 times higher than those of other fermentation methods. The technique enables high cell densities to be attained without time-consuming medium optimization. For animal cell cultures the concept of a fixed bed coupled with dialysis proved to be very effective.

  1. Client perceptions of cultural competence of community-based nurses.

    PubMed

    Starr, Sharon S; Wallace, Debra C

    2011-04-01

    Cultural competence is best understood by assessing provider and client perspectives. In this descriptive quantitative study, clients assessed dimensions of nurses' cultural competence including communication, decision-making, and interpersonal style. Nurses in 7 county health departments in North Carolina assessed their own cultural competence. Sixty-nine clients completed the Interpersonal Processes of Care and 71 nurses completed the Cultural Competence Assessment. Clients perceived their nursing care to contain key components of cultural competence. Nurses rated themselves as moderate to high cultural competence. Consistencies were noted between the clients' and nurse perceptions of cultural competence. These findings contribute to the enhancement of cultural competence among community nurses. PMID:21541868

  2. Culture et medias (Culture and the Media).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abastado, Claude

    1982-01-01

    The traditional conception of pluralistic culture is contrasted with a new, separate form of culture: mass media culture. Its components are noted: medium, message, "mosaic," and strategy, and methodology for its study is discussed. (MSE)

  3. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development.

  4. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  5. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  6. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  7. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  8. Cultural Diversity: An Expectation for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Narviar Cathcart

    Educators' responsibility to cultural diversity among students is discussed. It is suggested that the presence of cultural diversity in the classroom seriously threatens the educative process when student and teacher are not connecting due to words and language. The educator's training tends to consist of jargon, stereotypic assessments, and…

  9. School Talk: Gender and Adolescent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Donna; And Others

    This book reports the findings of a study of adolescent culture and language in eighth graders. The books consists of ten chapters including discussions of the following topics: (1) "Remember When?" a theoretical framework; (2) "Gender, Talk, and School Culture," an interpretive and a dialectic approach to the study of gender, talk, and…

  10. 15 CFR 930.39 - Content of a consistency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent to the maximum extent practicable with the enforceable policies of the management program. The statement must be based upon an evaluation of the relevant enforceable policies of the management program. A... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for...

  11. 15 CFR 930.39 - Content of a consistency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consistent to the maximum extent practicable with the enforceable policies of the management program. The statement must be based upon an evaluation of the relevant enforceable policies of the management program. A... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for...

  12. Le Bistro serves up cultural change.

    PubMed

    Leggitt, Mark S; Potrepka, Virginia N; Kukolja, Teresa J

    2003-01-01

    Bristol Hospital, a 134-bed community health care system in Connecticut, has consistently been nationally ranked in the top tier of hospitals for its patient satisfaction scores. A key to this long-term distinction has been its commitment to a culture built around patient satisfaction and service excellence. Empowerment, vigilance, recognition, and celebration are the cultural cornerstones. The change has enabled the hospital to increase its market share, increase its satisfaction rankings, increase its employee retention, and enjoy consistent financial success.

  13. Culture and gambling fallacies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li-Jun; McGeorge, Kayla; Li, Ye; Lee, Albert; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Euro-Canadians and Chinese typically hold different theories about change; Euro-Canadians often engage in linear thinking whereas Chinese often engage in non-linear thinking. The present research investigated the effects of culture-specific theories of change in two related gambling fallacies: the gambler's fallacy (GF; the belief that one is due for a win after a run of losses) and the hot-hand fallacy (HHF; the belief that one's winning streak is likely to continue). In Study 1, participants predicted the outcome of a coin toss following a sequence of tosses. Study 2 involved predicting and betting on the outcome of a basketball player's shot following a sequence of shots. In Study 1, Asians (mainly Chinese) were significantly more likely than Euro-Canadians to believe that they would win (correctly predict the coin toss) after a series of losses (a non-linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the gambler's fallacy. In Study 2, Euro-Canadians were more likely than Chinese to predict outcomes consistent with a basketball player's streaks (a linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the hot hand fallacy. By illustrating the role of cultural differences in cognition, these findings contribute to our understanding of why certain cultural groups, such as Chinese, are more susceptible to gambling.

  14. Opening the Culture Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Barbara; Rasminsky, Judy Sklar

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that child care providers must collaborate with children's families in order to better understand their culture and their child, and to successfully deal with challenging behavior issues. Addresses: (1) culture definition; (2) culture and identity; (3) cultural differences; (4) seeing culture; (5) child care and school culture; (6) moving…

  15. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  16. Marketing across Cultures: Tools for Cultural Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    The concept of cultural universals, the basic needs shared by people around the world, is a critical concept in assessing the impact of culture on decisions about the international marketing of goods and services. In most cases, international marketers have little need to understand all the ways in which their culture differs from the culture of…

  17. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts. PMID:24776835

  18. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts.

  19. When reprimand consistency may and may not matter.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, J T; O'Leary, S G; Albertson-Kelly, J A; Keneziora, K T

    1996-04-01

    The present study examined the importance of discipline consistency by varying not only the probability of punishment but also the nature of the discipline agent's response to nonpunished transgressions. Eighteen first through third graders attending a remedial summer school were assigned to one of four feedback conditions in a 2 (Low vs. High Reprimand Consistency) x 2 (Ignore vs. Attend) design. An analysis of the simple effects of reprimand consistency indicated that consistency was important only when the teacher's alternative response was attending. Thus the nature of the adult's response to nonpunished transgressions is important for understanding how discipline consistency affects children's behavior. The importance of conceptualizing discipline consistency as a multivariate construct and of understanding the variables and parameters that may interact with the probability of punishment are discussed. PMID:8934869

  20. Behavioral Stability Across Time and Situations: Nonverbal Versus Verbal Consistency

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Clarke, Asha; Ambady, Nalini; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral consistency has been at the center of debates regarding the stability of personality. We argue that people are consistent but that such consistency is best observed in nonverbal behavior. In Study 1, participants’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed in a mock interview and then in an informal interaction. In Study 2, medical students’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed during first- and third-year clinical skills evaluation. Nonverbal behavior exhibited consistency across context and time (a duration of 2 years) whereas verbal behavior did not. Discussion focuses on implications for theories of personality and nonverbal behavior. PMID:20161668

  1. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  2. On the Concept of Culture Goods Sales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Rong

    The article on the consumer psychology, consumer behavior, cultural concepts of the market so their products relating to the concept of corporate culture and business aspects of the image was further explained that the merchandise sold is a commercial act, a cultural transmission consumers to make consumption choices in the same time, he believed that the use of such products with their values and way of life is consistent, for the maintenance of their social status and self-recognition of the need for a sales role in the cultural concept of human group psychology, and affect people's consumption behavior.

  3. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  4. 36 CFR 219.24 - Science consistency evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Science consistency... AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Contribution of Science § 219.24 Science consistency evaluations. (a) The responsible official must ensure that plan...

  5. Carl Rogers during Initial Interviews: A Moderate and Consistent Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, H. P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed two initial interviews by Carl Rogers in their entirety using the Carkhuff scales, Hill's category system, and a brief grammatical analysis to establish the level and consistency with which Rogers provides facilitative conditions. Results indicated his behavior as counselor was stable and consistent within and across interviews. (Author)

  6. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  7. Affective-cognitive consistency and thought-induced attitude polarization.

    PubMed

    Chaiken, S; Yates, S

    1985-12-01

    Subjects whose preexperimental attitudes toward either capital punishment or censorship were high or low in affective-cognitive consistency were identified. These four groups thought about their attitudes by writing two essays, one on the topic for which consistency had been assessed (relevant essay) and one on the unassessed topic (distractor essay). In accord with the hypothesis that thought-induced attitude polarization requires the presence of a well-developed knowledge structure, high-consistency subjects evidenced greater polarization than low-consistency subjects only on the relevant topic after writing the relevant essay. Content analyses of subjects' relevant essays yielded additional data confirming Tesser's ideas regarding mediation: High (vs. low) consistency subjects expressed a greater proportion of cognitions that were evaluatively consistent with their prior affect toward the attitude object and a smaller proportion of evaluatively inconsistent and neutral cognitions. Moreover, although high-and low-consistency subjects did not differ in the amount of attitudinally relevant information they possessed or their awareness of inconsistent cognitions, their method of dealing with discrepant information diverged: High-consistency subjects evidenced a greater tendency to assimilate discrepant information by generating refutational thoughts that discredited or minimized the importance of inconsistent information.

  8. Teachers' Emotional Consistency Matters for Preschool Children. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…

  9. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  10. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the survey... results and enforcement remedies....

  11. 43 CFR 2742.5 - Consistency with other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency with other laws. 2742.5... Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Omitted Lands and Unsurveyed Islands § 2742.5 Consistency with other laws... under any other law does not apply to conveyances under this subpart....

  12. Consistency between Peer Reviewers for a Clinical Specialty Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, David J.; Macaulay, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of reliability among peer reviews of 422 unsolicited articles for the "Journal of Clinical Anesthesia" found that most articles' reviews were consistent or near consistent. However, articles reviewed by two of the editorial board members were much less likely to be accepted than those read by two nonmembers. (Author/MSE)

  13. Consistent assignment of nurse aides: association with turnover and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2013-01-01

    Consistent assignment refers to the same caregivers consistently caring for the same residents almost every time caregivers are on duty. This article examines the association of consistent assignment of nurse aides with turnover and absenteeism. Data came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The measures were from 2007 and came from 3,941 nursing homes. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine turnover and absenteeism. An average of 68% of nursing homes reported using consistent assignment, with 28% of nursing homes using nurse aides consistent assignment at the often recommended level of 85% (or more). Nursing homes using recommended levels of consistent assignment had significantly lower rates of turnover and of absenteeism. In the multivariate analyses, consistent assignment was significantly associated with both lower turnover and lower absenteeism (p < .01). Consistent assignment is a practice recommended by many policy makers, government agencies, and industry advocates. The findings presented here provide some evidence that the use of this staffing practice can be beneficial.

  14. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  15. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  16. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  17. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  18. The Self-Consistency Model of Subjective Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2012-01-01

    How do people monitor the correctness of their answers? A self-consistency model is proposed for the process underlying confidence judgments and their accuracy. In answering a 2-alternative question, participants are assumed to retrieve a sample of representations of the question and base their confidence on the consistency with which the chosen…

  19. 36 CFR 219.24 - Science consistency evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Science consistency... AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Contribution of Science § 219.24 Science consistency evaluations. (a) The responsible official must ensure that plan...

  20. Self-Consistent Field Calculations on Atoms Using Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    An Excel file that performs self-consistent field (SCF) calculations for the two-electron atoms is described. It is readily constructed and is relatively simple to use, providing a visual demonstration of how the self-consistent field (SCF) procedure is applied and what issues are involved.

  1. 15 CFR 923.53 - Federal consistency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest § 923.53 Federal consistency procedures. (a) A State must include in its management program submission... 306(d)(6) of the Act or a single other agency will handle consistency review (see 15 CFR 930.18);...

  2. Student Consistency and Implications for Feedback in Online Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Most of the emphasis on mining online assessment logs has been to identify content-specific errors. However, the pattern of general "consistency" is domain independent, strongly related to performance, and can itself be a target of educational data mining. We demonstrate that simple consistency indicators are related to student outcomes, and…

  3. 43 CFR 2742.5 - Consistency with other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency with other laws. 2742.5... Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Omitted Lands and Unsurveyed Islands § 2742.5 Consistency with other laws... under any other law does not apply to conveyances under this subpart....

  4. Consistency and Inconsistency in PhD Thesis Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid; Lovat, Terry; Fairbairn, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    This is a mixed methods investigation of consistency in PhD examination. At its core is the quantification of the content and conceptual analysis of examiner reports for 804 Australian theses. First, the level of consistency between what examiners say in their reports and the recommendation they provide for a thesis is explored, followed by an…

  5. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  6. Support Culturally Responsive Teaching!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins-Shannon, Janine; White, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Within today's changing society, teachers must meet the needs of culturally diverse students. Beyond cultural awareness, teachers must identify cultural implications and modify instructional approaches to address both the students' academic and cultural needs. To do so will create culturally responsive classrooms and promote student success.…

  7. Art, Culture, and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1984-01-01

    Educators must realize that identity should not be sought in culture and that people have to be weaned away from their cultures toward what is truly valuable in a transcendental, culture-free way. Instead of feeling narcissistic about culture, people should become involved with art, which also should be culture-free. (RM)

  8. The vaccines consistency approach project: an EPAA initiative.

    PubMed

    De Mattia, F; Hendriksen, C; Buchheit, K H; Chapsal, J M; Halder, M; Lambrigts, D; Redhead, K; Rommel, E; Scharton-Kersten, T; Sesardic, T; Viviani, L; Ragan, I

    2015-01-01

    The consistency approach for release testing of established vaccines promotes the use of in vitro, analytical, non-animal based systems allowing the monitoring of quality parameters during the whole production process. By using highly sensitive non-animal methods, the consistency approach has the potential to improve the quality of testing and to foster the 3Rs (replacement, refinement and reduction of animal use) for quality control of established vaccines. This concept offers an alternative to the current quality control strategy which often requires large numbers of laboratory animals. In order to facilitate the introduction of the consistency approach for established human and veterinary vaccine quality control, the European Partnership for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EPAA) initiated a project, the "Vaccines Consistency Approach Project", aiming at developing and validating the consistency approach with stakeholders from academia, regulators, OMCLs, EDQM, European Commission and industry. This report summarises progress since the project's inception. PMID:26830158

  9. The vaccines consistency approach project: an EPAA initiative.

    PubMed

    De Mattia, F; Hendriksen, C; Buchheit, K H; Chapsal, J M; Halder, M; Lambrigts, D; Redhead, K; Rommel, E; Scharton-Kersten, T; Sesardic, T; Viviani, L; Ragan, I

    2015-01-01

    The consistency approach for release testing of established vaccines promotes the use of in vitro, analytical, non-animal based systems allowing the monitoring of quality parameters during the whole production process. By using highly sensitive non-animal methods, the consistency approach has the potential to improve the quality of testing and to foster the 3Rs (replacement, refinement and reduction of animal use) for quality control of established vaccines. This concept offers an alternative to the current quality control strategy which often requires large numbers of laboratory animals. In order to facilitate the introduction of the consistency approach for established human and veterinary vaccine quality control, the European Partnership for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EPAA) initiated a project, the "Vaccines Consistency Approach Project", aiming at developing and validating the consistency approach with stakeholders from academia, regulators, OMCLs, EDQM, European Commission and industry. This report summarises progress since the project's inception.

  10. Quasi-Particle Self-Consistent GW for Molecules.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, F; Harding, M E; Seiler, C; Weigend, F; Evers, F; van Setten, M J

    2016-06-14

    We present the formalism and implementation of quasi-particle self-consistent GW (qsGW) and eigenvalue only quasi-particle self-consistent GW (evGW) adapted to standard quantum chemistry packages. Our implementation is benchmarked against high-level quantum chemistry computations (coupled-cluster theory) and experimental results using a representative set of molecules. Furthermore, we compare the qsGW approach for five molecules relevant for organic photovoltaics to self-consistent GW results (scGW) and analyze the effects of the self-consistency on the ground state density by comparing calculated dipole moments to their experimental values. We show that qsGW makes a significant improvement over conventional G0W0 and that partially self-consistent flavors (in particular evGW) can be excellent alternatives. PMID:27168352

  11. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  12. Culture systems: embryo density.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Embryo density is defined as the embryo-to-volume ratio achieved during in vitro culture; in other words, it is the number of embryos in a defined volume of culture medium. The same density can be achieved by manipulating either the number of embryos in a given volume of medium, or manipulating the volume of the medium for a given number of embryos: for example, a microdrop with five embryos in a 50 μl volume under oil has the same embryo-to-volume ratio (1:10 μl) as a microdrop with one embryo in a 10 μl volume under oil (1:10 μl). Increased embryo density can improve mammalian embryo development in vitro; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect may be different with respect to which method is used to increase embryo density.Standard, flat sterile plastic petri dishes are the most common, traditional platform for embryo culture. Microdrops under a mineral oil overlay can be prepared to control embryo density, but it is critical that dish preparation is consistent, where appropriate techniques are applied to prevent microdrop dehydration during preparation, and results of any data collection are reliable, and repeatable. There are newer dishes available from several manufacturers that are specifically designed for embryo culture; most are readily available for use with human embryos. The concept behind these newer dishes relies on fabrication of conical and smaller volume wells into the dish design, so that embryos rest at the lowest point in the wells, and where putative embryotrophic factors may concentrate.Embryo density is not usually considered by the embryologist as a technique in and of itself; rather, the decision to culture embryos in groups or individually is protocol-driven, and is based more on convenience or the need to collect data on individual embryos. Embryo density can be controlled, and as such, it can be utilized as a simple, yet effective tool to improve in vitro development of human embryos. PMID:22829380

  13. The Effect of Alien Cultures on Local Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, P. G.

    There are often many problems, as well as many benefits, in the incorporation of non-local (alien) cultures into an existing cultural framework. This paper explores this process; it consists of five parts, beginning with a detailed definition and discussion of the meaning of culture as seen by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and…

  14. Valvulopathy consistent with endocarditis in an Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena B; Novo-Matos, José; Ebling, Alessia; Kühn, Karolin; Ruetten, Maja; Hilbe, Monika; Howard, Judith; Chang, Rita; Prohaska, Sarah; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of pneumonia and bacterial endocarditis with dystrophic mineralization of the right atrioventricular valve, associated with different bacteria than those cultured from the tracheal wash. The present case is the first report of endocarditis in a boa constrictor and contributes to the rare reports of cardiac disease in snakes.

  15. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Alexander J; Hayes, Amy E; Pawling, Ralph; Tipper, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene), whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene). During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar.

  16. On the coevolution of social responsiveness and behavioural consistency.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Max; Van Doorn, G Sander; Weissing, Franz J

    2011-02-01

    Recent research focuses on animal personalities, that is individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across contexts and over time. From an adaptive perspective, such limited behavioural plasticity is surprising, since a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective advantage. Here, we argue that consistency can be advantageous because it makes individuals predictable. Predictability, however, can only be advantageous if at least some individuals in the population respond to individual differences. Consequently, the evolution of consistency and responsiveness are mutually dependent. We present a general analysis of this coevolutionary feedback for scenarios that can be represented as matrix games with two pure strategies (e.g. hawk-dove game, snowdrift game). We first show that responsive strategies are favoured whenever some individual differences are present in the population (e.g. due to mutation and drift). We then show that the presence of responsive individuals can trigger a coevolutionary process between responsiveness and consistency that gives rise to populations in which responsive individuals coexist with unresponsive individuals who show high levels of adaptive consistency in their behaviour. Next to providing an adaptive explanation for consistency, our results also link two key features associated with personalities, individual differences in responsiveness and behavioural consistency. PMID:20739321

  17. On the coevolution of social responsiveness and behavioural consistency

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Max; Van Doorn, G. Sander; Weissing, Franz J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research focuses on animal personalities, that is individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across contexts and over time. From an adaptive perspective, such limited behavioural plasticity is surprising, since a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective advantage. Here, we argue that consistency can be advantageous because it makes individuals predictable. Predictability, however, can only be advantageous if at least some individuals in the population respond to individual differences. Consequently, the evolution of consistency and responsiveness are mutually dependent. We present a general analysis of this coevolutionary feedback for scenarios that can be represented as matrix games with two pure strategies (e.g. hawk-dove game, snowdrift game). We first show that responsive strategies are favoured whenever some individual differences are present in the population (e.g. due to mutation and drift). We then show that the presence of responsive individuals can trigger a coevolutionary process between responsiveness and consistency that gives rise to populations in which responsive individuals coexist with unresponsive individuals who show high levels of adaptive consistency in their behaviour. Next to providing an adaptive explanation for consistency, our results also link two key features associated with personalities, individual differences in responsiveness and behavioural consistency. PMID:20739321

  18. Measuring pulp consistency and fines content with a streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, J.; Törmänen, M.; Myllylä, R.

    2003-10-01

    The problem of determining the fines content of pulp in cases where consistency is not known remains to be solved. We explored the hypothesis that this problem may be solved by studying shape changes in a laser pulse after it has travelled through the pulp. A matrix was constructed of pulp samples with consistencies varying from 0 to 1.5% by increments of 0.2% and fines contents varying from 0 to 50% by 10% increments. A streak camera was used to record three pulses simultaneously. The first was a reference pulse, which was used to calibrate the measurement pulses. The second was a pulse measured at an angle of 90° to the straight light path. The third was the straight path pulse. Different fines contents form their own lines on consistency-maximum power graphs and consistency-time of 50% power fall graphs. When transmitted power is plotted against time of 50% power fall the lines representing different fines contents cross each other. These results indicate that the fines content and consistency can be measured in some cases with a single measurement. Also, if water is added in a controlled manner, measurement of the lowering in consistency allows the original consistency and fines content to be determined.

  19. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  20. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  1. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  2. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  3. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  4. Correlation consistent basis sets for the atoms In–Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, Andrew; Wilson, Angela K.

    2015-02-28

    In this work, the correlation consistent family of Gaussian basis sets has been expanded to include all-electron basis sets for In–Xe. The methodology for developing these basis sets is described, and several examples of the performance and utility of the new sets have been provided. Dissociation energies and bond lengths for both homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomics demonstrate the systematic convergence behavior with respect to increasing basis set quality expected by the family of correlation consistent basis sets in describing molecular properties. Comparison with recently developed correlation consistent sets designed for use with the Douglas-Kroll Hamiltonian is provided.

  5. Consistency of assertive, aggressive, and submissive behavior for children.

    PubMed

    Deluty, R H

    1985-10-01

    The interpersonal behavior of 50 third- through fifth-grade children was assessed over an 8-month period in a wide variety of naturally occurring school activities. The consistency of the children's behavior was found to vary as a function of the child's sex, the class of behavior examined, and the similarity/dissimilarity of the contexts in which the behaviors occurred. Boys demonstrated remarkable consistency in their aggressive expression; 46 of 105 intercorrelations for the aggressiveness dimensions were statistically significant. In general, the consistency of assertive behavior for both boys and girls was unexpectedly high.

  6. A consistent-mode indicator for the eigensystem realization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Schenk, Axel

    1992-01-01

    A new method is described for assessing the consistency of model parameters identified with the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). Identification results show varying consistency in practice due to many sources, including high modal density, nonlinearity, and inadequate excitation. Consistency is considered to be a reliable indicator of accuracy. The new method is the culmination of many years of experience in developing a practical implementation of the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using data from NASA Langley's Controls-Structures-Interaction Evolutionary Model.

  7. Beyond translation ... cultural fit.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Sherry Garrett

    2003-08-01

    Reaching non-English-speaking families, the economically disadvantaged, and those who are disproportionately represented in disease and injury statistics is challenging. This article describes the process of making a questionnaire developed in English, culturally appropriate for low-income, monolingual, Mexican and Mexican American mothers. The questionnaire, guided by the Health Belief Model, assesses maternal childhood injury health beliefs and was originally used with a 96% African American, English-speaking sample in the Eastern United States. Two research assistants from the target population worked with the non-Hispanic, bilingual investigator to redesign the questionnaire's language and presentation and to collect data. Sixty monolingual Latina mothers participated in the study to determine the internal consistency of the 42-item Spanish language Maternal Childhood Injury Health Belief Questionnaire (MCIHB). Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from .76 (Benefits subscale) to .90 (Consequences subscale).

  8. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  9. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  10. Suckers or saviors? Consistent contributors in social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Weber, J Mark; Murnighan, J Keith

    2008-12-01

    Groups and organizations face a fundamental problem: They need cooperation but their members have incentives to free ride. Empirical research on this problem has often been discouraging, and economic models suggest that solutions are unlikely or unstable. In contrast, the authors present a model and 4 studies that show that an unwaveringly consistent contributor can effectively catalyze cooperation in social dilemmas. The studies indicate that consistent contributors occur naturally, and their presence in a group causes others to contribute more and cooperate more often, with no apparent cost to the consistent contributor and often gain. These positive effects seem to result from a consistent contributor's impact on group members' cooperative inferences about group norms. PMID:19025287

  11. Self-Consistent-Field Calculation on Lithium Hydride for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Frank; Harriss, Donald K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a self-consistent-field-linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital calculation on the valence electrons of lithium hydride using the method of Roothaan. This description is intended for undergraduate physics students.

  12. The origin of consistent protein structure refinement from structural averaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Hahnbeom; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by structural averaging can consistently improve protein structure models. We find that improvement upon averaging is not limited to explicit water MD simulation, as consistent improvements are also observed for more efficient implicit solvent MD or Monte Carlo minimization simulations. To determine the origin of these improvements, we examine the changes in model accuracy brought about by averaging at the individual residue level. We find that the improvement in model quality from averaging results from the superposition of two effects: a dampening of deviations from the correct structure in the least well modeled regions, and a reinforcement of consistent movements towards the correct structure in better modeled regions. These observations are consistent with an energy landscape model in which the magnitude of the energy gradient toward the native structure decreases with increasing distance from the native state.

  13. The strobe algorithms for multi-source warehouse consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuge, Yue; Garcia-Molina, H.; Wiener, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    A warehouse is a data repository containing integrated information for efficient querying and analysis. Maintaining the consistency of warehouse data is challenging, especially if the data sources are autonomous and views of the data at the warehouse span multiple sources. Transactions containing multiple updates at one or more sources, e.g., batch updates, complicate the consistency problem. In this paper we identify and discuss three fundamental transaction processing scenarios for data warehousing. We define four levels of consistency for warehouse data and present a new family of algorithms, the Strobe family, that maintain consistency as the warehouse is updated, under the various warehousing scenarios. All of the algorithms are incremental and can handle a continuous and overlapping stream of updates from the sources. Our implementation shows that the algorithms are practical and realistic choices for a wide variety of update scenarios.

  14. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours.

  15. 15 CFR 930.126 - Consistency appeal processing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Appeal to the Secretary for Review Related to the Objectives of the Act and National Security Interests § 930.126...

  16. 43 CFR 1610.3-2 - Consistency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amendments to management framework plans shall be consistent with officially approved or adopted resource... approval of a proposed resource management plan, or amendment to a management framework plan or...

  17. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours. PMID:20492087

  18. Challenges of glycosylation analysis and control: an integrated approach to producing optimal and consistent therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiqing; Woen, Susanto; Wang, Tianhua; Liau, Brian; Zhao, Sophie; Chen, Chen; Yang, Yuansheng; Song, Zhiwei; Wormald, Mark R; Yu, Chuanfei; Rudd, Pauline M

    2016-05-01

    Glycosylation of therapeutic proteins has a profound impact on their safety and efficacy. Many factors shape the glycosylation of biotherapeutics, ranging from expression systems and cell culture processes to downstream purification strategies. Various analytical technologies have been developed to address questions concerning different aspects of glycosylation. Informatics tools are also crucial for a systematic understanding of the glycosylation processes. Hence, an integrated approach is required to harness glycosylation for the production of optimal and consistent glycoprotein-based therapeutic drugs. Here, we review the latest developments and challenges in glycosylation analysis and control in the context of bioprocessing monoclonal antibodies.

  19. Consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Markiv, B.; Tokarchuk, M.

    2014-02-15

    A consistent statistical description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma is proposed based on the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. For the case of partial dynamics, the nonequilibrium statistical operator and the generalized transport equations for a consistent description of kinetics of dust particles and hydrodynamics of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are obtained. In the approximation of weakly nonequilibrium process, a spectrum of collective excitations of dusty plasma is investigated in the hydrodynamic limit.

  20. Factors ensuring consistent audibility in pediatric hearing aid fitting.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Francis; Marcoux, Andre

    2002-10-01

    Ensuring consistent audibility is an important objective when fitting hearing aids to children. This article reviews the factors that could affect the audibility of the speech signals to children. These factors range from a precise determination of the child's hearing loss to an accurate specification of gain in the chosen hearing aids. In addition, hearing aid technology and features such as multichannel processing, directional microphones, and feedback cancellation that could affect the achievement of consistent audibility are reviewed. PMID:12416935

  1. S Matrix Proof of Consistency Condition Derived from Mixed Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, Vineer

    For a confining quantum field theory with conserved current J and stress tensor T, the and anomalies computed in terms of elementary quanta must be precisely equal to the same anomalies computed in terms of the exact physical spectrum if the conservation law corresponding to J is unbroken. These strongly constrain the allowed representations of the low energy spectrum. We present a proof of the latter consistency condition based on the proof by Coleman and Grossman of the former consistency condition.

  2. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Urszán, Tamás János; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, we tested if behavioural consistency and POLS could be detected during the early ontogenesis of this amphibian. We targeted two ontogenetic stages and measured activity, exploration and risk-taking in a common garden experiment, assessing both individual behavioural type and intra-individual behavioural variation. We observed that activity was consistent in all tadpoles, exploration only became consistent with advancing age and risk-taking only became consistent in tadpoles that had been tested, and thus disturbed, earlier. Only previously tested tadpoles showed trends indicative of behavioural syndromes. We found an activity-age at metamorphosis POLS in the previously untested tadpoles irrespective of age. Relative growth rate correlated positively with the intra-individual variation of activity of the previously untested older tadpoles. In previously tested older tadpoles, intra-individual variation of exploration correlated negatively and intra-individual variation of risk-taking correlated positively with relative growth rate. We provide evidence for behavioural consistency and POLS in predator- and conspecific-naive tadpoles. Intra-individual behavioural variation was also correlated to life history, suggesting its relevance for the POLS theory. The strong effect of moderate disturbance related to standard behavioural testing on later behaviour draws attention to the pitfalls embedded in repeated testing.

  3. Culture Computing: Interactive Technology to Explore Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    The present day rapid development of media science and digital technology is offering the modern generation more opportunities as well as challenges as the new fundamental literacy. Therefore, to reach the modern generation on issues such as an appreciation of cultures, we have to find common grounds based on digital media technology. In an increasingly hybrid cultural environment, interaction and fusion of cultural factors with the computer technology will be an investigation into the possibilities of providing an experience into the cultures of the world, operating in the environments the modern generation inhabits. Research has created novel merging of traditional cultures and literature with recent media literacy. Three cultural computing systems, Media Me, BlogWall and Confucius Computer, are presented in this chapter. Studies showed that users gave positive feedback to their experience of interacting with cultural computing systems.

  4. Internal Consistency, Retest Reliability, and their Implications For Personality Scale Validity

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Robert R.; Kurtz, John E.; Yamagata, Shinji; Terracciano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We examined data (N = 34,108) on the differential reliability and validity of facet scales from the NEO Inventories. We evaluated the extent to which (a) psychometric properties of facet scales are generalizable across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement; and (b) validity criteria are associated with different forms of reliability. Composite estimates of facet scale stability, heritability, and cross-observer validity were broadly generalizable. Two estimates of retest reliability were independent predictors of the three validity criteria; none of three estimates of internal consistency was. Available evidence suggests the same pattern of results for other personality inventories. Internal consistency of scales can be useful as a check on data quality, but appears to be of limited utility for evaluating the potential validity of developed scales, and it should not be used as a substitute for retest reliability. Further research on the nature and determinants of retest reliability is needed. PMID:20435807

  5. Does object view influence the scene consistency effect?

    PubMed

    Sastyin, Gergo; Niimi, Ryosuke; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Traditional research on the scene consistency effect only used clearly recognizable object stimuli to show mutually interactive context effects for both the object and background components on scene perception (Davenport & Potter in Psychological Science, 15, 559-564, 2004). However, in real environments, objects are viewed from multiple viewpoints, including an accidental, hard-to-recognize one. When the observers named target objects in scenes (Experiments 1a and 1b, object recognition task), we replicated the scene consistency effect (i.e., there was higher accuracy for the objects with consistent backgrounds). However, there was a significant interaction effect between consistency and object viewpoint, which indicated that the scene consistency effect was more important for identifying objects in the accidental view condition than in the canonical view condition. Therefore, the object recognition system may rely more on the scene context when the object is difficult to recognize. In Experiment 2, the observers identified the background (background recognition task) while the scene consistency and object views were manipulated. The results showed that object viewpoint had no effect, while the scene consistency effect was observed. More specifically, the canonical and accidental views both equally provided contextual information for scene perception. These findings suggested that the mechanism for conscious recognition of objects could be dissociated from the mechanism for visual analysis of object images that were part of a scene. The "context" that the object images provided may have been derived from its view-invariant, relatively low-level visual features (e.g., color), rather than its semantic information. PMID:25522833

  6. Culture, universals, and the personal.

    PubMed

    Nucci, L

    1997-01-01

    This chapter summarizes a part of the case that can be made that the individual construction of a personal domain of choice and privacy generalizes across cultures and is not restricted to persons who live within Western or so-called modern societies. The research findings reported here are consistent with the view that persons seek to establish such areas of control in order to maintain a differentiated personal identity and a sense of personal agency. Children, adolescents, and adults from the United States and traditional cultures have been found to identify a class of behaviors and issues as being outside the legitimate sphere of social or moral regulation. Mothers from Western and traditional cultural settings recognize and foster their children's claims to areas of personal choice and privacy. Across cultures, as children mature and move toward adulthood, they lay claim to a broader range of issues and actions as personal matters. Research on adolescent-parent conflict with U.S. and Chinese samples has indicated that these shifts associated with adolescent claims to freedom are the source of most family conflicts. Anthropological accounts of adolescent-parent conflicts in 160 cultures have provided evidence that such conflicts are widespread (Schlegel and Barry, 1991). Finally, we are beginning to obtain evidence that parental overcontrol of personal issues is associated with symptoms of psychological problems in their adolescent children. These research findings are consistent with the proposal (Nucci, 1996) that establishment of a personal domain is an intrinsic feature of normal human development, resulting from the inevitable attempt by individuals to account for and differentiate between their own motives, values, and experiences and those of others. The evidence also points to the fact that such personal issues are coexistent with concerns for interpersonal harmony and social integration. Thus, it is not surprising that the work summarized here also

  7. Consistency of response and image recognition, pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M A Q; Galvan, E; Bassett, R; Murphy, W A; Matamoros, A; Marom, E M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of recognition of a previously encountered radiograph on consistency of response in localized pulmonary nodules. Methods: 13 radiologists interpreted 40 radiographs each to locate pulmonary nodules. A few days later, they again interpreted 40 radiographs. Half of the images in the second set were new. We asked the radiologists whether each image had been in the first set. We used Fisher's exact test and Kruskal–Wallis test to evaluate the correlation between recognition of an image and consistency in its interpretation. We evaluated the data using all possible recognition levels—definitely, probably or possibly included vs definitely, probably or possibly not included by collapsing the recognition levels into two and by eliminating the “possibly included” and “possibly not included” scores. Results: With all but one of six methods of looking at the data, there was no significant correlation between consistency in interpretation and recognition of the image. When the possibly included and possibly not included scores were eliminated, there was a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.04) with slightly greater consistency in interpretation of recognized than that of non-recognized images. Conclusion: We found no convincing evidence that radiologists' recognition of images in an observer performance study affects their interpretation on a second encounter. Advances in knowledge: Conscious recognition of chest radiographs did not result in a greater degree of consistency in the tested interpretation than that in the interpretation of images that were not recognized. PMID:24697724

  8. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  9. Consistency test for simple specifications of automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chebotarev, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    This article continues the topic of functional synthesis of automaton systems for discrete-information processing. A language of functional specification of automaton systems based on the logic of one-place predicates of an integer argument has been described. A specification in this language defines a nondeterministic superword X-Y-function, i.e., a function that maps superwords in the alphabet X into sets of superwords in the alphabet Y (the alphabets X and Y are specification-dependent), which corresponds to an initialized nondeterministic X-Y-automaton. The specification G is consistent if the function defined by the specification corresponds to an automaton A{sub G} with a nonempty state set. Consistency tests for the initial specification and for various intermediate specifications obtained in the process of functional synthesis of the automaton system are of fundamental importance for the verificational method of automaton system design developed in the framework of the proposed topic. We need sufficiently efficient algorithms to test consistency of specifications. An algorithm proposal constructs the coresponding automaton A{sub G} for any simple specifications G. The consistency of a specification is thus decided constructively. However, this solution is not always convenient, because it usually involves a highly time-consuming procedure to construct a nondeterministic automaton with a very large number of states. In this paper, we propose a convenient approach that combines automaton and logic methods and established consistency or inconsistency of a specification without constructing the corresponding autmaton.

  10. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  11. Self-consistent nonperturbative theory for classical systems.

    PubMed

    Mederos, L; Navascués, G; Velasco, E

    2002-01-01

    We construct a self-consistent nonperturbative theory for the structure and thermodynamics of a classical system of particles that goes beyond the usual approaches based on perturbation theory. Our theory, which gives accurate predictions for the phase diagram, is based on two ingredients: first, use is made of an exact expression for the free energy of a many-body system in terms of a reference system and a coupling integral connecting the latter to the final system; second, correlation functions may be very accurately approximated using a number of sum rules relating the radial distribution function with thermodynamic quantities. Consistency between the coupling integral expression and the sum rules may be achieved by means of a self-consistent process. PMID:11800760

  12. Evolution of Consistency Between Eop Series and International Reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, C.; Gambis, D.

    One fundamental problem associated with EOP series collected by IERS EOP- Prod- uct Center (the former Central Bureau of the IERS of Paris Observatory) is their consistency with the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and the Inter- national Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Individual EOP series are referred to frames which can present some small rotations with respect to ICRF and ITRF. From the knowledge of these rotations it is possible to infer the biais of these series with re- spect to the combined reference series C04, which are referred to the ICRF and ITRF. The consistency is defined, for each EOP, by the offset between this theoretical biais and the real one. We present the evolution of consistency from 1988 (the creation of IERS) to 2001 for VLBI, LLR, SLR and GPS series. We show the progress which has been achieved, and we focuse on the new challenges.

  13. Fission gas bubble percolation on crystallographically consistent grain boundary networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabogal-Suárez, Daniel; David Alzate-Cardona, Juan; Restrepo-Parra, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Fission gas release in nuclear fuels can be modeled in the framework of percolation theory, where each grain boundary is classified as open or closed to the release of the fission gas. In the present work, two-dimensional grain boundary networks were assembled both at random and in a crystallographically consistent manner resembling a general textured microstructure. In the crystallographically consistent networks, grain boundaries were classified according to its misorientation. The percolation behavior of the grain boundary networks was evaluated as a function of radial cracks and radial thermal gradients in the fuel pellet. Percolation thresholds tend to shift to the left with increasing length and number of cracks, especially in the presence of thermal gradients. In general, the topology and percolation behavior of the crystallographically consistent networks differs from those of the random network.

  14. The consistency approach for the quality control of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Coenraad; Arciniega, Juan L; Bruckner, Lukas; Chevalier, Michel; Coppens, Emmanuelle; Descamps, Johan; Duchêne, Michel; Dusek, David Michael; Halder, Marlies; Kreeftenberg, Hans; Maes, Alexandrine; Redhead, Keith; Ravetkar, Satish D; Spieser, Jean-Marc; Swam, Hanny

    2008-01-01

    Current lot release testing of conventional vaccines emphasizes quality control of the final product and is characterized by its extensive use of laboratory animals. This report, which is based on the outcome of an ECVAM (European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy) workshop, discusses the concept of consistency testing as an alternative approach for lot release testing. The consistency approach for the routine release of vaccines is based upon the principle that the quality of vaccines is a consequence of a quality system and of consistent production of lots with similar characteristics to those lots that have been shown to be safe and effective in humans or the target species. The report indicates why and under which circumstances this approach can be applied, the role of the different stakeholders, and the need for international harmonization. It also gives recommendations for its implementation.

  15. Testing and extending the inflationary consistency relation for tensor modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Latham; Smith, Kendrick M.; Dvorkin, Cora; Turok, Neil

    2015-08-01

    If observations confirm BICEP2's claim of a tensor-scalar ratio r ≈0.2 on CMB scales, then the inflationary consistency relation nt=-r /8 predicts a small negative value for the tensor spectral index nt. We show that future CMB polarization experiments should be able to confirm this prediction at several sigma. We also show how to properly extend the consistency relation to solar system scales, where the primordial gravitational wave density Ωgw could be measured by proposed experiments such as the Big Bang Observer. This would provide a far more stringent test of the consistency relation and access much more detailed information about the early Universe.

  16. Granulomatous Nephritis Consistent with Malakoplakia in a Cynomolgus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Yoshikazu; Inomata, Akira; Sonoda, Jiro; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Ohta, Etsuko; Seki, Yuki; Goto, Aya; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare form of chronic granulomatous inflammation in mammals, and usually affects the urinary tract in humans. In this report, we present a case of granulomatous nephritis consistent with malakoplakia in a 4-year-old male cynomolgus monkey. Gross examination showed that the kidney was markedly enlarged and adhered to the surrounding organs. Histology showed that there was diffuse interstitial infiltration of histiocytes with abundant foamy eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling von Hansemann cells, PAS-positive granular cytoplasm and occasional PAS- and iron-positive intracellular small inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy showed that these histiocytes contained abundant lysosomes and phagolysosomes but no obvious Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of granulomatous nephritis consistent with early malakoplakia was made. This is the first report in a monkey of a renal lesion consistent with malakoplakia. PMID:24526815

  17. Quality and Consistency of the NASA Ocean Color Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) recently reprocessed the multimission ocean color time-series from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua, and MODIS-Terra using common algorithms and improved instrument calibration knowledge. Here we present an analysis of the quality and consistency of the resulting ocean color retrievals, including spectral water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration, and diffuse attenuation. Statistical analysis of satellite retrievals relative to in situ measurements will be presented for each sensor, as well as an assessment of consistency in the global time-series for the overlapping periods of the missions. Results will show that the satellite retrievals are in good agreement with in situ measurements, and that the sensor ocean color data records are highly consistent over the common mission lifespan for the global deep oceans, but with degraded agreement in higher productivity, higher complexity coastal regions.

  18. An approach to a self-consistent nuclear energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii-e, Yoichi ); Arie, Kazuo; Endo, Hiroshi )

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy system should provide a stable supply of energy without endangering the environment or humans. If there is fear about exhausting world energy resources, accumulating radionuclides, and nuclear reactor safety, tension is created in human society. Nuclear energy systems of the future should be able to eliminate fear from people's minds. In other words, the whole system, including the nuclear fuel cycle, should be self-consistent. This is the ultimate goal of nuclear energy. If it can be realized, public acceptance of nuclear energy will increase significantly. In a self-consistent nuclear energy system, misunderstandings between experts on nuclear energy and the public should be minimized. The way to achieve this goal is to explain using simple logic. This paper proposes specific targets for self-consistent nuclear energy systems and shows that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) lies on the route to attaining the final goal.

  19. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate cultures.…

  20. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  1. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  2. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…

  3. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  4. Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleymeyer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

  5. Understanding Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for workplace education providers, defines organizational culture, reviews selected techniques for reading a company's culture, and presents examples of ways in which organizations' culture can affect workplace education programs. An organization's culture is determined by: recognizing the company's philosophy…

  6. Kenyan School and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Henry

    1980-01-01

    The author defines African culture in a Kenyan context and proposes a tri-polar cultural paradigm to chart the metamorphosis of Kenyan culture from a traditional through a national to an international focus. He makes suggestions for the role of the school in promoting an international cultural standard. (Author/SJL)

  7. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, John

    1987-01-01

    National identity and schooling are predicated on a particular yet ill-defined view of culture. To counter "popular" and "high" culture polarizations and arguments for cultural pluralism, this paper proposes that curricula be designed for student access to forms and symbols defining Australian culture through discourse and artistic…

  8. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  9. Neighborhood consistency in mental arithmetic: Behavioral and ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Domahs, Frank; Domahs, Ulrike; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Ratinckx, Elie; Verguts, Tom; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent cognitive and computational models (e.g. the Interacting Neighbors Model) state that in simple multiplication decade and unit digits of the candidate answers (including the correct result) are represented separately. Thus, these models challenge holistic views of number representation as well as traditional accounts of the classical problem size effect in simple arithmetic (i.e. the finding that large problems are answered slower and less accurate than small problems). Empirical data supporting this view are still scarce. Methods Data of 24 participants who performed a multiplication verification task with Arabic digits (e.g. 8 × 4 = 36 - true or false?) are reported. Behavioral (i.e. RT and errors) and EEG (i.e. ERP) measures were recorded in parallel. Results We provide evidence for neighborhood-consistency effects in the verification of simple multiplication problems (e.g. 8 × 4). Behaviorally, we find that decade-consistent lures, which share their decade digit with the correct result (e.g. 36), are harder to reject than matched inconsistent lures, which differ in both digits from the correct result (e.g. 28). This neighborhood consistency effect in product verification is similar to recent observations in the production of multiplication results. With respect to event-related potentials we find significant differences for consistent compared to inconsistent lures in the N400 (increased negativity) and Late Positive Component (reduced positivity). In this respect consistency effects in our paradigm resemble lexico-semantic effects earlier found in simple arithmetic and in orthographic input processing. Conclusion Our data suggest that neighborhood consistency effects in simple multiplication stem at least partly from central (lexico-semantic') stages of processing. These results are compatible with current models on the representation of simple multiplication facts – in particular with the Interacting Neighbors Model – and with the

  10. [Bioconversion of cellulose to methane by a consortium consisting of four microbial strains].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Mei; Ma, An-Zhou; Cui, Meng-Meng; Yu, Qing; Qi, Hong-Yan; Zhuang, Xu-Liang; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose was usually degraded by microbial communities in natural habitats. Construction of a simple cellulolytic consortium is necessary to understand the underlying interaction within microorganisms involved in cellulose conversion. A screening approach was developed to obtain a simple microbial community with the ability of cellulose degradation to methane. This technique was based on the method of enrichment culture accompanying with denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint detection technology and roll-tube method. Moreover, a four-strain mixed culture capable of degrading cellulose to methane was isolated from Zoige alpine wetland of the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the microbial consortia consisted of three functional groups: the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium glycolicum, the non-celluloytic bacteria group of Trichococcus flocculiformis and Parabacteroides merdae, and the methanogenic bacterium Methanobacterium subterraneum. This four-strain co-culture can convert cellulose to methane. In the future, the isolated cellulolytic consortia could provide a platform for controlling metabolic pathways and genetic modification involved in methane production from cellulose.

  11. Consistency of nonminimally coupled f(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Koivisto, Tomi S.

    2013-09-01

    Theories with a nonminimal coupling between the space-time curvature and matter fields introduce an extra force due to the nonconservation of the matter energy momentum. In the present work the theoretical consistency of such couplings is studied using a scalar field Lagrangian to model the matter content. The conditions that the coupling does not introduce ghosts, classical instabilities or superluminal propagation of perturbations are derived. These consistency conditions are then employed to rule out or severely restrict the forms of the nonminimal coupling functions considered in the previous literature. For example, a power-law coupling is viable only for sublinear positive power of the curvature scalar.

  12. S matrix proof of consistency condition derived from mixed anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Bhansali, V. . Lyman Lab. of Physics)

    1990-06-20

    For a confining quantum field theory with conserved current J and stress tensor T, the {l angle}JJJ{r angle} and {l angle}JTT{r angle} anomalies computed in terms of elementary quanta must be precisely equal to the same anomalies computed in terms of the exact physical spectrum if the conservation law corresponding to J is unbroken. These strongly constrain the allowed representations of the low energy spectrum. The authors present a proof of the latter consistency condition based on the proof by Coleman and Grossman of the former consistency condition.

  13. Spin-Isospin Resonances: A Self-Consistent Covariant Description

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Haozhao; Nguyen Van Giai; Meng Jie

    2008-09-19

    For the first time a fully self-consistent charge-exchange relativistic RPA based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach is established. The self-consistency is verified by the so-called isobaric analog state (IAS) check. The excitation properties and the nonenergy weighted sum rules of two important charge-exchange excitation modes, the Gamow-Teller resonance (GTR) and the spin-dipole resonance (SDR), are well reproduced in the doubly magic nuclei {sup 48}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb without readjustment of the particle-hole residual interaction. The dominant contribution of the exchange diagrams is demonstrated.

  14. Quantum monadology: a consistent world model for consciousness and physics.

    PubMed

    Nakagomi, Teruaki

    2003-04-01

    The NL world model presented in the previous paper is embodied by use of relativistic quantum mechanics, which reveals the significance of the reduction of quantum states and the relativity principle, and locates consciousness and the concept of flowing time consistently in physics. This model provides a consistent framework to solve apparent incompatibilities between consciousness (as our interior experience) and matter (as described by quantum mechanics and relativity theory). Does matter have an inside? What is the flowing time now? Does physics allow the indeterminism by volition? The problem of quantum measurement is also resolved in this model.

  15. Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bouland, O; Hale, G M; Lynn, J E; Talou, P; Bernard, D; Litaize, O; Noguere, G; De Saint Jean, C; Serot, O

    2010-01-01

    The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of theories used in resolved (R-matrix theory), unresolved resonance (average R-matrix theory) and continuum (optical model) rangcs by the generalization of the so-called SPRT method, consistent average parameters are extracted from observed measurements and associated covariances are therefore calculated over the whole energy range. This paper recalls, in particular, recent advances on fission cross section calculations and is willing to suggest some hints for future developments.

  16. Microfluidic perfusion culture.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic perfusion culture is a novel technique to culture animal cells in a small-scale microchamber with medium perfusion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material to fabricate a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Photolithography and replica molding techniques are generally used for fabrication of a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Pressure-driven perfusion culture system is convenient technique to carry out the perfusion culture of animal cells in a microfluidic device. Here, we describe a general theory on microfluid network design, microfabrication technique, and experimental technique for pressure-driven perfusion culture in an 8 × 8 microchamber array on a glass slide-sized microchip made out of PDMS. PMID:24297421

  17. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  18. Consistency of Response Patterns in Different Estimation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Tang, Joey

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at addressing two issues concerning children's estimation performance: (1) to investigate whether the log-to-linear framework or the proportional judgment framework provided a better explanation of children's estimation patterns, and (2) to examine the consistency of response patterns in different estimation tasks. A sample…

  19. A Nonparametric Approach to Estimate Classification Accuracy and Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Quinn N.; Cheng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    When cut scores for classifications occur on the total score scale, popular methods for estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) require assumptions about a parametric form of the test scores or about a parametric response model, such as item response theory (IRT). This article develops an approach to estimate CA…

  20. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  1. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  2. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  3. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  4. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  5. Self-consistent methods in nuclear structure physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dobaczewski, J. |

    1997-11-01

    The authors present a very brief description of the Hartree Fock method in nuclear structure physics, discuss the numerical methods used to solve the self-consistent equations, and analyze the precision and convergence properties of solutions. As an application, they present results pertaining to quadrupole moments and single-particle quadrupole polarizations in superdeformed nuclei with A {approximately} 60.

  6. Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zamick

    2008-11-07

    In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with "anomoulous" magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them.The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.

  7. 43 CFR 1610.3-2 - Consistency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... governments or Indian tribes of an apparent inconsistency. (d) Where State and local government policies... related plans, and the policies and programs contained therein, of other Federal agencies, State and local governments and Indian tribes, so long as the guidance and resource management plans are also consistent...

  8. 43 CFR 1610.3-2 - Consistency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... governments or Indian tribes of an apparent inconsistency. (d) Where State and local government policies... related plans, and the policies and programs contained therein, of other Federal agencies, State and local governments and Indian tribes, so long as the guidance and resource management plans are also consistent...

  9. An algebraic method for constructing stable and consistent autoregressive filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlim, John; Hong, Hoon; Robbins, Jacob L.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algebraic method to construct stable and consistent univariate autoregressive (AR) models of low order for filtering and predicting nonlinear turbulent signals with memory depth. By stable, we refer to the classical stability condition for the AR model. By consistent, we refer to the classical consistency constraints of Adams-Bashforth methods of order-two. One attractive feature of this algebraic method is that the model parameters can be obtained without directly knowing any training data set as opposed to many standard, regression-based parameterization methods. It takes only long-time average statistics as inputs. The proposed method provides a discretization time step interval which guarantees the existence of stable and consistent AR model and simultaneously produces the parameters for the AR models. In our numerical examples with two chaotic time series with different characteristics of decaying time scales, we find that the proposed AR models produce significantly more accurate short-term predictive skill and comparable filtering skill relative to the linear regression-based AR models. These encouraging results are robust across wide ranges of discretization times, observation times, and observation noise variances. Finally, we also find that the proposed model produces an improved short-time prediction relative to the linear regression-based AR-models in forecasting a data set that characterizes the variability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, a dominant tropical atmospheric wave pattern.

  10. Regolith breccia consisting of H and LL chondrite mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Kojima, Hideyasu

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite Yamato-8424 (Y-8424) is a regolith breccia that is homogenized mixture of H and LL chondrite components. The breccia consists mainly of a fine-grained material with mineral fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and Fe-Ni metal with traces of plagioclase.

  11. Brief Report: Consistency of Search Engine Rankings for Autism Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Naples, Adam; Steinhoff, Timothy; Halpern, Jason; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is one of the most common methods used by parents to find information on autism spectrum disorders and most consumers find information through search engines such as Google or Bing. However, little is known about how the search engines operate or the consistency of the results that are returned over time. This study presents the…

  12. Summary of residential environmental issues and program consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C

    1989-05-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Act authorizes the Bonneville Power Administration to acquire all necessary energy resources to serve Northwest utilities choosing to acquire power from the agency and to give conservation the highest priority in responding to the demand for electricity. To meet this mandate, the agency has established residential conservation programs for weatherizing existing homes, building new energy-efficient homes, and promoting energy-efficient appliances. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared this report to compare and contrast the environmental requirements and issues involving Bonneville's residential conservation programs. The key environmental concern confronting each of the programs with measures aimed at reducing air leakage rates in houses (both new and existing) is indoor air quality (IAQ). This report reviews the similarity and consistency of the programs' approach to IAQ, their impacts, program features, mitigation techniques, and new information about IAQ and other potential environmental issues confronting the programs. The information is intended for use in comparing and contrasting how environmental features mesh with other program features, checking consistency across programs and determining whether it makes sense for programs to be consistent, determining consistency between programs, and providing information to aid program planning in light of potential environmental issues and new information. 31 refs.

  13. On the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Dowker, F. |; Kent, A.

    1996-03-01

    We review the consistent histories formulations of quantum mechanics developed by Griffiths, Omnes, Gell-Man, and Hartle, and we describe the classifications of consistent sets. We illustrate some general features of consistent sets by a few lemmas and examples. We also consider various interpretations of the formalism, and we examine the new problems which arise in reconstructing the past and predicting the future. It is shown that Omnes characterization of true statements---statements that can be deduced unconditionally in his interpretation---is incorrect. We examine critically Gell-Mann and Hartle`s interpretation of the formalism, and in particular, their discussions of communication, prediction, and retrodiction, and we conclude that their explanation of the apparent persistence of quasiclassicality relies on assumptions about an as-yet-unknown theory of experience. Our overall conclusion is that the consistent histories approach illustrates the need to supplement quantum mechanics by some selection principle in order to produce a fundamental theory capable of unconditional predictions.

  14. Consistency of cosmic-ray source abudances with explosive nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1973-01-01

    A model was examined in which the cosmic ray abundances of elements from C to Fe are consistent with explosive nucleosynthesis. The observed abundance of cosmic rays near the earth, cosmic ray source abundance, and solar system abundance are discussed along with the ratios of cosmic ray sources to the solar system abundances.

  15. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  16. 3-D consistency dynamic constitutive model of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shiyun; Li, Hongnan; Lin, Gao

    2010-06-01

    Based on the consistency-viscoplastic constitutive model, the static William-Warnke model with threeparameters is modified and a consistency-viscoplastic William-Warnke model with three-parameters is developed that considers the effect of strain rates. Then, the tangent modulus of the consistency viscoplastic model is introduced and an implicit backward Elure iterative algorithm is developed. Comparisons between the numerical simulations and experimental data show that the consistency model properly provides the uniaxial and biaxial dynamic behaviors of concrete. To study the effect of strain rates on the dynamic response of concrete structures, the proposed model is used in the analysis of the dynamic response of a simply-supported beam and the results show that the strain rate has a significant effect on the displacement and stress magnitudes and distributions. Finally, the seismic responses of a 278 m high arch dam are obtained and compared by using the linear elastic model, as well as rate-independent and rate-dependent William-Warnke three-parameter models. The results indicate that the strain rate affects the first principal stresses, and the maximal equivalent viscoplastic strain rate of the arch dam. Numerical calculations and analyses reveal that considering the strain rate is important in the safety assessments of arch dams located in seismically active areas.

  17. Hippocampography Guides Consistent Mesial Resections in Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Ronan; Simon, Mirela; Eskandar, Emad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The optimal surgery in lesional neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy is unknown. Hippocampal electrocorticography maximizes seizure freedom by identifying normal-appearing epileptogenic tissue for resection and minimizes neuropsychological deficit by limiting resection to demonstrably epileptogenic tissue. We examined whether standardized hippocampal electrocorticography (hippocampography) guides resection for more consistent hippocampectomy than unguided resection in conventional electrocorticography focused on the lesion. Methods. Retrospective chart reviews any kind of electrocorticography (including hippocampography) as part of combined lesionectomy, anterolateral temporal lobectomy, and hippocampectomy over 8 years . Patients were divided into mesial (i.e., hippocampography) and lateral electrocorticography groups. Primary outcome was deviation from mean hippocampectomy length. Results. Of 26 patients, fourteen underwent hippocampography-guided mesial temporal resection. Hippocampography was associated with 2.6 times more consistent resection. The range of hippocampal resection was 0.7 cm in the mesial group and 1.8 cm in the lateral group (p = 0.01). 86% of mesial group versus 42% of lateral group patients achieved seizure freedom (p = 0.02). Conclusions. By rationally tailoring excision to demonstrably epileptogenic tissue, hippocampography significantly reduces resection variability for more consistent hippocampectomy than unguided resection in conventional electrocorticography. More consistent hippocampal resection may avoid overresection, which poses greater neuropsychological risk, and underresection, which jeopardizes postoperative seizure freedom. PMID:27703809

  18. The Myth of Cognitive Consistency: Psychological Theories and Intimate Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sandra V.

    Several psychological theories are viable when examining the victims of intimate violence, specifically battered women. Although cognitive consistency models view individuals as striving toward balanced cognitive states, battered women can exist with the cognitive inconsistency of being harmed by men who love them. The theory of cognitive arousal…

  19. Consistency in Children's Perceptions of Vulnerability to Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, David S.; And Others

    This study continued to replicate and extend research dealing with children's perceptions of vulnerability to health problems. Responses of 774 children, 8 to 17 years old, to 15 questions about the likelihood of encountering various health problems confirmed previous results indicating that perceived vulnerability is consistent across health…

  20. Evaluating Reflective Writing for Appropriateness, Fairness, and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Monica Metrick; Misselwitz, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    Samples from 17 reflective journals of nursing students were evaluated by 6 faculty. Results indicate a lack of consistency in grading reflective writing, lack of consensus regarding evaluation, and differences among faculty regarding their view of such exercises. (Contains 26 references.) (JOW)

  1. Evaluating reflective writing for appropriateness, fairness, and consistency.

    PubMed

    Kennison, Monica Metrick; Misselwitz, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    Nurse educators are divided about how to best evaluate nursing students' reflective writings for evidence of critical thinking. This article reports on a study of consistency among faculty in grading writing in reflective journals. The results indicate a lack of consensus with regard to evaluation and differences among faculty with regard to how they view the purpose of such exercises.

  2. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... target during the target consistency period and target is a subsidiary in a consolidated group. In such a... dividends are paid to a corporation that is not a member of the same consolidated group as the distributing... a member of the same consolidated group as the distributee. See paragraph (g) of this section...

  3. Evidence-based guidelines: Improving AGREEment on consistence evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Napolitano, Andrea; Santini, Daniele; Maiello, Evaristo; Torri, Valter; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Modern clinical practice relies on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based guidelines (EBGs). The critical evaluation of EBGs value is therefore an essential step to further improve clinical practice. In our opinion, correlating levels of evidence and grades of recommendation can be an easy tool to quickly display internal consistence of EBGs. PMID:26909252

  4. 43 CFR 1610.3-2 - Consistency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency requirements. 1610.3-2 Section 1610.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  5. 15 CFR 923.53 - Federal consistency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest... 306(d)(6) of the Act or a single other agency will handle consistency review (see 15 CFR 930.18);...

  6. 15 CFR 923.53 - Federal consistency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest... 306(d)(6) of the Act or a single other agency will handle consistency review (see 15 CFR 930.18);...

  7. 15 CFR 923.53 - Federal consistency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest... 306(d)(6) of the Act or a single other agency will handle consistency review (see 15 CFR 930.18);...

  8. 15 CFR 923.53 - Federal consistency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest... 306(d)(6) of the Act or a single other agency will handle consistency review (see 15 CFR 930.18);...

  9. SOCIAL COMPARISON, SELF-CONSISTENCY AND THE PRESENTATION OF SELF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORSE, STANLEY J.; GERGEN, KENNETH J.

    TO DISCOVER HOW A PERSON'S (P) SELF-CONCEPT IS AFFECTED BY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANOTHER (O) WHO SUDDENLY APPEARS IN THE SAME SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT, SEVERAL QUESTIONNAIRES, INCLUDING THE GERGEN-MORSE (1967) SELF-CONSISTENCY SCALE AND HALF THE COOPERSMITH SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY, WERE ADMINISTERED TO 78 UNDERGRADUATE MEN WHO HAD ANSWERED AN AD FOR WORK…

  10. The Influence of Consistent Assignment on Nursing Home Deficiency Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The association of consistent assignment of nurse aides (NAs) with quality of care and quality of life of nursing home residents is examined (using 5 groups of deficiency citations). Methods: Data used came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The…

  11. The Teenage Nonviolence Test: Internal Consistency and Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Weedman, Jonathon; Sonnen, Jennifer; Grubb, Celeste; Hirose, Masa

    This research study was designed to establish the reliability of the Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT). The consistency and factor structure of the TNT using a sample of 376 adolescents were evaluated. The stability of the TNT was assessed over time by administering the TNT twice with a two week intervening interval to 87 adolescents. The TNT appears…

  12. Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…

  13. An algebraic method for constructing stable and consistent autoregressive filters

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, John; Hong, Hoon; Robbins, Jacob L.

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce an algebraic method to construct stable and consistent univariate autoregressive (AR) models of low order for filtering and predicting nonlinear turbulent signals with memory depth. By stable, we refer to the classical stability condition for the AR model. By consistent, we refer to the classical consistency constraints of Adams–Bashforth methods of order-two. One attractive feature of this algebraic method is that the model parameters can be obtained without directly knowing any training data set as opposed to many standard, regression-based parameterization methods. It takes only long-time average statistics as inputs. The proposed method provides a discretization time step interval which guarantees the existence of stable and consistent AR model and simultaneously produces the parameters for the AR models. In our numerical examples with two chaotic time series with different characteristics of decaying time scales, we find that the proposed AR models produce significantly more accurate short-term predictive skill and comparable filtering skill relative to the linear regression-based AR models. These encouraging results are robust across wide ranges of discretization times, observation times, and observation noise variances. Finally, we also find that the proposed model produces an improved short-time prediction relative to the linear regression-based AR-models in forecasting a data set that characterizes the variability of the Madden–Julian Oscillation, a dominant tropical atmospheric wave pattern.

  14. Program Standards and Expectations: Providing Clarity, Consistency, and Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    The effort described in this article resulted from requests for clarity and consistency from new and existing Extension/4-H educators as well as from recommendations by university auditors. The primary purpose of the effort was to clarify standards for effective county-based 4-H youth development programs and to help focus the roles of 4-H…

  15. A beam hardening correction method based on HL consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Xuanqin; Tang, Shaojie; Yu, Hengyong

    2006-08-01

    XCT with polychromatic tube spectrum causes artifact called beam hardening effect. The current correction in CT device is carried by apriori polynomial from water phantom experiment. This paper proposes a new beam hardening correction algorithm that the correction polynomial depends on the relativity of projection data in angles, which obeys Helgasson-Ludwig Consistency (HL Consistency). Firstly, a bi-polynomial is constructed to characterize the beam hardening effect based on the physical model of medical x-ray imaging. In this bi-polynomial, a factor r(γ,β) represents the ratio of the attenuation contributions caused by high density mass (bone, etc.) to low density mass (muscle, vessel, blood, soft tissue, fat, etc.) respectively in the projection angle β and fan angle γ. Secondly, let r(γ,β)=0, the bi-polynomial is degraded as a sole-polynomial. The coefficient of this polynomial can be calculated based on HL Consistency. Then, the primary correction is reached, which is also more efficient in theoretical than the correction method in current CT devices. Thirdly, based on the result of a normal CT reconstruction from the corrected projection data, r(γ,β) can be estimated. Fourthly, the coefficient of bi-polynomial can also be calculated based HL Consistency and the final correction are achieved. Experiments of circular cone beam CT indicate this method an excellent property. Correcting beam hardening effect based on HL Consistency, not only achieving a self-adaptive and more precise correction, but also getting rid of regular inconvenient water phantom experiments, will renovate the correction technique of current CT devices.

  16. Conformal consistency relations for single-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Simonović, Marko E-mail: jorge.norena@gmail.com

    2012-07-01

    We generalize the single-field consistency relations to capture not only the leading term in the squeezed limit — going as 1/q{sup 3}, where q is the small wavevector — but also the subleading one, going as 1/q{sup 2}. This term, for an (n+1)-point function, is fixed in terms of the variation of the n-point function under a special conformal transformation; this parallels the fact that the 1/q{sup 3} term is related with the scale dependence of the n-point function. For the squeezed limit of the 3-point function, this conformal consistency relation implies that there are no terms going as 1/q{sup 2}. We verify that the squeezed limit of the 4-point function is related to the conformal variation of the 3-point function both in the case of canonical slow-roll inflation and in models with reduced speed of sound. In the second case the conformal consistency conditions capture, at the level of observables, the relation among operators induced by the non-linear realization of Lorentz invariance in the Lagrangian. These results mean that, in any single-field model, primordial correlation functions of ζ are endowed with an SO(4,1) symmetry, with dilations and special conformal transformations non-linearly realized by ζ. We also verify the conformal consistency relations for any n-point function in models with a modulation of the inflaton potential, where the scale dependence is not negligible. Finally, we generalize (some of) the consistency relations involving tensors and soft internal momenta.

  17. Consistent Data Assimilation of Isotopes: 242Pu and 105Pd

    SciTech Connect

    G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; M. Salvatores

    2012-09-01

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments are analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 242Pu and 105Pd. In particular irradiation experiments (PROFIL-1 and -2, TRAPU-1, -2 and -3) provide information about capture cross sections, and a critical configuration, COSMO, where fission spectral indexes were measured, provides information about fission cross section. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results are used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that not so large modifications on some key identified nuclear parameters allow to obtain reasonable C/E. However, for some parameters such variations are outside the range of 1 s of their initial standard deviation. This can indicate a possible conflict between differential measurements (used to calculate the initial standard deviations) and the integral measurements used in the statistical data adjustment. Moreover, an inconsistency between the C/E of two sets of irradiation experiments (PROFIL and TRAPU) is observed for 242Pu. This is the end of this project funded by the Nuclear Physics Program of the DOE Office of Science. We can indicate that a proof of principle has been demonstrated for a few isotopes for this innovative methodology. However, we are still far from having explored all the possibilities and made this methodology to be considered proved and robust. In particular many issues are worth further investigation: • Non-linear effects • Flexibility of nuclear parameters in describing cross sections • Multi-isotope consistent assimilation • Consistency between differential and integral

  18. The internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Bozec, Yann; Borges, Alberto V.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-05-01

    In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three parameters (AT, DIC, pCO2) measured on four additional re-occupations, covering all four seasons, allowing an assessment of the internal consistency of the carbonate system. For most of the year, there is a similar level of internal consistency, with AT being calculated to within ± 6 μmol kg- 1 using DIC and pH, DIC to ± 6 μmol kg- 1 using AT and pH, pH to ± 0.008 using AT and pCO2, and pCO2 to ± 8 μatm using DIC and pH, with the dissociation constants of Millero et al. (2006). In spring, however, we observe a significant decline in the ability to accurately calculate the carbonate system. Lower consistency is observed with an increasing fraction of Baltic Sea water, caused by the high contribution of organic alkalinity in this water mass, not accounted for in the carbonate system calculations. Attempts to improve the internal consistency by accounting for the unconventional salinity-borate relationships in freshwater and the Baltic Sea, and through application of the new North Atlantic salinity-boron relationship (Lee et al., 2010), resulted in no significant difference in the internal consistency.

  19. A NEW APPROACH FOR THE CULTURE OF FATHEAD MINNOWS, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas) are routinely cultured for use in aquatic toxicology studies. Most culture systems consist of a series of 4 to 30 individual tanks with 16 - 18 fish (2 males and 14-16 females) in each tank. The new mass culture system consists of six 50 gal...

  20. A New Approach for the Laboratory Culture of the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas) are routinely cultured for use in aquatic toxicology studies. Most culture systems consist of a series of 4 to 30 individual tanks with a varied number of breeding pairs in each tank. A new mass culture system described here consists of six ...

  1. School violence and the culture of honor.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan P; Osterman, Lindsey L; Barnes, Collin D

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a sociocultural variable known as the culture of honor would be uniquely predictive of school-violence indicators. Controlling for demographic characteristics associated in previous studies with violent crime among adults, we found that high-school students in culture-of-honor states were significantly more likely than high-school students in non-culture-of-honor states to report having brought a weapon to school in the past month. Using data aggregated over a 20-year period, we also found that culture-of-honor states had more than twice as many school shootings per capita as non-culture-of-honor states. The data revealed important differences between school violence and general patterns of homicide and are consistent with the view that many acts of school violence reflect retaliatory aggression springing from intensely experienced social-identity threats.

  2. Culture brokerage strategies in diabetes education.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina K; Uz, Sharon W; Hinton, Ivora; Williams, Ishan; Jones, Randy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the elements of culture brokerage as applied in a recent educational pilot study among rural African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Culture Brokerage is a nursing intervention consisting of mediation between the traditional health beliefs and practices of a patient's culture and the health care system. The intervention of Culture Brokerage holds particular relevance for clinicians who work with chronically ill patients, including those with diabetes. Diabetes prevalence rates continue to rise with alarming swiftness, affecting people of all age groups and ethnicities. The burden of disease, however, disproportionately falls on ethnic minority groups, including African Americans. Notable health disparities in the prevalence and long-term complications of diabetes warrant the attention of health care professionals. One way in which public health nurses can address these disparities is to apply strategies of culture brokerage.

  3. Linking nursing unit's culture to organizational effectiveness: a measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Casida, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Organizational culture consists of the deep underlying assumptions, beliefs, and values that are shared by members of the organization and typically operate unconsciously. The four organizational culture traits of the Denison Organizational Culture Model (DOCM) are characteristics of organizational effectiveness, which include adaptability, involvement, consistency, and mission. Effective organizations demonstrate high levels of the four cultural traits which reflect their ability to balance the dynamic tension between the need for stability and the need for flexibility within the organization. The Denison Organizational Culture Survey (DOCS) is a measurement tool that was founded on the theoretical framework of the DOCM, and in the field of business, is one of the most commonly used tools for measuring organizational culture. The DOCS offers a promising approach to operationalizing and measuring the link between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness in the context of nursing units.

  4. A self-consistent picture of Jupiter's nightside magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbardo, G.

    1989-07-01

    A model of Jupiter's nightside magnetosphere, based on the theory of self-consistent axisymmetric MHD equilibrium, is presented. The model assumes that the plasma forms a thin disk, while the magnetopause is considered as a surface that confines the magnetic flux of the dipole and of the current disk. Data from the Voyager missions were used as input for the solution of the equation determining the self-consistent equilibrium magnetic structure, and computations are performed by varying the hot-plasma composition and the current disk cutoff radius. It was found that, with sufficiently large disks, the magnetic configuration has an X line and an O line, with the X line located between 37 and 45 Jovian radii; the position of O line is less certain. The results of the model agree well with the magnetic field data in the tail.

  5. Self-consistent Castaing Distribution of Solar Wind Turbulent Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Marino, R.; Lijoi, L.; Perri, S.; Carbone, V.

    2015-07-01

    The intermittent behavior of solar wind turbulent fluctuations has often been investigated through the modeling of their probability distribution functions (PDFs). Among others, the Castaing model has successfully been used in the past. In this paper, the energy dissipation field of solar wind turbulence has been studied for fast, slow, and polar wind samples recorded by Helios 2 and Ulysses spacecraft. The statistical description of the dissipation rate has then been used to remove intermittency through conditioning of the PDFs. Based on such observation, a self-consistent, parameter-free Castaing model is presented. The self-consistent model is tested against experimental PDFs, showing good agreement and supporting the picture of a multifractal energy cascade at the origin of solar wind intermittency.

  6. Multigrid methods and the surface consistent equations of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, John

    The surface consistent equations are a large linear system that is frequently used in signal enhancement for land seismic surveys. Different signatures may be consistent with a particular dynamite (or other) source. Each receiver and the conditions around the receiver will have different impact on the signal. Seismic deconvolution operators, amplitude corrections and static shifts of traces are calculated using the surface consistent equations, both in commercial and scientific seismic processing software. The system of equations is singular, making direct methods such as Gaussian elimination impossible to implement. Iterative methods such as Gauss-Seidel and conjugate gradient are frequently used. A limitation in the nature of the methods leave the long wavelengths of the solution poorly resolved. To reduce the limitations of traditional iterative methods, we employ a multigrid method. Multigrid methods re-sample the entire system of equations on a more coarse grid. An iterative method is employed on the coarse grid. The long wavelengths of the solutions that traditional iterative methods were unable to resolve are calculated on the reduced system of equations. The coarse estimate can be interpolated back up to the original sample rate, and refined using a standard iterative procedure. Multigrid methods provide more accurate solutions to the surface consistent equations, with the largest improvement concentrated in the long wavelengths. Synthetic models and tests on field data show that multigrid solutions to the system of equations can significantly increase the resolution of the seismic data, when used to correct both static time shifts and in calculating deconvolution operators. The first chapter of this thesis is a description of the physical model we are addressing. It reviews some of the literature concerning the surface consistent equations, and provides background on the nature of the problem. Chapter 2 contains a review of iterative and multigrid methods

  7. Consistent tangent matrices for density-dependent finite plasticity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Foguet, Agustí; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio; Huerta, Antonio

    2001-09-01

    The consistent tangent matrix for density-dependent plastic models within the theory of isotropic multiplicative hyperelastoplasticity is presented here. Plastic equations expressed as general functions of the Kirchhoff stresses and density are considered. They include the Cauchy-based plastic models as a particular case. The standard exponential return-mapping algorithm is applied, with the density playing the role of a fixed parameter during the nonlinear plastic corrector problem. The consistent tangent matrix has the same structure as in the usual density-independent plastic models. A simple additional term takes into account the influence of the density on the plastic corrector problem. Quadratic convergence results are shown for several representative examples involving geomaterial and powder constitutive models.

  8. Nonzero Density-Velocity Consistency Relations for Large Scale Structures.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Mota, David F; Valageas, Patrick

    2016-08-19

    We present exact kinematic consistency relations for cosmological structures that do not vanish at equal times and can thus be measured in surveys. These rely on cross correlations between the density and velocity, or momentum, fields. Indeed, the uniform transport of small-scale structures by long-wavelength modes, which cannot be detected at equal times by looking at density correlations only, gives rise to a shift in the amplitude of the velocity field that could be measured. These consistency relations only rely on the weak equivalence principle and Gaussian initial conditions. They remain valid in the nonlinear regime and for biased galaxy fields. They can be used to constrain nonstandard cosmological scenarios or the large-scale galaxy bias. PMID:27588842

  9. Exceptional generalised geometry for massive IIA and consistent reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Davide; de Felice, Oscar; Petrini, Michela; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    We develop an exceptional generalised geometry formalism for massive type IIA supergravity. In particular, we construct a deformation of the generalised Lie derivative, which generates the type IIA gauge transformations as modified by the Romans mass. We apply this new framework to consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions preserving maximal supersymmetry. We find a generalised parallelisation of the exceptional tangent bundle on S 6, and from this reproduce the consistent truncation ansatz and embedding tensor leading to dyonically gauged ISO(7) supergravity in four dimensions. We also discuss closely related hyperboloid reductions, yielding a dyonic ISO( p, 7 - p) gauging. Finally, while for vanishing Romans mass we find a generalised parallelisation on S d , d = 4 , 3 , 2, leading to a maximally supersymmetric reduction with gauge group SO( d + 1) (or larger), we provide evidence that an analogous reduction does not exist in the massive theory.

  10. Self-consistent calculations of alpha-decay energies

    SciTech Connect

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2013-06-15

    On the basis of the self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems, the energies of alphadecay chains were calculated for several new superheavy nuclei discovered recently in experiments of the Dubna-Livermore Collaboration headed by Yu.Ts. Oganessian. The approach in question is implemented on the basis of the generalized method of the density functional proposed by Fayans and his coauthors. The version used here relies on the functional DF3-a proposed recently for describing a wide array of nuclear data, including data on superheavy nuclei. A detailed comparison of the results obtained on this basis with the predictions of different approaches, including the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method, the micro-macro method in the version developed by Sobiczewski and his coauthors, and the phenomenological method of Liran and his coauthors, is performed. The resulting alpha-decay energies are used to calculate respective lifetimes with the aid of the phenomenological Parkhomenko-Sobiczewski formula.

  11. Photoabsorption off nuclei with self-consistent vertex corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Riek, F.; Lutz, M. F. M.; Korpa, C. L.

    2009-08-15

    We study photoproduction off nuclei based on a self-consistent and covariant many-body approach for the pion and isobar propagation in infinite nuclear matter. For the first time the t-channel exchange of an in-medium pion is evaluated in the presence of vertex correction effects consistently. In particular the interference pattern with the s-channel in-medium nucleon and isobar exchange contribution is considered. Electromagnetic gauge invariance is kept as a consequence of various Ward identities obeyed by the computation. Adjusting the set of Migdal parameters to the data set we predict an attractive mass shift for the isobar of about 50 MeV at nuclear saturation density.

  12. On the grade consistent theories of micromorphic elastic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Iesan, D.

    2011-02-10

    For the investigation of specific nonlocal phenomena the second-order displacement gradient has been added to the independent constitutive variables used in the classical theories of elastic solids. In this paper we outline the hystorical development of the subject and present a nonlinear grade consistent theory of micromorphic elastic solids in which the independent constitutive variables are the deformation gradient, the second-order displacement gradient, microdeformation tensor, and microdeformation gradient. Then, we present the linearized theory and establish a uniqueness result with no definiteness assumption on the elastic coefficients. The theory is used to obtain the basic eqations of a grade consistent theory of microstretch elastic bodies. The field equations for an isotropic and homogeneous elastic body are presented. A counterpart of the Cauchy-Kowalevski-Somigliana solution of the classical elastodynamics is established.

  13. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao E-mail: lh399@columbia.edu

    2015-09-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space.

  14. Non-trivial checks of novel consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin; Wang, Junpu E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-06-01

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.

  15. Self-consistent, unbiased root-mean-square emittance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Welton, R. F.; Keller, R.

    2004-05-01

    We present a self-consistent method for analyzing measured emittance data that yields unbiased estimates for the root-mean-square (rms) emittance. The self-consistent, unbiased elliptical exclusion analysis uses an ellipse to determine the bias from the data outside the ellipse, before calculating the rms emittance from the bias-subtracted data within the ellipse. Increasing the ellipse size until the rms emittance estimate saturates allows for determining the minimum elliptical area that includes all real signals, even those buried in the noise. Variations of the ellipse shape and orientations are used to test the robustness of the results. Background fluctuations cause fluctuations in the rms emittance estimate, which are an estimate of the uncertainty incurred through the analysis.

  16. Frequency and consistency effects in a pure surface dyslexic patient.

    PubMed

    Patterson, K; Behrmann, M

    1997-08-01

    Data are presented from a neurological patient (M.P.) with an acquired deficit for naming words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. In Experiment 1, the degree of consistency within neighborhoods of orthographically similar words had a parallel impact on M.P.'s pronunciations of regular and irregular words and nonwords. This result is more compatible with models in which the same basic procedure, sensitive in a graded fashion to both frequency and consistency, computes pronunciations for all types of letter strings than it is with models postulating separate lexical and nonlexical mechanisms. In Experiment 2, both correct and regularized pronunciations of exception words yielded response times significantly modulated by word frequency, a finding not predicted by an current model. Neuropsychological observations provide an important additional source of evidence regarding models of cognitive function. PMID:9269734

  17. A minimal model of self-consistent partial synchrony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clusella, Pau; Politi, Antonio; Rosenblum, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We show that self-consistent partial synchrony in globally coupled oscillatory ensembles is a general phenomenon. We analyze in detail appearance and stability properties of this state in possibly the simplest setup of a biharmonic Kuramoto–Daido phase model as well as demonstrate the effect in limit-cycle relaxational Rayleigh oscillators. Such a regime extends the notion of splay state from a uniform distribution of phases to an oscillating one. Suitable collective observables such as the Kuramoto order parameter allow detecting the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution. The characteristic and most peculiar property of self-consistent partial synchrony is the difference between the frequency of single units and that of the macroscopic field.

  18. A prospective study on defecation frequency, stool weight, and consistency.

    PubMed Central

    Myo-Khin; Thein-Win-Nyunt; Kyaw-Hla, S; Thein-Thein-Myint; Bolin, T D

    1994-01-01

    It has been commonly believed that children in developing countries pass stools that are very different from those of developed countries. A community based study on defecation frequency, stool weight, and consistency was conducted in a cohort of 300 Myanmar (Burmese) children aged 1 to 4 years. Most (80.3%) children opened their bowels daily and none passed more than three stools a day. The mean (SD) defecation frequency was 6.98 (1.94) times a week and total stool weight was 596 (221) g a week. The majority (61%) of children passed soft stools. At all ages, there was no significant difference in the defecation frequency, stool weight, and consistency between boys and girls, those on adult style diet and those partially weaned, and between age groups. PMID:7979522

  19. Viscoelastic models with consistent hypoelasticity for fluids undergoing finite deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Guillaume; Rouhaud, Emmanuelle; Panicaud, Benoit; Roos, Arjen; Kerner, Richard; Wang, Mingchuan

    2015-08-01

    Constitutive models of viscoelastic fluids are written with rate-form equations when considering finite deformations. Trying to extend the approach used to model these effects from an infinitesimal deformation to a finite transformation framework, one has to ensure that the tensors and their rates are indifferent with respect to the change of observer and to the superposition with rigid body motions. Frame-indifference problems can be solved with the use of an objective stress transport, but the choice of such an operator is not obvious and the use of certain transports usually leads to physically inconsistent formulation of hypoelasticity. The aim of this paper is to present a consistent formulation of hypoelasticity and to combine it with a viscosity model to construct a consistent viscoelastic model. In particular, the hypoelastic model is reversible.

  20. Achieving cross-border consistency during a nuclear emergency.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Stephanie; Majerus, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the HERCA working group on emergencies (WGE) is to develop proposals to align decisions of European national crisis management organisations in a consistent manner during a nuclear emergency. The focus is to enhance the cooperation between the European organisations responsible for emergency radiological assessment, such as nuclear safety and radiological safety authorities, and their respective technical support organisations. A common understanding of a given emergency situation between those bodies will form the basis for consistent appropriate recommendations on protective actions and other response actions. The aim is to develop proposals which apply both to an accident within the boundaries of the HERCA member countries and also to a distant accident (such as Fukushima). PMID:24184142

  1. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  2. Turbulent MHD transport coefficients - An attempt at self-consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H.; Montgomery, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, some multiple scale perturbation calculations of turbulent MHD transport coefficients begun in earlier papers are first completed. These generalize 'alpha effect' calculations by treating the velocity field and magnetic field on the same footing. Then the problem of rendering such calculations self-consistent is addressed, generalizing an eddy-viscosity hypothesis similar to that of Heisenberg for the Navier-Stokes case. The method also borrows from Kraichnan's direct interaction approximation. The output is a set of integral equations relating the spectra and the turbulent transport coefficients. Previous 'alpha effect' and 'beta effect' coefficients emerge as limiting cases. A treatment of the inertial range can also be given, consistent with a -5/3 energy spectrum power law. In the Navier-Stokes limit, a value of 1.72 is extracted for the Kolmogorov constant. Further applications to MHD are possible.

  3. Consistency of condom use among users of injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, H; Poindexter, A N; Bateman, L

    1997-01-01

    Use of condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was examined over a nine-month period among 536 women from 17 clinics in southeastern Texas who had selected the injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as a contraceptive. Among women who were using condoms prior to receiving DMPA, nearly half said they never or rarely did so after initiating DMPA use; only 18% of all women in the study used condoms consistently while relying on DMPA. Factors associated with consistent condom use were being black (odds ratio of 2.0), being unmarried (odds ratio of 2.2), having a history of STD infection (odds ratio of 1.8), having previously used condoms (odds ratio of 2.7) and having no interest in future childbearing (odds ratio of 1.8). Our data suggest that the majority of users of injectables may not be protected from exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs.

  4. ProbCons: Probabilistic consistency-based multiple sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Do, Chuong B; Mahabhashyam, Mahathi S P; Brudno, Michael; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2005-02-01

    To study gene evolution across a wide range of organisms, biologists need accurate tools for multiple sequence alignment of protein families. Obtaining accurate alignments, however, is a difficult computational problem because of not only the high computational cost but also the lack of proper objective functions for measuring alignment quality. In this paper, we introduce probabilistic consistency, a novel scoring function for multiple sequence comparisons. We present ProbCons, a practical tool for progressive protein multiple sequence alignment based on probabilistic consistency, and evaluate its performance on several standard alignment benchmark data sets. On the BAliBASE, SABmark, and PREFAB benchmark alignment databases, ProbCons achieves statistically significant improvement over other leading methods while maintaining practical speed. ProbCons is publicly available as a Web resource.

  5. Nonzero Density-Velocity Consistency Relations for Large Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Mota, David F.; Valageas, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    We present exact kinematic consistency relations for cosmological structures that do not vanish at equal times and can thus be measured in surveys. These rely on cross correlations between the density and velocity, or momentum, fields. Indeed, the uniform transport of small-scale structures by long-wavelength modes, which cannot be detected at equal times by looking at density correlations only, gives rise to a shift in the amplitude of the velocity field that could be measured. These consistency relations only rely on the weak equivalence principle and Gaussian initial conditions. They remain valid in the nonlinear regime and for biased galaxy fields. They can be used to constrain nonstandard cosmological scenarios or the large-scale galaxy bias.

  6. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ₁ from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ΓE). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT.more » It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.« less

  7. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ₁ from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ΓE). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT. It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.

  8. Thermodynamic consistency near the liquid-liquid critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Pérez-Sánchez, Germán; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Troncoso, Jacobo; Romaní, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamic consistency of the isobaric heat capacity per unit volume at constant composition Cp,x and the density ρ near the liquid-liquid critical point is studied in detail. To this end, Cp,x(T), ρ(T ), and the slope of the critical line (dT /dp)c for five binary mixtures composed by 1-nitropropane and an alkane were analyzed. Both Cp,x(T) and ρ(T ) data were measured along various quasicritical isopleths with a view to evaluate the effect of the uncertainty in the critical composition value on the corresponding critical amplitudes. By adopting the traditionally employed strategies for data treatment, consistency within 0.01 K MPa-1 (or 8%) is attained, thereby largely improving the majority of previous results. From temperature range shrinking fits and fits in which higher-order terms in the theoretical expressions for Cp,x(T) and ρ(T ) are included, we conclude that discrepancies come mainly from inherent difficulties in determining the critical anomaly of ρ accurately: specifically, to get full consistency, higher-order terms in ρ(T ) are needed; however, the various contributions at play cannot be separated unambiguously. As a consequence, the use of Cp,x(T) and (dT /dp)c for predicting the behavior of ρ(T ) at near criticality appears to be the best choice at the actual experimental resolution levels. Furthermore, the reasonably good thermodynamic consistency being encountered confirms that previous arguments appealing to the inadequacy of the theoretical expression relating Cp,x and ρ for describing data in the experimentally accessible region must be fairly rejected.

  9. Consistency and synthesis of Pacific Ocean CO2 survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, M. F.; Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Wanninkhof, R.; Key, Robert; Johnson, G.C.; Millero, F. J.; Lee, K.; Peng, T.-H.; Kozyr, Alexander; Bullister, J.L.; Greeley, D.; Byrne, R.H.; Chipman, D.W.; Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C.; Guenther, P.R.; Ishii, M.; Johnson, K.M.; Ono, Tsueno; Tilbrook, B.; Takahashi, Taro; Wallace, D.W.R.; Watanabe, Y.W.; Winn, C.; Wong, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1999, carbon measurements were made on twenty-five WOCE/JGOFS/OACES cruises in the Pacific Ocean. Investigators from 15 different laboratories and four countries analyzed at least two of the four measurable ocean carbon parameters (DIC, TAlk, fCO2, and pH) on almost all cruises. The goal of this work is to assess the quality of the Pacific carbon survey data and to make recommendations for generating a unified data set that is consistent between cruises. Several different lines of evidence were used to examine the consistency, including comparison of calibration techniques, results from certified reference material analyses, precision of at-sea replicate analyses, agreement between shipboard analyses and replicate shore based analyses, comparison of deep water values at locations where two or more cruises overlapped or crossed, consistency with other hydrographic parameters, and internal consistency with multiple carbon parameter measurements. With the adjustments proposed here, the data can be combined to generate a Pacific Ocean data set, with over 36,000 unique sample locations analyzed for at least two carbon parameters in most cases. The best data coverage was for DIC, which has an estimated overall accuracy of ~3 umol/kg. TAlk, the second most common carbon parameter analyzed, had an estimated overall accuracy of ~5 umol/kg. To obtain additional details on this study, including detailed crossover plots and information on the availability of the compiled, adjusted data set, visit the Global Data Analysis Project web site at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap.

  10. EBT reactor characteristics consistent with stability and power balance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a recent EBT reactor study that includes both ring and core plasma properties and consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters.

  11. Self-consistent calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Kfir; Sato, Ryosuke; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-06-01

    A calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement is presented and applied to the problem of s-wave non-relativistic dark matter annihilation. The difference from previous computations in the literature is that the effect of the underlying short-range scattering process is consistently included together with the long-range force in the effective QM Schrödinger problem. Our procedure satisfies partial-wave unitarity where previous calculations fail. We provide analytic results for some potentials of phenomenological relevance.

  12. Diagnostic Mass-Consistent Wind Field Monte Carlo Dispersion Model

    1991-01-01

    MATHEW generates a diagnostic mass-consistent, three-dimensional wind field based on point measurements of wind speed and direction. It accounts for changes in topography within its calculational domain. The modeled wind field is used by the Langrangian ADPIC dispersion model. This code is designed to predict the atmospheric boundary layer transport and diffusion of neutrally bouyant, non-reactive species as well as first-order chemical reactions and radioactive decay (including daughter products).

  13. Consistency of cosmic-ray source abundances with explosive nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1973-01-01

    Certain results regarding the ratio of cosmic-ray sources (CRS) and Solar System abundances are the same as those obtained from explosive nucleosynthesis. Such a model is consistent with the fact that in the Solar System Mg, Si, and Fe are believed to be produced by explosive nucleosynthesis, whereas C and O are mainly products of other processes. The model considered explains the carbon-to-oxygen ratio in the cosmic rays.

  14. VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREESTORY REINFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREE-STORY REINFORCED CONCRETE FACTORY WITH A SMALLER ONE-STORY LOADING DOCK AND ANOTHER ONE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING ON THE EAST FACADE. THE THREE-STORY BUILDING HAS VERTICAL METAL PANELING ON THE UPPER STORY. THE ENTIRE COMPLEX IS PAINTED PINK WITH MUCH DAMAGE TO THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING ON THE SOUTH SIDE - American Can Company, 1400 Trombly Avenue, Detroit, MI

  15. Structures, profile consistency, and transport scaling in electrostatic convection

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-04-15

    Two mechanisms at the origin of profile consistency in models of electrostatic turbulence in magnetized plasmas are considered. One involves turbulent diffusion in collisionless plasmas and the subsequent turbulent equipartition of Lagrangian invariants. By the very nature of its definition, this state can only be reached in the absence of imposed fluxes of the transported quantities. As such, the concept of turbulent equipartition cannot be used to interpret profiles in numerical simulations of interchange modes, as it has nevertheless been done in the past. It is shown in this article that for interchange modes, profile consistency is in fact due to mixing by persistent large-scale convective cells. This mechanism is not a turbulent diffusion, cannot occur in collisionless systems, and is the analog of the well-known laminar 'magnetic flux expulsion' in magnetohydrodynamics. This expulsion process involves a 'pinch' across closed streamlines and further results in the formation of pressure fingers along the separatrix of the convective cells. By nature, these coherent structures are dissipative because the mixing process that leads to their formation relies on a finite amount of collisional diffusion. Numerical simulations of two-dimensional interchange modes confirm the role of laminar expulsion by convective cells for profile consistency and structure formation. They also show that the fingerlike pressure structures ultimately control the rate of heat transport across the plasma layer and thus the transport scaling at large Rayleigh numbers. This contradicts mixing-length arguments which do not account for collisional processes. For interchange modes, the problem of coherent structure formation, profile consistency, and transport scaling are thus intimately linked.

  16. Identification of consistency in rating curve data: Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Before calculating rating curve discharges, it is crucial to identify possible interruptions in data consistency. In this research, a methodology to perform this preliminary analysis is developed and validated. This methodology, called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), evaluates in each data point results of a rating curve model with randomly sampled parameter sets. The combination of a parameter set and a data point is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Moreover, a tolerance degree that defines satisfactory behavior of a sequence of model results is chosen. This tolerance degree equals the percentage of observations that are allowed to have non-acceptable model results. Subsequently, the results of the classification is used to assess the maximum left and right reach for each data point of a chronologically sorted time series. This maximum left and right reach in a gauging point represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. This analysis is repeated for a variety of tolerance degrees. Plotting results of this analysis for all data points and all tolerance degrees in a combined BReach plot enables the detection of changes in data consistency. Moreover, if consistent periods are detected, limits of these periods can be derived. The methodology is validated with various synthetic stage-discharge data sets and proves to be a robust technique to investigate temporal consistency of rating curve data. It provides satisfying results despite of low data availability, large errors in the estimated observational uncertainty, and a rating curve model that is known to cover only a limited part of the observations.

  17. Une maison de culture (A Culture Center).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlevat, Alain

    1980-01-01

    Describes the "Culture Center" designed by Le Corbusier and located in Firminy, France. The role of the center in arousing intellectual curiosity in people living in a technological age is discussed. The audience of this culture center, young people, and the types of activities directed toward them are described. (AMH)

  18. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  19. Consistent assignment of the vibrations of monosubstituted benzenes.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Adrian M; Wright, Timothy G

    2011-09-21

    We investigate the consistency of the labeling and assignments of the vibrations of the monosubstituted benzenes in the electronic ground state. In doing so, we also identify some inconsistencies in the labeling of the benzene modes. We commence by investigating the behavior of the benzene vibrations as one hydrogen is replaced by an artificial atomic substituent of increasing mass via quantum chemical calculations; the wavenumber variations with mass give insight into the assignments. We also examine how well the monohalobenzene vibrations can be described in terms of the benzene ones: consistent with some recent studies, we conclude that this is futile in a significant number of cases. We then show that "isotopic wavenumbers" obtained by artificially changing the mass of the fluorine atom in fluorobenzene are in very good agreement with the wavenumbers obtained via explicit calculation for the relevant monohalobenzene (chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, and iodobenzene) vibrations. As a consequence, we propose that the vibrations of monofluorobenzene be used as the basis for labelling the vibrational assignments of monosubstituted benzenes. As well as the four monohalobenzenes, we also apply this approach to the vibrations of aniline, toluene, benzonitrile, phenylacetylene, phenylphosphine, and nitrobenzene. This has allowed a much more consistent picture of the vibrational assignments to be obtained across ten monosubstituted benzenes. PMID:21950860

  20. Consistent assignment of the vibrations of monosubstituted benzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the consistency of the labeling and assignments of the vibrations of the monosubstituted benzenes in the electronic ground state. In doing so, we also identify some inconsistencies in the labeling of the benzene modes. We commence by investigating the behavior of the benzene vibrations as one hydrogen is replaced by an artificial atomic substituent of increasing mass via quantum chemical calculations; the wavenumber variations with mass give insight into the assignments. We also examine how well the monohalobenzene vibrations can be described in terms of the benzene ones: consistent with some recent studies, we conclude that this is futile in a significant number of cases. We then show that "isotopic wavenumbers" obtained by artificially changing the mass of the fluorine atom in fluorobenzene are in very good agreement with the wavenumbers obtained via explicit calculation for the relevant monohalobenzene (chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, and iodobenzene) vibrations. As a consequence, we propose that the vibrations of monofluorobenzene be used as the basis for labelling the vibrational assignments of monosubstituted benzenes. As well as the four monohalobenzenes, we also apply this approach to the vibrations of aniline, toluene, benzonitrile, phenylacetylene, phenylphosphine, and nitrobenzene. This has allowed a much more consistent picture of the vibrational assignments to be obtained across ten monosubstituted benzenes.

  1. The Kelvin equation and self-consistent nucleation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilemski, G. |

    1995-07-15

    Issues of self-consistency are reviewed for several unary equilibrium size distributions based on the capillarity approximation. Some apparent difficulties of interpretation are resolved. In terms of the kinetic approach to nucleation theory, the influence of self-consistency on the nucleation rate is shown to arise entirely from differences in the dimer evaporation rates for nearly all versions of classical theory. The nucleation rate behavior of the Kelvin model is explored. In this model, the Kelvin equation is used to prescribe all cluster evaporation rates. Nucleation rates predicted by the Kelvin model are quantitatively similar to those of the self-consistent classical (SCC) theory, but not to other simple versions of the classical theory. This behavior arises entirely from the relatively close coincidence of the SCC and Kelvin dimer evaporation rates. This means that, for the distribution-based versions of classical theory, the SCC model is the closest analogue of the Kelvin model. Because the Kelvin equation is fundamentally inadequate for very small clusters, the close relationship between the Kelvin and SCC formulations indicates that both are equally lacking in fundamental justification. The Kelvin model may, however, have some pragmatic utility, and a simple analytical rate expression is also derived for it to simplify the calculation of nucleation rates for this model. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  2. Consistency relation in power law G-inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Shankaranarayanan, S. E-mail: shanki@iisertvm.ac.in

    2014-07-01

    In the standard inflationary scenario based on a minimally coupled scalar field, canonical or non-canonical, the subluminal propagation of speed of scalar perturbations ensures the following consistency relation: r ≤ −8n{sub T}, where r is the tensor-to-scalar-ratio and n{sub T} is the spectral index for tensor perturbations. However, recently, it has been demonstrated that this consistency relation could be violated in Galilean inflation models even in the absence of superluminal propagation of scalar perturbations. It is therefore interesting to investigate whether the subluminal propagation of scalar field perturbations impose any bound on the ratio r/|n{sub T}| in G-inflation models. In this paper, we derive the consistency relation for a class of G-inflation models that lead to power law inflation. Within these class of models, it turns out that one can have r > −8n{sub T} or r ≤ −8n{sub T} depending on the model parameters. However, the subluminal propagation of speed of scalar field perturbations, as required by causality, restricts r ≤ −(32/3) n{sub T}.

  3. CONSISTENCY UNDER SAMPLING OF EXPONENTIAL RANDOM GRAPH MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Rinaldo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The growing availability of network data and of scientific interest in distributed systems has led to the rapid development of statistical models of network structure. Typically, however, these are models for the entire network, while the data consists only of a sampled sub-network. Parameters for the whole network, which is what is of interest, are estimated by applying the model to the sub-network. This assumes that the model is consistent under sampling, or, in terms of the theory of stochastic processes, that it defines a projective family. Focusing on the popular class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we show that this apparently trivial condition is in fact violated by many popular and scientifically appealing models, and that satisfying it drastically limits ERGM’s expressive power. These results are actually special cases of more general results about exponential families of dependent random variables, which we also prove. Using such results, we offer easily checked conditions for the consistency of maximum likelihood estimation in ERGMs, and discuss some possible constructive responses. PMID:26166910

  4. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Tarenskeen, Sammie; Broersma, Mirjam; Geurts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of color overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include color than pattern (probably because color is more salient), they may also treat pattern like color due to a tendency toward consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend to refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced. PMID:26594190

  5. Consistency-based ellipse detection method for complicated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Huang, Xuexiang; Feng, Weichun; Liang, Shuli; Hu, Tianjian

    2016-05-01

    Accurate ellipse detection in complicated images is a challenging problem due to corruptions from image clutter, noise, or occlusion of other objects. To cope with this problem, an edge-following-based ellipse detection method is proposed which promotes the performances of the subprocesses based on consistency. The ellipse detector models edge connectivity by line segments and exploits inconsistent endpoints of the line segments to split the edge contours into smooth arcs. The smooth arcs are further refined with a novel arc refinement method which iteratively improves the consistency degree of the smooth arc. A two-phase arc integration method is developed to group disconnected elliptical arcs belonging to the same ellipse, and two constraints based on consistency are defined to increase the effectiveness and speed of the merging process. Finally, an efficient ellipse validation method is proposed to evaluate the saliency of the elliptic hypotheses. Detailed evaluation on synthetic images shows that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art ellipse detection methods in terms of effectiveness and speed. Additionally, we test our detector on three challenging real-world datasets. The F-measure score and execution time of results demonstrate that our method is effective and fast in complicated images. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for practical applications.

  6. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  7. Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling using Space, Energy and Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Mosher, Scott W; Evans, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    For challenging radiation transport problems, hybrid methods combine the accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the global information present in deterministic methods. One of the most successful hybrid methods is CADIS Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling. This method uses a deterministic adjoint solution to construct a biased source distribution and consistent weight windows to optimize a specific tally in a Monte Carlo calculation. The method has been implemented into transport codes using just the spatial and energy information from the deterministic adjoint and has been used in many applications to compute tallies with much higher figures-of-merit than analog calculations. CADIS also outperforms user-supplied importance values, which usually take long periods of user time to develop. This work extends CADIS to develop weight windows that are a function of the position, energy, and direction of the Monte Carlo particle. Two types of consistent source biasing are presented: one method that biases the source in space and energy while preserving the original directional distribution and one method that biases the source in space, energy, and direction. Seven simple example problems are presented which compare the use of the standard space/energy CADIS with the new space/energy/angle treatments.

  8. The consistent histories approach to loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David A.

    2016-06-01

    We review the application of the consistent (or decoherent) histories formulation of quantum theory to canonical loop quantum cosmology. Conventional quantum theory relies crucially on “measurements” to convert unrealized quantum potentialities into physical outcomes that can be assigned probabilities. In the early universe and other physical contexts in which there are no observers or measuring apparatus (or indeed, in any closed quantum system), what criteria determine which alternative outcomes may be realized and what their probabilities are? In the consistent histories formulation it is the vanishing of interference between the branch wave functions describing alternative histories — as determined by the system’s decoherence functional — that determines which alternatives may be assigned probabilities. We describe the consistent histories formulation and how it may be applied to canonical loop quantum cosmology, describing in detail the application to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models with scalar matter. We show how the theory may be used to make definite physical predictions in the absence of “observers”. As an application, we demonstrate how the theory predicts that loop quantum models “bounce” from large volume to large volume, while conventional “Wheeler-DeWitt”-quantized universes are invariably singular. We also briefly indicate the relation to other work.

  9. Consistency of scalar potentials from quantum de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, José R.; Fortin, Jean-François; Trépanier, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    Consistency of the unconventional view of de Sitter space as a quantum theory of gravity with a finite number of degrees of freedom requires that Coleman-De Luccia tunneling rates to vacua with negative cosmological constant should be interpreted as recurrences to low-entropy states. This demand translates into two constraints, or consistency conditions, on the scalar potential that are generically as follows: (1) the distance in field space between the de Sitter vacuum and any other vacuum with negative cosmological constant must be of the order of the reduced Planck mass or larger and (2) the fourth root of the vacuum energy density of the de Sitter vacuum must be smaller than the fourth root of the typical scale of the scalar potential. These consistency conditions shed a different light on both outstanding hierarchy problems of the standard model of particle physics: the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking and the scale of the cosmological constant. Beyond the unconventional interpretation of quantum de Sitter space, we complete the analytic understanding of the thin-wall approximation of Coleman-De Luccia tunneling, extend its numerical analysis to generic potentials and discuss the role of gravity in stabilizing the standard model potential.

  10. Internal Consistency of the NVAP Water Vapor Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Ronnie J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NVAP (NASA Water Vapor Project) dataset is a global dataset at 1 x 1 degree spatial resolution consisting of daily, pentad, and monthly atmospheric precipitable water (PW) products. The analysis blends measurements from the Television and Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and radiosonde observations into a daily collage of PW. The original dataset consisted of five years of data from 1988 to 1992. Recent updates have added three additional years (1993-1995) and incorporated procedural and algorithm changes from the original methodology. Since each of the PW sources (TOVS, SSM/I, and radiosonde) do not provide global coverage, each of these sources compliment one another by providing spatial coverage over regions and during times where the other is not available. For this type of spatial and temporal blending to be successful, each of the source components should have similar or compatible accuracies. If this is not the case, regional and time varying biases may be manifested in the NVAP dataset. This study examines the consistency of the NVAP source data by comparing daily collocated TOVS and SSM/I PW retrievals with collocated radiosonde PW observations. The daily PW intercomparisons are performed over the time period of the dataset and for various regions.

  11. New culture devices in ART.

    PubMed

    Rienzi, L; Vajta, G; Ubaldi, F

    2011-09-01

    During the past decades, improvements in culture of preimplantation embryos have contributed substantially in the success of human assisted reproductive techniques. However, most efforts were focused on optimization of media and gas components, while the established physical conditions and applied devices have remained essentially unchanged. Very recently, however, intensive research has been started to provide a more appropriate environment for the embryos and to replace the rather primitive and inappropriate devices with more sophisticated and practical instruments. Success has been reported with simple or sophisticated tools (microwells or microchannels) that allow accumulation of autocrine factors and establishment of a proper microenvironment for embryos cultured individually or in groups. The microchannel system may also offer certain level of automation and increased standardization of culture parameters. Continuous monitoring of individual embryos by optical or biochemical methods may help to determine the optimal day of transfer, and selection of the embryo with highest developmental competence for transfer. This advancement may eventually lead to adjustment of the culture environment to each individual embryo according to its actual needs. Connection of these techniques to additional radical approaches as automated ICSI or an ultimate assisted hatching with full removal of the zona pellucida after or even before fertilization may result in devices with high reliability and consistency, to increase the overall efficiency and decrease the work-intensity, and to eliminate the existing technological gap between laboratory embryology work and most other fields of biomedical sciences.

  12. Telling it in time: interpreting consistency and change in the life stories of Holocaust survivors.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I inquire into the life of a single Holocaust survivor in order to give a "thick description" of the dynamics of talking about the past over time. David K., born in 1928 in Gheorgheni Hungary, was deported to Auschwitz in 1944, where he spent one month before entering slave labor camps in Mühldorf and Mittergars. My reading of David's life is based upon two interviews, the first from 1982 (at age 54) and the second from 1995 (at age 67). I employ a method of structural interpretation, "narrative mapping," which is based upon the work of Labov and Waletzky (1967), in order to visualize the amount of overall consistency between the two interviews. I also carefully study individual narratives that are repeated over time. My reading of David's interviews suggests strong consistency along with significant changes. There is enormous consistency in the structure and content of narratives but differences in the point or evaluations of narratives. I also argue that David's later interview is more fully developed; David's later interview contains several new narratives and integrates historical insights into his account of the past. I discuss the merits of two explanations for this change, culture and time in development. Finally, I suggest possible strategies for researchers interested in working with the vast archives of survivor interviews.

  13. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  14. Consistent cortical reconstruction and multi-atlas brain segmentation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuankai; Plassard, Andrew J; Carass, Aaron; Resnick, Susan M; Pham, Dzung L; Prince, Jerry L; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-09-01

    Whole brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction are two essential techniques for investigating the human brain. Spatial inconsistences, which can hinder further integrated analyses of brain structure, can result due to these two tasks typically being conducted independently of each other. FreeSurfer obtains self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces. It starts with subcortical segmentation, then carries out cortical surface reconstruction, and ends with cortical segmentation and labeling. However, this "segmentation to surface to parcellation" strategy has shown limitations in various cohorts such as older populations with large ventricles. In this work, we propose a novel "multi-atlas segmentation to surface" method called Multi-atlas CRUISE (MaCRUISE), which achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces by combining multi-atlas segmentation with the cortical reconstruction method CRUISE. A modification called MaCRUISE(+) is designed to perform well when white matter lesions are present. Comparing to the benchmarks CRUISE and FreeSurfer, the surface accuracy of MaCRUISE and MaCRUISE(+) is validated using two independent datasets with expertly placed cortical landmarks. A third independent dataset with expertly delineated volumetric labels is employed to compare segmentation performance. Finally, 200MR volumetric images from an older adult sample are used to assess the robustness of MaCRUISE and FreeSurfer. The advantages of MaCRUISE are: (1) MaCRUISE constructs self-consistent voxelwise segmentations and cortical surfaces, while MaCRUISE(+) is robust to white matter pathology. (2) MaCRUISE achieves more accurate whole brain segmentations than independently conducting the multi-atlas segmentation. (3) MaCRUISE is comparable in accuracy to FreeSurfer (when FreeSurfer does not exhibit global failures) while achieving greater robustness across an older adult population. MaCRUISE has been made freely

  15. Consistent cortical reconstruction and multi-atlas brain segmentation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuankai; Plassard, Andrew J; Carass, Aaron; Resnick, Susan M; Pham, Dzung L; Prince, Jerry L; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-09-01

    Whole brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction are two essential techniques for investigating the human brain. Spatial inconsistences, which can hinder further integrated analyses of brain structure, can result due to these two tasks typically being conducted independently of each other. FreeSurfer obtains self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces. It starts with subcortical segmentation, then carries out cortical surface reconstruction, and ends with cortical segmentation and labeling. However, this "segmentation to surface to parcellation" strategy has shown limitations in various cohorts such as older populations with large ventricles. In this work, we propose a novel "multi-atlas segmentation to surface" method called Multi-atlas CRUISE (MaCRUISE), which achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces by combining multi-atlas segmentation with the cortical reconstruction method CRUISE. A modification called MaCRUISE(+) is designed to perform well when white matter lesions are present. Comparing to the benchmarks CRUISE and FreeSurfer, the surface accuracy of MaCRUISE and MaCRUISE(+) is validated using two independent datasets with expertly placed cortical landmarks. A third independent dataset with expertly delineated volumetric labels is employed to compare segmentation performance. Finally, 200MR volumetric images from an older adult sample are used to assess the robustness of MaCRUISE and FreeSurfer. The advantages of MaCRUISE are: (1) MaCRUISE constructs self-consistent voxelwise segmentations and cortical surfaces, while MaCRUISE(+) is robust to white matter pathology. (2) MaCRUISE achieves more accurate whole brain segmentations than independently conducting the multi-atlas segmentation. (3) MaCRUISE is comparable in accuracy to FreeSurfer (when FreeSurfer does not exhibit global failures) while achieving greater robustness across an older adult population. MaCRUISE has been made freely

  16. A self-consistent study of triaxial black hole nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ming Yan

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional shapes of elliptical galaxies has not advanced much since the time of Edwin Hubble. Elliptical galaxies are still classified according to their luminosity distributions and the isophotal contour shapes of their two-dimensional images projected on the sky. Their intrinsic shapes could be oblate, prolate, or fully triaxial, since all such shapes produce perfectly elliptical contours on projection. One way to constrain the possible 3D shapes of elliptical galaxies is to attempt to construct self-consistent dynamical models with various shapes. In this study, models were constructed of the central regions (“nuclei”) of elliptical galaxies. Observed nuclei have a power-law dependence of stellar density on radius, and universally contain a single supermassive black hole at their center, with mass ˜106 109 M⊙ . At low energies in such nuclei, the motion was found to be essentially regular, i.e. non-chaotic; the gravitational potential can be considered as a perturbation to the integrable Keplerian potential. At higher energies, where the enclosed stellar mass is a few times the black hole mass, the black hole renders those orbits that come close to the black hole stochastic. This transition to global stochasticity is rapid and occurs at lower energies in more elongated nuclei. The self-consistency of triaxial models of black hole nuclei was demonstrated by using Schwarzschild's method to construct self-consistent orbital superpositions representing nuclei with different shapes. N-body integrations of Monte-Carlo realizations of the Schwarzschild solutions showed that some of these nuclei are stable; nearly prolate nuclei were found to be unstable, and they evolve rapidly to axisymmetric shapes. The possibility that nuclei may be triaxial in shape complicates the interpretation of stellar kinematical data from the centers of galaxies and may alter the inferred interaction rates between stars and supermassive black holes.

  17. Accuracy and consistency of weights provided by home bathroom scales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-reported body weight is often used for calculation of Body Mass Index because it is easy to collect. Little is known about sources of error introduced by using bathroom scales to measure weight at home. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of digital versus dial-type bathroom scales commonly used for self-reported weight. Methods Participants brought functioning bathroom scales (n = 18 dial-type, n = 43 digital-type) to a central location. Trained researchers assessed accuracy and consistency using certified calibration weights at 10 kg, 25 kg, 50 kg, 75 kg, 100 kg, and 110 kg. Data also were collected on frequency of calibration, age and floor surface beneath the scale. Results All participants reported using their scale on hard surface flooring. Before calibration, all digital scales displayed 0, but dial scales displayed a mean absolute initial weight of 0.95 (1.9 SD) kg. Digital scales accurately weighed test loads whereas dial-type scale weights differed significantly (p < 0.05). Imprecision of dial scales was significantly greater than that of digital scales at all weights (p < 0.05). Accuracy and precision did not vary by scale age. Conclusions Digital home bathroom scales provide sufficiently accurate and consistent weights for public health research. Reminders to zero scales before each use may further improve accuracy of self-reported weight. PMID:24341761

  18. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  19. Self-Consistent Models of Barred Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, David E.

    1994-02-01

    Self-consistent models of barred spiral galaxies based on the observed properties of NGC3992, NGC1073, and NGC1398 are constructed and analyzed. The method of model construction is a slight modification of the technique developed by Contopoulos and Grosbol for the case of unbarred spirals. The main factors which influence self-consistency are the amplitude, pitch angle, scale length and z-thickness of the spirals, the mass of the bar, the angular velocity of the bar/spiral pattern, the central surface density and scale length of the disk, and the central value and slope of the velocity dispersion. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie between the values at the Lagrange points L_1 and L_4 are found to play a significant role in supporting self-consistent spiral structure, especially in the regions just beyond the ends of the bar. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie below this interval tend to fill more or less uniformly either rings in the outer disk or ovals in the bar region, depending on the regions to which they are confined. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie above that of L_4 also tend not to support any imposed structure. The model bars are predominantly comprised of elongated orbits trapped around the x_1 family and terminate close to corotation. The response of gas to the forces of the most successful models is calculated using a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The results confirm that a bar alone is not sufficient to drive a strong spiral response in the gas of the outer disk. An underlying spiral structure in the more massive stellar component appears to be required. If stellar spirals are present, strong gas spirals may persist for long times. (SECTION: Dissertation Summaries)

  20. Self-consistent models of barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, David Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Self-consistent models of barred spiral galaxies based on the observed properties of NGC 3992, NGC 1073, and NGC 1398 are constructed and analyzed. The method of model construction is a slight modification of the technique developed by Contopoulos and Grosbol for the case of unbarred spirals. The main factors which influence self-consistency are the amplitude, pitch angle, scale length and z-thickness of the spirals, the mass of the bar, the angular velocity of the bar/spiral pattern, the central surface density and scale length of the disk, and the central value and slope of the velocity dispersion. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie between the values at the Lagrange points L1 and L4 are found to play a significant role in supporting self-consistent spiral structure, especially in the regions just beyond the ends of the bar. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie below this interval tend to fill more or less uniformly either rings in the outer disk or ovals in the bar region, depending on the regions to which they are confined. Stochastic orbits whose Jacobi constants lie above that of L4 also tend not to support any imposed structure. The model bars are predominantly comprised of elongated orbits trapped around the chi1 family and terminate close to corotation. The response of gas to the forces of the most successful models is calculated using a two-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The results confirm that a bar alone is not sufficient to drive a strong spiral response in the gas of the outer disk. An underlying spiral structure in the more massive stellar component appears to be required. If stellar spirals are present, strong gas spirals may persist for long times.

  1. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christine J; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  2. Energetically consistent ocean models (Georg Wüst medal lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten; Olbers, Dirk; Czeschel, Lars; Brüggemann, Nils

    2015-04-01

    The energy transfers between the three principal dynamical regimes -- small-scale turbulence, internal gravity waves and geostrophically balanced motion -- are fundamental to the energy cycle of the ocean but poorly understood and quantified. Since the interactions of the dynamical regimes ultimately link the smallest scales to the largest scales by a variety of complex processes, understanding these interactions is mandatory to understand the dynamics of the ocean, to construct models and to predict climate. Here, an effort is documented to develop an energetically consistent model, in which the energy of the mean model variables interacts with the parameterised dynamical regimes without any spurious energy sources or sinks. This means that the energy available to drive the circulation, e.g. by interior mixing in the ocean, is only controlled by external energy input from the atmosphere and the tidal system and by internal exchanges. Central to the concept is the parameterisation module IDEMIX which predicts and consistently links the sources of internal gravity wave energy in the ocean, its propagation and dissipation. Important components which need further development are physically consistent parameterisations for the dissipation of the geostrophically balanced motion for which different possibilities are explored. The model performance is validated using idealised and realistic global model configurations. The parameterised internal wave field provides between 2 and 3 TW for interior mixing from the total external energy input of about 4 TW, such that a transfer between 0.3 and 0.4 TW into mean potential energy contributes to drive the large-scale circulation in the model. In contrast, the wind work on the mean circulation contributes by about 1.8 TW to the large-scale circulation.

  3. Coagulation of Agglomerates Consisting of Polydisperse Primary Particles.

    PubMed

    Goudeli, E; Eggersdorfer, M L; Pratsinis, S E

    2016-09-13

    The ballistic agglomeration of polydisperse particles is investigated by an event-driven (ED) method and compared to the coagulation of spherical particles and agglomerates consisting of monodisperse primary particles (PPs). It is shown for the first time to our knowledge that increasing the width or polydispersity of the PP size distribution initially accelerates the coagulation rate of their agglomerates but delays the attainment of their asymptotic fractal-like structure and self-preserving size distribution (SPSD) without altering them, provided that sufficiently large numbers of PPs are employed. For example, the standard asymptotic mass fractal dimension, Df, of 1.91 is attained when clusters are formed containing, on average, about 15 monodisperse PPs, consistent with fractal theory and the literature. In contrast, when polydisperse PPs with a geometric standard deviation of 3 are employed, about 500 PPs are needed to attain that Df. Even though the same asymptotic Df and mass-mobility exponent, Dfm, are attained regardless of PP polydispersity, the asymptotic prefactors or lacunarities of Df and Dfm increase with PP polydispersity. For monodisperse PPs, the average agglomerate radius of gyration, rg, becomes larger than the mobility radius, rm, when agglomerates consist of more than 15 PPs. Increasing PP polydispersity increases that number of PPs similarly to the above for the attainment of the asymptotic Df or Dfm. The agglomeration kinetics are quantified by the overall collision frequency function. When the SPSD is attained, the collision frequency is independent of PP polydispersity. Accounting for the SPSD polydispersity in the overall agglomerate collision frequency is in good agreement with that frequency from detailed ED simulations once the SPSD is reached. Most importantly, the coagulation of agglomerates is described well by a monodisperse model for agglomerate and PP sizes, whereas the detailed agglomerate size distribution can be obtained by

  4. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  5. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  6. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  7. Cultural changes in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, Bill

    1991-01-01

    Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  8. Reaction to Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippov, Boris

    1995-01-01

    Recommends building Russia's educational system into a bulwark against corrupting foreign influences. Maintains that Russian culture and society are under siege from internal tensions and external influences. Advocates a vigorous policy of cultural heritage education coordinated with positive socialization. (MJP)

  9. On consistency of hydrodynamic approximation for chiral media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdoshkin, A.; Kirilin, V. P.; Sadofyev, A. V.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    We consider chiral liquids, that is liquids consisting of massless fermions and right-left asymmetric. In such media, one expects existence of electromagnetic current flowing along an external magnetic field, associated with the chiral anomaly. The current is predicted to be dissipation-free. We consider dynamics of chiral liquids, concentrating on the issues of possible instabilities and infrared sensitivity. Instabilities arise, generally speaking, already in the limit of vanishing electromagnetic constant, αel → 0. In particular, liquids with non-vanishing chiral chemical potential might decay into right-left asymmetric states containing vortices.

  10. A consistent quantum model for continuous photodetection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, M. C.; Mizrahi, S. S.; Dodonov, V. V.

    2003-06-01

    We modify some aspects of the continuous photodetection theory proposed by Srinivas and Davies (SD) (1981 Opt. Acta 28 981), which describes the non-unitary evolution of a quantum field state subjected to a continuous photocount measurement. In order to remedy inconsistencies that appear in their approach, we redefine the 'annihilation' and 'creation' operators that enter in the photocount super-operators. We show that this new approach not only still satisfies all the requirements for a consistent photocount theory according to SD precepts, but also avoids some weird result appearing when previous definitions are used.

  11. A Chaotic Ordered Hierarchies Consistency Analysis Performance Evaluation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Chang

    2013-02-01

    The Hierarchies Consistency Analysis (HCA) is proposed by Guh in-cooperated along with some case study on a Resort to reinforce the weakness of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Although the results obtained enabled aid for the Decision Maker to make more reasonable and rational verdicts, the HCA itself is flawed. In this paper, our objective is to indicate the problems of HCA, and then propose a revised method called chaotic ordered HCA (COH in short) which can avoid problems. Since the COH is based upon Guh's method, the Decision Maker establishes decisions in a way similar to that of the original method.

  12. Hydrodynamic self-consistent field theory for inhomogeneous polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Hall, David M; Lookman, Turab; Fredrickson, Glenn H; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2006-09-15

    We introduce a mesoscale technique for simulating the structure and rheology of block-copolymer melts and blends in hydrodynamic flows. The technique couples dynamic self-consistent field theory with continuum hydrodynamics and flow penalization to simulate polymeric fluid flows in channels of arbitrary geometry. We demonstrate the method by studying phase separation of an ABC triblock copolymer melt in a submicron channel with neutral wall wetting conditions. We find that surface wetting effects and shear effects compete, producing wall-perpendicular lamellae in the absence of flow and wall-parallel lamellae in cases where the shear rate exceeds some critical Weissenberg number.

  13. Brief report: consistency of search engine rankings for autism websites.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Naples, Adam; Steinhoff, Timothy; Halpern, Jason; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-06-01

    The World Wide Web is one of the most common methods used by parents to find information on autism spectrum disorders and most consumers find information through search engines such as Google or Bing. However, little is known about how the search engines operate or the consistency of the results that are returned over time. This study presents the results of analyses of searches from 2009, 2010, and 2011 for information on autism. We found that over time, consumers are likely to have different search experiences yielding different results, and we urge consumers to use caution when using the World Wide Web to obtain information on autism.

  14. Consistent description of quantum Brownian motors operating at strong friction.

    PubMed

    Machura, L; Kostur, M; Hänggi, P; Talkner, P; Luczka, J

    2004-09-01

    A quantum Smoluchowski equation is put forward that consistently describes thermal quantum states. In particular, it notably does not induce a violation of the second law of thermodynamics. This so modified kinetic equation is applied to study analytically directed quantum transport at strong friction in arbitrarily shaped ratchet potentials that are driven by nonthermal two-state noise. Depending on the mutual interplay of quantum tunneling and quantum reflection these quantum corrections can induce both, a sizable enhancement or a suppression of transport. Moreover, the threshold for current reversals becomes markedly shifted due to such quantum fluctuations.

  15. A mite species that consists entirely of haploid females.

    PubMed

    Weeks, A R; Marec, F; Breeuwer, J A

    2001-06-29

    The dominance of the diploid state in higher organisms, with haploidy generally confined to the gametic phase, has led to the perception that diploidy is favored by selection. This view is highlighted by the fact that no known female organism within the Metazoa exists exclusively (or even for a prolonged period) in a haploid state. We used fluorescence microscopy and variation at nine microsatellite loci to show that the false spider mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, consists of haploid female parthenogens. We show that this reproductive anomaly is caused by infection by an undescribed endosymbiotic bacterium, which results in feminization of haploid genetic males. PMID:11431565

  16. Consistent Initial Conditions for the DNS of Compressible Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.; Blaisdell, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    Relationships between diverse thermodynamic quantities appropriate to weakly compressible turbulence are derived. It is shown that for turbulence of a finite turbulent Mach number there is a finite element of compressibility. A methodology for generating initial conditions for the fluctuating pressure, density and dilatational velocity is given which is consistent with finite Mach number effects. Use of these initial conditions gives rise to a smooth development of the flow, in contrast to cases in which these fields are specified arbitrarily or set to zero. Comparisons of the effect of different types of initial conditions are made using direct numerical simulation of decaying isotropic turbulence.

  17. BDB: databank of PDB files with consistent B-factors.

    PubMed

    Touw, Wouter G; Vriend, Gert

    2014-11-01

    Protein structures available from the PDB contain for each atom the coordinates, the occupancy and the B-factor that indicates the mobility of the atom. The values that should represent B-factors can relate to atomic motions in different ways. We present here a databank in which all B-factors have been converted to the one, homogeneous representation that is most useful for protein engineering applications. The Databank of PDB files with consistent B-factors (BDB) is freely available through http://www.cmbi.umcn.nl/bdb/.

  18. Island of stability for consistent deformations of Einstein's gravity.

    PubMed

    Berkhahn, Felix; Dietrich, Dennis D; Hofmann, Stefan; Kühnel, Florian; Moyassari, Parvin

    2012-03-30

    We construct deformations of general relativity that are consistent and phenomenologically viable, since they respect, in particular, cosmological backgrounds. These deformations have unique symmetries in accordance with their Minkowski cousins (Fierz-Pauli theory for massive gravitons) and incorporate a background curvature induced self-stabilizing mechanism. Self-stabilization is essential in order to guarantee hyperbolic evolution in and unitarity of the covariantized theory, as well as the deformation's uniqueness. We show that the deformation's parameter space contains islands of absolute stability that are persistent through the entire cosmic evolution.

  19. Properties of a consistent Lorentz-violating Abelian gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandre, J.; Vergou, A.

    2011-06-15

    A Lorentz-violating modification of massless QED is proposed, with higher-order space derivatives for the photon field. The fermion dynamical mass generation is studied with the Schwinger-Dyson approach. Perturbative properties of the model are calculated at one-loop and discussed at higher-order loops, showing the consistency of the model. We explain that there is no contradiction with the definition of the speed of light c, although fermions see an effective light cone, with a maximum speed smaller than c.

  20. VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREESTORY REINFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREE-STORY REINFORCED CONCRETE FACTORY WITH A SMALLER ONE-STORY LOADING DOCK AND ANOTHER ONE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING ON THE EAST FACADE. THE THREE-STORY BUILDING HAS VERTICAL METAL PANELING ON THE UPPER STORY. THE ENTIRE COMPLEX IS PAINTED PINK WITH MUCH DAMAGE TO THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING ON THE SOUTH SIDE. (Duplicate color view of HAER MI-340-1) - American Can Company, 1400 Trombly Avenue, Detroit, MI

  1. Self consistent modeling of accretion columns in accretion powered pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, Sebastian; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We combine three physical models to self-consistently derive the observed flux and pulse profiles of neutron stars' accretion columns. From the thermal and bulk Comptonization model by Becker & Wolff (2006) we obtain seed photon continua produced in the dense inner regions of the accretion column. In a thin outer layer these seed continua are imprinted with cyclotron resonant scattering features calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The observed phase and energy dependent flux corresponding to these emission profiles is then calculated, taking relativistic light bending into account. We present simulated pulse profiles and the predicted dependency of the observable X-ray spectrum as a function of pulse phase.

  2. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  3. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  4. Reconstituted Thymus Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zimu; Liu, Haifeng; Rui, Jinxiu; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituted thymus organ culture is based on fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC). Purified thymocyte populations, from genetically modified mice or even from other species, are cultured in vitro with thymic lobes depleted of their endogenous thymocytes (by 2'-deoxyguanosine treatment) to form a new thymus. This potent and timesaving method is distinct from FTOC, which assesses development of unmodified thymic lobes, and reaggregate thymic organ culture, in which epithelial cells are separately purified before being aggregated with thymocytes.

  5. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  6. The relationship between organizational culture and performance in acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rowena; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw T O; Harrison, Stephen; Konteh, Fred; Walshe, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between senior management team culture and organizational performance in English acute hospitals (NHS Trusts) over three time periods between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008. We use a validated culture rating instrument, the Competing Values Framework, to measure senior management team culture. Organizational performance is assessed using a wide range of routinely collected indicators. We examine the associations between organizational culture and performance using ordered probit and multinomial logit models. We find that organizational culture varies across hospitals and over time, and this variation is at least in part associated in consistent and predictable ways with a variety of organizational characteristics and routine measures of performance. Moreover, hospitals are moving towards more competitive culture archetypes which mirror the current policy context, though with a stronger blend of cultures. The study provides evidence for a relationship between culture and performance in hospital settings.

  7. The relationship between organizational culture and performance in acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rowena; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw T O; Harrison, Stephen; Konteh, Fred; Walshe, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between senior management team culture and organizational performance in English acute hospitals (NHS Trusts) over three time periods between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008. We use a validated culture rating instrument, the Competing Values Framework, to measure senior management team culture. Organizational performance is assessed using a wide range of routinely collected indicators. We examine the associations between organizational culture and performance using ordered probit and multinomial logit models. We find that organizational culture varies across hospitals and over time, and this variation is at least in part associated in consistent and predictable ways with a variety of organizational characteristics and routine measures of performance. Moreover, hospitals are moving towards more competitive culture archetypes which mirror the current policy context, though with a stronger blend of cultures. The study provides evidence for a relationship between culture and performance in hospital settings. PMID:23159305

  8. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  9. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

  10. Laos Culturally Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luangpraseut, Khamchong

    This booklet about the cultural background of Laos is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Laos is a country of great cultural and ethnic diversity. The following political and economic factors have influenced the development of modern…

  11. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  12. OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT TO CULTURAL BARRIERS AND THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IS DISCUSSED IN THIS ARTICLE. VARIOUS VIEWS OF THE MEANING OF CULTURE ARE MENTIONED IN ORDER TO SINGLE OUT ANTHROPOLOGICAL CULTURE AS A MAIN FOCAL POINT. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE SPELLED OUT WITH EXAMPLES OF LINGUISTIC BARRIERS, AND…

  13. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  14. Why Teach Visual Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  15. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

  16. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  17. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  18. Cultural Proficiency. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Cultural proficiency and diversity are often used interchangeably, yet there are some distinct differences between them. Cultural proficiency is the umbrella under which diversity falls. According to one source, "Cultural proficiency is a way of being that allows individuals and organizations to interact effectively with people who differ from…

  19. CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WASHINGTON, BENNETTA B.

    METHODS BY WHICH CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS CAN HELP TO ELIMINATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ARE DISCUSSED. IT IS STRESSED THAT CULTURE IS A SET OF VALUES, RATHER THAN A SERIES OF CONCEPTS. IF CULTURE IS TO BE TRANSMITTED TO STUDENTS, TEACHERS MUST LIVE ITS VALUES. ATTENDING CONCERTS AND PLAYS IS NOT SUFFICIENT. ONLY IN THE BROAD SETTING OF A TOTAL…

  20. Creating the Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Harold, III

    2003-01-01

    For organizations to succeed and endure, trust, collaboration, and performance cultures must coexist. A culture of trust starts with a school board that is independent and fully accountable and that holds all only its employees accountable. In a culture of collaboration, the board becomes a partner in setting goals but allows the experts to do…

  1. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  2. Transcending Cultural Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert; Murphy, Kris; Jaworski, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Cultural diversity presents many challenges to the art educator. Teaching children to be tolerant and to appreciate differences is particularly important in a world that is characterized by polarization, embittered cultural divisions, and prejudice. Students' knowledge and attitudes are mediated by popular culture, which often reduces cultural…

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  4. Bridges: Literature across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Gilbert H., Comp.; Williams, John A., Comp.

    This anthology of literature from the many American cultures as well as cultures around the world is intended for use in today's college composition and introductory literature courses. Offering a blend of classic favorites and selections from other cultures, the anthology contains some 300 stories, poems, and plays from the six habitable…

  5. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  6. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  7. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  8. Self-consistent field theory for obligatory coassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, I. K.; Leermakers, F. A. M.

    2008-12-01

    We present a first-order model for obligatory coassembly of block copolymers via an associative driving force in a nonselective solvent, making use of the classical self-consistent field (SCF) theory. The key idea is to use a generic associative driving force to bring two polymer blocks together into the core of the micelle and to employ one block of the copolymer(s) to provide a classical stopping mechanism for micelle formation. The driving force is generated by assuming a negative value for the relevant short-range Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. Hence, the model may be adopted to study micellization via H bonding, acceptor-donor interactions, and electrostatic interactions. Here, we limit ourselves to systems that resemble experimental ones where the mechanism of coassembly is electrostatic attraction leading to charge compensation. The resulting micelles are termed complex coacervate core micelles (CCCMs). We show that the predictions are qualitatively consistent with a wide variety of experimentally observed phenomena, even though the model does not yet account for the charges explicitly. For example, it successfully mimics the effect of salt on CCCMs. In the absence of salt CCCMs are far more stable than in excess salt, where the driving force for self-assembly is screened. The main limitations of the SCF model are related to the occurrence of soluble complexes, i.e., soluble, charged particles that coexist with the CCCMs.

  9. Towards numerical consistency and conservation for SPH approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Nikolaus; Hu, Xiangyu; Litvinov, Sergej

    2014-11-01

    Typical conservative Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approximations introduce two errors: smoothing error is due to smoothing of the gradient by an integration associated with a kernel function; integration error due to approximating of the integration by summation over all particles within the kernel support. The integration error leads to violation of zero-order consistency, i.e., the inability to reproduce a constant field. We show that partition of unity is the condition under which the conservative SPH approximation achieves both consistency and convergence. The condition can be met by relaxing a particle distribution under a constant pressure field and invariant particle volume. The resulting particle distribution is very similar to those observed for liquid molecules. We further show that with two different typical kernel functions the SPH approximation satisfying the partition of unity property is able to achieve very high-order of the integration error for random particle locations. The background pressure used in a weakly compressible SPH simulation implies a self-relaxation mechanism, which explains that convergence with respect to increasing particle numbers could be obtained in SPH simulations, although not predicted by previous numerical analysis. Furthermore, by relating the integration error to the background pressure, we explain why the previously proposed transport-velocity formulation of SPH is able to achieve unprecedented accuracy and stability.

  10. Metrics for assessing cytoskeletal orientational correlations and consistency.

    PubMed

    Drew, Nancy K; Eagleson, Mackenzie A; Baldo, Danny B; Parker, Kevin Kit; Grosberg, Anna

    2015-04-01

    In biology, organization at multiple scales potentiates biological function. Current advances in staining and imaging of biological tissues provide a wealth of data, but there are few metrics to quantitatively describe these findings. In particular there is a need for a metric that would characterize the correlation and consistency of orientation of different biological constructs within a tissue. We aimed to create such a metric and to demonstrate its use with images of cardiac tissues. The co-orientational order parameter (COOP) was based on the mathematical framework of a classical parameter, the orientational order parameter (OOP). Theorems were proven to illustrate the properties and boundaries of the COOP, which was then applied to both synthetic and experimental data. We showed the COOP to be useful for quantifying the correlation of orientation of constructs such as actin filaments and sarcomeric Z-lines. As expected, cardiac tissues showed perfect correlation between actin filaments and Z-lines. We also demonstrated the use of COOP to quantify the consistency of construct orientation within cells of the same shape. The COOP provides a quantitative tool to characterize tissues beyond co-localization or single construct orientation distribution. In the future, this new parameter could be used to represent the quantitative changes during maturation of cardiac tissue, pathological malformation, and other processes. PMID:25849553

  11. Effect of irradiation on Brazilian honeys' consistency and their acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, A. H.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Contamination of bee products may occur during packing or even during the process of collection. Gamma irradiation was found to decrease the number of bacteria and fungi. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma irradiation on viscosity which is an important property of honey. In this work the viscosity of two varieties of Brazilian honey was measured when they were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy. The viscosity was measured at four temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) for both samples and compared with control and within the doses. The sensory evaluation was carried on for the parameters color, odor, taste and consistency, using a 9-point hedonic scale. All the data were treated with a statistical tool (Statistica 5.1, StatSoft, 1998). The viscosity was not impaired significantly by gamma irradiation in doses 5 and 10 kGy ( p<0.05). The effect of gamma irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, color, taste and consistency) is presented. The taste for Parana type indicated a significant difference among irradiation doses ( p<0.05) but the higher value was for 5 kGy dose, demonstrating the acceptability for this case. The Organic honey presented the taste parameter for 10 kGy, significantly lower than the control mean but it did not differ significantly from the 5 kGy value.

  12. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    PubMed

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender × handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy.

  13. Self-consistent pitch angle diffusion of newborn ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.H.; Ziebell, L.F.; Wu, C.S. )

    1991-04-01

    It is well known from the study of ion pickup process by the solar wind that hydromagnetic turbulence can cause the newborn ions to undergo rapid pitch angle diffusion or scattering, thus forming a partial or complete velocity shell distribution. In most of the recent discussions based on quasi-linear theory it is assumed that the spectral wave energy density associated with the hydromagnetic turbulence is constant in time, implying a saturated turbulence level. In contrast, in this work the effect of self-consistently generated waves on the ion dynamics is discussed on the basis of a simple theoretical model, and it is shown both analytically and numerically that the self-consistent diffusion process leads to a time-asymptotic partial shell distribution which extends approximately from the initial pitch angle cos{sup {minus}1}{mu}{sub 0} to {approximately}{pi}/2 in pitch angle space. Particularly, the role of resonant versus nonresonant diffusion processes is discussed in detail. In addition, the effect of continuous ion source term is also incorporated in the numerical analysis since in cometary environment the ions are continuously created.

  14. Consistent realignment of 3D diffusion tensor MRI eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg, Mirza Faisal; Dickie, Ryan; Golds, Gregory; Younes, Laurent

    2007-03-01

    Diffusion tensor MR image data gives at each voxel in the image a symmetric, positive definite matrix that is denoted as the diffusion tensor at that voxel location. The eigenvectors of the tensor represent the principal directions of anisotopy in water diffusion. The eigenvector with the largest eigenvalue indicates the local orientation of tissue fibers in 3D as water is expected to diffuse preferentially up and down along the fiber tracts. Although there is no anatomically valid positive or negative direction to these fiber tracts, for many applications, it is of interest to assign an artificial direction to the fiber tract by choosing one of the two signs of the principal eigenvector in such a way that in local neighborhoods the assigned directions are consistent and vary smoothly in space. We demonstrate here an algorithm for realigning the principal eigenvectors by flipping their sign such that it assigns a locally consistent and spatially smooth fiber direction to the eigenvector field based on a Monte-Carlo algorithm adapted from updating clusters of spin systems. We present results that show the success of this algorithm on 11 available unsegmented canine cardiac volumes of both healthy and failing hearts.

  15. [Promotion of the systematization of consistent education for medical technologists].

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kiyoko; Sato, Kenji

    2006-03-01

    Although only about 35 years have passed since the birth of medical technology, marked advances have been made in the clinical laboratory science field. However, the educational system for technologists attached importance only to the learning of techniques for a long period because special training schools primarily provided medical technologist education. With the passing of time, the need for advanced knowledge has increased, and a plan to change the education system for medical technologists to 4-year colleges was evaluated. In 1989, the Course of Laboratory Sciences as a 4-year system for medical technologist education was established in the Department of Medicine, Tokyo Medical & Dental University. The Doctoral Course of Graduate School (first term) was established in 1993 and the Doctoral Course of Graduate School(second term) in 1995. In 2001, these courses formed a graduate university as the Division of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, the Graduate School of Allied Health Sciences. Thus, a consistent educational system for medical technologists was established. By March 2005, about 500 students had graduated from this division. Based on this experience, we produced a 4-stage developmental program and provide an advanced educational system for the promotion of the systematization of consistent medical technologist education.

  16. Self-consistent perturbation theory for two dimensional twisted bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirodkar, Sharmila N.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    Theoretical modeling and ab-initio simulations of two dimensional heterostructures with arbitrary angles of rotation between layers involve unrealistically large and expensive calculations. To overcome this shortcoming, we develop a methodology for weakly interacting heterostructures that treats the effect of one layer on the other as perturbation, and restricts the calculations to their primitive cells. Thus, avoiding computationally expensive supercells. We start by approximating the interaction potential between the twisted bilayers to that of a hypothetical configuration (viz. ideally stacked untwisted layers), which produces band structures in reasonable agreement with full-scale ab-initio calculations for commensurate and twisted bilayers of graphene (Gr) and Gr/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures. We then self-consistently calculate the charge density and hence, interaction potential of the heterostructures. In this work, we test our model for bilayers of various combinations of Gr, h-BN and transition metal dichalcogenides, and discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the self-consistently calculated interaction potential. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

  17. Temporal consistent depth map upscaling for 3DTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Sjöström, Mârten; Olsson, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing success of three-dimensional (3D) cinema fuels increasing efforts to spread the commercial success of 3D to new markets. The possibilities of a convincing 3D experience at home, such as three-dimensional television (3DTV), has generated a great deal of interest within the research and standardization community. A central issue for 3DTV is the creation and representation of 3D content. Acquiring scene depth information is a fundamental task in computer vision, yet complex and error-prone. Dedicated range sensors, such as the Time­ of-Flight camera (ToF), can simplify the scene depth capture process and overcome shortcomings of traditional solutions, such as active or passive stereo analysis. Admittedly, currently available ToF sensors deliver only a limited spatial resolution. However, sophisticated depth upscaling approaches use texture information to match depth and video resolution. At Electronic Imaging 2012 we proposed an upscaling routine based on error energy minimization, weighted with edge information from an accompanying video source. In this article we develop our algorithm further. By adding temporal consistency constraints to the upscaling process, we reduce disturbing depth jumps and flickering artifacts in the final 3DTV content. Temporal consistency in depth maps enhances the 3D experience, leading to a wider acceptance of 3D media content. More content in better quality can boost the commercial success of 3DTV.

  18. Enhanced data consistency of a portable gait measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-I.; Chiang, Y. P.

    2013-11-01

    A gait measurement system is a useful tool for rehabilitation applications. Such a system is used to conduct gait experiments in large workplaces such as laboratories where gait measurement equipment can be permanently installed. However, a gait measurement system should be portable if it is to be used in clinics or community centers for aged people. In a portable gait measurement system, the workspace is limited and landmarks on a subject may not be visible to the cameras during experiments. Thus, we propose a virtual-marker function to obtain positions of unseen landmarks for maintaining data consistency. This work develops a portable clinical gait measurement system consisting of lightweight motion capture devices, force plates, and a walkway assembled from plywood boards. We evaluated the portable clinic gait system with 11 normal subjects in three consecutive days in a limited experimental space. Results of gait analysis based on the verification of within-day and between-day coefficients of multiple correlations show that the proposed portable gait system is reliable.

  19. Consistent thermodynamic framework for interacting particles by neglecting thermal noise.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Fernando D; Curado, Evaldo M F; Souza, Andre M C; Andrade, Roberto F S

    2015-02-01

    An effective temperature θ, conjugated to a generalized entropy s(q), was introduced recently for a system of interacting particles. Since θ presents values much higher than those of typical room temperatures T≪θ, the thermal noise can be neglected (T/θ≃0) in these systems. Moreover, the consistency of this definition, as well as of a form analogous to the first law of thermodynamics, du=θds(q)+δW, were verified lately by means of a Carnot cycle, whose efficiency was shown to present the usual form, η=1-(θ(2)/θ(1)). Herein we explore further the heat contribution δQ=θds(q) by proposing a way for a heat exchange between two such systems, as well as its associated thermal equilibrium. As a consequence, the zeroth principle is also established. Moreover, we consolidate the first-law proposal by following the usual procedure for obtaining different potentials, i.e., applying Legendre transformations for distinct pairs of independent variables. From these potentials we derive the equation of state, Maxwell relations, and define response functions. All results presented are shown to be consistent with those of standard thermodynamics for T>0. PMID:25768486

  20. Evaluation of anatomical consistency in craniofacial superimposition images.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Imaizumi, K; Miyasaka, S; Seta, S

    1995-06-30

    Using 52 skulls in forensic cases, the anatomical consistency of cranio-facial superimposition images was investigated for evaluating the validity in personal identification by the superimposition method. In 35 out of 52 cases the unknown skull was positively identified as the missing person by matching of the outline and anatomical relation in skull and face images taken from frontal, oblique and lateral directions. The unknown skull in two cases was exclusive of the presumed person since the outline of the skull was not anatomically consistent with that of the face. In the remaining 15 cases, the skull in question was examined using only a frontal face photograph of the missing person and matched with it because of the lack of other photographs taken from different angles, giving a probable identification. From our practical examination, it is stated that the outline from the trichion to the gnathion in the lateral or oblique view is the preferable portion for personal identification, and the cranio-facial super-imposition method is reliable for individualization when two or more facial photographs taken from different angles are used in the examination.

  1. BE STAR DISK MODELS IN CONSISTENT VERTICAL HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Sigut, T. A. A.; McGill, M. A.; Jones, C. E. E-mail: mmcgill@astro.uwo.ca

    2009-07-10

    A popular model for the circumstellar disks of Be stars is that of a geometrically thin disk with a density in the equatorial plane that drops as a power law of distance from the star. It is usually assumed that the vertical structure of such a disk (in the direction parallel to the stellar rotation axis) is governed by the hydrostatic equilibrium set by the vertical component of the star's gravitational acceleration. Previous radiative equilibrium models for such disks have usually been computed assuming a fixed density structure. This introduces an inconsistency as the gas density is not allowed to respond to temperature changes and the resultant disk model is not in vertical, hydrostatic equilibrium. In this work, we modify the BEDISK code of Sigut and Jones so that it enforces a hydrostatic equilibrium consistent with the temperature solution. We compare the disk densities, temperatures, H{alpha} line profiles, and near-IR excesses predicted by such models with those computed from models with a fixed density structure. We find that the fixed models can differ substantially from the consistent hydrostatic models when the disk density is high enough that the circumstellar disk develops a cool (T {approx}< 10, 000 K) equatorial region close to the parent star. Based on these new hydrostatic disks, we also predict an approximate relation between the (global) density-averaged disk temperature and the T{sub eff} of the central star, covering the full range of central Be star spectral types.

  2. Self-consistent chaos in the beam-plasma instability

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, J.L. ); Meiss, J.D. . Applied Mathematics Program); Morrison, P.J. )

    1993-02-08

    The effect of self-consistency on Hamiltonian systems with a large number of degrees-of-freedom is investigated for the beam-plasma instability using the single-wave model of O'Neil, Winfrey, and Malmberg.The single-wave model is reviewed and then rederived within the Hamiltonian context, which leads naturally to canonical action- angle variables. Simulations are performed with a large (10[sup 4]) number of beam particles interacting with the single wave. It is observed that the system relaxes into a time asymptotic periodic state where only a few collective degrees are active; namely, a clump of trapped particles oscillating in a modulated wave, within a uniform chaotic sea with oscillating phase space boundaries. Thus self-consistency is seen to effectively reduce the number of degrees- of-freedom. A simple low degree-of-freedom model is derived that treats the clump as a single macroparticle, interacting with the wave and chaotic sea. The uniform chaotic sea is modeled by a fluid waterbag, where the waterbag boundaries correspond approximately to invariant tori. This low degree-of-freedom model is seen to compare well with the simulation.

  3. Self-consistent chaos in the beam-plasma instability

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, J.L.; Meiss, J.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-02-08

    The effect of self-consistency on Hamiltonian systems with a large number of degrees-of-freedom is investigated for the beam-plasma instability using the single-wave model of O`Neil, Winfrey, and Malmberg.The single-wave model is reviewed and then rederived within the Hamiltonian context, which leads naturally to canonical action- angle variables. Simulations are performed with a large (10{sup 4}) number of beam particles interacting with the single wave. It is observed that the system relaxes into a time asymptotic periodic state where only a few collective degrees are active; namely, a clump of trapped particles oscillating in a modulated wave, within a uniform chaotic sea with oscillating phase space boundaries. Thus self-consistency is seen to effectively reduce the number of degrees- of-freedom. A simple low degree-of-freedom model is derived that treats the clump as a single macroparticle, interacting with the wave and chaotic sea. The uniform chaotic sea is modeled by a fluid waterbag, where the waterbag boundaries correspond approximately to invariant tori. This low degree-of-freedom model is seen to compare well with the simulation.

  4. Is scalar-tensor gravity consistent with polytropic stellar models?

    SciTech Connect

    Henttunen, K.; Vilja, I. E-mail: vilja@utu.fi

    2015-05-01

    We study the scalar field potential V(φ) in the scalar-tensor gravity with self-consistent polytropic stellar configurations. Without choosing a particular potential, we numerically derive the potential inside various stellar objects. We restrict the potential to conform to general relativity or to f(R) gravity inside and require the solution to arrive at SdS vacuum at the surface. The studied objects are required to obtain observationally valid masses and radii corresponding to solar type stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find that the resulting scalar-tensor potential V(φ) for the numerically derived polytrope that conforms to general relativity, in each object class, is highly dependent on the matter configuration as well as on the vacuum requirement at the boundary. As a result, every stellar configuration arrives at a potential V(φ) that is not consistent with the other stellar class potentials. Therefore, a general potential that conforms to all these polytropic stellar classes could not be found.

  5. SELF-CONSISTENT SIZE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF COLLISIONAL CASCADES

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke E. E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu

    2012-03-10

    The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. Here we relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan and Sari can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies for the Kuiper belt, the asteroid belt, and extrasolar debris disks may constrain the mass and number of large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies' internal strengths.

  6. Self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Baimbetov, F. B.; Davletov, A. E.

    2011-01-15

    A simple renormalization theory of plasma particle interactions is proposed. It primarily stems from generic properties of equilibrium distribution functions and allows one to obtain the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for an effective interaction potential of two chosen particles in the presence of a third one. The same equation is then strictly derived from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for equilibrium distribution functions in the pair correlation approximation. This enables one to construct a self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas, correctly accounting for the close interrelation of charged and neutral components thereof. Minimization of the system free energy provides ionization equilibrium and, thus, permits one to study the plasma composition in a wide range of its parameters. Unlike standard chemical models, the proposed one allows one to study the system correlation functions and thereby to obtain an equation of state which agrees well with exact results of quantum-mechanical activity expansions. It is shown that the plasma and neutral components are strongly interrelated, which results in the short-range order formation in the corresponding subsystem. The mathematical form of the results obtained enables one to both firmly establish this fact and to determine a characteristic length of the structure formation. Since the cornerstone of the proposed self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is an effective pairwise interaction potential, it immediately provides quite an efficient calculation scheme not only for thermodynamical functions but for transport coefficients as well.

  7. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition.

    PubMed

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-14

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition.

  8. A consistent collinear triad approximation for operational wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. E.; Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Holthuijsen, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    In shallow water, the spectral evolution associated with energy transfers due to three-wave (or triad) interactions is important for the prediction of nearshore wave propagation and wave-driven dynamics. The numerical evaluation of these nonlinear interactions involves the evaluation of a weighted convolution integral in both frequency and directional space for each frequency-direction component in the wave field. For reasons of efficiency, operational wave models often rely on a so-called collinear approximation that assumes that energy is only exchanged between wave components travelling in the same direction (collinear propagation) to eliminate the directional convolution. In this work, we show that the collinear approximation as presently implemented in operational models is inconsistent. This causes energy transfers to become unbounded in the limit of unidirectional waves (narrow aperture), and results in the underestimation of energy transfers in short-crested wave conditions. We propose a modification to the collinear approximation to remove this inconsistency and to make it physically more realistic. Through comparison with laboratory observations and results from Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed modified collinear model is consistent, remains bounded, smoothly converges to the unidirectional limit, and is numerically more robust. Our results show that the modifications proposed here result in a consistent collinear approximation, which remains bounded and can provide an efficient approximation to model nonlinear triad effects in operational wave models.

  9. Generation of Minimum-Consistent DFA Using SAT Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Nobuo; Aizawa, Akiko

    The purpose of this study is to develop efficient methods for the minimum-consistent DFA (deterministic finite state automaton) problem. The graph-coloring based SAT (satisfiability) approach proposed by Heule is a state of the art method for this problem. It specially achieves high performance computing in dense problems such as in a popular benchmark problem where rich information about labels is included. In contrast, to solve sparse problems is a challenge for the minimum-consistent DFA problem. To solve sparse problems, we propose three approaches to the SAT formulation: a) the binary color representation, b) the dynamic symmetry breaking and c) the hyper-graph coloring constraint. We organized an experiment using the existing benchmark problems and sparse problems made from them. We observed that our symmetry breaking constraints made the speed up the running time of SAT solver. In addition with this, our other proposed methods were showing the possibility to improve the performance. Then we simulated the perfomance of our methods under the condition that we executed the several program set-ups in parallel. Compared with the previous research results, we finally could reduce the average relative time by 66.5% and the total relative time by 7.6% for sparse problems and by 79.7% and 38.5% for dense problems, respectively. These results showed that our proposed methods were effective for difficult problems.

  10. Self-Consistent Superthermal Electron Effects on Plasmaspheric Refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.; Moore, T. E.; Guiter, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of self-consistently including superthermal electrons in the definition of the ambipolar electric field are investigated for the case of plasmaspheric refilling after a geomagnetic storm. By using the total electron population in the hydrodynamic equations, a method for incorporating superthermal electron parameters in the electric field and electron temperature calculation is developed. Also, the ambipolar electric field is included in the kinetic equation for the superthermal electrons through a change of variables using the total energy and the first adiabatic invariant. Calculations based on these changes are performed by coupling time-dependent models of the thermal plasma and superthermal electrons. Results from this treatment of the electric field and the self-consistent development of the solution are discussed in detail. Specifically, there is a decreased thermal electron density in the plasmasphere during the first few minutes of refilling, a slightly accelerated proton shock front, and a decreased superthermal electron flux due to the deceleration by the electric field. The timescales of plasmaspheric refilling are discussed and determined to be somewhat shorter than previously calculated for the thermal plasma and superthermal electron population due to the effects of the field-aligned potential.

  11. Tucker core consistency for validation of restricted Tucker3 models.

    PubMed

    Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Akhlaghi, Yousef; Bro, Rasmus

    2012-04-20

    In Tucker3 analysis of three-way data array obtained from a chemical or biological system, it is sometimes possible to use a priori knowledge about the system to specify what is called a restricted Tucker3 model. Often, the restricted Tucker3 model is characterized by having some elements of the core forced to zero. As a simple example, an F-component PARAFAC model can be seen as a restricted (F, F, F) Tucker3 model in which only superdiagonal elements of the core are allowed to be nonzero. The core consistency diagnostic was previously introduced by Bro and Kiers for determining the proper number of components in PARAFAC analysis. In the current study, this diagnostic is extended to other restricted Tucker3 models to validate the appropriateness of the applied constraints. The new diagnostic is named Tucker core consistency (TuckCorCon). When the dimensionality and the pattern of the restricted core is valid, the simple core of restricted Tucker3 model and a corresponding unrestricted core will be similar and in this case the TuckCorCon will be close to maximum (100%). A simulated chemical equilibrium data set and two experimental data sets were used to evaluate the applicability of the TuckCorCon to decide about the appropriateness of dimensionality and pattern of the core nonzero elements in the restricted Tucker3 models.

  12. Thermodynamic and kinetic consistency of calculated binary nucleation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wilemski, G.; Wyslouzil, B.E.

    1996-04-02

    To establish the accuracy and applicability of analytical expressions for the steady state rate of binary nucleation, we numerically solved the birth-death equations for the vapor-to-liquid transition. These calculations were performed using rate coefficients that are consistent with the principle of detailed balance and a new self-consistent form of the equilibrium distribution function for binary cluster concentrations. We found that the customary saddle point and growth path approximations are almost always valid and can fail only if the nucleating solution phase is significantly nonideal. For example, problems can arise when the vapor composition puts the system on the verge of partial liquid phase miscibility. When this occurs for comparable monomer impingement rates, nucleation still occurs through the saddle point, but the usual quadratic expansion for the cluster free energy is inadequate. When the two impingement rates differ significantly, however, the major particle flux may bypass the saddle point and cross a low ridge on the free energy surface. The dependence of the saddle point location on the gas phase composition is also important in initiating or terminating ridge crossing nucleation.

  13. Network scaling reveals consistent fractal pattern in hierarchical mammalian societies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Russell A; Bentley, R Alexander; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2008-12-23

    Recent studies have demonstrated that human societies are hierarchically structured with a consistent scaling ratio across successive layers of the social network; each layer of the network is between three and four times the size of the preceding (smaller) grouping level. Here we show that similar relationships hold for four mammalian taxa living in multi-level social systems. For elephant (Loxodonta africana), gelada (Theropithecus gelada) and hamadryas (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) baboon, successive layers of social organization have a scaling ratio of almost exactly 3, indicating that such branching ratios may be a consistent feature of all hierarchically structured societies. Interestingly, the scaling ratio for orca (Orcinus orca) was 3.8, which might mean that aquatic environments place different constraints on the organization of social hierarchies. However, circumstantial evidence from a range of other species suggests that scaling ratios close to 3 may apply widely, even in species where hierarchical social structures have not traditionally been identified. These results identify the origin of the hierarchical, fractal-like organization of mammalian social systems as a fundamental question.

  14. Consistent linguistic fuzzy preference relations method with ranking fuzzy numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan, Siti Amnah Mohd; Mohamad, Daud; Kamis, Nor Hanimah

    2014-12-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been developed to help decision makers in selecting the best criteria or alternatives from the options given. One of the well known methods in MCDM is the Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relation (CFPR) method, essentially utilizes a pairwise comparison approach. This method was later improved to cater subjectivity in the data by using fuzzy set, known as the Consistent Linguistic Fuzzy Preference Relations (CLFPR). The CLFPR method uses the additive transitivity property in the evaluation of pairwise comparison matrices. However, the calculation involved is lengthy and cumbersome. To overcome this problem, a method of defuzzification was introduced by researchers. Nevertheless, the defuzzification process has a major setback where some information may lose due to the simplification process. In this paper, we propose a method of CLFPR that preserves the fuzzy numbers form throughout the process. In obtaining the desired ordering result, a method of ranking fuzzy numbers is utilized in the procedure. This improved procedure for CLFPR is implemented to a case study to verify its effectiveness. This method is useful for solving decision making problems and can be applied to many areas of applications.

  15. Consistent generation of magnetic fields in axion inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Namba, Ryo; Tada, Yuichiro; Takeda, Naoyuki; Tashiro, Hiroyuki E-mail: ryo.namba@ipmu.jp E-mail: takedan@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing evidence for the existence of magnetic fields in the extra-galactic regions, while the attempt to associate their origin with the inflationary epoch alone has been found extremely challenging. We therefore take into account the consistent post-inflationary evolution of the magnetic fields that are originated from vacuum fluctuations during inflation. In the model of our interest, the electromagnetic (EM) field is coupled to a pseudo-scalar inflaton φ through the characteristic term φ  F-tilde  F, breaking the conformal invariance. This interaction dynamically breaks the parity and enables a continuous production of only one of the polarization states of the EM field through tachyonic instability. The produced magnetic fields are thus helical. We find that the dominant contribution to the observed magnetic fields in this model comes from the modes that leave the horizon near the end of inflation, further enhanced by the tachyonic instability right after the end of inflation. The EM field is subsequently amplified by parametric resonance during the period of inflaton oscillation. Once the thermal plasma is formed (reheating), the produced helical magnetic fields undergo a turbulent process called inverse cascade, which shifts their peak correlation scales from smaller to larger scales. We consistently take all these effects into account within the regime where the perturbation of φ is negligible and obtain B{sub eff} ∼ 10{sup −19} G, indicating the necessity of additional mechanisms to accommodate the observations.

  16. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition.

    PubMed

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-14

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition. PMID:26700807

  17. Consistent and conservative framework for incompressible multiphase flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owkes, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    We present a computational methodology for convection that handles discontinuities with second order accuracy and maintains conservation to machine precision. We use this method in the context of an incompressible gas-liquid flow to transport the phase interface, momentum, and scalars. Using the same methodology for all the variables ensures discretely consistent transport, which is necessary for robust and accurate simulations of turbulent atomizing flows with high-density ratios. The method achieves conservative transport by computing consistent fluxes on a refined mesh, which ensures all conserved quantities are fluxed with the same discretization. Additionally, the method seamlessly couples semi-Lagrangian fluxes used near the interface with finite difference fluxes used away from the interface. The semi-Lagrangian fluxes are three-dimensional, un-split, and conservatively handle discontinuities. Careful construction of the fluxes ensures they are divergence-free and no gaps or overlaps form between neighbors. We have tested and used the scheme for many cases and demonstrate a simulation of an atomizing liquid jet.

  18. Geodynamically Consistent Interpretation of Seismic Tomography under the Hawaiian Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Samuel, H.

    2006-12-01

    Recent theoretical developments as well as increased data quality and coverage have allowed seismic tomographic imaging to better resolve narrower structures at both shallow and deep mantle depths. However, despite these improvements, the interpretation of tomographic images remains problematic mainly because of: (1) the trade off between temperature and composition and their different influence on mantle flow; (2) the difficulty in determining the extent and continuity of structures revealed by seismic tomography. We present a study on mantle thermal plumes, which illustrate the need to consider both geodynamic and mineral physics for a consistent interpretation of tomographic images in terms of temperature composition and flow. We focus on the identification of thermal plume by seismic tomography beneath the Hawaiian hot spot: a set of 3D numerical experiments is performed in a spherical shell to model a rising plume beneath a moving plate. The thermal structure obtained is converted into body waves seismic velocities using mineral physics considerations. We then build synthetic travel time data by propagating front waves in the obtained seismic structure. This synthetic data will be used to construct a travel time tomographic model, which is compared with actual tomographic models based on data from the ongoing PLUME seismic experiment. This comparison will allow a more consistent and quantitative interpretation of seismic tomography and plume structure under Hawaii.

  19. Self-consistent MPI-IO performance requirements and expectations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W. D.; Kimpe, D.; Ross, R.; Thakur, R.; Traff, J. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois; Katholieke Univ. Leuven; NEC Laboratories Europe

    2008-01-01

    We recently introduced the idea of self-consistent performance requirements for MPI communication. Such requirements provide a means to ensure consistent behavior of an MPI library, thereby ensuring a degree of performance portability by making it unnecessary for a user to perform implementation-dependent optimizations by hand. For the collective operations in particular, a large number of such rules could sensibly be formulated, without making hidden assumptions about the underlying communication system or otherwise constraining the MPI implementation. In this paper, we extend this idea to the realm of parallel I/O (MPI-IO), where the issues are far more subtle. In particular, it is not always possible to specify performance requirements without making assumptions about the implementation or without a priori knowledge of the I/O access pattern. For such cases, we introduce the notion of performance expectations, which specify the desired behavior for good implementations of MPI-IO. I/O performance requirements as well as expectations could be automatically checked by an appropriate benchmarking tool.

  20. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  1. Statistical learning is lasting and consistent over time.

    PubMed

    Arciuli, Joanne; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2012-05-31

    Implicit detection of statistical regularities is thought to be a ubiquitous facet of cognition; yet, we know little about statistical learning (SL) over time. A recent study showed that visual SL can be observed at 24 h post stimulus (Kim et al., 2009 [14]). Here we sought to obtain a finer-grained picture of visual SL over time. We employed an embedded triplet paradigm and delayed presentation of the surprise test phase, in relation to the initial familiarisation phase, across five time periods: 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 24 h. Results revealed a significant degree of SL at each delay period. Moreover, the degree of SL was consistent across the five delay periods. These results suggest that visual SL is remarkably consistent over time. It does not appear to be fragile and does not appear to be enhanced by sleep in healthy adults. This robustness is desirable in a mechanism thought to underpin a broad range of mental activities including language processing. Future research might use the methodology we report here to examine whether similarly stable levels of SL can be observed in individuals with language impairment, such as those with SLI and dyslexia, compared with typical peers.

  2. Classical and Quantum Consistency of the DGP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2004-06-01

    We study the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model by the method of the boundary effective action. The truncation of this action to the bending mode pi consistently describes physics in a wide range of regimes both at the classical and at the quantum level. The Vainshtein effect, which restores agreement with precise tests of general relativity, follows straightforwardly. We give a simple and general proof of stability, i.e. absence of ghosts in the fluctuations, valid for most of the relevant cases, like for instance the spherical source in asymptotically flat space. However we confirm that around certain interesting self-accelerating cosmological solutions there is a ghost. We consider the issue of quantum corrections. Around flat space pi becomes strongly coupled below a macroscopic length of 1000 km, thus impairing the predictivity of the model. Indeed the tower of higher dimensional operators which is expected by a generic UV completion of the model limits predictivity at even larger length scales. We outline a non-generic but consistent choice of counterterms for which this disaster does not happen and for which the model remains calculable and successful in all the astrophysical situations of interest. By this choice, the extrinsic curvature Kmunu acts roughly like a dilaton field controlling the strength of the interaction and the cut-off scale at each space-time point. At the surface of Earth the cutoff is ~ 1 cm but it is unlikely that the associated quantum effects be observable in table top experiments.

  3. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8° to 15' are consistent with noise, and show no evidence of cosmic microwave background structure. Including small but important corrections for unresolved-source residuals, we demonstrate agreement (measured by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ≤ ℓ ≤ 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ℓ range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013 results. We also present results based on the 2013 likelihood analysis showing consistency at the 0.35% between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz power spectra. We analyse calibration procedures and beams to determine what fraction of these differences can be accounted for by known approximations or systematicerrors that could be controlled even better in the future, reducing uncertainties still further. Several possible small improvements are described

  4. Assessment of the Consistency among Precipitation Products over Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghebreyesus, Dawit; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-04-01

    This study addresses the analysis of the consistency among global precipitation products over arid regions. First, precipitation products were examined against in situ observations from the UAE network. Then, the consistency among the different products was assessed regionally over the Arabian Peninsula and the Sahara Desert. Four distinct independently-derived precipitation products, namely, Global Precipitation Climate Center (GPCC), Willmott-Matsuura 2001 (WM), Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), and CPC Morphing (CMORPH) were examined. Over the UAE, in situ monthly observations from 6 stations over a time period of 11 years, from 2000 to 2010 inclusive, were used. The correlation with in situ observations, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Relative Bias (rBIAS) were calculated to evaluate the precipitation products. The lowest areal averaged RMSE over all stations, ranging from 3.82mm to 9.98mm, was obtained with the GPCC indicating a higher agreement with in situ observations. The average RMSE of GPCC over the country was 6.18mm. However, the highest areal averaged RMSE, ranging from 9.44 to 19.52mm, was obtained with the WM product with average of 13.57mm. The results showed an overestimation of the observed rainfall values across all products with overall average of 42%. CMORPH product was found to be the most inconsistent products spatially across the UAE with rBIAS ranging from -47% in Al Ain to 372% in Dubai. The correlation with in situ observations was found to be higher with GPCC product ranging from 0.8450 to 0.9494. TRMM was second with an average of 0.8413, ranging from 0.7098 to 0.9248. Furthermore, Mean Relative Difference (MRD) was calculated to investigate the precision among the precipitation products. CMORPH was found to be inconsistent spatially being the lowest estimator for four stations (Adu Dhabi, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah) whereas being the highest estimator for the rest two stations (Dubai and Fujairah). Generally, the

  5. On consistent mapping in distributed environments using mobile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Roshmik

    The problem of robotic mapping, also known as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), by a mobile agent for large distributed environments is addressed in this dissertation. This has sometimes been referred to as the holy grail in the robotics community, and is the stepping stone towards making a robot completely autonomous. A hybrid solution to the SLAM problem is proposed based on "first localize then map" principle. It is provably consistent and has great potential for real time application. It provides significant improvements over state-of-the-art Bayesian approaches by reducing the computational complexity of the SLAM problem without sacrificing consistency. The localization is achieved using a feature based extended Kalman filter (EKF) which utilizes a sparse set of reliable features. The common issues of data association, loop closure and computational cost of EKF based methods are kept tractable owing to the sparsity of the feature set. A novel frequentist mapping technique is proposed for estimating the dense part of the environment using the sensor observations. Given the pose estimate of the robot, this technique can consistently map the surrounding environment. The technique has linear time complexity in map components and for the case of bounded sensor noise, it is shown that the frequentist mapping technique has constant time complexity which makes it capable of estimating large distributed environments in real time. The frequentist mapping technique is a stochastic approximation algorithm and is shown to converge to the true map probabilities almost surely. The Hybrid SLAM software is developed in the C-language and is capable of handling real experimental data as well as simulations. The Hybrid SLAM technique is shown to perform well in simulations, experiments with an iRobot Create, and on standard datasets from the Robotics Data Set Repository, known as Radish. It is demonstrated that the Hy··id SLAM technique can successfully map large

  6. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  7. Functional cell-laden alginate scaffolds consisting of core/shell struts for tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ahn, SeungHyun; Lee, HyeongJin; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-10-15

    We report an innovative cell-dispensing process using a three-axis robot system coupled with a micro-core/shell nozzle and an aerosol cross-linking process to achieve controlled mechanical properties and high cell viability of porous cell-laden alginate scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated into layer-by-layer struts, which were used to design the pore structure. The struts consisted of a core/shell region; a low weight fraction of alginate and cells (MC3T3-E1) was injected in the shell region to efficiently exchange nutrients and metabolic wastes, while a high weight fraction of alginate without cells was deposited in the core region to improve the mechanical properties of the cell-laden scaffold. After 10 days of cell culture, the cell viability (95%) in the shell region improved significantly compared to 70% for the cells homogeneously distributed in the struts, and the mechanical properties were enhanced from 1.4 to 15.7 kPa. Stained nuclei and F-actin images showed that the laden cells proliferated well on the functional hydrogel scaffold after 20 days of cell culture, indicating that the cells concentrated in the shell region of the struts survived and increased their metabolic functions during several incubation periods compared to the standard cell-laden scaffold. This innovative cell-dispensing technique represents a promising fabrication tool for obtaining bottom-up scaffolds for various tissue regenerations.

  8. Self-consistent quantum kinetic theory of diatomic molecule formation

    SciTech Connect

    Forrey, Robert C.

    2015-07-14

    A quantum kinetic theory of molecule formation is presented which includes three-body recombination and radiative association for a thermodynamically closed system which may or may not exchange energy with its surrounding at a constant temperature. The theory uses a Sturmian representation of a two-body continuum to achieve a steady-state solution of a governing master equation which is self-consistent in the sense that detailed balance between all bound and unbound states is rigorously enforced. The role of quasibound states in catalyzing the molecule formation is analyzed in complete detail. The theory is used to make three predictions which differ from conventional kinetic models. These predictions suggest significant modifications may be needed to phenomenological rate constants which are currently in wide use. Implications for models of low and high density systems are discussed.

  9. Thermodynamically consistent model of brittle oil shales under overpressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The concept of dual porosity is a common way for simulation of oil shale production. In the frame of this concept the porous fractured media is considered as superposition of two permeable continua with mass exchange. As a rule the concept doesn't take into account such as the well-known phenomenon as slip along natural fractures, overpressure in low permeability matrix and so on. Overpressure can lead to development of secondary fractures in low permeability matrix in the process of drilling and pressure reduction during production. In this work a new thermodynamically consistent model which generalizes the model of dual porosity is proposed. Particularities of the model are as follows. The set of natural fractures is considered as permeable continuum. Damage mechanics is applied to simulation of secondary fractures development in low permeability matrix. Slip along natural fractures is simulated in the frame of plasticity theory with Drucker-Prager criterion.

  10. Neuregulin 3 Knockout Mice Exhibit Behaviors Consistent with Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lindsay N; Shevelkin, Alexey; Zeledon, Mariela; Steel, Gary; Chen, Pei-Lung; Obie, Cassandra; Pulver, Ann; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Valle, David; Sawa, Akira; Pletnikov, Mikhail V

    2016-07-01

    Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) is a paralog of NRG1. Genetic studies in schizophrenia demonstrate that risk variants in NRG3 are associated with cognitive and psychotic symptom severity, and several intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms in NRG3 are associated with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. In order to gain insights into the biological function of the gene, we generated a novel Nrg3 knockout (KO) mouse model and tested for neurobehavioral phenotypes relevant to psychotic disorders. KO mice displayed novelty-induced hyperactivity, impaired prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, and deficient fear conditioning. No gross cytoarchitectonic or layer abnormalities were noted in the brain of KO mice. Our findings suggest that deletion of the Nrg3 gene leads to alterations consistent with aspects of schizophrenia. We propose that KO mice will provide a valuable animal model to determine the role of the NRG3 in the molecular pathogenesis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. PMID:27606322

  11. Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1992-01-01

    The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.

  12. Consistency of post-Newtonian waveforms with numerical relativity.

    PubMed

    Baker, John G; van Meter, James R; McWilliams, Sean T; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J

    2007-11-01

    General relativity predicts the gravitational wave signatures of coalescing binary black holes. Explicit waveform predictions for such systems, required for optimal analysis of observational data, have so far been achieved primarily using the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation. The quality of this treatment is unclear, however, for the important late-inspiral portion. We derive late-inspiral waveforms via a complementary approach, direct numerical simulation of Einstein's equations. We compare waveform phasing from simulations of the last approximately 14 cycles of gravitational radiation from equal-mass, nonspinning black holes with the corresponding 2.5PN, 3PN, and 3.5PN orbital phasing. We find phasing agreement consistent with internal error estimates for either approach, suggesting that PN waveforms for this system are effective until the last orbit prior to final merger. PMID:17995394

  13. Consistency relations and conservation of ζ in holographic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that, in single clock inflation, the curvature perturbation ζ is constant in time on superhorizon scales. In the standard bulk description this follows quite simply from the local conservation of the energy momentum tensor in the bulk. On the other hand, in a holographic description, the constancy of the curvature perturbation must be related to the properties of the RG flow in the boundary theory. Here, we show that, in single clock holographic inflation, the time independence of correlators of ζ follows from the absence of the anomolous dimension of the energy momentum tensor in the boundary theory, and from the so-called consistency relations for vertex functions with a soft leg.

  14. The Brittle-Ductile Transition - A Self-Consistent Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, B.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Ord, A.; Yuen, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    The brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in the Earth is commonly viewed as a switch between two different constitutive behaviors, plastic and viscous, and is represented in models by various formulations. We show that thermal-mechanical coupling leads to a self consistent view where the BDT emerges naturally within one constitutive framework once a critical temperature is attained. Viscous folding occurs above this temperature and brittle fracturing below. Seismic activity is maximised at the BDT. Orogenesis emerges as a thermal-mechanical decoupling near the BDT during flexing of the lithosphere with the development of "crocodile" -like structures, fold-nappe systems and far-travelled thrust sheets. For quartz- feldspar composite materials this transition lies in a critical range of 500 K to 580 K.

  15. Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E; Ivlev, Alexei V

    2016-06-01

    In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.

  16. Self-consistent quantum kinetic theory of diatomic molecule formation.

    PubMed

    Forrey, Robert C

    2015-07-14

    A quantum kinetic theory of molecule formation is presented which includes three-body recombination and radiative association for a thermodynamically closed system which may or may not exchange energy with its surrounding at a constant temperature. The theory uses a Sturmian representation of a two-body continuum to achieve a steady-state solution of a governing master equation which is self-consistent in the sense that detailed balance between all bound and unbound states is rigorously enforced. The role of quasibound states in catalyzing the molecule formation is analyzed in complete detail. The theory is used to make three predictions which differ from conventional kinetic models. These predictions suggest significant modifications may be needed to phenomenological rate constants which are currently in wide use. Implications for models of low and high density systems are discussed.

  17. Tunneling in a self-consistent dynamic image potential

    SciTech Connect

    Rudberg, B.G.R. ); Jonson, M. Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1501 )

    1991-04-15

    We have calculated the self-consistent effective potential for an electron tunneling through a square barrier while interacting with surface plasmons. This potential reduces to the classical image potential in the static limit. In the opposite limit, when the velocity'' of the tunneling electron is large, it reduces to the unperturbed square-barrier potential. For a wide variety of parameters the dynamic effects on the transmission coefficient {ital T}={vert bar}{ital t}{sup 2}{vert bar} can, for instance, be related to the Buettiker-Landauer traversal time for tunneling, given by {tau}{sup BL}={h bar}{vert bar}{ital d} ln{ital t}/{ital dV}{vert bar}.

  18. Implicit attitude measures: consistency, stability, and convergent validity.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, W A; Preacher, K J; Banaji, M R

    2001-03-01

    In recent years, several techniques have been developed to measure implicit social cognition. Despite their increased use, little attention has been devoted to their reliability and validity. This article undertakes a direct assessment of the interitem consistency, stability, and convergent validity of some implicit attitude measures. Attitudes toward blacks and whites were measured on four separate occasions, each 2 weeks apart, using three relatively implicit measures (response-window evaluative priming, the Implicit Association Test, and the response-window Implicit Association Test) and one explicit measure (Modern Racism Scale). After correcting for interitem inconsistency with latent variable analyses, we found that (a) stability indices improved and (b) implicit measures were substantially correlated with each other, forming a single latent factor. The psychometric properties of response-latency implicit measures have greater integrity than recently suggested.

  19. Metabolome Consistency: Additional Parazoanthines from the Mediterranean Zoanthid Parazoanthus Axinellae

    PubMed Central

    Audoin, Coralie; Cocandeau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier P.; Bruschini, Adrien; Holderith, Serge; Genta-Jouve, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis of the organic extract obtained from the Mediterranean zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae yielded to the identification of five new parazoanthines F-J. The structures were fully determined by comparison of fragmentation patterns with those of previously isolated parazoathines and MS/MS spectra simulation of in silico predicted compounds according to the metabolome consistency. The absolute configuration of the new compounds has been assigned using on-line electronic circular dichroism (UHPLC-ECD). We thus demonstrated the potential of highly sensitive hyphenated techniques to characterize the structures of a whole family of natural products within the metabolome of a marine species. Minor compounds can be characterized using these techniques thus avoiding long isolation processes that may alter the structure of the natural products. These results are also of interest to identify putative bioactive compounds present at low concentration in a complex mixture. PMID:24957034

  20. Self-Consistent Field Theory of ABn Miktoarm Copolymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grason, Gregory; Kamien, Randall

    2004-03-01

    Using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) techniques we investigate the phase behavior of AB_n, miktoarm copolymer melts. In particular, we examine how the molecularasymmetry stabilizes morpholgies with highly curved interfaces. While strong-segregation theory tends to overestimate this effect for asymmetric molecules, the SCFT results are in strong agreement with experiments on PI-PS miktoarm copolymer melts. In addition, we report the stability of a new cubic phase of one-component block copolymer melts, with Pm bar3 n symmetry. This phase, the A15 phase of spherical micelles, is stable in melts of ABn copolymers for n ≥ 2. We interpret the relative stability of the sphere phases in terms of well-studied, geometric moments of the candidate sphere lattices.

  1. Determining Consistency of Spatial Dispersion of Nematodes in Small Plots

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    Nematode population densities in field plots were estimated by collecting samples consisting of 12 soil cores. Plots encompassed a variety of plant hosts and sampling dates, and provided data on the population densities of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Three separate samples were collected per plot on each sampling date to obtain estimates of the mean and variance of numbers for each species. For each nematode species, these estimates were used to derive the Taylor's Power Law regression over plots having identical hosts and sampling dates. For some nematode species, comparisons of regression equations among different sampling dates on the same host revealed similarities in values of a and b from Taylor's Power Law. Parameters of Taylor's Power Law relationships were used to develop sampling plans and to obtain estimates of sample precision. Precision estimates from specific and general sampling plans are illustrated for Belonolaimus longicaudatus. PMID:19283095

  2. Sustaining biological welfare for our future through consistent science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Physiological anthropology presently covers a very broad range of human knowledge and engineering technologies. This study reviews scientific inconsistencies within a variety of areas: sitting posture; negative air ions; oxygen inhalation; alpha brain waves induced by music and ultrasound; 1/f fluctuations; the evaluation of feelings using surface electroencephalography; Kansei; universal design; and anti-stress issues. We found that the inconsistencies within these areas indicate the importance of integrative thinking and the need to maintain the perspective on the biological benefit to humanity. Analytical science divides human physiological functions into discrete details, although individuals comprise a unified collection of whole-body functions. Such disparate considerations contribute to the misunderstanding of physiological functions and the misevaluation of positive and negative values for humankind. Research related to human health will, in future, depend on the concept of maintaining physiological functions based on consistent science and on sustaining human health to maintain biological welfare in future generations. PMID:23317395

  3. On consistent kinetic and derivative interactions for gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2015-04-17

    The only known fully ghost-free and consistent Lorentz-invariant kinetic term for a graviton (or indeed for any spin-2 field) is the Einstein-Hilbert term. Here we propose and investigate a new candidate family of kinetic interactions and their extensions to derivative interactions involving several spin-2 fields. These new terms generically break diffeomorphism invariance(s) and as a result can lead to the propagation of 5 degrees of freedom for a single spin-2 field — analogous to ghost-free Massive Gravity. We discuss under what circumstances these new terms can be used to build healthy effective field theories and in the process establish the ‘Jordan’ and ‘Einstein’ frame pictures for Massive-, Bi- and Multi-Gravity.

  4. Consistency analysis on laser signal in laser guided weapon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruiguang; Zhang, Wenpan; Guo, Hao; Gan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    The hardware-in-the-loop simulation is widely used in laser semi-active guidance weapon experiments, the authenticity of the laser guidance signal is the key problem of reliability. In order to evaluate the consistency of the laser guidance signal, this paper analyzes the angle of sight, laser energy density, laser spot size, atmospheric back scattering, sun radiation and SNR by comparing the different working state between actual condition and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Based on measured data, mathematical simulation and optical simulation result, laser guidance signal effects on laser seeker are determined. By using Monte Carlo method, the laser guided weapon trajectory and impact point distribution are obtained, the influence of the systematic error are analyzed. In conclusion it is pointed out that the difference between simulation system and actual system has little influence in normal guidance, has great effect on laser jamming. The research is helpful to design and evaluation of laser guided weapon simulation.

  5. Consistency condition for inflation from (broken) conformal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schalm, Koenraad; Aalst, Ted van der; Shiu, Gary E-mail: shiu@physics.wisc.edu

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum, i.e. the three-point correlation function of primordial density fluctuations, in slow-roll inflation. It follows from the defining property of slow-roll inflation that primordial correlation functions inherit most of their structure from weakly broken de Sitter symmetries. Using holographic techniques borrowed from the AdS/CFT correspondence, the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum can be mapped to a set of stress-tensor Ward identities in a weakly broken 2+1-dimensional Euclidean CFT. We construct the consistency condition from these Ward identities using conformal perturbation theory. This requires a second order Ward identity and the use of the evolution equation. Our result also illustrates a subtle difference between conformal perturbation theory and the slow-roll expansion.

  6. Cross-situational consistency in recognition memory response bias.

    PubMed

    Kantner, Justin; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Individuals taking an old-new recognition memory test differ widely in their bias to respond "old," ranging from strongly conservative to strongly liberal, even without any manipulation intended to affect bias. Kantner and Lindsay (2012) found stability of bias across study-test cycles, suggesting that bias is a cognitive trait. That consistency, however, could have arisen because participants perceived the two tests as being part of the same experiment in the same context. In the present study, we tested for stability across two recognition study-test procedures embedded in markedly different experiments, held weeks apart, that participants did not know were connected. Bias showed substantial cross-situational stability. Moreover, bias weakly predicted identifications on an eyewitness memory task and accuracy on a go-no-go task. Although we found little in the way of relationships between bias and five personality measures, these findings suggest that response bias is a stable and broadly influential characteristic of recognizers.

  7. Thermodynamically consistent microstructure prediction of additively manufactured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing has risen to the top of research interest in advanced manufacturing in recent years due to process flexibility, achievability of geometric complexity, and the ability to locally modify and optimize materials. The present work is focused on providing an approach for incorporating thermodynamically consistent properties and microstructure evolution for non-equilibrium supercooling, as observed in additive manufacturing processes, into finite element analysis. There are two primary benefits of this work: (1) the resulting prediction is based on the material composition and (2) the nonlinear behavior caused by the thermodynamic properties of the material during the non-equilibrium solution is accounted for with extremely high resolution. The predicted temperature response and microstructure evolution for additively manufactured stainless steel 316L using standard handbook-obtained thermodynamic properties are compared with the thermodynamic properties calculated using the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. Data transfer from the CALPHAD approach to finite element analysis is discussed.

  8. Consistent constraints on the Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, Laure; Trott, Michael

    2016-02-01

    We develop the global constraint picture in the (linear) effective field theory generalisation of the Standard Model, incorporating data from detectors that operated at PEP, PETRA, TRISTAN, SpS, Tevatron, SLAC, LEPI and LEP II, as well as low energy precision data. We fit one hundred and three observables. We develop a theory error metric for this effective field theory, which is required when constraints on parameters at leading order in the power counting are to be pushed to the percent level, or beyond, unless the cut off scale is assumed to be large, Λ ≳ 3 TeV. We more consistently incorporate theoretical errors in this work, avoiding this assumption, and as a direct consequence bounds on some leading parameters are relaxed. We show how an S, T analysis is modified by the theory errors we include as an illustrative example.

  9. Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-06-01

    In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.

  10. Interstellar Dust Models Consistent with Extinction, Emission, and Abundance Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubko, Viktor; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new interstellar dust models which have been derived by simultaneously fitting the far ultraviolet to near infrared extinction, the diffuse infrared emission, and, unlike previous models, the elemental abundances in dust for the diffuse interstellar medium. We found that dust models consisting of a mixture of spherical graphite and silicate grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, in addition to porous composite particles containing silicate, organic refractory, and water ice, provide an improved .t to the UV-to-infrared extinction and infrared emission measurements, while consuming the amounts of elements well within the uncertainties of adopted interstellar abundances, including B star abundances. These models are a signi.cant improvement over the recent Li & Draine (2001, ApJ, 554, 778) model which requires an excessive amount of silicon to be locked up in dust: 48 ppm (atoms per million of H atoms), considerably more than the solar abundance of 34 ppm or the B star abundance of 19 ppm.

  11. Self-consistent simulation of cyclotron autoresonance maser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, K.D.; Danly, B.G.; Temkin, R.J.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1988-04-01

    A self-consistent, one-dimensional model of the cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier is developed, and numerical simulations based on this model are described. Detailed studies of the CARM gain and efficiency for a wide range of initial energy and velocity spreads are presented. The interaction efficiency is found to be substantially increased when the axial magnetic field is tapered. For example, efficiencies of greater than 41 percent are obtained for a 140-GHz CARM amplifier with a tapered axial magnetic field and a 700-kV 4.5-A electron beam with parallel velocity spreads of less than 1 percent. A discussion of the nonlinear bandwidth and interaction sensitivity to axial field inhomogeneities is presented.

  12. Use of directional consistency with Sobel edge detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Ikram E.; Johnson, Todd B.; Long, Daniel T.; Sutha, Surachai

    1990-09-01

    Although there are many edge detection operators that are used in Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) Systems we believe that the required performance can be accomplished using simple operators such as the Sobel operator with minor modification through pre and postprocessing. In this paper we describe two methods that enhance the Sobel performance. The first which can be considered pre processing increases the effective size of the operator to 5*5 The second which is postprocessing modifies the edge magnitude output based on the consistency of the local edge direction. Both methods can be easily implemented on SIMD machines and they are effective in deleting isolated edge points which usually are not part of interesting targets. We will describe the implementation of these techniques on a SIMD machine and study their effect on the performance of an ATR system. 1.

  13. Pattern formation in oscillatory complex networks consisting of excitable nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xuhong; Xia, Qinzhi; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Lisheng; Hu, Gang; Mi, Yuanyuan

    2011-05-01

    Oscillatory dynamics of complex networks has recently attracted great attention. In this paper we study pattern formation in oscillatory complex networks consisting of excitable nodes. We find that there exist a few center nodes and small skeletons for most oscillations. Complicated and seemingly random oscillatory patterns can be viewed as well-organized target waves propagating from center nodes along the shortest paths, and the shortest loops passing through both the center nodes and their driver nodes play the role of oscillation sources. Analyzing simple skeletons we are able to understand and predict various essential properties of the oscillations and effectively modulate the oscillations. These methods and results will give insights into pattern formation in complex networks and provide suggestive ideas for studying and controlling oscillations in neural networks.

  14. Self-consistent estimation of mislocated fixations during reading.

    PubMed

    Engbert, Ralf; Nuthmann, Antje

    2008-01-01

    During reading, we generate saccadic eye movements to move words into the center of the visual field for word processing. However, due to systematic and random errors in the oculomotor system, distributions of within-word landing positions are rather broad and show overlapping tails, which suggests that a fraction of fixations is mislocated and falls on words to the left or right of the selected target word. Here we propose a new procedure for the self-consistent estimation of the likelihood of mislocated fixations in normal reading. Our approach is based on iterative computation of the proportions of several types of oculomotor errors, the underlying probabilities for word-targeting, and corrected distributions of landing positions. We found that the average fraction of mislocated fixations ranges from about 10% to more than 30% depending on word length. These results show that fixation probabilities are strongly affected by oculomotor errors.

  15. Consistency relation for multifield inflation scenario with all loop contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.

    2012-05-01

    The consistency relation between non-linear parameters f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} characterizing Non-Gaussianity generated in the super horizon scale have been emerged as a useful tool to rule out a large class of inflationary models all at once. In our previous work, we extended the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality up to 1-loop corrections. In this paper, we further extend the inequality up to all loop corrections, and found that it takes the same expression with the original Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality, τ{sub NL} ≥ ((6/5)f{sub NL}){sup 2}, where the equality is not satisfied in the case of single field models any more.

  16. A photon position sensor consisting of single-electron circuits.

    PubMed

    Kikombo, Andrew Kilinga; Tabe, Michiharu; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a solid-state sensor that can detect the position of incident photons with a high spatial resolution. The sensor consists of a two-dimensional array of single-electron oscillators, each coupled to its neighbors through coupling capacitors. An incident photon triggers an excitatory circular wave of electron tunneling in the oscillator array. The wave propagates in all directions to reach the periphery of the array. By measuring the arrival time of the wave at the periphery, we can know the position of the incident photon. The tunneling wave's generation, propagation, arrival at the array periphery, and the determination of incident photon positions are demonstrated with the results of Monte Carlo based computer simulations.

  17. Linear Multigrid Techniques in Self-consistent Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, J-L

    2000-05-23

    Ab initio DFT electronic structure calculations involve an iterative process to solve the Kohn-Sham equations for an Hamiltonian depending on the electronic density. We discretize these equations on a grid by finite differences. Trial eigenfunctions are improved at each step of the algorithm using multigrid techniques to efficiently reduce the error at all length scale, until self-consistency is achieved. In this paper we focus on an iterative eigensolver based on the idea of inexact inverse iteration, using multigrid as a preconditioner. We also discuss how this technique can be used for electrons described by general non-orthogonal wave functions, and how that leads to a linear scaling with the system size for the computational cost of the most expensive parts of the algorithm.

  18. Rescattering corrections and self-consistent metric in planckian scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciafaloni, M.; Colferai, D.

    2014-10-01

    Starting from the ACV approach to transplanckian scattering, we present a development of the reduced-action model in which the (improved) eikonal representation is able to describe particles' motion at large scattering angle and, furthermore, UV-safe (regular) rescattering solutions are found and incorporated in the metric. The resulting particles' shock-waves undergo calculable trajectory shifts and time delays during the scattering process — which turns out to be consistently described by both action and metric, up to relative order R 2 /b 2 in the gravitational radius over impact parameter expansion. Some suggestions about the role and the (re)scattering properties of irregular solutions — not fully investigated here — are also presented.

  19. Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E; Ivlev, Alexei V

    2016-06-01

    In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential. PMID:27415371

  20. Self-consistent model of edge doping in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2015-02-01

    Dopants positioned near edges in nanostructured graphene behave differently from bulk dopants. Most notable, the amount of charge transferred to delocalized states (i.e., doping efficiency) depends on position as well as edge chirality. We apply a self-consistent tight-binding model to analyze this problem focusing on substitutional nitrogen and boron doping. Using a Green's-function technique, very large structures can be studied, and artificial interactions between dopants in periodically repeated simulations cells are avoided. We find pronounced signatures of edges in the local impurity density of states. Importantly, the doping efficiency is found to oscillate with sublattice position, in particular, for dopants near zigzag edges. Finally, to assess the effect of electron-electron interactions, we compute the self-energy corrected Green's function.