Science.gov

Sample records for culture cross-role consistency

  1. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Cognitive Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhlov, Nikolai E.; Gonzalez E. John

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of cognitive consistency was conducted across two cultural groups. Forty-five American subjects in Southern California and 45 subjects in Northern Greece responded to a questionnaire written in their native language and which contained three classical paradigms for balance theory. It was hypothesized that significant differences in…

  2. Consistent and heritable alterations of DNA methylation are induced by tissue culture in maize.

    PubMed

    Stelpflug, Scott C; Eichten, Steven R; Hermanson, Peter J; Springer, Nathan M; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2014-09-01

    Plants regenerated from tissue culture and their progenies are expected to be identical clones, but often display heritable molecular and phenotypic variation. We characterized DNA methylation patterns in callus, primary regenerants, and regenerant-derived progenies of maize using immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA (meDIP) to assess the genome-wide frequency, pattern, and heritability of DNA methylation changes. Although genome-wide DNA methylation levels remained similar following tissue culture, numerous regions exhibited altered DNA methylation levels. Hypomethylation events were observed more frequently than hypermethylation following tissue culture. Many of the hypomethylation events occur at the same genomic sites across independent regenerants and cell lines. The DNA methylation changes were often heritable in progenies produced from self-pollination of primary regenerants. Methylation changes were enriched in regions upstream of genes and loss of DNA methylation at promoters was associated with altered expression at a subset of loci. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) found in tissue culture regenerants overlap with the position of naturally occurring DMRs more often than expected by chance with 8% of tissue culture hypomethylated DMRs overlapping with DMRs identified by profiling natural variation, consistent with the hypotheses that genomic stresses similar to those causing somaclonal variation may also occur in nature, and that certain loci are particularly susceptible to epigenetic change in response to these stresses. The consistency of methylation changes across regenerants from independent cultures suggests a mechanistic response to the culture environment as opposed to an overall loss of fidelity in the maintenance of epigenetic states.

  3. Cross-Cultural Consistency of the Demand/Withdraw Interaction Pattern in Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Eldridge, Kathleen; Catta-Preta, Adriana Bokel; Lim, Veronica R.; Santagata, Rossella

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine the cross-cultural consistency of several patterns of couple communication, 363 participants from four different countries (Brazil, Italy, Taiwan, and the United States) completed self-report measures about communication and satisfaction in their romantic relationships. Across countries, constructive communication was…

  4. Concern about family members' drinking and cultural consistency: A Multi-Country GENACIS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildigunnur; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Greenfield, Tom K.; Allamani, Allaman

    2009-01-01

    The data analysed come from the GENACIS project (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) and involve population surveys for 18 countries (total N = 34,916) from five WHO Regions: African (Nigeria and Uganda); Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay and United States); European (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Spain, Sweden, and UK); South-East Asian (India, Sri Lanka); and Western Pacific (Japan). The paper studies gender and country differences in the relationship between social pressure to drink less experienced by individuals, considering seeking help for alcohol problems, and alcohol consumption and problem levels (AUDIT). In most countries for both men and women, informal control was applied most often by the spouse or partner, while reporting such controls from any source seemed more common in low- and middle-income countries. In all countries studied, men reported substantially more social control efforts than women. The hypothesis was not maintained that drinking control and help seeking was more common for heavier drinkers and those with more drinking-related harms. However, there appeared to be a relationship between a country's aggregate level of drinking and the extent to which social control efforts were reported. Higher correlations between drinking and problem levels on the one hand, and spouses' and other family members' concerns on the other, may be suggestive of a cultural consistency in societal responses to drinking and alcohol-related problems. PMID:20072722

  5. The Chapman psychosis-proneness scales: Consistency across culture and time.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Shi, Hai-song; Geng, Fu-lei; Liu, Wen-hua; Yan, Chao; Wang, Yi; Gooding, Diane C

    2015-07-30

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the factor structure and the temporal stability of the Chapman psychosis-proneness scales in a representative sample of nonclinical Chinese young adults. The four psychosis-proneness scales evaluated were the Perceptual Aberration (PAS), Magical Ideation (MIS), revised Social Anhedonia (RSAS), and revised Physical Anhedonia (RPAS) scales. The sample consisted of 1724 young adults with a mean age of 18.8 years (S.D. = 0.84). The results of the confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the best fitting model was a two-factor model with positive schizotypy (PER and MIS) scales and negative schizotypy (RSAS and RPAS) scales. The data add to the growing literature indicating that the measurement of schizotypal traits is consistent across cultures. In addition, the results support the measurement invariance of the Chapman psychosis-proneness scales across time, i.e., there was ample evidence of test-retest reliability over a test interval of 6 months.

  6. Personality and Behavior Prediction and Consistency Across Cultures: A Multimethod Study of Blacks and Whites in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Sekaja, Lusanda; Laher, Sumaya

    2017-01-16

    The cross-cultural universality of behavior's consistency and predictability from personality, assumed in trait models though challenged in cultural psychological models, has usually been operationalized in terms of beliefs and perceptions, and assessed using single-instance self-reports. In a multimethod study of actual behavior across a range of situations, we examined predictability and consistency in participants from the more collectivistic Black ethnic group and the more individualistic White group in South Africa. Participants completed personality questionnaires before the behavior measurements. In Study 1, 107 Black and 241 White students kept diaries for 21 days, recording their behaviors and the situations in which they had occurred. In Study 2, 57 Black and 52 White students were video-recorded in 12 situations in laboratory settings, and external observers scored their behaviors. Across both studies, behavior was predicted by personality on average equally well in the 2 groups, and equally well when using trait-adjective- and behavior-based personality measures. The few cultural differences in situational variability were not in line with individualism-collectivism; however, subjective perceptions of variability, operationalized as dialectical beliefs, were more in line with individualism-collectivism: Blacks viewed their behavior as more variable than Whites. We propose drawing a distinction between subjective beliefs and objective behavior in the study of personality and culture. Larger cultural differences can be expected in beliefs and perceptions than in the links between personality and actual behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Cultural consistency in Australian dental students from two different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo J; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Winning, Tracey; Morgan, Michael V; Thomson, W Murray; Marshall, Roderick I; Gotjamanos, Theo

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the value orientations of dental students from different ethnic backgrounds studying in Australian dental schools. A ninety-eight-item questionnaire was used to collect the data, including fifteen subscales developed consistent with the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck value orientation model. To compare the value orientation structure and to determine if any ethnic differences existed, a multivariate analysis of variance called profile analysis was performed on the fifteen value subscales. Of the 401 participants, 30.2 percent were Anglo-Australian and 44.9 percent were Asian. The remainder (24.9 percent) were "Other-background residents" or "Other-international students." This article presents data from Asian (n=184) and Anglo-Australian (n=124) background respondents. Mean age was 21.7 years (s.e. 0.35 years) among Anglo-Australian and 20.8 years (s.e. 0.17 years) among Asians. Asians born overseas represented 70.7 percent (n=130) of this group. Of Australia-born Asians (n=54), 90.6 percent were first-generation Australians. When comparing their value profile, we found a significant association between ethnicity and value orientation profile scores (p<0.05). Despite the significant overall result, the strength of the association (eta(2)=0.007) indicated that this effect was trivial relative to the unexplained variance in value orientation. The findings suggest that, behind an apparent ethnic diversity, a single distinctive value profile might exist to which the majority of dental students subscribe.

  8. Mild Heat Stress Enhances Angiogenesis in a Co-culture System Consisting of Primary Human Osteoblasts and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Sabine; Böse, Thomas; Schmidt, Harald; Hofmann, Alexander; Tonak, Marcus; Unger, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The repair and regeneration of large bone defects, including the formation of functional vasculature, represents a highly challenging task for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that vascularization and ossification can be stimulated by mild heat stress (MHS), which would offer the option to enhance the bone regeneration process by relatively simple means. However, the mechanisms of MHS-enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as potential risks for the treated cells are unclear. We have investigated the direct effect of MHS on angiogenesis and osteogenesis in a co-culture system of human outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) and primary osteoblasts (pOBs), and assessed cytotoxic effects, as well as the levels of various heat shock proteins (HSPs) synthesized under these conditions. Enhanced formation of microvessel-like structures was observed in co-cultures exposed to MHS (41°C, 1 h), twice per week, over a time period of 7–14 days. As shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was up-regulated in MHS-treated co-cultures 24 h post-treatment. At the protein level, significantly elevated VEGF and Ang-1 concentrations were observed in MHS-treated co-cultures and pOB mono-cultures compared with controls, indicating paracrine effects associated with MHS-induced angiogenesis. MHS-stimulated co-cultures and OEC mono-cultures released higher levels of Ang-2 than untreated cultures. On the other hand MHS treatment of co-cultures did not result in a clear effect regarding osteogenesis. Nevertheless, real-time PCR demonstrated that MHS increased the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase, interleukin-6, and bone morphogenetic protein 2, known as HSP-related molecules in angiogenic and osteogenic regulation pathways. In agreement with these observations, the expression of

  9. Mild heat stress enhances angiogenesis in a co-culture system consisting of primary human osteoblasts and outgrowth endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Fuchs, Sabine; Böse, Thomas; Schmidt, Harald; Hofmann, Alexander; Tonak, Marcus; Unger, Ronald; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2014-04-01

    The repair and regeneration of large bone defects, including the formation of functional vasculature, represents a highly challenging task for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that vascularization and ossification can be stimulated by mild heat stress (MHS), which would offer the option to enhance the bone regeneration process by relatively simple means. However, the mechanisms of MHS-enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis, as well as potential risks for the treated cells are unclear. We have investigated the direct effect of MHS on angiogenesis and osteogenesis in a co-culture system of human outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) and primary osteoblasts (pOBs), and assessed cytotoxic effects, as well as the levels of various heat shock proteins (HSPs) synthesized under these conditions. Enhanced formation of microvessel-like structures was observed in co-cultures exposed to MHS (41°C, 1 h), twice per week, over a time period of 7-14 days. As shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was up-regulated in MHS-treated co-cultures 24 h post-treatment. At the protein level, significantly elevated VEGF and Ang-1 concentrations were observed in MHS-treated co-cultures and pOB mono-cultures compared with controls, indicating paracrine effects associated with MHS-induced angiogenesis. MHS-stimulated co-cultures and OEC mono-cultures released higher levels of Ang-2 than untreated cultures. On the other hand MHS treatment of co-cultures did not result in a clear effect regarding osteogenesis. Nevertheless, real-time PCR demonstrated that MHS increased the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase, interleukin-6, and bone morphogenetic protein 2, known as HSP-related molecules in angiogenic and osteogenic regulation pathways. In agreement with these observations, the expression of some

  10. Enhancing the Efficacy of Lecturers in Educating Student Cohorts Consisting of Culturally Diverse Groups in a Medical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Judson, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Lecturers exert a potent influence over the achievement of all students, low-income culturally diverse students in particular. Although recent research has confirmed that lecturer involvement is critical for promoting academic engagement of low-income and ethnically diverse students in America and other countries, other literature suggests that…

  11. Solid consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  12. Relationship between Internal Quality Audit and Quality Culture toward Implementation Consistency of ISO 9000 in Private College of Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mail, Abdul; Pratikto; Suparman, Sudjito; Purnomo; Santoso, Budi

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to find out the influence of internal quality process on the growth of quality culture in private college. This study is treated toward 178 lecturers of 25 private colleges in Sulawesi, Indonesia by means of questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis applied to assess the reliability of validity and measurement model. Relationship…

  13. Consistent Occurrence of Hydrocarbonoclastic Marinobacter Strains in Various Cultures of Picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: Promising Associations for Biodegradation of Marine Oil Pollution.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaib, Dhuha; Al-Bader, Dhia; Al-Shaikh Abdou, Dana K; Eliyas, Mohamed; Radwan, Samir S

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen nonaxenic cultures of picocyanobacteria were isolated from the Arabian Gulf, from which 122 heterotrophic bacterial strains were obtained. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, those strains were affiliated with 22 different species, 82.8% of which belonged to the genus Marinobacter, known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. The remaining species belonged to the genera Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Halomonas, Mesorhizobium, and Paenibacillus, and a Bacteriodetes bacterium also known to comprise hydrocarbonoclastic strains. All the picocyanobacterial cultures harbored one or more strains of Marinobacter. Marinobacter in addition to Alcanivorax and other genera isolated from those picocyanobacteria grew on Tween 80, crude oil, and pure hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy, i.e. they are related to the obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria group. They consumed crude oil, n-octadecane, and phenanthrene in batch cultures. The results indicated that Marinobacter isolates seemed to grow better and consume more oil in the presence of their host picocyanobacteria than in their absence. Such natural microbial associations assumingly play a role in bioremediation of spilled hydrocarbons in the Arabian Gulf. Similar associations probably occur in other marine environments as well and are active in oil spill removal.

  14. A colonisation-inhibition culture consisting of Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strains protects against infection by strains of both serotypes in broilers.

    PubMed

    De Cort, W; Mot, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2014-08-06

    Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is still an important cause of Salmonella infections in humans and there is a need for control methods that protect broilers from day-of-hatch until slaughter age against infection with Salmonella. Colonisation-inhibition, a concept in which a live Salmonella strain is orally administered to day-old chickens and protects against subsequent challenge, can potentially be used as control method. In this study, the efficacy of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain as a colonisation-inhibition strain for protection of broilers against Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated. Administration of a Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens decreased faecal shedding and strongly reduced caecal and internal organ colonisation of a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain administered one day later using a seeder bird model. In addition, it was verified whether a colonisation-inhibition culture could be developed that protects against both Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium. Therefore, the Salmonella Typhimurium ΔhilAssrAfliG strain was orally administered simultaneously with a Salmonella Enteritidis ΔhilAssrAfliG strain to day-old broiler chickens, which resulted in a decreased caecal and internal organ colonisation for both a Salmonella Enteritidis and a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge strain short after hatching, using a seeder bird model. The combined culture was not protective against Salmonella Paratyphi B varietas Java challenge, indicating serotype-specific protection mechanisms. The data suggest that colonisation-inhibition can potentially be used as a versatile control method to protect poultry against several Salmonella serotypes.

  15. Infectious hepatitis A virus particles produced in cell culture consist of three distinct types with different buoyant densities in CsCl.

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, S M; Jansen, R W; Newbold, J E

    1985-01-01

    Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) released by infected BS-C-1 cells banded predominantly at 1.325 g/cm3 (major component) in CsCl, smaller proportions of infectious virions banded at 1.42 g/cm3 (dense HAV particles) and at 1.27 g/cm3 (previously unrecognized light HAV particles). cDNA-RNA hybridization confirmed the banding of viral RNA at each density, and immune electron microscopy demonstrated apparently complete viral particles in each peak fraction. The ratio of the infectivity (radioimmunofocus assay) titer to the antigen (radioimmunoassay) titer of the major component was approximately 15-fold greater than that of dense HAV particles and 4-fold that of light HAV particles. After extraction with chloroform, the buoyant density of light and major component HAV particles remained unchanged, indicating that the lower density of the light particles was not due to association with lipids. Light particles also banded at a lower density (1.21 g/cm3) in metrizamide than did the major component (1.31 g/cm3). Dense HAV particles, detected by subsequent centrifugation in CsCl, were indistinguishable from the major component when first banded in metrizamide (1.31 g/cm3). However, dense HAV particles recovered from CsCl subsequently banded at 1.37 g/cm3 in metrizamide. Electrophoresis of virion RNA under denaturing conditions demonstrated that dense, major-component, and light HAV particles all contained RNA of similar length. Thus, infectious HAV particles released by BS-C-1 cells in vitro consist of three distinct types which band at substantially different densities in CsC1, suggesting different capsid structures with varied permeability to cesium or different degrees of hydration. Images PMID:2983123

  16. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the…

  17. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  18. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  19. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  20. From Chaos to Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The US Department of Education designated T. C. Cherry Elementary School in Bowling Green, Kentucky, as a Blue Ribbon School, an honor awarded to only few schools across the nation. The same became possible because they changed the culture of the school from rowdy to calm, from irresponsible to responsible, from noncooperative to cooperative, from…

  1. Network Consistent Data Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases.

  2. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  3. Consistent quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  4. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  5. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    PubMed

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition.

  6. Self-consistency in Bicultural Persons: Dialectical Self-beliefs Mediate the Relation between Identity Integration and Self-consistency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Noels, Kimberly A.; Lalonde, Richard N.; Salas, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research differentiates dialectical (e.g., East Asian) from non-dialectical cultures (e.g., North American and Latino) and attributes cultural differences in self-concept consistency to naïve dialecticism. In this research, we explored the effects of managing two cultural identities on consistency within the bicultural self-concept via the role of dialectical beliefs. Because the challenge of integrating more than one culture within the self is common to biculturals of various heritage backgrounds, the effects of bicultural identity integration should not depend on whether the heritage culture is dialectical or not. In four studies across diverse groups of bicultural Canadians, we showed that having an integrated bicultural identity was associated with being more consistent across roles (Studies 1–3) and making less ambiguous self-evaluations (Study 4). Furthermore, dialectical self-beliefs mediated the effect of bicultural identity integration on self-consistency (Studies 2–4). Finally, Latino biculturals reported being more consistent across roles than did East Asian biculturals (Study 2), revealing the ethnic heritage difference between the two groups. We conclude that both the content of heritage culture and the process of integrating cultural identities influence the extent of self-consistency among biculturals. Thus, consistency within the bicultural self-concept can be understood, in part, to be a unique psychological product of bicultural experience. PMID:28326052

  7. Consistency argued students of fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  8. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  9. Postural consistency in skilled archers.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Atha, J

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of an archer's postural set at the moment of loose (arrow release) is commonly perceived to be an important determinant of success. The coach seeks, among other things, to provide the archer with information about postural consistency, details of which he acquires by eye or occasionally by video-recordings. The gains that might be achieved from more precise information are examined here. Nine skilled archers, classified into either skilled or elite groups according to their officially computed handicap, were continuously monitored and measured with a three-dimensional co-ordinate analyser (Charnwood Dynamics Coda-3 Scanner) while shooting two ends (series) of three arrows each. Considerable variability was observed in the precision with which the positions of head, elbow and bow at the moment of loose were replicated by archers of similar levels of skill. These results are interpreted to suggest that precise postural consistency may not be the primary feature distinguishing between the performance of archers at the higher skill levels.

  10. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Omnes, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  11. Task Versus Component Consistency in the Development of Automatic Processes: Consistent Attending Versus Consistent Responding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    a visual search paradigm, Schneider and Shiffrin (1977, Experiment 2) found that reaction times in conditions where subjects could consistently attend...requires less effort, is more accurate and is faster (see for example, Corballis, 1975; Egeth, Atkinson , Gilmore, & Marcus, 1973; Kristofferson, 1972...Logan, 1978, 1979; Neisser, 1974; Schneider & Shiffrin , 1977; Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977; Schneider & Fisk, in press - a; for a review, see Schneider

  12. Surrogate measures and consistent surrogates.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J

    2013-09-01

    Surrogates which allow one to predict the effect of the treatment on the outcome of interest from the effect of the treatment on the surrogate are of importance when it is difficult or expensive to measure the primary outcome. Unfortunately, the use of such surrogates can give rise to paradoxical situations in which the effect of the treatment on the surrogate is positive, the surrogate and outcome are strongly positively correlated, but the effect of the treatment on the outcome is negative, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as the "surrogate paradox." New results are given for consistent surrogates that extend the existing literature on sufficient conditions that ensure the surrogate paradox is not manifest. Specifically, it is shown that for the surrogate paradox to be manifest it must be the case that either there is (i) a direct effect of treatment on the outcome not through the surrogate and in the opposite direction as that through the surrogate or (ii) confounding for the effect of the surrogate on the outcome, or (iii) a lack of transitivity so that treatment does not positively affect the surrogate for all the same individuals for whom the surrogate positively affects the outcome. The conditions for consistent surrogates and the results of the article are important because they allow investigators to predict the direction of the effect of the treatment on the outcome simply from the direction of the effect of the treatment on the surrogate. These results on consistent surrogates are then related to the four approaches to surrogate outcomes described by Joffe and Greene (2009, Biometrics 65, 530-538) to assess whether the standard criteria used by these approaches to assess whether a surrogate is "good" suffice to avoid the surrogate paradox.

  13. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  14. Consistency of warm k -inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhi-Peng; Yu, Jia-Ning; Zhu, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2016-11-01

    We extend k -inflation which is a type of kinetically driven inflationary model under the standard inflationary scenario to a possible warm inflationary scenario. The dynamical equations of this warm k -inflation model are obtained. We rewrite the slow-roll parameters which are different from the usual potential driven inflationary models and perform a linear stability analysis to give the proper slow-roll conditions in warm k -inflation. Two cases, a power-law kinetic function and an exponential kinetic function, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient Γ =Γ0 and Γ =Γ (ϕ ), respectively. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both concrete cases of warm k -inflation. We find a constant dissipative coefficient (Γ =Γ0) is not a workable choice for these two cases while the two cases with Γ =Γ (ϕ ) are self-consistent warm inflationary models.

  15. Self-consistent triaxial models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. Wyn

    2015-11-01

    We present self-consistent triaxial stellar systems that have analytic distribution functions (DFs) expressed in terms of the actions. These provide triaxial density profiles with cores or cusps at the centre. They are the first self-consistent triaxial models with analytic DFs suitable for modelling giant ellipticals and dark haloes. Specifically, we study triaxial models that reproduce the Hernquist profile from Williams & Evans, as well as flattened isochrones of the form proposed by Binney. We explore the kinematics and orbital structure of these models in some detail. The models typically become more radially anisotropic on moving outwards, have velocity ellipsoids aligned in Cartesian coordinates in the centre and aligned in spherical polar coordinates in the outer parts. In projection, the ellipticity of the isophotes and the position angle of the major axis of our models generally changes with radius. So, a natural application is to elliptical galaxies that exhibit isophote twisting. As triaxial Stäckel models do not show isophote twists, our DFs are the first to generate mass density distributions that do exhibit this phenomenon, typically with a gradient of ≈10°/effective radius, which is comparable to the data. Triaxiality is a natural consequence of models that are susceptible to the radial orbit instability. We show how a family of spherical models with anisotropy profiles that transition from isotropic at the centre to radially anisotropic becomes unstable when the outer anisotropy is made sufficiently radial. Models with a larger outer anisotropy can be constructed but are found to be triaxial. We argue that the onset of the radial orbit instability can be identified with the transition point when adiabatic relaxation yields strongly triaxial rather than weakly spherical endpoints.

  16. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  17. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  18. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Stool Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, ...

  19. Assessing Knowledge of Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Robert

    The procedures used in a study to determine how well a group of American Indian college students understood their traditional and modern cultures and a college Caucasian culture were explained in this paper. The sample consisted of 111 Indian students enrolled in the University of New Mexico. The students were tested in the areas of knowledge of…

  20. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will update... to update part 55 accordingly. (c) Consistency reviews triggered by receipt of an NOI. Upon...

  1. Consistency Rules: A Critical Exploration of a Universal Principle of School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Decoteau; Clough, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores the principle of "consistency" and its relevance in the discipline cultures of three middle and two high schools in a Midwest US school district. We explore how educators (1) evoke consistency as a necessity for school discipline and (2) attempt to be consistent in practice to develop disciplined students,…

  2. Consistency, Understanding and Truth in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    What do Elliot Eisner's discussions of objectivity mean for the strength of the link between consistency and truth in educational research? Following his lead, I pursue this question by comparing aspects of qualitative educational research with appraising the arts. I argue that some departures from the highest levels of consistency in assessing…

  3. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  4. Categories Influence Predictions about Individual Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting how people will behave in the future is a critical social-cognitive task. In four studies (N = 150, ages preschool to adult), young children (ages 4-5) used category information to guide their expectations about individual consistency. They predicted that psychological properties (preferences and fears) would remain consistent over time…

  5. Consistency and Enhancement Processes in Understanding Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Asencio, Emily K.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories in the sociology of emotions assume that emotions emerge from the cognitive consistency principle. Congruence among cognitions produces good feelings whereas incongruence produces bad feelings. A work situation is simulated in which managers give feedback to workers that is consistent or inconsistent with what the workers expect to…

  6. Framework for Culturally Proactive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, Lisa A.; Chattaraj, Samantha; Sullivan-Lytle, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework for connecting family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs to the culturally diverse communities of children, youth, and families served. The framework consists of components for achieving culturally inclusive organizations and culturally proactive programs that will lead to more positive outcomes for…

  7. Managing consistency in collaborative design environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chunyan; Yang, Zhonghua; Goh, Angela; Sun, Chengzheng; Sattar, Abdul

    1999-08-01

    In today's global economy, there is a significant paradigm shift to collaborative engineering design environments. One of key issues in the collaborative setting is the consistency model, which governs how to coordinate the activities of collaborators to ensure that they do not make inconsistent changes or updates to the shared objects. In this paper, we present a new consistency model which requires that all update operations will be executed in the casual order (causality) and all participants have the same view on the operations on the shared objects (view synchrony). A simple multicast-based protocol to implement the consistency model is presented. By employing vector time and token mechanisms, the protocol brings the shared objects from one consistent state to another, thus providing collaborators with a consistent view of the shared objects. A CORBA-based on-going prototyping implementation is outlined. Some of the related work are also discussed.

  8. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  9. Urine Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Urine Culture and Sensitivity; Urine C and S Formal name: Culture, ...

  10. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  11. Maximizing the benefits of improved cookstoves: moving from acquisition to correct and consistent use.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Anita; Johnson, Michael; Kay, Ethan; Pannu, Raj; Beltramo, Theresa; Derby, Elisa; Harrell, Stephen; Davis, Curt; Petach, Helen

    2014-08-01

    The adoption of clean cooking technologies goes beyond mere product acquisition and requires attention to issues of cooking traditions, user engagement, gender dynamics, culture, and religion to effect correct and consistent use.

  12. Ensuring the Consistency of Silicide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, V.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Diagram specifies optimum fusing time for given thicknesses of refractory metal-silicide coatings on columbium C-103 substrates. Adherence to indicated fusion times ensures consistent coatings and avoids underdiffusion and overdiffusion. Accuracy of diagram has been confirmed by tests.

  13. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  14. Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables.

    PubMed

    Montella, Alfonso; Imbriani, Lella Liana

    2015-01-01

    Highway design which ensures that successive elements are coordinated in such a way as to produce harmonious and homogeneous driver performances along the road is considered consistent and safe. On the other hand, an alignment which requires drivers to handle high speed gradients and does not meet drivers' expectancy is considered inconsistent and produces higher crash frequency. To increase the usefulness and the reliability of existing safety performance functions and contribute to solve inconsistencies of existing highways as well as inconsistencies arising in the design phase, we developed safety performance functions for rural motorways that incorporate design consistency measures. Since the design consistency variables were used only for curves, two different sets of models were fitted for tangents and curves. Models for the following crash characteristics were fitted: total, single-vehicle run-off-the-road, other single vehicle, multi vehicle, daytime, nighttime, non-rainy weather, rainy weather, dry pavement, wet pavement, property damage only, slight injury, and severe injury (including fatal). The design consistency parameters in this study are based on operating speed models developed through an instrumented vehicle equipped with a GPS continuous speed tracking from a field experiment conducted on the same motorway where the safety performance functions were fitted (motorway A16 in Italy). Study results show that geometric design consistency has a significant effect on safety of rural motorways. Previous studies on the relationship between geometric design consistency and crash frequency focused on two-lane rural highways since these highways have the higher crash rates and are generally characterized by considerable inconsistencies. Our study clearly highlights that the achievement of proper geometric design consistency is a key design element also on motorways because of the safety consequences of design inconsistencies. The design consistency measures

  15. Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

  16. Path-consistency: When space misses time

    SciTech Connect

    Chmeiss, A.; Jegou, P.

    1996-12-31

    Within the framework of constraint programming, particulary concerning the Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), the techniques of preprocessing based on filtering algorithms were shown to be very important for the search phase. In particular, two filtering methods have been studied, these methods exploit two properties of local consistency: arc- and path-consistency. Concerning the arc-consistency methods, there is a linear time algorithm (in the size of the problem) which is efficient in practice. But the limitations of the arc-consistency algorithms requires often filtering methods with higher order like path-consistency filterings. The best path-consistency algorithm proposed is PC-6, a natural generalization of AC-6 to path-consistency. Its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) and its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}), where n is the number of variables and d is the size of domains. We have remarked that PC-6, though it is widely better than PC-4, was not very efficient in practice, specially for those classes of problems that require an important space to be run. Therefore, we propose here a new path-consistency algorithm called PC-7, its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) but its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) i.e. worse than that of PC-6. However, the simplicity of PC-7 as well as the data structures used for its implementation offer really a higher performance than PC-6. Furthermore, it turns out that when the size of domains is a constant of the problems, the time complexity of PC-7 becomes. like PC-6, optimal i.e. O(n{sup 3}).

  17. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  18. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  19. Entropy-based consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    A description of software architecture is a plan of the IT system construction, therefore any architecture gaps affect the overall success of an entire project. The definitions mostly describe software architecture as a set of views which are mutually unrelated, hence potentially inconsistent. Software architecture completeness is also often described in an ambiguous way. As a result most methods of IT systems building comprise many gaps and ambiguities, thus presenting obstacles for software building automation. In this article the consistency and completeness of software architecture are mathematically defined based on calculation of entropy of the architecture description. Following this approach, in this paper we also propose our method of automatic verification of consistency and completeness of the software architecture development method presented in our previous article as Consistent Model Driven Architecture (CMDA). The proposed FBS (Functionality-Behaviour-Structure) entropy-based metric applied in our CMDA approach enables IT architects to decide whether the modelling process is complete and consistent. With this metric, software architects could assess the readiness of undergoing modelling work for the start of IT system building. It even allows them to assess objectively whether the designed software architecture of the IT system could be implemented at all. The overall benefit of such an approach is that it facilitates the preparation of complete and consistent software architecture more effectively as well as it enables assessing and monitoring of the ongoing modelling development status. We demonstrate this with a few industry examples of IT system designs.

  20. Symmetric smoothing filters from global consistency constraints.

    PubMed

    Haque, Sheikh Mohammadul; Pai, Gautam P; Govindu, Venu Madhav

    2015-05-01

    Many patch-based image denoising methods can be viewed as data-dependent smoothing filters that carry out a weighted averaging of similar pixels. It has recently been argued that these averaging filters can be improved using their doubly stochastic approximation, which are symmetric and stable smoothing operators. In this paper, we introduce a simple principle of consistency that argues that the relative similarities between pixels as imputed by the averaging matrix should be preserved in the filtered output. The resultant consistency filter has the theoretically desirable properties of being symmetric and stable, and is a generalized doubly stochastic matrix. In addition, we can also interpret our consistency filter as a specific form of Laplacian regularization. Thus, our approach unifies two strands of image denoising methods, i.e., symmetric smoothing filters and spectral graph theory. Our consistency filter provides high-quality image denoising and significantly outperforms the doubly stochastic version. We present a thorough analysis of the properties of our proposed consistency filter and compare its performance with that of other significant methods for image denoising in the literature.

  1. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  2. Quantifying the Consistency of Scientific Databases

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies. PMID:25984946

  3. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  4. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  5. Image recognition and consistency of response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question.
    Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image.
    Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize.
    Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  6. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  7. Consistency of Students' Explanations about Combustion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, J. Rod; Prieto, Teresa; Dillon, Justin S.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study of 14-15 year old students' ideas about combustion. Describes patterns of students' explanations across a range of questions and analyzes them to gain insight into both the degree of consistency of their explanations and how this may affect the process of conceptual change in the students. (Contains 35 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  9. Environmental Decision Support with Consistent Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most effective ways to pursue environmental progress is through the use of consistent metrics within a decision making framework. The US Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable Technology Division has developed TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of...

  10. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  11. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  12. Consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Giaccari, Stefano; Menotti, Pietro

    2009-03-15

    Exact consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons in two dimensions are treated both with the Schwinger-DeWitt regularization and independently through a cohomological procedure. The diffeomorphism transformations are described by a single ghost which allows one to climb the cohomological chain in a unique way.

  13. Consistency of Toddler Engagement across Two Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study documented the consistency of child engagement across two settings, toddler child care classrooms and mother-child dyadic play. One hundred twelve children, aged 14-36 months (M = 25.17, SD = 6.06), randomly selected from 30 toddler child care classrooms from the district of Porto, Portugal, participated. Levels of engagement were…

  14. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consistency determinations. 241.22 Section 241.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest,...

  15. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consistency determinations. 241.22 Section 241.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest,...

  16. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consistency determinations. 241.22 Section 241.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest,...

  17. Properties and Update Semantics of Consistent Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    8217 PR.OPERTIES AND UPDATE SEMANTICS OF CONSISTENT VIEWS G. Gottlob Institute for Applied Mathematics C.N.H.., G<•nova, Italy Compnt.<•r Sden... Gottlob G., Paolini P., Zicari R., "Proving Properties of Programs ou Database Views", Dipartiuwnto di Elcttronica, Politecnko di Milano (in

  18. Gassmann-Consistency of Inclusion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, M.; Wollner, U.; Dvorkin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mathematical inclusion theories predict the effective elastic properties of a porous medium with idealized-shape inclusions as a function of the elastic moduli of the host matrix and those of the inclusions. These effective elastic properties depend on the volumetric concentration of the inclusions (the porosity of the host frame) and the aspect ratio of an inclusion (the ratio between the thickness and length). Seemingly, these models can solve the problem of fluid substitution and solid substitution: any numbers can be used for the bulk and shear moduli of the inclusions, including zero for empty inclusions (dry rock). In contrast, the most commonly used fluid substitution method is Gassmann's (1951) theory. We explore whether inclusion based fluid substitution is consistent with Gassmann's fluid substitution. We compute the effective bulk and shear moduli of a matrix with dry inclusions and then conduct Gassmann's fluid substitution, comparing these results to those from directly computing the bulk and shear moduli of the same matrix but with the inclusions having the bulk modulus of the fluid. A number of examples employing the differential effective medium (DEM) model and self-consistent (SC) approximation indicate that the wet-rock bulk moduli as predicted by DEM and SC are approximately Gassmann-consistent at high aspect ratio and small porosity. However, at small aspect ratios and high porosity, these inclusion models are not Gassmann-consistent. For all cases, the shear moduli are not Gassmann-consistent at all, meaning that the wet-rock shear modulus as given by DEM or SC is very different from the dry-rock moduli as predicted by the same theories. We quantify the difference between the two methods for a range of porosity and aspect ratio combinations.

  19. Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, M.

    The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.

  20. Temporally consistent segmentation of point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason L.; Osteen, Philip R.; Daniilidis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    We consider the problem of generating temporally consistent point cloud segmentations from streaming RGB-D data, where every incoming frame extends existing labels to new points or contributes new labels while maintaining the labels for pre-existing segments. Our approach generates an over-segmentation based on voxel cloud connectivity, where a modified k-means algorithm selects supervoxel seeds and associates similar neighboring voxels to form segments. Given the data stream from a potentially mobile sensor, we solve for the camera transformation between consecutive frames using a joint optimization over point correspondences and image appearance. The aligned point cloud may then be integrated into a consistent model coordinate frame. Previously labeled points are used to mask incoming points from the new frame, while new and previous boundary points extend the existing segmentation. We evaluate the algorithm on newly-generated RGB-D datasets.

  1. Consistency Test and Constraint of Quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Gu, Je-AN; Chen, Pisin; /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-04-30

    In this paper we highlight our recent work in arXiv:0803.4504. In that work, we proposed a new consistency test of quintessence models for dark energy. Our test gave a simple and direct signature if certain category of quintessence models was not consistent with the observational data. For a category that passed the test, we further constrained its characteristic parameter. Specifically, we found that the exponential potential was ruled out at the 95% confidence level and the power-law potential was ruled out at the 68% confidence level based on the current observational data. We also found that the confidence interval of the index of the power-law potential was between -2 and 0 at the 95% confidence level.

  2. Consistency of a counterexample to Naimark's problem

    PubMed Central

    Akemann, Charles; Weaver, Nik

    2004-01-01

    We construct a C*-algebra that has only one irreducible representation up to unitary equivalence but is not isomorphic to the algebra of compact operators on any Hilbert space. This answers an old question of Naimark. Our construction uses a combinatorial statement called the diamond principle, which is known to be consistent with but not provable from the standard axioms of set theory (assuming that these axioms are consistent). We prove that the statement “there exists a counterexample to Naimark's problem which is generated by \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\aleph}_{1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} elements” is undecidable in standard set theory. PMID:15131270

  3. On consistent truncations in = 2* holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Venkat; Buchel, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Although Pilch-Warner (PW) gravitational renormalization group flow [1] passes a number of important consistency checks to be identified as a holographic dual to a large- N SU( N) = 2* supersymmetric gauge theory, it fails to reproduce the free energy of the theory on S 4, computed with the localization techniques. This disagreement points to the existence of a larger dual gravitational consistent truncation, which in the gauge theory flat-space limit reduces to a PW flow. Such truncation was recently identified by Bobev-Elvang-Freedman-Pufu (BEFP) [2]. Additional bulk scalars of the BEFP gravitation truncation might lead to destabilization of the finite-temperature deformed PW flows, and thus modify the low-temperature thermodynamics and hydrodynamics of = 2* plasma. We compute the quasinormal spectrum of these bulk scalar fields in the thermal PW flows and demonstrate that these modes do not condense, as long as the masses of the = 2* hypermultiplet components are real.

  4. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  5. Self-consistent structure of metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    A calculation is presented of the total energy of metallic hydrogen for a family of face-centered tetragonal lattices carried out within the self-consistent phonon approximation. The energy of proton motion is large and proper inclusion of proton dynamics alters the structural dependence of the total energy, causing isotropic lattices to become favored. For the dynamic lattice the structural dependence of terms of third and higher order in the electron-proton interaction is greatly reduced from static lattice equivalents.

  6. General solution of the supersymmetry consistency conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piguet, O.; Sibold, K.; Schweda, M.

    1980-11-01

    Renormalization of (broken-) supersymmetry theories depends on the existence of a local functional solution, with appropriate power counting, to a system of functional differential equations derived from the quantum action principle (QAP). Using consistency conditions which also follow from the QAP, we prove the existence of such a local solution; its dimension ensures ultraviolet renormalizability, whereas infrared behaviour must be discussed from case to case.

  7. Consistency test on the cosmic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Chen, Xuelei

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new and robust method to test the consistency of the cosmic evolution given by a cosmological model. It is realized by comparing the combined quantity rdCMB/DVSN , which is derived from the comoving sound horizon rd from cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements and the effective distance DV derived from low-redshift type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data, with direct and independent rd/DV obtained by baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at median redshifts. We apply this test method for the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) and w CDM models, and investigate the consistency of the derived value of rd/DV from Planck 2015 and the SN Ia data sets of Union2.1 and joint light-curve analysis (JLA) (z <1.5 ), and the rd/DV directly given by BAO data from six-degree-field galaxy survey (6dFGS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 Main Galaxy Survey (SDSS-DR7 MGS), DR11 of SDSS-III, WiggleZ and Ly α forecast surveys from baryon oscillation spectroscopic data (BOSS) DR-11 over 0.1 consistent with the BAO and CMB measurements within 1 σ C.L. Future surveys will further tighten up the constraints significantly, and provide a stronger test on the consistency.

  8. NHWAVE: Consistent boundary conditions and turbulence modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale σ-coordinate ocean circulation models neglect the horizontal variation of σ in the calculation of stress terms and boundary conditions. Following this practice, the effects of surface and bottom slopes in the dynamic surface and bottom boundary conditions have been usually neglected in the available non-hydrostatic wave-resolving models using a terrain-following grid. In this paper, we derive consistent surface and bottom boundary conditions for the normal and tangential stress fields as well as a Neumann-type boundary condition for scalar fluxes. Further, we examine the role of surface slopes in the predicted near-surface velocity and turbulence fields in surface gravity waves. By comparing the predicted velocity field in a deep-water standing wave in a closed basin, we show that the consistent boundary conditions do not generate unphysical vorticity at the free surface, in contrast to commonly used, simplified stress boundary conditions developed by ignoring all contributions except vertical shear in the transformation of stress terms. In addition, it is shown that the consistent boundary conditions significantly improve predicted wave shape, velocity and turbulence fields in regular surf zone breaking waves, compared with the simplified case. A more extensive model-data comparison of various breaking wave properties in different types of surface breaking waves is presented in companion papers (Derakhti et al., 2016a,b).

  9. Toward consistent snapshot of the digitized battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Susanta P.; Richardson, Paul; Sieh, Larry

    1999-07-01

    A battlefield can be viewed as a collection of entities, enemy and friendly, during combat, each entity scans its surrounding with local sensors to be aware of the current situation. Through digitation of the battlefield, it is possible to share this locally sensed information among all the friendly entities. Significant war-fighting advantages can be realized, if this shared information is consistent. During one of the soldier-in-the-loop simulation exercises invovling ground-based enemy and friendly entities, it was found that achieving consistent snapshot at each friendly node is not a trivial problem. A few contributing factors are: suitable method for combining individual perspective to a global one, mode of communication, movement of all entities, different local perspective of each entity, sensor calibration, fault, and clock synchronization. At the US Army VETRONICS Technology Center, we are in the process of developing a family of algorithms capable of obtaining a consistent global picture invovling one of the critical properties, ground position of entities. In the first stage we have established that for point to point communicating entities, a vector clock based scheme uses fewer number of messages and arrives at the global picture earlier. However, this result does not scale to broadcast situations.

  10. Bayesian AVO inversion with consistent angle parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Jinmiao; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2017-04-01

    Amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion has been extensively used in seismic exploration. Many different elastic parameters can be inverted by incorporating corresponding reflection coefficient approximations. Although efforts have been made to improve the accuracy of AVO inversions for years, there is still one problem that has long been ignored. In most methods, the angle in the approximation and the angle used in seismic angle gather extractions are not the same one. This inconsistency leads to inaccurate inversion results. In this paper, a Bayesian AVO inversion method with consistent angles is proposed to solve the problem and improve inversion accuracy. Firstly, a linearized P-wave reflection coefficient approximation with consistent angles is derived based on angle replacements. The equivalent form of the approximation in terms moduli and density is derived so that moduli can be inverted for reservoir characterization. Then, by convoluting it with seismic wavelets as the forward solver, a probabilistic prestack seismic inversion method with consistent angles is presented in a Bayesian scheme. The synthetic test proves that the accuracy of this method is higher than the traditional one. The real data example shows that the inversion result fits better with well log interpretation data, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. CMB lens sample covariance and consistency relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motloch, Pavel; Hu, Wayne; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien

    2017-02-01

    Gravitational lensing information from the two and higher point statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fields are intrinsically correlated because they are lensed by the same realization of structure between last scattering and observation. Using an analytic model for lens sample covariance, we show that there is one mode, separately measurable in the lensed CMB power spectra and lensing reconstruction, that carries most of this correlation. Once these measurements become lens sample variance dominated, this mode should provide a useful consistency check between the observables that is largely free of sampling and cosmological parameter errors. Violations of consistency could indicate systematic errors in the data and lens reconstruction or new physics at last scattering, any of which could bias cosmological inferences and delensing for gravitational waves. A second mode provides a weaker consistency check for a spatially flat universe. Our analysis isolates the additional information supplied by lensing in a model-independent manner but is also useful for understanding and forecasting CMB cosmological parameter errors in the extended Λ cold dark matter parameter space of dark energy, curvature, and massive neutrinos. We introduce and test a simple but accurate forecasting technique for this purpose that neither double counts lensing information nor neglects lensing in the observables.

  12. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  13. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  14. Bronchoscopic culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003748.htm Bronchoscopic culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bronchoscopic culture is a laboratory exam to check a piece ...

  15. Throat Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...

  16. Bile culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... these risks. Alternative Names Culture - bile Images Bile culture References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  17. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - esophageal ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, fungi, ... and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  18. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  19. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  20. Information, Consistent Estimation and Dynamic System Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Data fnfetd) --t 90gg- I .No-ýnber 1976 Report ESL-R-718 INFORMATION, CONSISTENT ESTIMATION AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION by Yoram Bara W This report...8217 • L .. +• " -’ .... .. .... .. .. ’• ’• "- ’"l ’"ll ~ll~ 2 l 1NFURMAT10N~, CUNSISTENT LST1IMATION JaN DYiNAMIC SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION byI Yoramn...one? 1. particular problem of considerable practical significance is that qI -3-3 of dynamic system identification . The situation described above, and

  1. Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large

  2. Consistency relations for the conformal mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2013-04-01

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB μ-distortion.

  3. Consistent Predictions of Future Forest Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    We examined empirical and model based estimates of current and future forest mortality of conifers in the northern hemisphere. Consistent water potential thresholds were found that resulted in mortality of our case study species, pinon pine and one-seed juniper. Extending these results with IPCC climate scenarios suggests that most existing trees in this region (SW USA) will be dead by 2050. Further, independent estimates of future mortality for the entire coniferous biome suggest widespread mortality by 2100. The validity and assumptions and implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Beyond Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  5. Kinematically consistent models of viscoelastic stress evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2016-05-01

    Following large earthquakes, coseismic stresses at the base of the seismogenic zone may induce rapid viscoelastic deformation in the lower crust and upper mantle. As stresses diffuse away from the primary slip surface in these lower layers, the magnitudes of stress at distant locations (>1 fault length away) may slowly increase. This stress relaxation process has been used to explain delayed earthquake triggering sequences like the 1992 Mw = 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw = 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California. However, a conceptual difficulty associated with these models is that the magnitudes of stresses asymptote to constant values over long time scales. This effect introduces persistent perturbations to the total stress field over many earthquake cycles. Here we present a kinematically consistent viscoelastic stress transfer model where the total perturbation to the stress field at the end of the earthquake cycle is zero everywhere. With kinematically consistent models, hypotheses about the potential likelihood of viscoelastically triggered earthquakes may be based on the timing of stress maxima, rather than on any arbitrary or empirically constrained stress thresholds. Based on these models, we infer that earthquakes triggered by viscoelastic earthquake cycle effects may be most likely to occur during the first 50% of the earthquake cycle regardless of the assumed long-term and transient viscosities.

  6. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-12-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics.

  7. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1), we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability. PMID:23305080

  8. Towards Consistent Models of Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, Boris; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav; Shematovich, Valery; Wiebe, Dimitri; Henning, Thomas; Semenov, Dimitri; Launhardt, Ralf

    The complete theory of the earliest stages of star formation can be developed only on the basis of self-consistent coupled dynamical and chemical models for the evolution of protostellar clouds. The models including multidimensional geometry ""full"" chemistry and 2D/3D radiation transfer still do not exist. We analyze limitations of the existing approaches and main directions of the model improvements: revision of chemical reaction data bases reduction of chemical reaction network reasonable choice of model geometry radiation transfer. The most important goal of modeling of the real objects is to reveal unambiguous signatures of their evolutionary status. Starless cores are believed to be compact objects at very early stages of star formation. We use our results on 1D self-consistent evolution of starless cores to illustrate problems of modeling and interpretation. Special attention is drawn to the radiation transfer problem. New 2D code URAN(IA) for simulation of radiation transfer in molecular lines was developed. This code was used to analyze spectra of starless cores L1544 and CB17. The deduced parameters of these cores are discussed.

  9. ASTM/NBS base stock consistency study

    SciTech Connect

    Frassa, K.A.

    1980-11-01

    This paper summarizes the scope of a cooperative ASTM/NBS program established in June 1979. The contemplated study will ascertain the batch-to-batch consistency of re-refined and virgin base stocks manufactured by various processes. For one year, approximately eight to ten different base stocks samples, will be obtained by NBS every two weeks. One set of bi-monthly samples will be forwarded to each participant, on a coded basis monthly. Seven to eight samples will be obtained from six different re-refining processes and two virgin oil samples from a similar manufacturing process. The participants will report their results on a monthly basis. The second set of samples will be retained by NBS for an interim monthly sample study, if required, based on data analysis. Each sample's properties will be evaluated using various physical tests, chemical tests, and bench tests. The total testing program should define the batch-to-batch base stock consistency short of engine testing.

  10. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan)…

  11. Learning structurally consistent undirected probabilistic graphical models.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sushmita; Lane, Terran; Werner-Washburne, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    In many real-world domains, undirected graphical models such as Markov random fields provide a more natural representation of the statistical dependency structure than directed graphical models. Unfortunately, structure learning of undirected graphs using likelihood-based scores remains difficult because of the intractability of computing the partition function. We describe a new Markov random field structure learning algorithm, motivated by canonical parameterization of Abbeel et al. We provide computational improvements on their parameterization by learning per-variable canonical factors, which makes our algorithm suitable for domains with hundreds of nodes. We compare our algorithm against several algorithms for learning undirected and directed models on simulated and real datasets from biology. Our algorithm frequently outperforms existing algorithms, producing higher-quality structures, suggesting that enforcing consistency during structure learning is beneficial for learning undirected graphs.

  12. Plasma Diffusion in Self-Consistent Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence ofeleclromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resuiting from an agyrotropic in itiai setting)is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (result ing from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probabi lity distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  13. Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hilbert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

  14. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-07-29

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits.

  15. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  16. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  17. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  18. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark datasets for both inter-calibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and -B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through one year of simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the longwave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both Polar and Tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO datasets indicate that, the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 comparison spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining 4 spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  19. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark data sets for both intercalibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and MetOp-B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations in 2013, to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the long-wave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both polar and tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO data sets indicate that the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining four spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  20. Retrocausation, Consistency, and the Bilking Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobyns, York H.

    2011-11-01

    Retrocausation seems to admit of time paradoxes in which events prevent themselves from occurring and thereby create a physical instance of the liar's paradox, an event which occurs iff it does not occur. The specific version in which a retrocausal event is used to trigger an intervention which prevents its own future cause is called the bilking paradox (the event is bilked of its cause). The analysis of Echeverria, Klinkhammer, and Thorne (EKT) suggests time paradoxes cannot arise even in the presence of retrocausation. Any self-contradictory event sequence will be replaced in reality by a closely related but noncontradictory sequence. The EKT analysis implies that attempts to create bilking must instead produce logically consistent sequences wherein the bilked event arises from alternative causes. Bilking a retrocausal information channel of limited reliability usually results only in failures of signaling. An exception applies when the bilking is conducted in response only to some of the signal values that can be carried on the channel. Theoretical analysis based on EKT predicts that, since some of the channel outcomes are not bilked, the channel is capable of transmitting data with its normal reliability, and the paradox-avoidance effects will instead suppress the outcomes that would lead to forbidden (bilked) transmissions. A recent parapsychological experiment by Bem displays a retrocausal information channel of sufficient reliability to test this theoretical model of physical reality's response to retrocausal effects. A modified version with partial bilking would provide a direct test of the generality of the EKT mechanism.

  1. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  2. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  3. Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, D. N.; Philippi, P. C.; Mattila, K. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling.

  4. Consistent perturbations in an imperfect fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, Ignacy; Amendola, Luca; Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin E-mail: i.saltas@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch

    2013-01-01

    We present a new prescription for analysing cosmological perturbations in a more-general class of scalar-field dark-energy models where the energy-momentum tensor has an imperfect-fluid form. This class includes Brans-Dicke models, f(R) gravity, theories with kinetic gravity braiding and generalised galileons. We employ the intuitive language of fluids, allowing us to explicitly maintain a dependence on physical and potentially measurable properties. We demonstrate that hydrodynamics is not always a valid description for describing cosmological perturbations in general scalar-field theories and present a consistent alternative that nonetheless utilises the fluid language. We apply this approach explicitly to a worked example: k-essence non-minimally coupled to gravity. This is the simplest case which captures the essential new features of these imperfect-fluid models. We demonstrate the generic existence of a new scale separating regimes where the fluid is perfect and imperfect. We obtain the equations for the evolution of dark-energy density perturbations in both these regimes. The model also features two other known scales: the Compton scale related to the breaking of shift symmetry and the Jeans scale which we show is determined by the speed of propagation of small scalar-field perturbations, i.e. causality, as opposed to the frequently used definition of the ratio of the pressure and energy-density perturbations.

  5. Volume Haptics with Topology-Consistent Isosurfaces.

    PubMed

    Corenthy, Loc; Otaduy, Miguel A; Pastor, Luis; Garcia, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Haptic interfaces offer an intuitive way to interact with and manipulate 3D datasets, and may simplify the interpretation of visual information. This work proposes an algorithm to provide haptic feedback directly from volumetric datasets, as an aid to regular visualization. The haptic rendering algorithm lets users perceive isosurfaces in volumetric datasets, and it relies on several design features that ensure a robust and efficient rendering. A marching tetrahedra approach enables the dynamic extraction of a piecewise linear continuous isosurface. Robustness is achieved using a continuous collision detection step coupled with state-of-the-art proxy-based rendering methods over the extracted isosurface. The introduced marching tetrahedra approach guarantees that the extracted isosurface will match the topology of an equivalent isosurface computed using trilinear interpolation. The proposed haptic rendering algorithm improves the consistency between haptic and visual cues computing a second proxy on the isosurface displayed on screen. Our experiments demonstrate the improvements on the isosurface extraction stage as well as the robustness and the efficiency of the complete algorithm.

  6. Consistent quadrupole-octupole collective model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowolski, A.; Mazurek, K.; Góźdź, A.

    2016-11-01

    Within this work we present a consistent approach to quadrupole-octupole collective vibrations coupled with the rotational motion. A realistic collective Hamiltonian with variable mass-parameter tensor and potential obtained through the macroscopic-microscopic Strutinsky-like method with particle-number-projected BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) approach in full vibrational and rotational, nine-dimensional collective space is diagonalized in the basis of projected harmonic oscillator eigensolutions. This orthogonal basis of zero-, one-, two-, and three-phonon oscillator-like functions in vibrational part, coupled with the corresponding Wigner function is, in addition, symmetrized with respect to the so-called symmetrization group, appropriate to the collective space of the model. In the present model it is D4 group acting in the body-fixed frame. This symmetrization procedure is applied in order to provide the uniqueness of the Hamiltonian eigensolutions with respect to the laboratory coordinate system. The symmetrization is obtained using the projection onto the irreducible representation technique. The model generates the quadrupole ground-state spectrum as well as the lowest negative-parity spectrum in 156Gd nucleus. The interband and intraband B (E 1 ) and B (E 2 ) reduced transition probabilities are also calculated within those bands and compared with the recent experimental results for this nucleus. Such a collective approach is helpful in searching for the fingerprints of the possible high-rank symmetries (e.g., octahedral and tetrahedral) in nuclear collective bands.

  7. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Regin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  8. Mining GO annotations for improving annotation consistency.

    PubMed

    Faria, Daniel; Schlicker, Andreas; Pesquita, Catia; Bastos, Hugo; Ferreira, António E N; Albrecht, Mario; Falcão, André O

    2012-01-01

    Despite the structure and objectivity provided by the Gene Ontology (GO), the annotation of proteins is a complex task that is subject to errors and inconsistencies. Electronically inferred annotations in particular are widely considered unreliable. However, given that manual curation of all GO annotations is unfeasible, it is imperative to improve the quality of electronically inferred annotations. In this work, we analyze the full GO molecular function annotation of UniProtKB proteins, and discuss some of the issues that affect their quality, focusing particularly on the lack of annotation consistency. Based on our analysis, we estimate that 64% of the UniProtKB proteins are incompletely annotated, and that inconsistent annotations affect 83% of the protein functions and at least 23% of the proteins. Additionally, we present and evaluate a data mining algorithm, based on the association rule learning methodology, for identifying implicit relationships between molecular function terms. The goal of this algorithm is to assist GO curators in updating GO and correcting and preventing inconsistent annotations. Our algorithm predicted 501 relationships with an estimated precision of 94%, whereas the basic association rule learning methodology predicted 12,352 relationships with a precision below 9%.

  9. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  10. High accuracy and visibility-consistent dense multiview stereo.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoang-Hiep; Labatut, Patrick; Pons, Jean-Philippe; Keriven, Renaud

    2012-05-01

    Since the initial comparison of Seitz et al., the accuracy of dense multiview stereovision methods has been increasing steadily. A number of limitations, however, make most of these methods not suitable to outdoor scenes taken under uncontrolled imaging conditions. The present work consists of a complete dense multiview stereo pipeline which circumvents these limitations, being able to handle large-scale scenes without sacrificing accuracy. Highly detailed reconstructions are produced within very reasonable time thanks to two key stages in our pipeline: a minimum s-t cut optimization over an adaptive domain that robustly and efficiently filters a quasidense point cloud from outliers and reconstructs an initial surface by integrating visibility constraints, followed by a mesh-based variational refinement that captures small details, smartly handling photo-consistency, regularization, and adaptive resolution. The pipeline has been tested over a wide range of scenes: from classic compact objects taken in a laboratory setting, to outdoor architectural scenes, landscapes, and cultural heritage sites. The accuracy of its reconstructions has also been measured on the dense multiview benchmark proposed by Strecha et al., showing the results to compare more than favorably with the current state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Sound practices for consistent human visual inspection.

    PubMed

    Melchore, James A

    2011-03-01

    Numerous presentations and articles on manual inspection of pharmaceutical drug products have been released, since the pioneering articles on inspection by Knapp and associates Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Drug Assoc 34:14, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (Bull Parenter Drug Assoc 34:369, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 35:176, 1981); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 37:170, 1983). This original work by Knapp and associates provided the industry with a statistical means of evaluating inspection performance. This methodology enabled measurement of individual inspector performance, performance of the entire inspector pool and provided basic suggestions for the conduct of manual inspection. Since that time, numerous subject matter experts (SMEs) have presented additional valuable information for the conduct of manual inspection Borchert et al. (J Parenter Sci Technol 40:212, 1986); Knapp and Abramson (J Parenter Sci Technol 44:74, 1990); Shabushnig et al. (1994); Knapp (1999); Knapp (2005); Cherris (2005); Budd (2005); Barber and Thomas (2005); Knapp (2005); Melchore (2007); Leversee and Ronald (2007); Melchore (2009); Budd (2007); Borchert et al. (1986); Berdovich (2005); Berdovich (2007); Knapp (2007); Leversee and Shabushing (2009); Budd (2009). Despite this abundance of knowledge, neither government regulations nor the multiple compendia provide more than minimal guidance or agreement for the conduct of manual inspection. One has to search the literature for useful information that has been published by SMEs in the field of Inspection. The purpose of this article is to restate the sound principles proclaimed by SMEs with the hope that they serve as a useful guideline to bring greater consistency to the conduct of manual inspection.

  12. Precession/Nutation Solution Consistent With

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planetary Theory, The, , General

    2006-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy of RAS, St.Petersburg, Russia In the present paper the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the Poisson equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters are reduced to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution). Hence, the theory of the Earth's rotation is presented by means of the series in powers of the evolutionary variables with quasi-periodic coefficients. The behaviour of the evolutionary variables is governed by an autonomous secular system. For the Poisson equations of the Earth's rotation the trigonometric solution of the secular system is of interest to study evolution of motion and rotation (in astronomical climatology, for instance).Our main conclusion is that there is no principal difficulty to find solution of the Earth's rotation problem consistent with the general planetary theory (V.A.Brumberg, 1995) adequate to the present observation accuracy. For this purpose the general case of the rigid-body Earth's rotation adequate to SMART solution (Bretagnon et al., 1998).should be considered. All actual calculations were performed using a Poisson series processor (Ivanova, 1995). References 1. Bretagnon P., Francou G., Rocher P., and Simon J.L.: 1998,`SMART97: A new solution for the rotation of the rigid Earth', Astron. Astrophys, 329, 329 2. Brumberg V.A.: 1995, `Analytical Techniques of Celestial Mechanics', Springer, Heidelberg 3. Ivanova T.V.: 1996, `PSP: A New Poisson Series Processor',In: Dynamics, Ephemerides and Astrometry of the Solar System (eds.S. Ferraz-Mello, B. Morando and J.-E. Arlot), Kluwer, 283

  13. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  14. Comparative exoplanetology with consistent retrieval methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, Joanna Katy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Sing, David

    2016-10-01

    The number of hot Jupiters with broad wavelength spectroscopic data has finally become large enough to make comparative planetology a reasonable proposition. New results presented by Sing et al. (2016) showcase ten hot Jupiters with spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry from Spitzer, providing insights into the presence of clouds and hazes.Spectral retrieval methods allow interpretation of exoplanet spectra using simple models, with minimal prior assumptions. This is particularly useful for exotic exoplanets, for which we may not yet fully understand the physical processes responsible for their atmospheric characteristics. Consistent spectral retrieval of a range of exoplanets can allow robust comparisons of their derived atmospheric properties.I will present a retrieval analysis using the NEMESIS code (Irwin et al. 2008) of the ten hot Jupiter spectra presented by Sing et al. (2016). The only distinctive aspects of the model for each planet are the mass and radius, and the temperature range explored. All other a priori model parameters are common to all ten objects. We test a range of cloud and haze scenarios, which include: Rayleigh-dominated and grey clouds; different cloud top pressures; and both vertically extended and vertically confined clouds.All ten planets, with the exception of WASP-39b, can be well represented by models with at least some haze or cloud. Our analysis of cloud properties has uncovered trends in cloud top pressure, vertical extent and particle size with planet equilibrium temperature. Taken together, we suggest that these trends indicate condensation and sedimentation of at least two different cloud species across planets of different temperatures, with condensates forming higher up in hotter atmospheres and moving progressively further down in cooler planets.Sing, D. et al. (2016), Nature, 529, 59Irwin, P. G. J. et al. (2008), JQSRT, 109, 1136

  15. Geometrically consistent approach to stochastic DBI inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Larissa; Martin, Jerome; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2010-07-15

    Stochastic effects during inflation can be addressed by averaging the quantum inflaton field over Hubble-patch-sized domains. The averaged field then obeys a Langevin-type equation into which short-scale fluctuations enter as a noise term. We solve the Langevin equation for an inflaton field with a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term perturbatively in the noise and use the result to determine the field value's probability density function (PDF). In this calculation, both the shape of the potential and the warp factor are arbitrary functions, and the PDF is obtained with and without volume effects due to the finite size of the averaging domain. DBI kinetic terms typically arise in string-inspired inflationary scenarios in which the scalar field is associated with some distance within the (compact) extra dimensions. The inflaton's accessible range of field values therefore is limited because of the extra dimensions' finite size. We argue that in a consistent stochastic approach the inflaton's PDF must vanish for geometrically forbidden field values. We propose to implement these extra-dimensional spatial restrictions into the PDF by installing absorbing (or reflecting) walls at the respective boundaries in field space. As a toy model, we consider a DBI inflaton between two absorbing walls and use the method of images to determine its most general PDF. The resulting PDF is studied in detail for the example of a quartic warp factor and a chaotic inflaton potential. The presence of the walls is shown to affect the inflaton trajectory for a given set of parameters.

  16. Movement consistency during repetitive tool use action

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The consistency and repeatability of movement patterns has been of long-standing interest in locomotor biomechanics, but less well explored in other domains. Tool use is one of such a domain; while the complex dynamics of the human-tool-environment system have been approached from various angles, to date it remains unknown how the rhythmicity of repetitive tool-using action emerges. To examine whether the spontaneously adopted movement frequency is a variable susceptible to individual execution approaches or emerges as constant behaviour, we recorded sawing motion across a range of 14 experimental conditions using various manipulations. This was compared to free and pantomimed arm movements. We found that a mean (SD) sawing frequency of 2.0 (0.4) Hz was employed across experimental conditions. Most experimental conditions did not significantly affect the sawing frequency, signifying the robustness of this spontaneously emerging movement. Free horizontal arm translation and miming of sawing was performed at half the movement frequency with more than double the excursion distance, showing that not all arm movements spontaneously emerge at the observed sawing parameters. Observed movement frequencies across all conditions could be closely predicted from movement time reference data for generic arm movements found in the Methods Time Measurement literature, highlighting a generic biomechanical relationship between the time taken for a given distance travelled underlying the observed behaviour. We conclude that our findings lend support to the hypothesis that repetitive movements during tool use are executed according to generic and predictable musculoskeletal mechanics and constraints, albeit in the context of the general task (sawing) and environmental constraints such as friction, rather than being subject to task-specific control or individual cognitive schemata. PMID:28278273

  17. Nasopharyngeal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - nasopharyngeal; Swab for respiratory viruses; Swab for staph carriage ... The test identifies viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory ... Staphylococcus aureus Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...

  18. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  19. Cross-Cultural Communication Patterns in Computer Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panina, Daria; Kroumova, Maya

    2015-01-01

    There are important cultural differences in attitudes towards and use of electronic text communication. Consistent with Hall's high-context/low-context conceptualization of culture, electronic inter-cultural communication, just as verbal inter-cultural communication, is affected by the culturally-specific assumptions and preferences of message…

  20. Ryukyuan Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Terry

    The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…

  1. Size-consistent self-consistent configuration interaction from a complete active space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Amor, Nadia; Maynau, Daniel

    1998-04-01

    The size-consistent self-consistent (SC) 2 method is based on intermediate Hamiltonians and ensures size-extensivity of any configuration interaction (CI) by correcting its diagonal elements. In this work, an (SC) 2 dressing is proposed on a complete active space SDCI. This approach yields a more efficient code which can treat larger multireference problems. Tests are proposed on the potential energy curve of F 2, the bond stretching of water and the inclusion of an Be atom in the H 2 molecule. Comparisons with approximate methods such as average quadratic coupled cluster (AQCC) are presented. AQCC appears as a good approximation to (SC) 2.

  2. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  3. Paramilitary Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  4. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  5. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fecal culture is a lab test to find organisms in the stool (feces) that can cause gastrointestinal ... Results There are no abnormal bacteria or other organisms in the sample. Talk to your provider about ...

  6. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  7. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  8. On the self-consistency of the principle of profile consistency results for sawtoothing tokamak discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.; Bretz, N.L.; Efthimion, P.C.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.W.; Murakami, M.; McGuire, K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Stauffer, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    The principle of profile consistency states that for fixed limiter safety factor q/sub a/, there exists unique natural equilibrium profile shapes for the current density j(r), and the electron temperature T/sub e/(r) for any tokamak plasma independent of the shapes of the heating power deposition profiles. The mathematical statement of the three basic consequences of this principle for sawtoothing discharges are: (r/sub 1//a) = F/sub 1/ (1/q/sub a/), /T/sub eo/ = F/sub 2/(1/q/sub a/), and a unique scaling law for the central electron temperature T/sub eo/, where r/sub 1/ is the sawtooth inversion radius and is the volume average T/sub e/. Since for a given T/sub e/(r), the ohmic current j(r) can be deduced from Ohm's law, given the function F/sub 1/, the function F/sub 2/ is uniquely fixed and vice versa. Also given F/sub 1/(1/q/sub a/), the central current density j/sub o/ = (V/sub L//2..pi..bRZ/sub eff/) T/sub eo//sup 3/2/ = (I/sub p//..pi..a/sup 2/) F/sub 3/(q/sub a/), where the function F/sub 3/ = (q/sub a//q/sub o/) is uniquely fixed by F/sub 1/. Here b approx. 6.53 /times/ 10/sup 3/ ln..lambda.., and I/sub p/, V/sub L/, Z/sub eff/, R, a, and q/sub o/ are the plasma current, loop voltage, effective ion charge, major and minor radius, and the central safety factor, respectively. Thus for a fixed j(r) or T/sub e/(r), the set of functions F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ is uniquely fixed. Further, the principle of profile consistency dictates that this set of functions F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ remain the same for all sawtoothing discharges in any tokamak regardless of its size, I/sub p/, V/sub L/, B/sub T/, etc. Here, we present a rather complete and detailed theoretical examination of this self-consistency of the measured values of T/sub e/(r), F/sub 1/, F/sub 2/, and F/sub 3/ for sawtoothing TFTR discharges. 55 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 15 CFR 930.39 - Content of a consistency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal... consistent to the maximum extent practicable with the enforceable policies of the management program....

  10. 15 CFR 930.39 - Content of a consistency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal... consistent to the maximum extent practicable with the enforceable policies of the management program....

  11. From Learning Cultures to Educational Cultures: Values and Judgements in Educational Research and Educational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a new approach to the study of learning and the improvement of education. The approach consists of two elements: a theory of learning cultures and a cultural theory of learning. Learning cultures are different from learning contexts or learning environments in that they are to be understood as the social practices through…

  12. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  13. Culture Shock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  14. Cultural Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at…

  15. The Sexuality Curriculum and Youth Culture. Counterpoints, Volume 392

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis, Ed.; Roseboro, Donyell L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The book aims to change the conversation about sexuality education for adolescents, making it consistent with a democratic cultural politics that is attuned to changes in youth and popular culture. Traditional sex education is nearly obsolete; sexuality curriculum is now primarily learned through popular culture and youth culture, which teach…

  16. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  17. Culture Theory and American Cultural Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, John J.

    This paper addresses three questions related to cultural geography--(1) do cultural geographers have a serious interest in culture theory? (2) is there some indication in the ways in which cultural geographers have traditionally approached their subject which has given rise to an apparent lack of concern with the implications of culture theory?…

  18. Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, M.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

  19. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  20. Spotting Erroneous Rules of Operation by the Individual Consistency Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1983-01-01

    This study introduces the individual consistency index (ICI), which measures the extent to which patterns of responses to parallel sets of items remain consistent over time. ICI is used as an error diagnostic tool to detect aberrant response patterns resulting from the consistent application of erroneous rules of operation. (Author/PN)

  1. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  2. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  3. Deaf Culture Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests how insights from Paul Bohannon's book, "How Culture Works" (1995), could be used to address such questions as, "How do deaf people learn their culture?" and "How do deaf children learn (what) culture?" Bohannon's idea of cultural dynamics is applied to deaf culture to trace how that culture evolved, how it…

  4. Marketing across Cultures: Tools for Cultural Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    The concept of cultural universals, the basic needs shared by people around the world, is a critical concept in assessing the impact of culture on decisions about the international marketing of goods and services. In most cases, international marketers have little need to understand all the ways in which their culture differs from the culture of…

  5. Disability in Cultural Competency Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Justin J.; Okoro, Olihe; Kimberlin, Carole; Odedina, Folakemi T.

    2011-01-01

    Improving health care providers' knowledge and ability to provide culturally competent care can limit the health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations. As racial and ethnic cultures dominate cultural competency topics in education, alternative cultures such as disability have consistently been underrepresented. This article will make the case that persons with disabilities have a unique cultural identity, and should be addressed as an important component of cultural competency education in pharmacy schools. Examples of efforts in pharmacy education to incorporate cultural competency components are highlighted, many of which contain little or no mention of disability issues. Based on initiatives from other health professions, suggestions and considerations for the development of disability education within pharmacy curricula also are proposed. PMID:21519416

  6. When reprimand consistency may and may not matter.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, J T; O'Leary, S G; Albertson-Kelly, J A; Keneziora, K T

    1996-04-01

    The present study examined the importance of discipline consistency by varying not only the probability of punishment but also the nature of the discipline agent's response to nonpunished transgressions. Eighteen first through third graders attending a remedial summer school were assigned to one of four feedback conditions in a 2 (Low vs. High Reprimand Consistency) x 2 (Ignore vs. Attend) design. An analysis of the simple effects of reprimand consistency indicated that consistency was important only when the teacher's alternative response was attending. Thus the nature of the adult's response to nonpunished transgressions is important for understanding how discipline consistency affects children's behavior. The importance of conceptualizing discipline consistency as a multivariate construct and of understanding the variables and parameters that may interact with the probability of punishment are discussed.

  7. Highly parallel consistent labeling algorithm suitable for optoelectronic implementation.

    PubMed

    Marsden, G C; Kiamilev, F; Esener, S; Lee, S H

    1991-01-10

    Constraint satisfaction problems require a search through a large set of possibilities. Consistent labeling is a method by which search spaces can be drastically reduced. We present a highly parallel consistent labeling algorithm, which achieves strong k-consistency for any value k and which can include higher-order constraints. The algorithm uses vector outer product, matrix summation, and matrix intersection operations. These operations require local computation with global communication and, therefore, are well suited to a optoelectronic implementation.

  8. Students’ conceptual understanding consistency of heat and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Harjana

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research were to explore and to describe the consistency of students’ understanding of heat and temperature concept. The sample that was taken using purposive random sampling technique consisted of 99 high school students from 3 senior high schools in Jayapura city. The descriptive qualitative method was employed in this study. The data were collected using tests and interviews regarding the subject matters of Heat and Temperature. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that 3.03% of the students was the consistency of right answer, 79.80% of the students was consistency but wrong answer and 17.17% of the students was inconsistency.

  9. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  10. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts.

  11. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  12. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  13. Addressing cultural incongruities of advance directives.

    PubMed

    Pacquiao, D

    2001-01-01

    Shared meanings and socially constructed realities have great significance to individuals and families facing critical illness, pain, suffering, or death. Actions are often based on the context of the professional and dominant societal culture. The concept of Advance Directives is consistent with the dominant value orientation in the American culture of self-reliance and individualism, which places a high premium on self-determination and control of one's own destiny. However, this value is not always consistent with the dominant cultural views of particular sick or dying individuals. Thus, at a time when individuals and their families need the most support, institutionalized care often creates incongruities and meaninglessness.

  14. Carl Rogers during Initial Interviews: A Moderate and Consistent Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, H. P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed two initial interviews by Carl Rogers in their entirety using the Carkhuff scales, Hill's category system, and a brief grammatical analysis to establish the level and consistency with which Rogers provides facilitative conditions. Results indicated his behavior as counselor was stable and consistent within and across interviews. (Author)

  15. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  16. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  17. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  18. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  19. Error Consistency and the Evaluation of Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Williams, Mandy J.; Lewis, Kerry E.

    2006-01-01

    The consistency/variability of error substitution patterns may hold important implications for subgrouping children with speech disorders, as well as for relationships between learning and generalization patterns. There is a need to quantify and examine the range of consistency/variability within the speech disordered population as it relates to…

  20. 42 CFR 488.312 - Consistency of survey results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consistency of survey results. 488.312 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.312 Consistency of survey results. CMS does and the...

  1. 42 CFR 435.901 - Consistency with objectives and statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 435.901 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methods of Administration § 435.901 Consistency with objectives and statutes. The Medicaid agency's standards and methods for determining eligibility must be consistent with the objectives of the program...

  2. 36 CFR 219.24 - Science consistency evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Science consistency... AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Contribution of Science § 219.24 Science consistency evaluations. (a) The responsible official must ensure that plan...

  3. 36 CFR 219.24 - Science consistency evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Science consistency... AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning The Contribution of Science § 219.24 Science consistency evaluations. (a) The responsible official must ensure that plan...

  4. Mothers' Ability To Identify Infants' Communicative Acts Consistently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Denis; Elias, Gordon; Bain, John

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the ability of 35 mothers to identify consistently what they perceived to be communicative acts by infants at three ages (6 months, 9 months, and 1 year). Comparisons of the mothers coded records indicated that they were able to identify infants' communicative acts consistently at each age. (Author/VWL)

  5. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a... the consolidated return regulations in the basis of target stock and may reduce gain from the sale...

  6. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a... the consolidated return regulations in the basis of target stock and may reduce gain from the sale...

  7. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a... the consolidated return regulations in the basis of target stock and may reduce gain from the sale...

  8. Estimating Consistency and Accuracy Indices for Multiple Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Won-Chan; Hanson, Bradley A.; Brennan, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes procedures for estimating various indices of classification consistency and accuracy for multiple category classifications using data from a single test administration. The estimates of the classification consistency and accuracy indices are compared under three different psychometric models: the two-parameter beta binomial,…

  9. Consistent assignment of nurse aides: association with turnover and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2013-01-01

    Consistent assignment refers to the same caregivers consistently caring for the same residents almost every time caregivers are on duty. This article examines the association of consistent assignment of nurse aides with turnover and absenteeism. Data came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The measures were from 2007 and came from 3,941 nursing homes. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine turnover and absenteeism. An average of 68% of nursing homes reported using consistent assignment, with 28% of nursing homes using nurse aides consistent assignment at the often recommended level of 85% (or more). Nursing homes using recommended levels of consistent assignment had significantly lower rates of turnover and of absenteeism. In the multivariate analyses, consistent assignment was significantly associated with both lower turnover and lower absenteeism (p < .01). Consistent assignment is a practice recommended by many policy makers, government agencies, and industry advocates. The findings presented here provide some evidence that the use of this staffing practice can be beneficial.

  10. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  11. Teachers' Emotional Consistency Matters for Preschool Children. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' emotional support in classrooms and how it relates to children's outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Findings suggest that more consistent emotional support was related to better academic and social outcomes, emphasizing the potentially important role of consistency in children's school experiences. [This research…

  12. Student Consistency and Implications for Feedback in Online Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Most of the emphasis on mining online assessment logs has been to identify content-specific errors. However, the pattern of general "consistency" is domain independent, strongly related to performance, and can itself be a target of educational data mining. We demonstrate that simple consistency indicators are related to student outcomes,…

  13. A new graph model and algorithms for consistent superstring problems.

    PubMed

    Na, Joong Chae; Cho, Sukhyeun; Choi, Siwon; Kim, Jin Wook; Park, Kunsoo; Sim, Jeong Seop

    2014-05-28

    Problems related to string inclusion and non-inclusion have been vigorously studied in diverse fields such as data compression, molecular biology and computer security. Given a finite set of positive strings P and a finite set of negative strings N, a string α is a consistent superstring if every positive string is a substring of α and no negative string is a substring of α. The shortest (resp. longest) consistent superstring problem is to find a string α that is the shortest (resp. longest) among all the consistent superstrings for the given sets of strings. In this paper, we first propose a new graph model for consistent superstrings for given P and N. In our graph model, the set of strings represented by paths satisfying some conditions is the same as the set of consistent superstrings for P and N. We also present algorithms for the shortest and the longest consistent superstring problems. Our algorithms solve the consistent superstring problems for all cases, including cases that are not considered in previous work. Moreover, our algorithms solve in polynomial time the consistent superstring problems for more cases than the previous algorithms. For the polynomially solvable cases, our algorithms are more efficient than the previous ones.

  14. A new graph model and algorithms for consistent superstring problems†

    PubMed Central

    Na, Joong Chae; Cho, Sukhyeun; Choi, Siwon; Kim, Jin Wook; Park, Kunsoo; Sim, Jeong Seop

    2014-01-01

    Problems related to string inclusion and non-inclusion have been vigorously studied in diverse fields such as data compression, molecular biology and computer security. Given a finite set of positive strings and a finite set of negative strings , a string α is a consistent superstring if every positive string is a substring of α and no negative string is a substring of α. The shortest (resp. longest) consistent superstring problem is to find a string α that is the shortest (resp. longest) among all the consistent superstrings for the given sets of strings. In this paper, we first propose a new graph model for consistent superstrings for given and . In our graph model, the set of strings represented by paths satisfying some conditions is the same as the set of consistent superstrings for and . We also present algorithms for the shortest and the longest consistent superstring problems. Our algorithms solve the consistent superstring problems for all cases, including cases that are not considered in previous work. Moreover, our algorithms solve in polynomial time the consistent superstring problems for more cases than the previous algorithms. For the polynomially solvable cases, our algorithms are more efficient than the previous ones. PMID:24751868

  15. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  16. Consistency between Peer Reviewers for a Clinical Specialty Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, David J.; Macaulay, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of reliability among peer reviews of 422 unsolicited articles for the "Journal of Clinical Anesthesia" found that most articles' reviews were consistent or near consistent. However, articles reviewed by two of the editorial board members were much less likely to be accepted than those read by two nonmembers. (Author/MSE)

  17. Robust Classification of Information Networks by Consistent Graph Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Shi; Han, Jiawei; Gu, Quanquan

    2015-09-01

    Graph regularization-based methods have achieved great success for network classification by making the label-link consistency assumption, i.e., if two nodes are linked together, they are likely to belong to the same class. However, in a real-world network, there exist links that connect nodes of different classes. These inconsistent links raise a big challenge for graph regularization and deteriorate the classification performance significantly. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm, namely Consistent Graph Learning, which is robust to the inconsistent links of a network. In particular, given a network and a small number of labeled nodes, we aim at learning a consistent network with more consistent and fewer inconsistent links than the original network. Since the link information of a network is naturally represented by a set of relation matrices, the learning of a consistent network is reduced to learning consistent relation matrices under some constraints. More specifically, we achieve it by joint graph regularization on the nuclear norm minimization of consistent relation matrices together with ℓ1-norm minimization on the difference matrices between the original relation matrices and the learned consistent ones subject to certain constraints. Experiments on both homogeneous and heterogeneous network datasets show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. 43 CFR 2742.5 - Consistency with other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency with other laws. 2742.5... Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Omitted Lands and Unsurveyed Islands § 2742.5 Consistency with other laws... under any other law does not apply to conveyances under this subpart....

  19. The Self-Consistency Model of Subjective Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2012-01-01

    How do people monitor the correctness of their answers? A self-consistency model is proposed for the process underlying confidence judgments and their accuracy. In answering a 2-alternative question, participants are assumed to retrieve a sample of representations of the question and base their confidence on the consistency with which the chosen…

  20. A comparison of consistency and taste of five commercial thickeners.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, C A

    1997-01-01

    This study presents the results of a blinded test of the performance of five commercial thickners. Experimental variables considered are brand of commercial thickener, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time. Success of outcome is defined by a numerical rating scale comparing the consistency and taste to actual liquid samples. The findings suggest that no one commercial thickener consistently produces a desired consistency or was consistently superior regarding taste. Success in producing certain liquid consistencies and "good taste" varied according to brand, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time used. It is suggested that specific recipes be developed for each brand and liquid to be thickened. Flavorings should be tested to enhance taste.

  1. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  2. On the Concept of Culture Goods Sales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Rong

    The article on the consumer psychology, consumer behavior, cultural concepts of the market so their products relating to the concept of corporate culture and business aspects of the image was further explained that the merchandise sold is a commercial act, a cultural transmission consumers to make consumption choices in the same time, he believed that the use of such products with their values and way of life is consistent, for the maintenance of their social status and self-recognition of the need for a sales role in the cultural concept of human group psychology, and affect people's consumption behavior.

  3. Valvulopathy consistent with endocarditis in an Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena B; Novo-Matos, José; Ebling, Alessia; Kühn, Karolin; Ruetten, Maja; Hilbe, Monika; Howard, Judith; Chang, Rita; Prohaska, Sarah; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of pneumonia and bacterial endocarditis with dystrophic mineralization of the right atrioventricular valve, associated with different bacteria than those cultured from the tracheal wash. The present case is the first report of endocarditis in a boa constrictor and contributes to the rare reports of cardiac disease in snakes.

  4. A consistent-mode indicator for the eigensystem realization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Schenk, Axel

    1992-01-01

    A new method is described for assessing the consistency of model parameters identified with the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). Identification results show varying consistency in practice due to many sources, including high modal density, nonlinearity, and inadequate excitation. Consistency is considered to be a reliable indicator of accuracy. The new method is the culmination of many years of experience in developing a practical implementation of the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using data from NASA Langley's Controls-Structures-Interaction Evolutionary Model.

  5. Consistent quantum prediction in spin-foam quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David

    2015-04-01

    A complete ``consistent histories'' framework is given for a covariant ``spin-foam'' quantum cosmological model, a highly symmetry-reduced (FLRW) model of covariant loop quantum gravity. A decoherence functional is constructed through which probabilities may be consistently extracted from quantum amplitudes. Branch wave functions corresponding to different possible quantum histories of the universe are described, such as whether the universe ``bounces'' at small volume or becomes singular. We discuss the construction and calculation of such branch wave functions, with an emphasis on the crucial role played by the decoherence of histories in arriving at self-consistent quantum predictions for these closed quantum systems. [Based on joint work with Parampreet Singh].

  6. Culture Theory in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, John J.

    The current debates about cultural geography fall into three categories: (1) arguments for the convergence of cultural and spatial geography; (2) arguments against current reports of the disappearance of culture as a result of increased cultural divergence; and (3) attempts at the reconstruction of culture theory to conform with generally valid…

  7. The Effect of Alien Cultures on Local Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, P. G.

    There are often many problems, as well as many benefits, in the incorporation of non-local (alien) cultures into an existing cultural framework. This paper explores this process; it consists of five parts, beginning with a detailed definition and discussion of the meaning of culture as seen by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and…

  8. 21 CFR 866.2320 - Differential culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Differential culture medium. 866.2320 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2320 Differential culture medium. (a) Identification. A differential culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  13. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selective culture medium. 866.2360 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2360 Selective culture medium. (a) Identification. A selective culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selective culture medium. 866.2360 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2360 Selective culture medium. (a) Identification. A selective culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2390 - Transport culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transport culture medium. 866.2390 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2390 Transport culture medium. (a) Identification. A transport culture medium is a device that consists of a semisolid,...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2390 - Transport culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transport culture medium. 866.2390 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2390 Transport culture medium. (a) Identification. A transport culture medium is a device that consists of a semisolid,...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2320 - Differential culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Differential culture medium. 866.2320 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2320 Differential culture medium. (a) Identification. A differential culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  19. 21 CFR 866.2390 - Transport culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transport culture medium. 866.2390 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2390 Transport culture medium. (a) Identification. A transport culture medium is a device that consists of a semisolid,...

  20. 21 CFR 866.2390 - Transport culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transport culture medium. 866.2390 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2390 Transport culture medium. (a) Identification. A transport culture medium is a device that consists of a semisolid,...

  1. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selective culture medium. 866.2360 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2360 Selective culture medium. (a) Identification. A selective culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2320 - Differential culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Differential culture medium. 866.2320 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2320 Differential culture medium. (a) Identification. A differential culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  4. 21 CFR 866.2320 - Differential culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Differential culture medium. 866.2320 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2320 Differential culture medium. (a) Identification. A differential culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  5. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  6. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  7. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  8. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2300 Multipurpose culture medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  9. 21 CFR 866.2390 - Transport culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transport culture medium. 866.2390 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2390 Transport culture medium. (a) Identification. A transport culture medium is a device that consists of a semisolid,...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selective culture medium. 866.2360 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2360 Selective culture medium. (a) Identification. A selective culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2320 - Differential culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Differential culture medium. 866.2320 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2320 Differential culture medium. (a) Identification. A differential culture medium is a device that consists primarily of...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selective culture medium. 866.2360 Section 866...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2360 Selective culture medium. (a) Identification. A selective culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  13. Culture contre Universite (Culture against University).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumaroli, Marc

    1992-01-01

    France's cultural policy since the 1950s is criticized as having more of a leisure and recreational focus than being truly encouraging of French culture and intellect. Politics and economics are seen as inappropriate policy motivators. (MSE)

  14. Culture, Cultural Conflicts, and Work Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gus; Garcia, Jesus

    1987-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with integrating culturally different workers into an existing work force and suggests possible management solutions. Case studies and a table comparing different cultural values among Mexican Americans, Blacks, Orientals, and American Indians are included. (LRW)

  15. Culture ou Intercultures (Culture or Intercultural).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ross

    1996-01-01

    While planet Earth endeavors to transmit information instantaneously, cultural misunderstanding interferes with communication more than any language barrier. The article urges teachers of French to be cognizant of their role as cultural mediators. (Author/CK)

  16. Consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour in meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    English, S; Nakagawa, S; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2010-08-01

    Although recent models for the evolution of personality, using game theory and life-history theory, predict that individuals should differ consistently in their cooperative behaviour, consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour have rarely been documented. In this study, we used a long-term data set on wild meerkats to quantify the repeatability of two types of cooperative care (babysitting and provisioning) within individuals and examined how repeatability varied across age, sex and status categories. Contributions to babysitting and provisioning were significantly repeatable and positively correlated within individuals, with provisioning more repeatable than babysitting. While repeatability of provisioning was relatively invariant across categories of individuals, repeatability of babysitting increased with age and was higher for subordinates than dominants. These results provide support for theoretical predictions that life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of consistent individual differences in cooperative behaviour and raise questions about why some individuals consistently help more than others across a suite of cooperative behaviours.

  17. Self-Consistent-Field Calculation on Lithium Hydride for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Frank; Harriss, Donald K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a self-consistent-field-linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital calculation on the valence electrons of lithium hydride using the method of Roothaan. This description is intended for undergraduate physics students.

  18. The strobe algorithms for multi-source warehouse consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuge, Yue; Garcia-Molina, H.; Wiener, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    A warehouse is a data repository containing integrated information for efficient querying and analysis. Maintaining the consistency of warehouse data is challenging, especially if the data sources are autonomous and views of the data at the warehouse span multiple sources. Transactions containing multiple updates at one or more sources, e.g., batch updates, complicate the consistency problem. In this paper we identify and discuss three fundamental transaction processing scenarios for data warehousing. We define four levels of consistency for warehouse data and present a new family of algorithms, the Strobe family, that maintain consistency as the warehouse is updated, under the various warehousing scenarios. All of the algorithms are incremental and can handle a continuous and overlapping stream of updates from the sources. Our implementation shows that the algorithms are practical and realistic choices for a wide variety of update scenarios.

  19. Internal Consistency Reliabilities for 14 Computer Attitude Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Examines the internal consistency reliabilities for 14 previously-published computer attitude scales based on responses from preservice teachers, practicing K-12 teachers, and teacher educators. Describes the Teachers' Attitude toward Computers Questionnaire (TAC) that included 32 subscales. (LRW)

  20. 15 CFR 930.126 - Consistency appeal processing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Appeal to the Secretary for Review Related to the Objectives of the Act and National Security Interests § 930.126...

  1. The origin of consistent protein structure refinement from structural averaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Hahnbeom; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2015-06-02

    Recent studies have shown that explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by structural averaging can consistently improve protein structure models. We find that improvement upon averaging is not limited to explicit water MD simulation, as consistent improvements are also observed for more efficient implicit solvent MD or Monte Carlo minimization simulations. To determine the origin of these improvements, we examine the changes in model accuracy brought about by averaging at the individual residue level. We find that the improvement in model quality from averaging results from the superposition of two effects: a dampening of deviations from the correct structure in the least well modeled regions, and a reinforcement of consistent movements towards the correct structure in better modeled regions. These observations are consistent with an energy landscape model in which the magnitude of the energy gradient toward the native structure decreases with increasing distance from the native state.

  2. UNDS Phase II Batch One: National Consistency Determination

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Coastal Zone Management Act, federal actions that are national or regional in scope must issue an accompanying National Consistency Determination, to ensure that the action does not overly conflict with state/territory-level coastal programs.

  3. Consistency in experiments on multistable driven delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Neus; Larger, Laurent; Fischer, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the consistency properties in the responses of a nonlinear delay optoelectronic intensity oscillator subject to different drives, in particular, harmonic and self-generated waveforms. This system, an implementation of the Ikeda oscillator, is operating in a closed-loop configuration, exhibiting its autonomous dynamics while the drive signals are additionally introduced. Applying the same drive multiple times, we compare the dynamical responses of the optoelectronic oscillator and quantify the degree of consistency among them via their correlation. Our results show that consistency is not restricted to conditions close to the first Hopf bifurcation but can be found in a broad range of dynamical regimes, even in the presence of multistability. Finally, we discuss the dependence of consistency on the nature of the drive signal.

  4. Conditions for self-consistent aggregation by chemotactic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masayo; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2008-04-01

    We have numerically studied chemotactic aggregation of microorganisms by introducing a model consisting of elements with intracellular dynamics, random walks with a state-dependent turnover rate, and secretion of attractant. Three phases with and without aggregation, as well as partial aggregation, were obtained as to the diffusion and degradation rates of the attractant, and conditions for cellular aggregation were analyzed. The size of aggregated clusters was shown to be independent of cell density, as is consistent with experiment.

  5. Consistent Yokoya-Chen Approximation to Beamstrahlung(LCC-0010)

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M

    2004-04-22

    I reconsider the Yokoya-Chen approximate evolution equation for beamstrahlung and modify it slightly to generate simple, consistent analytical approximations for the electron and photon energy spectra. I compare these approximations to previous ones, and to simulation data.I reconsider the Yokoya-Chen approximate evolution equation for beamstrahlung and modify it slightly to generate simple, consistent analytical approximations for the electron and photon energy spectra. I compare these approximations to previous ones, and to simulation data.

  6. Consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Markiv, B.; Tokarchuk, M.

    2014-02-15

    A consistent statistical description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma is proposed based on the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. For the case of partial dynamics, the nonequilibrium statistical operator and the generalized transport equations for a consistent description of kinetics of dust particles and hydrodynamics of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are obtained. In the approximation of weakly nonequilibrium process, a spectrum of collective excitations of dusty plasma is investigated in the hydrodynamic limit.

  7. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Urszán, Tamás János; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, we tested if behavioural consistency and POLS could be detected during the early ontogenesis of this amphibian. We targeted two ontogenetic stages and measured activity, exploration and risk-taking in a common garden experiment, assessing both individual behavioural type and intra-individual behavioural variation. We observed that activity was consistent in all tadpoles, exploration only became consistent with advancing age and risk-taking only became consistent in tadpoles that had been tested, and thus disturbed, earlier. Only previously tested tadpoles showed trends indicative of behavioural syndromes. We found an activity-age at metamorphosis POLS in the previously untested tadpoles irrespective of age. Relative growth rate correlated positively with the intra-individual variation of activity of the previously untested older tadpoles. In previously tested older tadpoles, intra-individual variation of exploration correlated negatively and intra-individual variation of risk-taking correlated positively with relative growth rate. We provide evidence for behavioural consistency and POLS in predator- and conspecific-naive tadpoles. Intra-individual behavioural variation was also correlated to life history, suggesting its relevance for the POLS theory. The strong effect of moderate disturbance related to standard behavioural testing on later behaviour draws attention to the pitfalls embedded in repeated testing.

  8. Cosmological consistency tests of gravity theory and cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.

    2017-01-01

    Testing general relativity at cosmological scales and probing the cause of cosmic acceleration are among the important objectives targeted by incoming and future astronomical surveys and experiments. I present our recent results on consistency tests that can provide insights about the underlying gravity theory and cosmic acceleration using cosmological data sets. We use statistical measures, the rate of cosmic expansion, the growth rate of large scale structure, and the physical consistency of these probes with one another.

  9. Revisiting cultural awareness and cultural relevancy.

    PubMed

    Abi-Hashem, Naji

    2015-10-01

    Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding critical cultural awareness. The more insights and exploration of the meaning and influence of culture we receive, the better. There is no single treatment of any personal or collective culture(s) that can be inherently complete or totally exhaustive. New hermeneutics and skills are always needed, appreciated, and refreshing.

  10. High-performance speech recognition using consistency modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digalakis, Vassilios; Murveit, Hy; Monaco, Peter; Neumeyer, Leo; Sankar, Ananth

    1994-12-01

    The goal of SRI's consistency modeling project is to improve the raw acoustic modeling component of SRI's DECIPHER speech recognition system and develop consistency modeling technology. Consistency modeling aims to reduce the number of improper independence assumptions used in traditional speech recognition algorithms so that the resulting speech recognition hypotheses are more self-consistent and, therefore, more accurate. At the initial stages of this effort, SRI focused on developing the appropriate base technologies for consistency modeling. We first developed the Progressive Search technology that allowed us to perform large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) experiments. Since its conception and development at SRI, this technique has been adopted by most laboratories, including other ARPA contracting sites, doing research on LVSR. Another goal of the consistency modeling project is to attack difficult modeling problems, when there is a mismatch between the training and testing phases. Such mismatches may include outlier speakers, different microphones and additive noise. We were able to either develop new, or transfer and evaluate existing, technologies that adapted our baseline genonic HMM recognizer to such difficult conditions.

  11. Inferring consistent functional interaction patterns from natural stimulus FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiehuan; Hu, Xintao; Huang, Xiu; Liu, Yang; Li, Kaiming; Li, Xiang; Han, Junwei; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Zhang, Jing

    2012-07-16

    There has been increasing interest in how the human brain responds to natural stimulus such as video watching in the neuroimaging field. Along this direction, this paper presents our effort in inferring consistent and reproducible functional interaction patterns under natural stimulus of video watching among known functional brain regions identified by task-based fMRI. Then, we applied and compared four statistical approaches, including Bayesian network modeling with searching algorithms: greedy equivalence search (GES), Peter and Clark (PC) analysis, independent multiple greedy equivalence search (IMaGES), and the commonly used Granger causality analysis (GCA), to infer consistent and reproducible functional interaction patterns among these brain regions. It is interesting that a number of reliable and consistent functional interaction patterns were identified by the GES, PC and IMaGES algorithms in different participating subjects when they watched multiple video shots of the same semantic category. These interaction patterns are meaningful given current neuroscience knowledge and are reasonably reproducible across different brains and video shots. In particular, these consistent functional interaction patterns are supported by structural connections derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, suggesting the structural underpinnings of consistent functional interactions. Our work demonstrates that specific consistent patterns of functional interactions among relevant brain regions might reflect the brain's fundamental mechanisms of online processing and comprehension of video messages.

  12. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  13. Depression in cultural context: "Chinese somatization," revisited.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Andrew G; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E

    2012-03-01

    We have presented a view of culture and mental health that builds on work in cultural psychiatry, anthropology, and cultural psychology, and applied it to research on culture and depression. In particular, we have returned to the well-known topic of Chinese somatization. A culture–mind–brain approach to these questions helps us think about them in a way that points toward new research. We have applied this approach to thinking about a single set of questions, relevant to a single (DSM-based) diagnosis, in a single cultural group. The potential, however, is to rethink how we conceptualize mental health in ways consistent with cultural psychiatry’s general perspective over the past several decades, while incorporating rather than rejecting the many recent advances in brain and behavior sciences. In so doing, we gain a more expanded and nuanced view of the global landscape of mental health, accompanied by a more expanded and nuanced view of individual patients.

  14. Beyond translation ... cultural fit.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Sherry Garrett

    2003-08-01

    Reaching non-English-speaking families, the economically disadvantaged, and those who are disproportionately represented in disease and injury statistics is challenging. This article describes the process of making a questionnaire developed in English, culturally appropriate for low-income, monolingual, Mexican and Mexican American mothers. The questionnaire, guided by the Health Belief Model, assesses maternal childhood injury health beliefs and was originally used with a 96% African American, English-speaking sample in the Eastern United States. Two research assistants from the target population worked with the non-Hispanic, bilingual investigator to redesign the questionnaire's language and presentation and to collect data. Sixty monolingual Latina mothers participated in the study to determine the internal consistency of the 42-item Spanish language Maternal Childhood Injury Health Belief Questionnaire (MCIHB). Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from .76 (Benefits subscale) to .90 (Consequences subscale).

  15. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  16. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  17. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  18. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  19. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  20. Does object view influence the scene consistency effect?

    PubMed

    Sastyin, Gergo; Niimi, Ryosuke; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Traditional research on the scene consistency effect only used clearly recognizable object stimuli to show mutually interactive context effects for both the object and background components on scene perception (Davenport & Potter in Psychological Science, 15, 559-564, 2004). However, in real environments, objects are viewed from multiple viewpoints, including an accidental, hard-to-recognize one. When the observers named target objects in scenes (Experiments 1a and 1b, object recognition task), we replicated the scene consistency effect (i.e., there was higher accuracy for the objects with consistent backgrounds). However, there was a significant interaction effect between consistency and object viewpoint, which indicated that the scene consistency effect was more important for identifying objects in the accidental view condition than in the canonical view condition. Therefore, the object recognition system may rely more on the scene context when the object is difficult to recognize. In Experiment 2, the observers identified the background (background recognition task) while the scene consistency and object views were manipulated. The results showed that object viewpoint had no effect, while the scene consistency effect was observed. More specifically, the canonical and accidental views both equally provided contextual information for scene perception. These findings suggested that the mechanism for conscious recognition of objects could be dissociated from the mechanism for visual analysis of object images that were part of a scene. The "context" that the object images provided may have been derived from its view-invariant, relatively low-level visual features (e.g., color), rather than its semantic information.

  1. Consistency of quality attributes for the glycosylated monoclonal antibody Humira® (adalimumab).

    PubMed

    Tebbey, Paul W; Varga, Amy; Naill, Michael; Clewell, Jerry; Venema, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Humira® (adalimumab) is a recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) glycoprotein consisting of 1330 amino acids that is specific for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The biological activity and clinical profile of mAb therapeutics, including adalimumab, is influenced by their protein structure and glycosylation patterns, which can be affected by the expression system, cell culture conditions and purification process methodology. While clinical outcome cannot yet be attributed to many of the individual structural features that constitute a mAb, it is evident that detailed structural attribute analysis is necessary if structural contributions to function are to be comprehensively defined. Adalimumab product quality data generated from over a decade of manufacturing across multiple production sites and through a series of manufacturing scale changes are presented here. These data reveal a consistent and tightly controlled profile for the product.

  2. Consistency test for simple specifications of automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chebotarev, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    This article continues the topic of functional synthesis of automaton systems for discrete-information processing. A language of functional specification of automaton systems based on the logic of one-place predicates of an integer argument has been described. A specification in this language defines a nondeterministic superword X-Y-function, i.e., a function that maps superwords in the alphabet X into sets of superwords in the alphabet Y (the alphabets X and Y are specification-dependent), which corresponds to an initialized nondeterministic X-Y-automaton. The specification G is consistent if the function defined by the specification corresponds to an automaton A{sub G} with a nonempty state set. Consistency tests for the initial specification and for various intermediate specifications obtained in the process of functional synthesis of the automaton system are of fundamental importance for the verificational method of automaton system design developed in the framework of the proposed topic. We need sufficiently efficient algorithms to test consistency of specifications. An algorithm proposal constructs the coresponding automaton A{sub G} for any simple specifications G. The consistency of a specification is thus decided constructively. However, this solution is not always convenient, because it usually involves a highly time-consuming procedure to construct a nondeterministic automaton with a very large number of states. In this paper, we propose a convenient approach that combines automaton and logic methods and established consistency or inconsistency of a specification without constructing the corresponding autmaton.

  3. Consistency of response and image recognition, pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M A Q; Galvan, E; Bassett, R; Murphy, W A; Matamoros, A; Marom, E M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of recognition of a previously encountered radiograph on consistency of response in localized pulmonary nodules. Methods: 13 radiologists interpreted 40 radiographs each to locate pulmonary nodules. A few days later, they again interpreted 40 radiographs. Half of the images in the second set were new. We asked the radiologists whether each image had been in the first set. We used Fisher's exact test and Kruskal–Wallis test to evaluate the correlation between recognition of an image and consistency in its interpretation. We evaluated the data using all possible recognition levels—definitely, probably or possibly included vs definitely, probably or possibly not included by collapsing the recognition levels into two and by eliminating the “possibly included” and “possibly not included” scores. Results: With all but one of six methods of looking at the data, there was no significant correlation between consistency in interpretation and recognition of the image. When the possibly included and possibly not included scores were eliminated, there was a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.04) with slightly greater consistency in interpretation of recognized than that of non-recognized images. Conclusion: We found no convincing evidence that radiologists' recognition of images in an observer performance study affects their interpretation on a second encounter. Advances in knowledge: Conscious recognition of chest radiographs did not result in a greater degree of consistency in the tested interpretation than that in the interpretation of images that were not recognized. PMID:24697724

  4. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  5. Pulsed laser photoacoustic monitoring of paper pulp consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Törmänen, Matti; Myllylä, Risto

    2008-06-01

    This study involves measurements of pulp consistency in cuvette and by an online apparatus, by innovatively scattering photoacoustic (SPA) method. The theoretical aspects were described at first. Then, a few kinds of wood fiber suspensions with consistencies from 0.5% to 5% were studied in cuvette. After that, a pilot of online apparatus was built to measure suspensions with fiber consistency lower than 1% and filler content up to 3%. The results showed that although there were many fiber flocks in cuvette which strongly affected the measurement accuracy of samples consistencies, the apparatus can sense fiber types with different optical and acoustic properties. The measurement accuracy can be greatly improved in the online style apparatus, by pumping suspension fluids in a circulating system to improve the suspension homogeneity. The results demonstrated that wood fibers cause larger attenuation of acoustic waves but fillers do not. On the other hand, fillers cause stronger scattering of incident light. Therefore, our SPA apparatus has a potential ability to simultaneously determine fiber and filler fractions in pulp suspensions with consistency up to 5%.

  6. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  7. Cultural diversity among nursing students: reanalysis of the cultural awareness scale.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Becker, Heather; Chontichachalalauk, Jiraporn; Lee, H Y

    2014-02-01

    Nurses are educated to provide culturally competent care. Cultural competence begins with cultural awareness, a concept previously measured with the Cultural Awareness Scale (CAS). The purpose of this study was to reanalyze the CAS to determine construct validity and differences in cultural awareness among students of varying educational levels and experiences. The sample consisted of 150 nursing students (92% female, 33.6% racial minorities). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded three factors (CFI = 0.868, TLI = 0.854, RMSEA = 0.065, and SRMR = 0.086). Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. There were significant differences among educational levels, with lower division BSN students generally scoring higher than upper division and master's of science in nursing students. Students who had taken courses on cultural diversity or global health generally outscored those who had not taken such courses. Findings support the validity of the CAS and its applicability to research studies of cultural awareness in nursing.

  8. Quality and Consistency of the NASA Ocean Color Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) recently reprocessed the multimission ocean color time-series from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua, and MODIS-Terra using common algorithms and improved instrument calibration knowledge. Here we present an analysis of the quality and consistency of the resulting ocean color retrievals, including spectral water-leaving reflectance, chlorophyll a concentration, and diffuse attenuation. Statistical analysis of satellite retrievals relative to in situ measurements will be presented for each sensor, as well as an assessment of consistency in the global time-series for the overlapping periods of the missions. Results will show that the satellite retrievals are in good agreement with in situ measurements, and that the sensor ocean color data records are highly consistent over the common mission lifespan for the global deep oceans, but with degraded agreement in higher productivity, higher complexity coastal regions.

  9. Testing and extending the inflationary consistency relation for tensor modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Latham; Smith, Kendrick M.; Dvorkin, Cora; Turok, Neil

    2015-08-01

    If observations confirm BICEP2's claim of a tensor-scalar ratio r ≈0.2 on CMB scales, then the inflationary consistency relation nt=-r /8 predicts a small negative value for the tensor spectral index nt. We show that future CMB polarization experiments should be able to confirm this prediction at several sigma. We also show how to properly extend the consistency relation to solar system scales, where the primordial gravitational wave density Ωgw could be measured by proposed experiments such as the Big Bang Observer. This would provide a far more stringent test of the consistency relation and access much more detailed information about the early Universe.

  10. 'Constraint consistency' at all orders in cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Debottam; Shankaranarayanan, S. E-mail: shanki@iisertvm.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    We study the equivalence of two—order-by-order Einstein's equation and Reduced action—approaches to cosmological perturbation theory at all orders for different models of inflation. We point out a crucial consistency check which we refer to as 'Constraint consistency' condition that needs to be satisfied in order for the two approaches to lead to identical single variable equation of motion. The method we propose here is quick and efficient to check the consistency for any model including modified gravity models. Our analysis points out an important feature which is crucial for inflationary model building i.e., all 'constraint' inconsistent models have higher order Ostrogradsky's instabilities but the reverse is not true. In other words, one can have models with constraint Lapse function and Shift vector, though it may have Ostrogradsky's instabilities. We also obtain single variable equation for non-canonical scalar field in the limit of power-law inflation for the second-order perturbed variables.

  11. A measure of within-participant response consistency.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Justin A; Trafimow, David

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we introduce a measure of within-participant response consistency for use in the analysis of performance in decision-making tasks. The measure is an estimate of the correlation between the responses associated with two identical blocks of trials, the second of which has yet to be conducted. We derive a formula for the measure that can be applied to data from any two-choice decision task, including yes/no detection and two-alternative forced choice (2AFC). The estimate is easily calculated from the observed frequencies of hits, misses, false alarms, and correct rejections. We utilized data from an actual 2AFC experiment to compare estimated and observed consistency values; the estimates accounted for more than 90 % of the variability in observed consistency scores. We also discuss potential applications of the measure.

  12. Consistency of daily cigarette smoking amount in dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Jao, Nancy C; Karelitz, Joshua L

    2013-09-01

    Self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) is a very common screening as well as dependent or independent measure in clinical and nonclinical research on smoking, but the consistency of CPD across days in dependent smokers is uncertain. Adult dependent smokers (N = 357; 170 men, 187 women) retrospectively reported "usual" CPD at screening and then prospectively self-monitored CPD on 3 consecutive days of 1 week during an ad libitum baseline period. Participants were those recruited for later tests of brief medication effects in those with high (n = 170) versus low (n = 187) interest in quitting smoking soon (within 3 months). Consistency was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Prospective daily CPD was generally consistent (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI of 0.74-0.81), but CPD changed (increased or decreased) by 5 cigarettes/day or more in 40% of participants and by at least 10/day in 10%. Consistency in CPD was greater in higher dependent smokers and in women with low (vs. high) quit interest, but consistency tended to be greater in men with high (vs. low) quit interest. Although retrospectively reported CPD at screening was consistent with the overall mean for prospectively monitored daily CPD, 15% of participants differed by at least 5/day between methods, and digit bias was twice as likely with retrospective versus prospective CPD, which was at chance levels. Understanding variability in CPD may improve knowledge of dependence and factors that foster or discourage daily smoking amount, but precise assessment of daily CPD likely requires prospective monitoring.

  13. A consistent measure for lattice Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela Mendes, R.

    2017-01-01

    The construction of a consistent measure for Yang-Mills is a precondition for an accurate formulation of nonperturbative approaches to QCD, both analytical and numerical. Using projective limits as subsets of Cartesian products of homomorphisms from a lattice to the structure group, a consistent interaction measure and an infinite-dimensional calculus have been constructed for a theory of non-Abelian generalized connections on a hypercubic lattice. Here, after reviewing and clarifying past work, new results are obtained for the mass gap when the structure group is compact.

  14. Model consistency in large eddy simulation of turbulent channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Ferziger, Joel H.; Moin, Parviz

    1988-01-01

    Combinations of filters and subgrid scale stress models for large eddy simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are examined by a priori tests and numerical simulations. The structure of the subgrid scales is found to depend strongly on the type of filter used, and consistency between model and filter is essential to ensure accurate results. The implementation of consistent combinations of filter and model gives more accurate turbulence statistics than those obtained in previous investigations in which the models were chosen independently from the filter. Results and limitations of the a priori test are discussed. The effect of grid refinement is also examined.

  15. Spin-Isospin Resonances: A Self-Consistent Covariant Description

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Haozhao; Nguyen Van Giai; Meng Jie

    2008-09-19

    For the first time a fully self-consistent charge-exchange relativistic RPA based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approach is established. The self-consistency is verified by the so-called isobaric analog state (IAS) check. The excitation properties and the nonenergy weighted sum rules of two important charge-exchange excitation modes, the Gamow-Teller resonance (GTR) and the spin-dipole resonance (SDR), are well reproduced in the doubly magic nuclei {sup 48}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb without readjustment of the particle-hole residual interaction. The dominant contribution of the exchange diagrams is demonstrated.

  16. Consistency of heterogeneous synchronization patterns in complex weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malagarriga, D.; Villa, A. E. P.; Garcia-Ojalvo, J.; Pons, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Synchronization within the dynamical nodes of a complex network is usually considered homogeneous through all the nodes. Here we show, in contrast, that subsets of interacting oscillators may synchronize in different ways within a single network. This diversity of synchronization patterns is promoted by increasing the heterogeneous distribution of coupling weights and/or asymmetries in small networks. We also analyze consistency, defined as the persistence of coexistent synchronization patterns regardless of the initial conditions. Our results show that complex weighted networks display richer consistency than regular networks, suggesting why certain functional network topologies are often constructed when experimental data are analyzed.

  17. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Parks, Michael L.

    2017-04-01

    We present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier-Stokes, Poisson-Boltzmann, and advection-diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. The new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  18. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; ...

    2017-01-03

    In this paper, we present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier–Stokes, Poisson–Boltzmann, and advection–diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. Lastly, the new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  19. Culture, universals, and the personal.

    PubMed

    Nucci, L

    1997-01-01

    This chapter summarizes a part of the case that can be made that the individual construction of a personal domain of choice and privacy generalizes across cultures and is not restricted to persons who live within Western or so-called modern societies. The research findings reported here are consistent with the view that persons seek to establish such areas of control in order to maintain a differentiated personal identity and a sense of personal agency. Children, adolescents, and adults from the United States and traditional cultures have been found to identify a class of behaviors and issues as being outside the legitimate sphere of social or moral regulation. Mothers from Western and traditional cultural settings recognize and foster their children's claims to areas of personal choice and privacy. Across cultures, as children mature and move toward adulthood, they lay claim to a broader range of issues and actions as personal matters. Research on adolescent-parent conflict with U.S. and Chinese samples has indicated that these shifts associated with adolescent claims to freedom are the source of most family conflicts. Anthropological accounts of adolescent-parent conflicts in 160 cultures have provided evidence that such conflicts are widespread (Schlegel and Barry, 1991). Finally, we are beginning to obtain evidence that parental overcontrol of personal issues is associated with symptoms of psychological problems in their adolescent children. These research findings are consistent with the proposal (Nucci, 1996) that establishment of a personal domain is an intrinsic feature of normal human development, resulting from the inevitable attempt by individuals to account for and differentiate between their own motives, values, and experiences and those of others. The evidence also points to the fact that such personal issues are coexistent with concerns for interpersonal harmony and social integration. Thus, it is not surprising that the work summarized here also

  20. [Bioconversion of cellulose to methane by a consortium consisting of four microbial strains].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Mei; Ma, An-Zhou; Cui, Meng-Meng; Yu, Qing; Qi, Hong-Yan; Zhuang, Xu-Liang; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose was usually degraded by microbial communities in natural habitats. Construction of a simple cellulolytic consortium is necessary to understand the underlying interaction within microorganisms involved in cellulose conversion. A screening approach was developed to obtain a simple microbial community with the ability of cellulose degradation to methane. This technique was based on the method of enrichment culture accompanying with denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint detection technology and roll-tube method. Moreover, a four-strain mixed culture capable of degrading cellulose to methane was isolated from Zoige alpine wetland of the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the microbial consortia consisted of three functional groups: the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium glycolicum, the non-celluloytic bacteria group of Trichococcus flocculiformis and Parabacteroides merdae, and the methanogenic bacterium Methanobacterium subterraneum. This four-strain co-culture can convert cellulose to methane. In the future, the isolated cellulolytic consortia could provide a platform for controlling metabolic pathways and genetic modification involved in methane production from cellulose.

  1. The Myth of Cognitive Consistency: Psychological Theories and Intimate Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Sandra V.

    Several psychological theories are viable when examining the victims of intimate violence, specifically battered women. Although cognitive consistency models view individuals as striving toward balanced cognitive states, battered women can exist with the cognitive inconsistency of being harmed by men who love them. The theory of cognitive arousal…

  2. The Influence of Consistent Assignment on Nursing Home Deficiency Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The association of consistent assignment of nurse aides (NAs) with quality of care and quality of life of nursing home residents is examined (using 5 groups of deficiency citations). Methods: Data used came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The…

  3. [Consistent presentation of medical images based on CPI integration profile].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; An, Ji-ye; Chen, Zhong-yong; Lu, Xu-dong; Duan, Hui-long

    2007-11-01

    Because of different display parameters and other factors, digital medical images present different display states in different section offices of a hospital. Based on CPI integration profile of IHE, this paper implements the consistent presentation of medical images, and it is helpful for doctors to carry out medical treatments of teamwork.

  4. Indexing Consistency: The Input/Output Function of Thesauri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Phyllis; Biever, Erik J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that was conducted to determine how well subject authority lists, or thesauri, control indexing vocabulary. Indexer consistency using the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) thesaurus was tested by comparing indexing done by CAB and by National Agricultural Library (NAL) indexers. (six references) (LRW)

  5. A Nonparametric Approach to Estimate Classification Accuracy and Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Quinn N.; Cheng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    When cut scores for classifications occur on the total score scale, popular methods for estimating classification accuracy (CA) and classification consistency (CC) require assumptions about a parametric form of the test scores or about a parametric response model, such as item response theory (IRT). This article develops an approach to estimate CA…

  6. Internal Consistencies of the Original and Revised Beck Depression Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron, T.; Steer, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Compared versions of the Beck Depression Inventory in psychiatric patients. The alpha coefficient for 598 inpatients and outpatients on the 1961 version was .88, and the alpha coefficient for 248 outpatients on the 1978 version was .86. Concluded that the internal consistencies of both versions were comparable. (JAC)

  7. The Developmental Turnpoint of Orthographic Consistency Effects in Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Paulo; Kolinsky, Regine; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Morais, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The influence of orthography on children's online auditory word recognition was studied from the end of Grade 4 to the end of Grade 9 by examining the orthographic consistency effect in auditory lexical decision. Fourth-graders showed evidence of a widespread influence of orthography in their spoken word recognition system; words with rimes that…

  8. Brief Report: Consistency of Search Engine Rankings for Autism Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Naples, Adam; Steinhoff, Timothy; Halpern, Jason; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is one of the most common methods used by parents to find information on autism spectrum disorders and most consumers find information through search engines such as Google or Bing. However, little is known about how the search engines operate or the consistency of the results that are returned over time. This study presents the…

  9. Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway objects of all kinds set in concrete mortar on ground. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village in front of Rumpus Room primary façade with 12' scale (in tenths). Camera facing north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  10. The Consistency of Peer Review in Student Writing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.; Simkin, Mark G.

    1995-01-01

    Each paper written by 60 sophomores in computer classes received 3 peer evaluations using a structured evaluation process. Overall, students were able to grade efficiently and consistently in terms of overall score and selected criteria (subject matter, content, and mechanics). (SK)

  11. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  12. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  13. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  14. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  15. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions §...

  16. A consistent set of trial functions for conical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1980-01-01

    A consistent approach is developed for the determination of trial functions for a class of shells of revolution. The trial functions satisfy the in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions at the shell ends and include the effects of tangential inertia. The resulting expressions converge rapidly for the problem of linear free vibration

  17. An algebraic method for constructing stable and consistent autoregressive filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlim, John; Hong, Hoon; Robbins, Jacob L.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algebraic method to construct stable and consistent univariate autoregressive (AR) models of low order for filtering and predicting nonlinear turbulent signals with memory depth. By stable, we refer to the classical stability condition for the AR model. By consistent, we refer to the classical consistency constraints of Adams-Bashforth methods of order-two. One attractive feature of this algebraic method is that the model parameters can be obtained without directly knowing any training data set as opposed to many standard, regression-based parameterization methods. It takes only long-time average statistics as inputs. The proposed method provides a discretization time step interval which guarantees the existence of stable and consistent AR model and simultaneously produces the parameters for the AR models. In our numerical examples with two chaotic time series with different characteristics of decaying time scales, we find that the proposed AR models produce significantly more accurate short-term predictive skill and comparable filtering skill relative to the linear regression-based AR models. These encouraging results are robust across wide ranges of discretization times, observation times, and observation noise variances. Finally, we also find that the proposed model produces an improved short-time prediction relative to the linear regression-based AR-models in forecasting a data set that characterizes the variability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, a dominant tropical atmospheric wave pattern.

  18. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilts, Gary

    2005-07-01

    A valid fluid equation of state must satisfy the thermodynamic differential conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Typical software interfaces to tabular equations of state based on polynomial or rational interpolants compute derivatives of pressure and energy and may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives, which is important for the computation of dimensionless quantities associated with more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a new type of table interface derived from a constrained local least squares regression technique. Application to several SESAME tables shows the consistency condition can be satisfied to round-off with third-order accuracy. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the new method is two orders of magnitude slower, due to solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. The new approach can be used to construct consistent and stable tables of derivatives, however.

  19. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state.

    PubMed

    Dilts, Gary A

    2006-06-01

    A valid fluid equation of state (EOS) must satisfy the thermodynamic conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Numerical simulations of compressible fluid flow for realistic materials require a tabular EOS, but typical software interfaces to such tables based on polynomial or rational interpolants may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives. The consistency condition is important for the computation of various dimensionless parameters of an EOS that may involve derivatives of up to second order which are important for the development of more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a table interface based on the tuned regression method, which is derived from a constrained local least-squares regression technique. It is applied to several SESAME EOS showing how the consistency and stability conditions can be satisfied to round-off while computing first and second derivatives with demonstrated second-order convergence. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the method is apparently two orders of magnitude slower, due to the fact that every evaluation requires solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. Application is made to the computation of the fundamental derivative.

  20. Consistent thermodynamic derivative estimates for tabular equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilts, Gary A.

    2006-06-01

    A valid fluid equation of state (EOS) must satisfy the thermodynamic conditions of consistency (derivation from a free energy) and stability (positive sound speed squared). Numerical simulations of compressible fluid flow for realistic materials require a tabular EOS, but typical software interfaces to such tables based on polynomial or rational interpolants may enforce the stability conditions, but do not enforce the consistency condition and its derivatives. The consistency condition is important for the computation of various dimensionless parameters of an EOS that may involve derivatives of up to second order which are important for the development of more sensitive artificial viscosities and Riemann solvers that accurately model shock structure in regions near phase transitions. We describe a table interface based on the tuned regression method, which is derived from a constrained local least-squares regression technique. It is applied to several SESAME EOS showing how the consistency and stability conditions can be satisfied to round-off while computing first and second derivatives with demonstrated second-order convergence. An improvement of 14 orders of magnitude over conventional derivatives is demonstrated, although the method is apparently two orders of magnitude slower, due to the fact that every evaluation requires solving an 11-dimensional nonlinear system. Application is made to the computation of the fundamental derivative.

  1. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  2. Evaluation of Controlled Vocabularies by Inter-Indexer Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, Concha Soler; Gil-Leiva, Isidoro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several controlled vocabularies are used for indexing three journal articles to check if better or equal consistency rates are achieved with a list of descriptors than with a standard thesaurus and augmented thesaurus. Method: A terminology set for library and information Science was used to build a list of descriptors with…

  3. 43 CFR 1610.3-2 - Consistency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consistency requirements. 1610.3-2 Section 1610.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING...

  4. On the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Dowker, F. |; Kent, A.

    1996-03-01

    We review the consistent histories formulations of quantum mechanics developed by Griffiths, Omnes, Gell-Man, and Hartle, and we describe the classifications of consistent sets. We illustrate some general features of consistent sets by a few lemmas and examples. We also consider various interpretations of the formalism, and we examine the new problems which arise in reconstructing the past and predicting the future. It is shown that Omnes characterization of true statements---statements that can be deduced unconditionally in his interpretation---is incorrect. We examine critically Gell-Mann and Hartle`s interpretation of the formalism, and in particular, their discussions of communication, prediction, and retrodiction, and we conclude that their explanation of the apparent persistence of quasiclassicality relies on assumptions about an as-yet-unknown theory of experience. Our overall conclusion is that the consistent histories approach illustrates the need to supplement quantum mechanics by some selection principle in order to produce a fundamental theory capable of unconditional predictions.

  5. Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zamick

    2008-11-07

    In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with "anomoulous" magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them.The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.

  6. An algebraic method for constructing stable and consistent autoregressive filters

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, John; Hong, Hoon; Robbins, Jacob L.

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce an algebraic method to construct stable and consistent univariate autoregressive (AR) models of low order for filtering and predicting nonlinear turbulent signals with memory depth. By stable, we refer to the classical stability condition for the AR model. By consistent, we refer to the classical consistency constraints of Adams–Bashforth methods of order-two. One attractive feature of this algebraic method is that the model parameters can be obtained without directly knowing any training data set as opposed to many standard, regression-based parameterization methods. It takes only long-time average statistics as inputs. The proposed method provides a discretization time step interval which guarantees the existence of stable and consistent AR model and simultaneously produces the parameters for the AR models. In our numerical examples with two chaotic time series with different characteristics of decaying time scales, we find that the proposed AR models produce significantly more accurate short-term predictive skill and comparable filtering skill relative to the linear regression-based AR models. These encouraging results are robust across wide ranges of discretization times, observation times, and observation noise variances. Finally, we also find that the proposed model produces an improved short-time prediction relative to the linear regression-based AR-models in forecasting a data set that characterizes the variability of the Madden–Julian Oscillation, a dominant tropical atmospheric wave pattern.

  7. Discrete anomalies in supergravity and consistency of string backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasian, Ruben; Sasmal, Soumya; Savelli, Raffaele

    2017-02-01

    We examine SL(2, ℤ) anomalies in ten and eight-dimensional supergravities, the induced local counterterms and their realization in string theory. Composite connections play an important rôle in the cancellation mechanism. At the same time their global properties lead to novel non-trivial consistency constraints on compactifications.

  8. SOCIAL COMPARISON, SELF-CONSISTENCY AND THE PRESENTATION OF SELF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORSE, STANLEY J.; GERGEN, KENNETH J.

    TO DISCOVER HOW A PERSON'S (P) SELF-CONCEPT IS AFFECTED BY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANOTHER (O) WHO SUDDENLY APPEARS IN THE SAME SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT, SEVERAL QUESTIONNAIRES, INCLUDING THE GERGEN-MORSE (1967) SELF-CONSISTENCY SCALE AND HALF THE COOPERSMITH SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY, WERE ADMINISTERED TO 78 UNDERGRADUATE MEN WHO HAD ANSWERED AN AD FOR WORK…

  9. Regolith breccia consisting of H and LL chondrite mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanai, Keizo; Kojima, Hideyasu

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite Yamato-8424 (Y-8424) is a regolith breccia that is homogenized mixture of H and LL chondrite components. The breccia consists mainly of a fine-grained material with mineral fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and Fe-Ni metal with traces of plagioclase.

  10. Improving consistency in student evaluation at affiliated family practice centers.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, H K

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Family Medicine at Jefferson Medical College has since 1974 been successful in administering a required third-year family medicine clerkship, providing students with a structured, didactic, and experiential curriculum in six affiliated family practice centers. Prior analysis (1976-1981) had indicated, however, that variation existed in evaluating similar students, depending on the clerkship training site, i.e., three sites graded students in a significantly different fashion than the three other sites. Utilizing these data to focus on the evaluation process, a comprehensive and specific six-point plan was developed to improve consistency in evaluations at the different training sites. This plan consisted of a yearly meeting of affiliate faculty, assigning predoctoral training administrative responsibility to one faculty member at each training site, increased telephone communication, affiliate-faculty attendance at the university site evaluation session, faculty rotation to spend time at other training sites, and financial reimbursement to the affiliate training sites. After intervention, analysis (1981-1983) indicated that five of the six clerkship sites now grade students in a consistent fashion, with only one affiliate using different grading standards. The intervention was therefore judged to be successful for five of the six training sites, allowing for better communication and more critical and consistent evaluation of medical students.

  11. The Teenage Nonviolence Test: Internal Consistency and Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Weedman, Jonathon; Sonnen, Jennifer; Grubb, Celeste; Hirose, Masa

    This research study was designed to establish the reliability of the Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT). The consistency and factor structure of the TNT using a sample of 376 adolescents were evaluated. The stability of the TNT was assessed over time by administering the TNT twice with a two week intervening interval to 87 adolescents. The TNT appears…

  12. Evaluating reflective writing for appropriateness, fairness, and consistency.

    PubMed

    Kennison, Monica Metrick; Misselwitz, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    Nurse educators are divided about how to best evaluate nursing students' reflective writings for evidence of critical thinking. This article reports on a study of consistency among faculty in grading writing in reflective journals. The results indicate a lack of consensus with regard to evaluation and differences among faculty with regard to how they view the purpose of such exercises.

  13. Consistency of Response Patterns in Different Estimation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Terry Tin-Yau; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Tang, Joey

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at addressing two issues concerning children's estimation performance: (1) to investigate whether the log-to-linear framework or the proportional judgment framework provided a better explanation of children's estimation patterns, and (2) to examine the consistency of response patterns in different estimation tasks. A sample…

  14. Quantum state space as a maximal consistent set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel

    2012-02-01

    Measurement statistics in quantum theory are obtained from the Born rule and the uniqueness of the probability measure it assigns through quantum states is guaranteed by Gleason's theorem. Thus, a possible systematic way of exploring the geometry of quantum state space expresses quantum states in terms of outcome probabilities of a symmetric informationally complete measurement. This specific choice for representing quantum states is motivated by how the associated probability space provides a natural venue for characterizing the set of quantum states as a geometric construct called a maximal consistent set. We define the conditions for consistency and maximality of a set, provide some examples of maximal consistent sets and attempt to deduce the steps for building up a maximal consistent set of probability distributions equivalent to Hilbert space. In particular, we demonstrate how the reconstruction procedure works for qutrits and observe how it reveals an elegant underlying symmetry among five SIC-POVMs and a complete set of mutually unbiased bases, known in finite affine geometry as the Hesse configuration.

  15. Consistency of Response Style Across Types of Response Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardo, J.W.; Yeager, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    In examining response style effects on various commonly used fixed-response formats, Likert-type formats were relatively consistently affected regardless of the number of format categories. Nonanchored numbers were less affected. Across types, strong correlations for the linear formats and human faces made their use problematic. (Author/CM)

  16. Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…

  17. Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity

    PubMed Central

    BHUGRA, DINESH; BECKER, MATTHEW A

    2005-01-01

    Migration has contributed to the richness in diversity of cultures, ethnicities and races in developed countries. Individuals who migrate experience multiple stresses that can impact their mental well being, including the loss of cultural norms, religious customs, and social support systems, adjustment to a new culture and changes in identity and concept of self. Indeed, the rates of mental illness are increased in some migrant groups. Mental health practitioners need to be attuned to the unique stresses and cultural aspects that affect immigrants and refugees in order to best address the needs of this increasing and vulnerable population. This paper will review the concepts of migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity, and explore the interrelationship between these three aspects of the migrant's experience and cultural congruity. The complex interplay of the migration process, cultural bereavement, cultural identity, and cultural congruity, along with biological, psychological and social factors, is hypothesized as playing a major role in the increased rates of mental illness in affected migrant groups. PMID:16633496

  18. What does consistent participation in 401(k) plans generate?

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Holden, Sarah; Alonso, Luis

    2009-07-01

    EBRI/ICI 401(K) DATABASE: The annual EBRI/ICI 401(k) database update report is based on large cross-sections of 401(k) plan participants. Whereas the cross-sections cover participants with a wide range of participation experience in 401(k) plans, meaningful analysis of the potential for 401(k) participants to accumulate retirement assets over time must examine how a consistent group of participants' accounts have performed over the long term. Looking at consistent participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database over the eight-year period from 1999 to 2007: The average 401(k) account balance increased at an annual growth rate of 9.5 percent over the period, to $137,430 at year-end 2007. The median 401(k) account balance (half above, half below) increased at an annual growth rate of 15.2 percent over the period, to $76,946 at year-end 2007. ANALYSIS OF A CONSISTENT GROUP OF 401(K) PARTICIPANTS HIGHLIGHTS THE ACCUMULATION POTENTIAL OF 401(K) PLANS. At year-end 2007, the average account balance among consistent participants was double the average account balance among all participants in the EBRI/ICI 401(k) database. The consistent group's median balance was more than four times larger than the median balance across all participants at year-end 2007. YOUNGER PARTICIPANTS OR THOSE WITH SMALLER INITIAL BALANCES EXPERIENCED HIGHER GROWTH IN ACCOUNT BALANCES COMPARED WITH OLDER PARTICIPANTS OR THOSE WITH LARGER INITIAL BALANCES. Among the consistent group, individual participant experience is influenced by three primary factors that impact account balances: contributions, investment returns, and withdrawal and loan activity. For example, the average account balance of participants in their 20s was heavily influenced by the relative size of contributions to the account balances and increased at an average growth rate of 36.0 percent per year between year-end 1999 and year-end 2007. 401(K) PARTICIPANTS TEND TO CONCENTRATE THEIR ACCOUNTS IN EQUITY SECURITIES. The asset

  19. Consistent SPH Simulations of Protostellar Collapse and Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbasov, Ruslan; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.; Cruz, Fidel; Klapp, Jaime; Ramírez-Velasquez, José M.

    2017-02-01

    We study the consistency and convergence of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) as a function of the interpolation parameters, namely the number of particles N, the number of neighbors n, and the smoothing length h, using simulations of the collapse and fragmentation of protostellar rotating cores. The calculations are made using a modified version of the GADGET-2 code that employs an improved scheme for the artificial viscosity and power-law dependences of n and h on N, as was recently proposed by Zhu et al., which comply with the combined limit N\\to ∞ , h\\to 0, and n\\to ∞ with n/N\\to 0 for full SPH consistency as the domain resolution is increased. We apply this realization to the “standard isothermal test case” in the variant calculated by Burkert & Bodenheimer and the Gaussian cloud model of Boss to investigate the response of the method to adaptive smoothing lengths in the presence of large density and pressure gradients. The degree of consistency is measured by tracking how well the estimates of the consistency integral relations reproduce their continuous counterparts. In particular, C 0 and C 1 particle consistency is demonstrated, meaning that the calculations are close to second-order accuracy. As long as n is increased with N, mass resolution also improves as the minimum resolvable mass {M}\\min ∼ {n}-1. This aspect allows proper calculation of small-scale structures in the flow associated with the formation and instability of protostellar disks around the growing fragments, which are seen to develop a spiral structure and fragment into close binary/multiple systems as supported by recent observations.

  20. Consistent Data Assimilation of Isotopes: 242Pu and 105Pd

    SciTech Connect

    G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; M. Salvatores

    2012-09-01

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments are analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 242Pu and 105Pd. In particular irradiation experiments (PROFIL-1 and -2, TRAPU-1, -2 and -3) provide information about capture cross sections, and a critical configuration, COSMO, where fission spectral indexes were measured, provides information about fission cross section. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results are used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that not so large modifications on some key identified nuclear parameters allow to obtain reasonable C/E. However, for some parameters such variations are outside the range of 1 s of their initial standard deviation. This can indicate a possible conflict between differential measurements (used to calculate the initial standard deviations) and the integral measurements used in the statistical data adjustment. Moreover, an inconsistency between the C/E of two sets of irradiation experiments (PROFIL and TRAPU) is observed for 242Pu. This is the end of this project funded by the Nuclear Physics Program of the DOE Office of Science. We can indicate that a proof of principle has been demonstrated for a few isotopes for this innovative methodology. However, we are still far from having explored all the possibilities and made this methodology to be considered proved and robust. In particular many issues are worth further investigation: • Non-linear effects • Flexibility of nuclear parameters in describing cross sections • Multi-isotope consistent assimilation • Consistency between differential and integral

  1. Conformal consistency relations for single-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Simonović, Marko E-mail: jorge.norena@gmail.com

    2012-07-01

    We generalize the single-field consistency relations to capture not only the leading term in the squeezed limit — going as 1/q{sup 3}, where q is the small wavevector — but also the subleading one, going as 1/q{sup 2}. This term, for an (n+1)-point function, is fixed in terms of the variation of the n-point function under a special conformal transformation; this parallels the fact that the 1/q{sup 3} term is related with the scale dependence of the n-point function. For the squeezed limit of the 3-point function, this conformal consistency relation implies that there are no terms going as 1/q{sup 2}. We verify that the squeezed limit of the 4-point function is related to the conformal variation of the 3-point function both in the case of canonical slow-roll inflation and in models with reduced speed of sound. In the second case the conformal consistency conditions capture, at the level of observables, the relation among operators induced by the non-linear realization of Lorentz invariance in the Lagrangian. These results mean that, in any single-field model, primordial correlation functions of ζ are endowed with an SO(4,1) symmetry, with dilations and special conformal transformations non-linearly realized by ζ. We also verify the conformal consistency relations for any n-point function in models with a modulation of the inflaton potential, where the scale dependence is not negligible. Finally, we generalize (some of) the consistency relations involving tensors and soft internal momenta.

  2. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  3. Understanding Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for workplace education providers, defines organizational culture, reviews selected techniques for reading a company's culture, and presents examples of ways in which organizations' culture can affect workplace education programs. An organization's culture is determined by: recognizing the company's philosophy…

  4. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  5. Deaf Culture and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padden, Carol; Ramsey, Claire

    1993-01-01

    Issues in deaf culture and literacy are addressed, including literacy versus reading and writing, the nature of deaf culture, the relationship between culture (particularly deaf culture) and literacy, the relationship between literacy and face-to-face communication, and application of theory to practice. (DB)

  6. Aging in culture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  7. Organizational Culture and Changes of Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-26

    response to orders is far more effective than immediate and unquestioned obedience.0 This will be particularly true on the dispersed , non-linear...requirement to be a role model , but the development of a strong culture 15 creates an extra requirement for actions totally consistent with the culture...leaders formed into well-trained and well-equipped units capable of quic lv and effectively going to war and winning on the Air Land Battlefield. Such

  8. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  9. On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Oliver

    1996-11-01

    A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of ``history'' is generalized to the notion of ``effect history.'' The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omnès' logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author.

  10. Students' application of a biological concept: Factors affecting consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, David

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated factors affecting students' ability to apply consistently the concept of adaptations (i.e., characteristics which suit an organism to its environment). Individual interviews were carried out with 74 Year 10 students, of whom only 47% showed an understanding of the concept. These students were asked to indicate on a list of living and non-living items which ones whould have adaptations. It was found that they were more likely to apply the concept to vertebrates than to other types of living things. In addition, many students appeared to be unable to separate consistently the idea of “adaptations as characteristics” from the other everyday and scientific meanings of the terms “adapt” and “adaptation”.

  11. On the consistency of individual classification using short scales.

    PubMed

    Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meijer, Rob R

    2007-03-01

    Short tests containing at most 15 items are used in clinical and health psychology, medicine, and psychiatry for making decisions about patients. Because short tests have large measurement error, the authors ask whether they are reliable enough for classifying patients into a treatment and a nontreatment group. For a given certainty level, proportions of correct classifications were computed for varying test length, cut-scores, item scoring, and choices of item parameters. Short tests were found to classify at most 50% of a group consistently. Results were much better for tests containing 20 or 40 items. Small differences were found between dichotomous and polytomous (5 ordered scores) items. It is recommended that short tests for high-stakes decision making be used in combination with other information so as to increase reliability and classification consistency.

  12. Thermodynamically consistent description of criticality in models of correlated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiš, Václav; Kauch, Anna; Pokorný, Vladislav

    2017-01-01

    Criticality in models of correlated electrons emerges in proximity of a low-temperature singularity in a two-particle Green function. Such singularities are generally related to a symmetry breaking of the one-particle self-energy. A consistent description demands that the symmetry breaking in the self-energy emerges at the critical point of the respective two-particle function. This cannot easily be achieved in models of correlated electrons, since there are two ways connecting one- and two-electron functions that cannot be made fully equivalent in approximations. We present a general construction of diagrammatic two-particle approximations consistent with the one-particle functions so that both produce qualitatively the same quantum critical behavior in thermodynamically equivalent descriptions. The general scheme is applied on the single-impurity Anderson model to derive qualitatively the same Kondo critical scale from the spectral function and the magnetic susceptibility.

  13. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  14. Exceptional generalised geometry for massive IIA and consistent reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Davide; de Felice, Oscar; Petrini, Michela; Strickland-Constable, Charles; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    We develop an exceptional generalised geometry formalism for massive type IIA supergravity. In particular, we construct a deformation of the generalised Lie derivative, which generates the type IIA gauge transformations as modified by the Romans mass. We apply this new framework to consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions preserving maximal supersymmetry. We find a generalised parallelisation of the exceptional tangent bundle on S 6, and from this reproduce the consistent truncation ansatz and embedding tensor leading to dyonically gauged ISO(7) supergravity in four dimensions. We also discuss closely related hyperboloid reductions, yielding a dyonic ISO( p, 7 - p) gauging. Finally, while for vanishing Romans mass we find a generalised parallelisation on S d , d = 4 , 3 , 2, leading to a maximally supersymmetric reduction with gauge group SO( d + 1) (or larger), we provide evidence that an analogous reduction does not exist in the massive theory.

  15. Self-consistent pitch angle diffusion of newborn ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Wu, C. S.

    1991-04-01

    A self-consistent analysis of pitch angle diffusion of newborn ions by low-frequency hydromagnetic waves predominantly propagating in one direction has been carried out. It is found that in the wave frame defined in velocity space the time evolution of an ion distribution can be described as undergoing purely pitch angle diffusion. The role of the resonant versus nonresonant diffusion is discussed in detail, and it is shown that a time-asymptotic distribution of a particular form develops. It is analytically and numerically shown that the self-consistent diffusion process leads to a time-asymptotic partial shell distributions. The relevance of this finding to observations that the ion distributions in the far upstream of cometary bow shocks have a partial shell structure rather than a complete shell is pointed out.

  16. On the grade consistent theories of micromorphic elastic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Iesan, D.

    2011-02-10

    For the investigation of specific nonlocal phenomena the second-order displacement gradient has been added to the independent constitutive variables used in the classical theories of elastic solids. In this paper we outline the hystorical development of the subject and present a nonlinear grade consistent theory of micromorphic elastic solids in which the independent constitutive variables are the deformation gradient, the second-order displacement gradient, microdeformation tensor, and microdeformation gradient. Then, we present the linearized theory and establish a uniqueness result with no definiteness assumption on the elastic coefficients. The theory is used to obtain the basic eqations of a grade consistent theory of microstretch elastic bodies. The field equations for an isotropic and homogeneous elastic body are presented. A counterpart of the Cauchy-Kowalevski-Somigliana solution of the classical elastodynamics is established.

  17. A consistent large deflection theory of composite sandwich shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinfu

    1993-05-01

    Composite sandwich shells are important structures in aeronautical and astronautical industry. The theory, especially nonlinear theory, of them is still required to be advanced so as to meet the demand of engineering application. With Lagrangian description, the consistent Green strain tensor, the compatibility equations and the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor of the composite sandwich shells are obtained. Based on these results and several assumptions, the constitutive equations relating the stress resultants to the strains, the strain energy density and the potential energy functional are further developed. In terms of minimum potential energy principle, the equilibrium equations and associated boundary conditions are obtained, which are consistent with the first order approximation under the conditions of small strain accompanied with moderate/small rotation. In terms of the structural features of the shallow composite sandwich shells, the equations obtained are further processed approximately and Donnel-type equations for the shallow composite sandwich shells are obtained.

  18. A correlation consistency based multivariate alarm thresholds optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huihui; Liu, Feifei; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2016-11-01

    Different alarm thresholds could generate different alarm data, resulting in different correlations. A new multivariate alarm thresholds optimization methodology based on the correlation consistency between process data and alarm data is proposed in this paper. The interpretative structural modeling is adopted to select the key variables. For the key variables, the correlation coefficients of process data are calculated by the Pearson correlation analysis, while the correlation coefficients of alarm data are calculated by kernel density estimation. To ensure the correlation consistency, the objective function is established as the sum of the absolute differences between these two types of correlations. The optimal thresholds are obtained using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Case study of Tennessee Eastman process is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  19. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao E-mail: lh399@columbia.edu

    2015-09-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space.

  20. Multigrid methods and the surface consistent equations of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, John

    The surface consistent equations are a large linear system that is frequently used in signal enhancement for land seismic surveys. Different signatures may be consistent with a particular dynamite (or other) source. Each receiver and the conditions around the receiver will have different impact on the signal. Seismic deconvolution operators, amplitude corrections and static shifts of traces are calculated using the surface consistent equations, both in commercial and scientific seismic processing software. The system of equations is singular, making direct methods such as Gaussian elimination impossible to implement. Iterative methods such as Gauss-Seidel and conjugate gradient are frequently used. A limitation in the nature of the methods leave the long wavelengths of the solution poorly resolved. To reduce the limitations of traditional iterative methods, we employ a multigrid method. Multigrid methods re-sample the entire system of equations on a more coarse grid. An iterative method is employed on the coarse grid. The long wavelengths of the solutions that traditional iterative methods were unable to resolve are calculated on the reduced system of equations. The coarse estimate can be interpolated back up to the original sample rate, and refined using a standard iterative procedure. Multigrid methods provide more accurate solutions to the surface consistent equations, with the largest improvement concentrated in the long wavelengths. Synthetic models and tests on field data show that multigrid solutions to the system of equations can significantly increase the resolution of the seismic data, when used to correct both static time shifts and in calculating deconvolution operators. The first chapter of this thesis is a description of the physical model we are addressing. It reviews some of the literature concerning the surface consistent equations, and provides background on the nature of the problem. Chapter 2 contains a review of iterative and multigrid methods

  1. Photoabsorption off nuclei with self-consistent vertex corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Riek, F.; Lutz, M. F. M.; Korpa, C. L.

    2009-08-15

    We study photoproduction off nuclei based on a self-consistent and covariant many-body approach for the pion and isobar propagation in infinite nuclear matter. For the first time the t-channel exchange of an in-medium pion is evaluated in the presence of vertex correction effects consistently. In particular the interference pattern with the s-channel in-medium nucleon and isobar exchange contribution is considered. Electromagnetic gauge invariance is kept as a consequence of various Ward identities obeyed by the computation. Adjusting the set of Migdal parameters to the data set we predict an attractive mass shift for the isobar of about 50 MeV at nuclear saturation density.

  2. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    DOE PAGES

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ₁ from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ΓE). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT.more » It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.« less

  3. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ₁ from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ΓE). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT. It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.

  4. Associations between tongue movement pattern consistency and formant movement pattern consistency in response to speech behavioral modifications.

    PubMed

    Mefferd, Antje S

    2016-11-01

    The degree of speech movement pattern consistency can provide information about speech motor control. Although tongue motor control is particularly important because of the tongue's primary contribution to the speech acoustic signal, capturing tongue movements during speech remains difficult and costly. This study sought to determine if formant movements could be used to estimate tongue movement pattern consistency indirectly. Two age groups (seven young adults and seven older adults) and six speech conditions (typical, slow, loud, clear, fast, bite block speech) were selected to elicit an age- and task-dependent performance range in tongue movement pattern consistency. Kinematic and acoustic spatiotemporal indexes (STI) were calculated based on sentence-length tongue movement and formant movement signals, respectively. Kinematic and acoustic STI values showed strong associations across talkers and moderate to strong associations for each talker across speech tasks; although, in cases where task-related tongue motor performance changes were relatively small, the acoustic STI values were poorly associated with kinematic STI values. These findings suggest that, depending on the sensitivity needs, formant movement pattern consistency could be used in lieu of direct kinematic analysis to indirectly examine speech motor control.

  5. Self-consistent calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Kfir; Sato, Ryosuke; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-06-08

    A calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement is presented and applied to the problem of s-wave non-relativistic dark matter annihilation. The difference from previous computations in the literature is that the effect of the underlying short-range scattering process is consistently included together with the long-range force in the effective QM Schrödinger problem. Our procedure satisfies partial-wave unitarity where previous calculations fail. We provide analytic results for some potentials of phenomenological relevance.

  6. Consistency and synthesis of Pacific Ocean CO2 survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, M. F.; Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Wanninkhof, R.; Key, Robert; Johnson, G.C.; Millero, F. J.; Lee, K.; Peng, T.-H.; Kozyr, Alexander; Bullister, J.L.; Greeley, D.; Byrne, R.H.; Chipman, D.W.; Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C.; Guenther, P.R.; Ishii, M.; Johnson, K.M.; Ono, Tsueno; Tilbrook, B.; Takahashi, Taro; Wallace, D.W.R.; Watanabe, Y.W.; Winn, C.; Wong, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1999, carbon measurements were made on twenty-five WOCE/JGOFS/OACES cruises in the Pacific Ocean. Investigators from 15 different laboratories and four countries analyzed at least two of the four measurable ocean carbon parameters (DIC, TAlk, fCO2, and pH) on almost all cruises. The goal of this work is to assess the quality of the Pacific carbon survey data and to make recommendations for generating a unified data set that is consistent between cruises. Several different lines of evidence were used to examine the consistency, including comparison of calibration techniques, results from certified reference material analyses, precision of at-sea replicate analyses, agreement between shipboard analyses and replicate shore based analyses, comparison of deep water values at locations where two or more cruises overlapped or crossed, consistency with other hydrographic parameters, and internal consistency with multiple carbon parameter measurements. With the adjustments proposed here, the data can be combined to generate a Pacific Ocean data set, with over 36,000 unique sample locations analyzed for at least two carbon parameters in most cases. The best data coverage was for DIC, which has an estimated overall accuracy of ~3 umol/kg. TAlk, the second most common carbon parameter analyzed, had an estimated overall accuracy of ~5 umol/kg. To obtain additional details on this study, including detailed crossover plots and information on the availability of the compiled, adjusted data set, visit the Global Data Analysis Project web site at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap.

  7. Consistency check for radial distribution functions of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lie, George C.

    1986-12-01

    From a relation between the thermal compressibility and radial distribution function, it is shown that the accuracy of the generally accepted Narten and Levy's experimental radial distribution functions (RDFs) for water is very low, compared with newer experimental results. The most recent experimental RDFs obtained by Soper and Phillips not only pass the consistency check derived, but also have the best overall agreement with the simulated results of Lie and Clementi.

  8. Consistency of pseudolikelihood estimation of fully visible Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2006-10-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a classic model of neural computation, and a number of methods have been proposed for its estimation. Most methods are plagued by either very slow convergence or asymptotic bias in the resulting estimates. Here we consider estimation in the basic case of fully visible Boltzmann machines. We show that the old principle of pseudolikelihood estimation provides an estimator that is computationally very simple yet statistically consistent.

  9. On the grade consistent theory of micropolar thermoelasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Iesan, D.; Quintanilla, R. Cataluna, Univ. Politecnica )

    1992-09-01

    A grade consistent micropolar theory of thermoelasticity is considered. First some results concerning reciprocity, variational characterization of the solution, existence, and uniqueness are established. Then, the theory of homogeneous and isotropic solids is studied. A solution of Cauchy-Kovalevski-Somigliana type and the fundamental solutions in the case of steady vibrations are established. We also study the asymptotic behavior for the homogeneous problem. 21 refs.

  10. On an Asymptotically Consistent Unsteady Interacting Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops the asymptotic matching of an unsteady compressible boundary layer to an inviscid flow. Of particular importance is the velocity injection or transpiration boundary condition derived by this theory. It is found that in general the transpiration will contain a slope of the displacement thickness and a time derivative of a density integral. The conditions under which the second term may be neglected, and its consistency with the established results of interacting boundary layer are discussed.

  11. VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREESTORY REINFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREE-STORY REINFORCED CONCRETE FACTORY WITH A SMALLER ONE-STORY LOADING DOCK AND ANOTHER ONE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING ON THE EAST FACADE. THE THREE-STORY BUILDING HAS VERTICAL METAL PANELING ON THE UPPER STORY. THE ENTIRE COMPLEX IS PAINTED PINK WITH MUCH DAMAGE TO THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING ON THE SOUTH SIDE - American Can Company, 1400 Trombly Avenue, Detroit, MI

  12. A Consistent Geodetic Reference System for GPS (Global Positioning System).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-27

    reliable and accurate Operational Control System (OCS) is a prerequisite for successful Global Positioning System ( GPS ) navigation performance. The OCS...DDOR Doubly differenced (between station pair and Navstar pair) phase data GPS Global Positioning System MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology...FWft SOTR4as-2 A Consistent Geodetic Reference System for GPS A. S. LIU Systems and Computer Engineering Division Engineering Group The Aerospace

  13. Identification of consistency in rating curve data: Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Before calculating rating curve discharges, it is crucial to identify possible interruptions in data consistency. In this research, a methodology to perform this preliminary analysis is developed and validated. This methodology, called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), evaluates in each data point results of a rating curve model with randomly sampled parameter sets. The combination of a parameter set and a data point is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Moreover, a tolerance degree that defines satisfactory behavior of a sequence of model results is chosen. This tolerance degree equals the percentage of observations that are allowed to have non-acceptable model results. Subsequently, the results of the classification is used to assess the maximum left and right reach for each data point of a chronologically sorted time series. This maximum left and right reach in a gauging point represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. This analysis is repeated for a variety of tolerance degrees. Plotting results of this analysis for all data points and all tolerance degrees in a combined BReach plot enables the detection of changes in data consistency. Moreover, if consistent periods are detected, limits of these periods can be derived. The methodology is validated with various synthetic stage-discharge data sets and proves to be a robust technique to investigate temporal consistency of rating curve data. It provides satisfying results despite of low data availability, large errors in the estimated observational uncertainty, and a rating curve model that is known to cover only a limited part of the observations.

  14. Test anxiety: a cross-cultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Jaee; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2005-03-01

    The present paper examines test anxiety from a cross-cultural perspective with specific reference to the Indian and American cultures. The construct of test anxiety has been examined in many cultures all over the world. In this review, the importance of understanding and incorporating contextual factors in cross-cultural research is emphasized. Moreover, some of the methodological issues related to investigating culture-behavior relationship are discussed. Specifically, the derived-etic approach for conducting cross-cultural research is espoused. Then, research findings from western, cross-cultural, and Indian studies on test anxiety are reviewed. Consistent with the individualistic orientation of the western society, much of the research in the western world has adopted a de-contextualized approach. Inasmuch as many of the cross-cultural and Indian studies on test anxiety have their roots in western research, they have ignored the cultural context as well. To address this void, contextual variables relevant to test anxiety in the Indian setting are examined and hypotheses regarding the nature of test anxiety in Indian children are proposed. Finally, a research agenda is presented to examine these hypotheses using a derived-etic approach.

  15. Overspecification of color, pattern, and size: salience, absoluteness, and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Tarenskeen, Sammie; Broersma, Mirjam; Geurts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overspecification of color, pattern, and size are compared, to investigate how salience and absoluteness contribute to the production of overspecification. Color and pattern are absolute and salient attributes, whereas size is relative and less salient. Additionally, a tendency toward consistent responses is assessed. Using a within-participants design, we find similar rates of color and pattern overspecification, which are both higher than the rate of size overspecification. Using a between-participants design, however, we find similar rates of pattern and size overspecification, which are both lower than the rate of color overspecification. This indicates that although many speakers are more likely to include color than pattern (probably because color is more salient), they may also treat pattern like color due to a tendency toward consistency. We find no increase in size overspecification when the salience of size is increased, suggesting that speakers are more likely to include absolute than relative attributes. However, we do find an increase in size overspecification when mentioning the attributes is triggered, which again shows that speakers tend to refer in a consistent manner, and that there are circumstances in which even size overspecification is frequently produced. PMID:26594190

  16. Self-Consistent Calculations of Quasiparticle States in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, W.-D.; Eguiluz, A. G.; Gaspar, J. A.

    1998-03-01

    We report self-consistent evaluations of the electron self-energy and quasiparticle (QP) states in crystals within the (fully-conserving) shielded-interaction approximation. Our method starts from the knowledge of the one-electron states within the LDA. These states are renormalized via the self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation for the one-particle Green's function. All the degrees of freedom of the many-electron system are allowed to ``relax'' as the propagators are dressed. Special care is placed in obtaining cutoff-independent dynamical polarizabilities. We present results for the spectral function, the density of states, the QP renormalization factor, and the QP band structure, for bcc K (the LDA states are obtained with the fhi96md code). The finite lifetime of the QP states blurs the (reduced-zone-) excited-state band structure for relatively low energies. We also discuss the impact of self-consistency on the calculated value of the band gap in Si.

  17. Mechanism of Consistent Gyrus Formation: an Experimental and Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tuo; Razavi, Mir Jalil; Li, Xiao; Chen, Hanbo; Liu, Tianming; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-11-01

    As a significant type of cerebral cortical convolution pattern, the gyrus is widely preserved across species. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to study the underlying mechanisms of gyrus formation, it is currently still far from clear which factors contribute to the regulation of consistent gyrus formation. In this paper, we employ a joint analysis scheme of experimental data and computational modeling to investigate the fundamental mechanism of gyrus formation. Experimental data on mature human brains and fetal brains show that thicker cortices are consistently found in gyral regions and gyral cortices have higher growth rates. We hypothesize that gyral convolution patterns might stem from heterogeneous regional growth in the cortex. Our computational simulations show that gyral convex patterns may occur in locations where the cortical plate grows faster than the cortex of the brain. Global differential growth can only produce a random gyrification pattern, but it cannot guarantee gyrus formation at certain locations. Based on extensive computational modeling and simulations, it is suggested that a special area in the cerebral cortex with a relatively faster growth speed could consistently engender gyri.

  18. The consistent histories approach to loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David A.

    2016-06-01

    We review the application of the consistent (or decoherent) histories formulation of quantum theory to canonical loop quantum cosmology. Conventional quantum theory relies crucially on “measurements” to convert unrealized quantum potentialities into physical outcomes that can be assigned probabilities. In the early universe and other physical contexts in which there are no observers or measuring apparatus (or indeed, in any closed quantum system), what criteria determine which alternative outcomes may be realized and what their probabilities are? In the consistent histories formulation it is the vanishing of interference between the branch wave functions describing alternative histories — as determined by the system’s decoherence functional — that determines which alternatives may be assigned probabilities. We describe the consistent histories formulation and how it may be applied to canonical loop quantum cosmology, describing in detail the application to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models with scalar matter. We show how the theory may be used to make definite physical predictions in the absence of “observers”. As an application, we demonstrate how the theory predicts that loop quantum models “bounce” from large volume to large volume, while conventional “Wheeler-DeWitt”-quantized universes are invariably singular. We also briefly indicate the relation to other work.

  19. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  20. Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling using Space, Energy and Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Mosher, Scott W; Evans, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    For challenging radiation transport problems, hybrid methods combine the accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the global information present in deterministic methods. One of the most successful hybrid methods is CADIS Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling. This method uses a deterministic adjoint solution to construct a biased source distribution and consistent weight windows to optimize a specific tally in a Monte Carlo calculation. The method has been implemented into transport codes using just the spatial and energy information from the deterministic adjoint and has been used in many applications to compute tallies with much higher figures-of-merit than analog calculations. CADIS also outperforms user-supplied importance values, which usually take long periods of user time to develop. This work extends CADIS to develop weight windows that are a function of the position, energy, and direction of the Monte Carlo particle. Two types of consistent source biasing are presented: one method that biases the source in space and energy while preserving the original directional distribution and one method that biases the source in space, energy, and direction. Seven simple example problems are presented which compare the use of the standard space/energy CADIS with the new space/energy/angle treatments.

  1. Non-rigid Face Tracking with Local Appearance Consistency Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Saragih, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new discriminative approach to achieve consistent and efficient tracking of non-rigid object motion, such as facial expressions. By utilizing both spatial and temporal appearance coherence at the patch level, the proposed approach can reduce ambiguity and increase accuracy. Recent research demonstrates that feature based approaches, such as constrained local models (CLMs), can achieve good performance in non-rigid object alignment/tracking using local region descriptors and a non-rigid shape prior. However, the matching performance of the learned generic patch experts is susceptible to local appearance ambiguity. Since there is no motion continuity constraint between neighboring frames of the same sequence, the resultant object alignment might not be consistent from frame to frame and the motion field is not temporally smooth. In this paper, we extend the CLM method into the spatio-temporal domain by enforcing the appearance consistency constraint of each local patch between neighboring frames. More importantly, we show that the global warp update can be optimized jointly in an efficient manner using convex quadratic fitting. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach receives improved performance for the task of non-rigid facial motion tracking on the videos of clinical patients. PMID:25242852

  2. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  3. A dynamical mechanism for large volumes with consistent couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven

    2016-11-01

    A mechanism for addressing the "decompactification problem" is proposed, which consists of balancing the vacuum energy in Scherk-Schwarzed theories against contributions coming from non-perturbative physics. Universality of threshold corrections ensures that, in such situations, the stable minimum will have consistent gauge couplings for any gauge group that shares the same N = 2 beta function for the bulk excitations as the gauge group that takes part in the minimisation. Scherk-Schwarz compactification from 6D to 4D in heterotic strings is discussed explicitly, together with two alternative possibilities for the non-perturbative physics, namely metastable SQCD vacua and a single gaugino condensate. In the former case, it is shown that modular symmetries gives various consistency checks, and allow one to follow soft-terms, playing a similar role to R-symmetry in global SQCD. The latter case is particularly attractive when there is nett Bose-Fermi degeneracy in the massless sector. In such cases, because the original Casimir energy is generated entirely by excited and/or non-physical string modes, it is completely immune to the non-perturbative IR physics. Such a separation between UV and IR contributions to the potential greatly simplifies the analysis of stabilisation, and is a general possibility that has not been considered before.

  4. Consistently inconsistent: commercially available starch-based dysphagia products.

    PubMed

    Payne, Clare; Methven, Lisa; Fairfield, Carol; Bell, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Individuals with dysphagia may be prescribed thickened fluids to promote a safer and more successful swallow. Starch-based thickening agents are often employed; however, these exhibit great variation in consistency. The aim of this study was to compare viscosity and the rheological profile parameters complex (G*), viscous (G″), and elastic modulus (G') over a range of physiological shear rates. UK commercially available dysphagia products at "custard" consistency were examined. Commercially available starch-based dysphagia products were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions; the viscosity and rheological parameters were tested on a CVOR Rheometer. At a measured shear rate of 50 s(-1), all products fell within the viscosity limits defined according to the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force guidelines. However, at lower shear rates, large variations in viscosity were observed. Rheological parameters G*, G', and G″ also demonstrated considerable differences in both overall strength and rheological behavior between different batches of the same product and different product types. The large range in consistency and changes in the overall structure of the starch-based products over a range of physiological shear rates show that patients could be receiving fluids with very different characteristics from that advised. This could have detrimental effects on their ability to swallow.

  5. Mechanism of Consistent Gyrus Formation: an Experimental and Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tuo; Razavi, Mir Jalil; Li, Xiao; Chen, Hanbo; Liu, Tianming; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-01-01

    As a significant type of cerebral cortical convolution pattern, the gyrus is widely preserved across species. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to study the underlying mechanisms of gyrus formation, it is currently still far from clear which factors contribute to the regulation of consistent gyrus formation. In this paper, we employ a joint analysis scheme of experimental data and computational modeling to investigate the fundamental mechanism of gyrus formation. Experimental data on mature human brains and fetal brains show that thicker cortices are consistently found in gyral regions and gyral cortices have higher growth rates. We hypothesize that gyral convolution patterns might stem from heterogeneous regional growth in the cortex. Our computational simulations show that gyral convex patterns may occur in locations where the cortical plate grows faster than the cortex of the brain. Global differential growth can only produce a random gyrification pattern, but it cannot guarantee gyrus formation at certain locations. Based on extensive computational modeling and simulations, it is suggested that a special area in the cerebral cortex with a relatively faster growth speed could consistently engender gyri. PMID:27853245

  6. Consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations via exceptional field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Samtleben, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We present the generalized Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz for the full supersymmetric exceptional field theory in terms of group valued twist matrices subject to consistency equations. With this ansatz the field equations precisely reduce to those of lower-dimensional gauged supergravity parametrized by an embedding tensor. We explicitly construct a family of twist matrices as solutions of the consistency equations. They induce gauged supergravities with gauge groups SO( p, q) and CSO( p, q, r). Geometrically, they describe compactifications on internal spaces given by spheres and (warped) hyperboloides H p,q , thus extending the applicability of generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions beyond homogeneous spaces. Together with the dictionary that relates exceptional field theory to D = 11 and IIB supergravity, respectively, the construction defines an entire new family of consistent truncations of the original theories. These include not only compactifications on spheres of different dimensions (such as AdS5 × S 5), but also various hyperboloid compactifications giving rise to a higher-dimensional embedding of supergravities with non-compact and non-semisimple gauge groups.

  7. Internal Consistency of the NVAP Water Vapor Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Ronnie J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NVAP (NASA Water Vapor Project) dataset is a global dataset at 1 x 1 degree spatial resolution consisting of daily, pentad, and monthly atmospheric precipitable water (PW) products. The analysis blends measurements from the Television and Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and radiosonde observations into a daily collage of PW. The original dataset consisted of five years of data from 1988 to 1992. Recent updates have added three additional years (1993-1995) and incorporated procedural and algorithm changes from the original methodology. Since each of the PW sources (TOVS, SSM/I, and radiosonde) do not provide global coverage, each of these sources compliment one another by providing spatial coverage over regions and during times where the other is not available. For this type of spatial and temporal blending to be successful, each of the source components should have similar or compatible accuracies. If this is not the case, regional and time varying biases may be manifested in the NVAP dataset. This study examines the consistency of the NVAP source data by comparing daily collocated TOVS and SSM/I PW retrievals with collocated radiosonde PW observations. The daily PW intercomparisons are performed over the time period of the dataset and for various regions.

  8. Consistency relation and non-Gaussianity in a Galileon inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Kosar; Nozari, Kourosh

    2016-12-01

    We study a particular Galileon inflation in the light of Planck2015 observational data in order to constraint the model parameter space. We study the spectrum of the primordial modes of the density perturbations by expanding the action up to the second order in perturbations. Then we pursue by expanding the action up to the third order and find the three point correlation functions to find the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity of the primordial perturbations in this setup. We study the amplitude of the non-Gaussianity both in equilateral and orthogonal configurations and test the model with recent observational data. Our analysis shows that for some ranges of the non-minimal coupling parameter, the model is consistent with observation and it is also possible to have large non-Gaussianity which would be observable by future improvements in experiments. Moreover, we obtain the tilt of the tensor power spectrum and test the standard inflationary consistency relation (r = -8nT) against the latest bounds from the Planck2015 dataset. We find a slight deviation from the standard consistency relation in this setup. Nevertheless, such a deviation seems not to be sufficiently remarkable to be detected confidently.

  9. Temporal and Contextual Consistency of Leadership in Homing Pigeon Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos D.; Neupert, Stefanie; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia) was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds. PMID:25054203

  10. One-particle-irreducible consistency relations for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    We derive consistency relations for correlators of scalar cosmological perturbations that hold in the “squeezed limit” in which one or more of the external momenta become soft. Our results are formulated as relations between suitably defined one-particle-irreducible N-point and (N-1)-point functions that follow from residual spatial conformal diffeomorphisms of the unitary gauge Lagrangian. As such, some of these relations are exact to all orders in perturbation theory and do not rely on approximate de Sitter invariance or other dynamical assumptions (e.g., properties of the operator product expansion or the behavior of modes at the horizon crossing). The consistency relations apply model-independently to cosmological scenarios in which the time evolution is driven by a single scalar field. Besides reproducing the known results for single-field inflation in the slow-roll limit, we verify that our consistency relations hold more generally, for instance, in ghost condensate models in flat space. We comment on possible extensions of our results to multifield models.

  11. A NEW APPROACH FOR THE CULTURE OF FATHEAD MINNOWS, PIMEPHALES PROMELAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas) are routinely cultured for use in aquatic toxicology studies. Most culture systems consist of a series of 4 to 30 individual tanks with 16 - 18 fish (2 males and 14-16 females) in each tank. The new mass culture system consists of six 50 gal...

  12. A New Approach for the Laboratory Culture of the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas) are routinely cultured for use in aquatic toxicology studies. Most culture systems consist of a series of 4 to 30 individual tanks with a varied number of breeding pairs in each tank. A new mass culture system described here consists of six ...

  13. Culture brokerage strategies in diabetes education.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina K; Uz, Sharon W; Hinton, Ivora; Williams, Ishan; Jones, Randy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the elements of culture brokerage as applied in a recent educational pilot study among rural African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Culture Brokerage is a nursing intervention consisting of mediation between the traditional health beliefs and practices of a patient's culture and the health care system. The intervention of Culture Brokerage holds particular relevance for clinicians who work with chronically ill patients, including those with diabetes. Diabetes prevalence rates continue to rise with alarming swiftness, affecting people of all age groups and ethnicities. The burden of disease, however, disproportionately falls on ethnic minority groups, including African Americans. Notable health disparities in the prevalence and long-term complications of diabetes warrant the attention of health care professionals. One way in which public health nurses can address these disparities is to apply strategies of culture brokerage.

  14. Charting the 7 c's of cultural change affecting foreign nurses: competency, communication, consistency, cooperation, customs, conformity and courage.

    PubMed

    Parrone, Joyce; Sedrl, Darlene; Donaubauer, Carolyn; Phillips, Marge; Miller, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Eighty-two percent of practicing RNs are located in metropolitan areas in which the predominant employment setting is the hospital according to the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (Services, 2000). However, despite current trends toward moderate increased enrollment in nursing schools, a 2001American Hospital Survey (AHA) among 715 member hospitals revealed that 126,000 registered nurse positions across America remain unfilled. As a result, hospitals have adopted creative solutions to ease the nursing shortage. One creative solution is to import foreign nurses. According to the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools (CGFNS) many come from the Philippines, are single, female and between 23-27 years of age. The foreign nurse will encounter many barriers and practice problems no matter his/her level of skill. This article explores seven areas of clinical competency that nurses from the Philippines will encounter and must surmount as well as some of the implications for nursing practice that veteran and newly graduated nurses might want to be aware of when working with foreign nurses.

  15. Invited Comments: National Culture and Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    1987-01-01

    Comments on the cross-cultural research reported in the two preceding articles on comparisons of a German and American school and Dutch and Israeli teachers. Supports cross-national comparisons of school culture as an enlightening element of school reform. (LHW)

  16. Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christine Ballengee

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a schoolwide unit, organized around the ballad of John Henry, that integrated visual art, music, dance, and drama with ecological issues, Mountain Cultural heritage, and labor history. Gives background information on the Mountain Culture and the story of John Henry, while also discussing the students' reactions and interpretations…

  17. Living with Ambiguity: Toward Culture Exploration in Adult Second-Language Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Roumiana

    2001-01-01

    Outlines an approach to cultural instruction in adult second language education called "culture exploration," which calls for the recognition of ambiguity embedded in cross-cultural encounters. Culture exploration consists of employing techniques of ethnographic participant observation in and outside the classroom and holding reflective,…

  18. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  19. Consistent cortical reconstruction and multi-atlas brain segmentation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yuankai; Plassard, Andrew J; Carass, Aaron; Resnick, Susan M; Pham, Dzung L; Prince, Jerry L; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-09-01

    Whole brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction are two essential techniques for investigating the human brain. Spatial inconsistences, which can hinder further integrated analyses of brain structure, can result due to these two tasks typically being conducted independently of each other. FreeSurfer obtains self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces. It starts with subcortical segmentation, then carries out cortical surface reconstruction, and ends with cortical segmentation and labeling. However, this "segmentation to surface to parcellation" strategy has shown limitations in various cohorts such as older populations with large ventricles. In this work, we propose a novel "multi-atlas segmentation to surface" method called Multi-atlas CRUISE (MaCRUISE), which achieves self-consistent whole brain segmentations and cortical surfaces by combining multi-atlas segmentation with the cortical reconstruction method CRUISE. A modification called MaCRUISE(+) is designed to perform well when white matter lesions are present. Comparing to the benchmarks CRUISE and FreeSurfer, the surface accuracy of MaCRUISE and MaCRUISE(+) is validated using two independent datasets with expertly placed cortical landmarks. A third independent dataset with expertly delineated volumetric labels is employed to compare segmentation performance. Finally, 200MR volumetric images from an older adult sample are used to assess the robustness of MaCRUISE and FreeSurfer. The advantages of MaCRUISE are: (1) MaCRUISE constructs self-consistent voxelwise segmentations and cortical surfaces, while MaCRUISE(+) is robust to white matter pathology. (2) MaCRUISE achieves more accurate whole brain segmentations than independently conducting the multi-atlas segmentation. (3) MaCRUISE is comparable in accuracy to FreeSurfer (when FreeSurfer does not exhibit global failures) while achieving greater robustness across an older adult population. MaCRUISE has been made freely

  20. PICACS: self-consistent modelling of galaxy cluster scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Physically motivated, Internally Consistent Analysis of Cluster Scaling (PICACS), a detailed model of scaling relations between galaxy cluster masses and their observable properties. This model can be used to constrain simultaneously the form, scatter (including its covariance) and evolution of the scaling relations, as well as the masses of the individual clusters. In this framework, scaling relations between observables (such as that between X-ray luminosity and temperature) are modelled explicitly in terms of the fundamental mass-observable scaling relations, and so are fully constrained without being fit directly. We apply the PICACS model to two observational data sets, and show that it performs as well as traditional regression methods for simply measuring individual scaling relation parameters, but reveals additional information on the processes that shape the relations while providing self-consistent mass constraints. Our analysis suggests that the observed combination of slopes of the scaling relations can be described by a deficit of gas in low-mass clusters that is compensated for by elevated gas temperatures, such that the total thermal energy of the gas in a cluster of given mass remains close to self-similar expectations. This is interpreted as the result of AGN feedback removing low entropy gas from low-mass systems, while heating the remaining gas. We deconstruct the luminosity-temperature (L-T) relation and show that its steepening compared to self-similar expectations can be explained solely by this combination of gas depletion and heating in low-mass systems, without any additional contribution from a mass dependence of the gas structure. Finally, we demonstrate that a self-consistent analysis of the scaling relations leads to an expectation of self-similar evolution of the L-T relation that is significantly weaker than is commonly assumed.

  1. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  2. Consistency of EEG source localization and connectivity estimates.

    PubMed

    Mahjoory, Keyvan; Nikulin, Vadim V; Botrel, Loïc; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Fato, Marco M; Haufe, Stefan

    2017-03-12

    As the EEG inverse problem does not have a unique solution, the sources reconstructed from EEG and their connectivity properties depend on forward and inverse modeling parameters such as the choice of an anatomical template and electrical model, prior assumptions on the sources, and further implementational details. In order to use source connectivity analysis as a reliable research tool, there is a need for stability across a wider range of standard estimation routines. Using resting state EEG recordings of N=65 participants acquired within two studies, we present the first comprehensive assessment of the consistency of EEG source localization and functional/effective connectivity metrics across two anatomical templates (ICBM152 and Colin27), three electrical models (BEM, FEM and spherical harmonics expansions), three inverse methods (WMNE, eLORETA and LCMV), and three software implementations (Brainstorm, Fieldtrip and our own toolbox). Source localizations were found to be more stable across reconstruction pipelines than subsequent estimations of functional connectivity, while effective connectivity estimates where the least consistent. All results were relatively unaffected by the choice of the electrical head model, while the choice of the inverse method and source imaging package induced a considerable variability. In particular, a relatively strong difference was found between LCMV beamformer solutions on one hand and eLORETA/WMNE distributed inverse solutions on the other hand. We also observed a gradual decrease of consistency when results are compared between studies, within individual participants, and between individual participants. In order to provide reliable findings in the face of the observed variability, additional simulations involving interacting brain sources are required. Meanwhile, we encourage verification of the obtained results using more than one source imaging procedure.

  3. Consistency and sealing of advanced bipolar tissue sealers

    PubMed Central

    Chekan, Edward G; Davison, Mark A; Singleton, David W; Mennone, John Z; Hinoul, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate two commonly used advanced bipolar devices (ENSEAL® G2 Tissue Sealers and LigaSure™ Blunt Tip) for compression uniformity, vessel sealing strength, and consistency in bench-top analyses. Methods Compression analysis was performed with a foam pad/sensor apparatus inserted between closed jaws of the instruments. Average pressures (psi) were recorded across the entire inside surface of the jaws, and over the distal one-third of jaws. To test vessel sealing strength, ex vivo pig carotid arteries were sealed and transected and left and right (sealed) halves of vessels were subjected to burst pressure testing. The maximum bursting pressures of each half of vessels were averaged to obtain single data points for analysis. The absence or presence of tissue sticking to device jaws was noted for each transected vessel. Results Statistically higher average compression values were found for ENSEAL® instruments (curved jaw and straight jaw) compared to LigaSure™, P<0.05. Moreover, the ENSEAL® devices retained full compression at the distal end of jaws. Significantly higher and more consistent median burst pressures were noted for ENSEAL® devices relative to LigaSure™ through 52 firings of each device (P<0.05). LigaSure™ showed a significant reduction in median burst pressure for the final three firings (cycles 50–52) versus the first three firings (cycles 1–3), P=0.027. Tissue sticking was noted for 1.39% and 13.3% of vessels transected with ENSEAL® and LigaSure™, respectively. Conclusion In bench-top testing, ENSEAL® G2 sealers produced more uniform compression, stronger and more consistent vessel sealing, and reduced tissue sticking relative to LigaSure™. PMID:25945070

  4. VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREESTORY REINFORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS CONSISTING OF A THREE-STORY REINFORCED CONCRETE FACTORY WITH A SMALLER ONE-STORY LOADING DOCK AND ANOTHER ONE-STORY BRICK AND STEEL BUILDING ON THE EAST FACADE. THE THREE-STORY BUILDING HAS VERTICAL METAL PANELING ON THE UPPER STORY. THE ENTIRE COMPLEX IS PAINTED PINK WITH MUCH DAMAGE TO THE EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING ON THE SOUTH SIDE. (Duplicate color view of HAER MI-340-1) - American Can Company, 1400 Trombly Avenue, Detroit, MI

  5. Simplified Models for Dark Matter Face their Consistent Completions

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, Dorival; Machado, Pedro N.; No, Jose Miguel

    2016-11-14

    Simplified dark matter models have been recently advocated as a powerful tool to exploit the complementarity between dark matter direct detection, indirect detection and LHC experimental probes. Focusing on pseudoscalar mediators between the dark and visible sectors, we show that the simplified dark matter model phenomenology departs significantly from that of consistent ${SU(2)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times U(1)_{\\mathrm{Y}}}$ gauge invariant completions. We discuss the key physics simplified models fail to capture, and its impact on LHC searches. Notably, we show that resonant mono-Z searches provide competitive sensitivities to standard mono-jet analyses at $13$ TeV LHC.

  6. Consistent Initial Conditions for the DNS of Compressible Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.; Blaisdell, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    Relationships between diverse thermodynamic quantities appropriate to weakly compressible turbulence are derived. It is shown that for turbulence of a finite turbulent Mach number there is a finite element of compressibility. A methodology for generating initial conditions for the fluctuating pressure, density and dilatational velocity is given which is consistent with finite Mach number effects. Use of these initial conditions gives rise to a smooth development of the flow, in contrast to cases in which these fields are specified arbitrarily or set to zero. Comparisons of the effect of different types of initial conditions are made using direct numerical simulation of decaying isotropic turbulence.

  7. Consistency of Self-Reported Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Iverson, Grant L; Silverberg, Noah D; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Maxwell, Bruce; Berkner, Paul D

    2017-01-15

    Relying on self-reported concussion injury history is common in both clinical care and research. However, young athletes may not provide consistent medical information. To date, little is known about the reliability of self-reported concussion history in high school students. This study examined whether student athletes reported their lifetime history of concussions consistently over time. Self-reported concussion history was examined in 4792 student athletes (ages 13-18) from Maine who completed a preseason health survey on two occasions (median re-test interval = 23.7 months; standard deviation = 7.3; interquartile range = 12.4-24.5). Consistency of self-reported concussion history was determined by differences in the number of concussions reported during the second survey. Inconsistent concussion history was defined primarily by a decrease in the number of lifetime concussions reported at the second testing, compared with at the first testing. The majority of the sample (80.3%) reported no change in the number of concussions between the two baseline assessments. A minority (15.9%; n = 763) reported more concussions during the second assessment. Only 3.8% (n = 181) of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories, defined as fewer concussions at the second assessment. Boys provided inconsistent concussion histories a little more frequently, compared with girls (5.3% and 2.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, athletes with self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provided inconsistent concussion histories somewhat more frequently, compared with those without ADHD (7.8% and 3.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Of the athletes with inconsistent concussion histories, greater degree of inconsistency was associated with a greater number of concussions initially reported at baseline (rs = 0.54; p < 0.001). Only a small proportion of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories. Male

  8. Brief report: consistency of search engine rankings for autism websites.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Naples, Adam; Steinhoff, Timothy; Halpern, Jason; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-06-01

    The World Wide Web is one of the most common methods used by parents to find information on autism spectrum disorders and most consumers find information through search engines such as Google or Bing. However, little is known about how the search engines operate or the consistency of the results that are returned over time. This study presents the results of analyses of searches from 2009, 2010, and 2011 for information on autism. We found that over time, consumers are likely to have different search experiences yielding different results, and we urge consumers to use caution when using the World Wide Web to obtain information on autism.

  9. Threshold-Logic Devices Consisting of Subthreshold CMOS Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Taichi; Hirose, Tetsuya; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    A threshold-logic gate device consisting of subthreshold MOSFET circuits is proposed. The gate device performs threshold-logic operation, using the technique of current-mode addition and subtraction. Sample digital subsystems, i.e., adders and morphological operation cells based on threshold logic, are designed using the gate devices, and their operations are confirmed by computer simulation. The device has a simple structure and operates at low power dissipation, so it is suitable for constructing cell-based, parallel processing LSIs such as cellular-automaton and neural-network LSIs.

  10. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  11. On consistency of hydrodynamic approximation for chiral media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdoshkin, A.; Kirilin, V. P.; Sadofyev, A. V.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    We consider chiral liquids, that is liquids consisting of massless fermions and right-left asymmetric. In such media, one expects existence of electromagnetic current flowing along an external magnetic field, associated with the chiral anomaly. The current is predicted to be dissipation-free. We consider dynamics of chiral liquids, concentrating on the issues of possible instabilities and infrared sensitivity. Instabilities arise, generally speaking, already in the limit of vanishing electromagnetic constant, αel → 0. In particular, liquids with non-vanishing chiral chemical potential might decay into right-left asymmetric states containing vortices.

  12. Numerical Method and Analysis of Consistency for Electrodiffusion Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Danielewski, M.; Lewenstam, A.

    2007-12-01

    Numerical procedure based on method of lines for time-dependent electrodiffusion transport is developed. Finite difference space discretization with suitably selected weights based on a non-uniform grid is applied. Consistency of this method and the method put forward by Brumleve and Buck are analyzed and compared. The resulting stiff system of ODEs is effectively solved using the Radau IIa integrator. The applications to selected electrochemical systems: liquid junction, bi-ionic case and fused salts have been tested. Results for ion-selective electrodes are demonstrated.

  13. Emergent Dynamics of a Thermodynamically Consistent Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Ruggeri, Tommaso

    2017-03-01

    We present a thermodynamically consistent particle (TCP) model motivated by the theory of multi-temperature mixture of fluids in the case of spatially homogeneous processes. The proposed model incorporates the Cucker-Smale (C-S) type flocking model as its isothermal approximation. However, it is more complex than the C-S model, because the mutual interactions are not only " mechanical" but are also affected by the "temperature effect" as individual particles may exhibit distinct internal energies. We develop a framework for asymptotic weak and strong flocking in the context of the proposed model.

  14. Beta-decay rates: towards a self-consistent approach

    SciTech Connect

    Borzov, I. N.; Goriely, S.; Pearson, J. M.

    1998-02-15

    An approximation to a self-consistent model of the ground state properties and spin-isospin excitations of neutron-rich nuclides is outlined. The structure of the Gamow-Teller strength functions in stable nuclei and short-lived nuclides undergoing high-energy {beta}-decay is discussed. The results of large-scale calculations of the {beta}-decay rates for spherical and slightly deformed nuclides of relevance to the r-process are analysed and compared with the results of existing global calculations.

  15. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  16. Self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Baimbetov, F. B.; Davletov, A. E.

    2011-01-15

    A simple renormalization theory of plasma particle interactions is proposed. It primarily stems from generic properties of equilibrium distribution functions and allows one to obtain the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for an effective interaction potential of two chosen particles in the presence of a third one. The same equation is then strictly derived from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for equilibrium distribution functions in the pair correlation approximation. This enables one to construct a self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas, correctly accounting for the close interrelation of charged and neutral components thereof. Minimization of the system free energy provides ionization equilibrium and, thus, permits one to study the plasma composition in a wide range of its parameters. Unlike standard chemical models, the proposed one allows one to study the system correlation functions and thereby to obtain an equation of state which agrees well with exact results of quantum-mechanical activity expansions. It is shown that the plasma and neutral components are strongly interrelated, which results in the short-range order formation in the corresponding subsystem. The mathematical form of the results obtained enables one to both firmly establish this fact and to determine a characteristic length of the structure formation. Since the cornerstone of the proposed self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is an effective pairwise interaction potential, it immediately provides quite an efficient calculation scheme not only for thermodynamical functions but for transport coefficients as well.

  17. Metrics for Assessing Cytoskeletal Orientational Correlations and Consistency

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Nancy K.; Eagleson, Mackenzie A.; Baldo Jr., Danny B.; Parker, Kevin Kit; Grosberg, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In biology, organization at multiple scales potentiates biological function. Current advances in staining and imaging of biological tissues provide a wealth of data, but there are few metrics to quantitatively describe these findings. In particular there is a need for a metric that would characterize the correlation and consistency of orientation of different biological constructs within a tissue. We aimed to create such a metric and to demonstrate its use with images of cardiac tissues. The co-orientational order parameter (COOP) was based on the mathematical framework of a classical parameter, the orientational order parameter (OOP). Theorems were proven to illustrate the properties and boundaries of the COOP, which was then applied to both synthetic and experimental data. We showed the COOP to be useful for quantifying the correlation of orientation of constructs such as actin filaments and sarcomeric Z-lines. As expected, cardiac tissues showed perfect correlation between actin filaments and Z-lines. We also demonstrated the use of COOP to quantify the consistency of construct orientation within cells of the same shape. The COOP provides a quantitative tool to characterize tissues beyond co-localization or single construct orientation distribution. In the future, this new parameter could be used to represent the quantitative changes during maturation of cardiac tissue, pathological malformation, and other processes. PMID:25849553

  18. Temporal consistent depth map upscaling for 3DTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Sjöström, Mârten; Olsson, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing success of three-dimensional (3D) cinema fuels increasing efforts to spread the commercial success of 3D to new markets. The possibilities of a convincing 3D experience at home, such as three-dimensional television (3DTV), has generated a great deal of interest within the research and standardization community. A central issue for 3DTV is the creation and representation of 3D content. Acquiring scene depth information is a fundamental task in computer vision, yet complex and error-prone. Dedicated range sensors, such as the Time­ of-Flight camera (ToF), can simplify the scene depth capture process and overcome shortcomings of traditional solutions, such as active or passive stereo analysis. Admittedly, currently available ToF sensors deliver only a limited spatial resolution. However, sophisticated depth upscaling approaches use texture information to match depth and video resolution. At Electronic Imaging 2012 we proposed an upscaling routine based on error energy minimization, weighted with edge information from an accompanying video source. In this article we develop our algorithm further. By adding temporal consistency constraints to the upscaling process, we reduce disturbing depth jumps and flickering artifacts in the final 3DTV content. Temporal consistency in depth maps enhances the 3D experience, leading to a wider acceptance of 3D media content. More content in better quality can boost the commercial success of 3DTV.

  19. SELF-CONSISTENT SIZE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF COLLISIONAL CASCADES

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke E. E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu

    2012-03-10

    The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. Here we relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan and Sari can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies for the Kuiper belt, the asteroid belt, and extrasolar debris disks may constrain the mass and number of large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies' internal strengths.

  20. Consistency results for the ROC curves of fused classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkaas, Kristopher S.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2004-08-01

    The U.S. Air Force is researching the fusion of multiple sensors and classifiers. Given a finite collection of classifiers to be fused one seeks a new classifier with improved performance. An established performance quantifier is the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. This curve allows one to view the probability of detection versus probability of false alarm in one graph. In reality only finite data is available so only an approximate ROC curve can be constructed. Previous research shows that one does not have to perform an experiment for this new fused classifier to determine its ROC curve. If the ROC curve for each individual classifier has been determined, then formulas for the ROC curve of the fused classifier exist for certain fusion rules. This will be an enormous saving in time and money since the performance of many fused classifiers will be determined without having to perform tests on each one. But, again, these will be approximate ROC curves, since they are based on finite data. We show that if the individual approximate ROC curves are consistent then the approximate ROC curve for the fused classifier is also consistent under certain circumstances. We give the details for these circumstances, as well as some examples related to sensor fusion.

  1. Self-consistent MPI-IO performance requirements and expectations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W. D.; Kimpe, D.; Ross, R.; Thakur, R.; Traff, J. L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois; Katholieke Univ. Leuven; NEC Laboratories Europe

    2008-01-01

    We recently introduced the idea of self-consistent performance requirements for MPI communication. Such requirements provide a means to ensure consistent behavior of an MPI library, thereby ensuring a degree of performance portability by making it unnecessary for a user to perform implementation-dependent optimizations by hand. For the collective operations in particular, a large number of such rules could sensibly be formulated, without making hidden assumptions about the underlying communication system or otherwise constraining the MPI implementation. In this paper, we extend this idea to the realm of parallel I/O (MPI-IO), where the issues are far more subtle. In particular, it is not always possible to specify performance requirements without making assumptions about the implementation or without a priori knowledge of the I/O access pattern. For such cases, we introduce the notion of performance expectations, which specify the desired behavior for good implementations of MPI-IO. I/O performance requirements as well as expectations could be automatically checked by an appropriate benchmarking tool.

  2. DIRAC data management: consistency, integrity and coherence of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargiotti, M.; Smith, A. C.

    2008-07-01

    The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) relies on both WLCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Project) Data Management services (LCG File Catalogues, Storage Resource Managers and File Transfer System (FTS)) and LHCb specific components (Bookkeeping database). The complexity of both the DMS and its interactions with numerous WLCG components as well as the instability of facilities concerned, has frequently turned into unexpected problems in data moving and/or data registration, preventing a coherent picture of datasets. Several developments in LHCb have been made in order to avoid data corruptions, missing data incoherence and inconsistences among Catalogues and physical storage both through safety measures at data management level (failover mechanism, check sums, roll back mechanism) and extensive background checks. In this paper all the tools developed for checking data integrity and consistency will be presented as well as a Storage Usage agent, whose aim is to produce an up-to-date accounting of all LHCb storage usage using the LFC mirror database. The goal of this activity is the development of a generic tool suite able to categorize, analyze and systematically cure the disparate problems affecting the DMS in order to maintain a consistent picture of the main catalogues (Bookkeeping and LFC) and the Storage Elements.

  3. Self-Consistent Superthermal Electron Effects on Plasmaspheric Refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.; Moore, T. E.; Guiter, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of self-consistently including superthermal electrons in the definition of the ambipolar electric field are investigated for the case of plasmaspheric refilling after a geomagnetic storm. By using the total electron population in the hydrodynamic equations, a method for incorporating superthermal electron parameters in the electric field and electron temperature calculation is developed. Also, the ambipolar electric field is included in the kinetic equation for the superthermal electrons through a change of variables using the total energy and the first adiabatic invariant. Calculations based on these changes are performed by coupling time-dependent models of the thermal plasma and superthermal electrons. Results from this treatment of the electric field and the self-consistent development of the solution are discussed in detail. Specifically, there is a decreased thermal electron density in the plasmasphere during the first few minutes of refilling, a slightly accelerated proton shock front, and a decreased superthermal electron flux due to the deceleration by the electric field. The timescales of plasmaspheric refilling are discussed and determined to be somewhat shorter than previously calculated for the thermal plasma and superthermal electron population due to the effects of the field-aligned potential.

  4. Self-consistent modeling of multiscale gyrokinetics and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey; Lodestro, Lynda; Told, Daniel; Jenko, Frank

    2016-10-01

    In the core of tokamak plasmas, a separation of timescales between turbulence and transport makes direct simulation of both processes computationally expensive. A workable, practical method to exploit the separation of timescales will be a key component in enabling the self-consistent solution of macroscopic profiles of density and temperature. We report on progress to implement the LoDestro scheme coupled with the gyrokinetic code GENE to perform for the first time coupled turbulence and transport simulations using a global gyrokinetic code. One of the advantages of the LoDestro scheme, which is essentially a method of solving an implicitly advanced nonlinear transport problem, is that it does not use Newton iteration and hence avoids difficulties that arise from calculating Jacobians or Jacobian-vector products in the presence of noisy fluxes. Instead, the implicit timestep equation is solved with an iteration scheme by representing the turbulent flux as the sum of diffusive and convective pieces, after which Picard iteration is used to converge to the self-consistent solution. Preliminary results will be presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Consistent generation of magnetic fields in axion inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Namba, Ryo; Tada, Yuichiro; Takeda, Naoyuki; Tashiro, Hiroyuki E-mail: ryo.namba@ipmu.jp E-mail: takedan@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing evidence for the existence of magnetic fields in the extra-galactic regions, while the attempt to associate their origin with the inflationary epoch alone has been found extremely challenging. We therefore take into account the consistent post-inflationary evolution of the magnetic fields that are originated from vacuum fluctuations during inflation. In the model of our interest, the electromagnetic (EM) field is coupled to a pseudo-scalar inflaton φ through the characteristic term φ  F-tilde  F, breaking the conformal invariance. This interaction dynamically breaks the parity and enables a continuous production of only one of the polarization states of the EM field through tachyonic instability. The produced magnetic fields are thus helical. We find that the dominant contribution to the observed magnetic fields in this model comes from the modes that leave the horizon near the end of inflation, further enhanced by the tachyonic instability right after the end of inflation. The EM field is subsequently amplified by parametric resonance during the period of inflaton oscillation. Once the thermal plasma is formed (reheating), the produced helical magnetic fields undergo a turbulent process called inverse cascade, which shifts their peak correlation scales from smaller to larger scales. We consistently take all these effects into account within the regime where the perturbation of φ is negligible and obtain B{sub eff} ∼ 10{sup −19} G, indicating the necessity of additional mechanisms to accommodate the observations.

  6. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  7. A formulation of consistent particle hydrodynamics in strong form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoko; Makino, Junichiro

    2017-03-01

    In fluid dynamical simulations in astrophysics, large deformations are common and surface tracking is sometimes necessary. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used in many such simulations. Recently, however, it has been shown that SPH cannot handle contact discontinuities or free surfaces accurately. There are several reasons for this problem. The first one is that SPH requires that the density is continuous and differentiable. The second one is that SPH does not have consistency, and thus the accuracy is of the zeroth-order in space. In addition, we cannot express accurate boundary conditions with SPH. In this paper, we propose a novel, high-order scheme for particle-based hydrodynamics of compressible fluid. Our method is based on a kernel-weighted high-order fitting polynomial for intensive variables. With this approach, we can construct a scheme which solves all of the three problems described above. For shock capturing, we use a tensor form of von Neumann-Richtmyer artificial viscosity. We have applied our method to many test problems and obtained excellent results. Our method is not conservative, since particles do not have mass or energy, but only their densities. However, because of the Lagrangian nature of our scheme, the violation of the conservation laws turned out to be small. We name this method Consistent Particle Hydrodynamics in Strong Form (CPHSF).

  8. Self-consistent theory of rupture by progressive diffuse damage.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2001-06-01

    We analyze a self-consistent theory of crack growth controlled by a cumulative damage variable d(t) dependent on stress history, in the quasistatic regime where the sound wave velocity is taken as infinite. Depending upon the damage exponent m, which controls the rate of damage dd/dt~sigma(m) as a function of local stress sigma, we find two regimes. For 0consistent theory which neglects the dependence of stress on damage, we apply the functional renormalization method of Yukalov and Gluzman and find that divergences are replaced by singularities with exponents in agreement with those found in acoustic emission experiments. For m>/=2, the rupture dynamics is not defined without the introduction of a regularizing scheme. We investigate three regularization schemes involving, respectively, a saturation of damage, a minimum distance of approach to the crack tip, and a fixed stress maximum. In the first and third schemes, the finite-time singularity is replaced by a crack dynamics defined for all times but which is controlled by either the existence of a microscopic scale at which the stress is regularized or by the maximum sustainable stress. In the second scheme, a finite-time singularity is again found. In the first two schemes within this regime m>/=2, the theory has no continuous limit.

  9. Effect of irradiation on Brazilian honeys' consistency and their acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, A. H.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Contamination of bee products may occur during packing or even during the process of collection. Gamma irradiation was found to decrease the number of bacteria and fungi. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma irradiation on viscosity which is an important property of honey. In this work the viscosity of two varieties of Brazilian honey was measured when they were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy. The viscosity was measured at four temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) for both samples and compared with control and within the doses. The sensory evaluation was carried on for the parameters color, odor, taste and consistency, using a 9-point hedonic scale. All the data were treated with a statistical tool (Statistica 5.1, StatSoft, 1998). The viscosity was not impaired significantly by gamma irradiation in doses 5 and 10 kGy ( p<0.05). The effect of gamma irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, color, taste and consistency) is presented. The taste for Parana type indicated a significant difference among irradiation doses ( p<0.05) but the higher value was for 5 kGy dose, demonstrating the acceptability for this case. The Organic honey presented the taste parameter for 10 kGy, significantly lower than the control mean but it did not differ significantly from the 5 kGy value.

  10. Feeling Expression Using Avatars and Its Consistency for Subjective Annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fuyuko; Sasaki, Yasunari; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miki, Mitsunori

    Consumer Generated Media(CGM) is growing rapidly and the amount of content is increasing. However, it is often difficult for users to extract important contents and the existence of contents recording their experiences can easily be forgotten. As there are no methods or systems to indicate the subjective value of the contents or ways to reuse them, subjective annotation appending subjectivity, such as feelings and intentions, to contents is needed. Representation of subjectivity depends on not only verbal expression, but also nonverbal expression. Linguistically expressed annotation, typified by collaborative tagging in social bookmarking systems, has come into widespread use, but there is no system of nonverbally expressed annotation on the web. We propose the utilization of controllable avatars as a means of nonverbal expression of subjectivity, and confirmed the consistency of feelings elicited by avatars over time for an individual and in a group. In addition, we compared the expressiveness and ease of subjective annotation between collaborative tagging and controllable avatars. The result indicates that the feelings evoked by avatars are consistent in both cases, and using controllable avatars is easier than collaborative tagging for representing feelings elicited by contents that do not express meaning, such as photos.

  11. Self-consistent conversion of a viscous fluid to particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Denes; Wolff, Zack

    2017-02-01

    Comparison of hydrodynamic and "hybrid" hydrodynamics+transport calculations with heavy-ion data inevitably requires the conversion of the fluid to particles. For dissipative fluids the conversion is ambiguous without additional theory input complementing hydrodynamics. We obtain self-consistent shear viscous phase-space corrections from linearized Boltzmann transport theory for a gas of hadrons. These corrections depend on the particle species, and incorporating them in Cooper-Frye freeze-out affects identified particle observables. For example, with additive quark model cross sections, proton elliptic flow is larger than pion elliptic flow at moderately high pT in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. This is in contrast to Cooper-Frye freeze-out with the commonly used "democratic Grad" ansatz that assumes no species dependence. Various analytic and numerical results are also presented for massless and massive two-component mixtures to better elucidate how species dependence arises. For convenient inclusion in pure hydrodynamic and hybrid calculations, Appendix G contains self-consistent viscous corrections for each species both in tabulated and parametrized form.

  12. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  13. Thermodynamic consistency and integral equations for the liquid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, F. E.; March, N. H.; Lamoen, D.

    2002-12-01

    Within an assumed pair potential framework, it has been generally accepted for a long time that far from the critical point the asymptotic form of the direct correlation function c(r) at large r is given by [-φ(r)/kBT]. Here φ(r) is the pair potential and kBT the thermal energy. Subsequently, Kumar, March, and Wasserman [Phys. Chem. Liquids 11, 271 (1982)] examined the condition for thermodynamic consistency between virial and compressibility equations of state. Their study, together with later work by Senatore, Rashid, and March [Phys. Chem. Liquids 16, 1 (1986)], resulted in a decomposition of c(r) into a potential part cp(r) given by Kumar et al. for all r and involving the pair function g(r) and its density derivative, plus a "collective" part cc(r), which must obey a simple sum rule to satisfy thermodynamic consistency. The more recent study of B. C. Eu and K. Rah [J. Chem. Phys. 3, 3327 (1999)] prompts us to bring their results into direct contact with the study of Kumar et al. The work of Eu and Rah gives a prominent place to the Mayer function f(r)=e(-[φ(r)/kBT]-1 which tends to -[φ(r)/kBT] as r→∞ for potentials tending to zero at infinity.

  14. Thermodynamic consistency and integral equations for the liquid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, F. E.; March, N. H.; Lamoen, D.

    Within an assumed pair potential framework, it has been generally accepted for a long time that far from the critical point the asymptotic form of the direct correlation function c(r) at large r is given by [- ϕ(r)/kBT]. Here ϕ(r) is the pair potential and kBT the thermal energy. Subsequently, Kumar, March, and Wasserman [Phys. Chem. Liquids 11, 271 (1982)] examined the condition for thermodynamic consistency between virial and compressibility equations of state. Their study, together with later work by Senatore, Rashid, and March [Phys. Chem. Liquids 16, 1 (1986)], resulted in a decomposition of c(r) into a potential part cp(r) given by Kumar et al. for all r and involving the pair function g(r) and its density derivative, plus a "collective" part cc(r), which must obey a simple Sum rule to satisfy thermodynamic consistency. The more recent study of B. C. Eu and K. Rah [J. Chem. Phys. 3, 3327 (1999)] prompts us to bring their results into direct contact with the study of Kumar et al. The work of Eu and Rah gives a prominent place to the Mayer function f(r) = e(-[ϕ(r) / kBT]-1 which tends to -[ϕ(r)/kBT] as r → ∞ for potentials tending to zero at infinity.

  15. Enhanced data consistency of a portable gait measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-I.; Chiang, Y. P.

    2013-11-01

    A gait measurement system is a useful tool for rehabilitation applications. Such a system is used to conduct gait experiments in large workplaces such as laboratories where gait measurement equipment can be permanently installed. However, a gait measurement system should be portable if it is to be used in clinics or community centers for aged people. In a portable gait measurement system, the workspace is limited and landmarks on a subject may not be visible to the cameras during experiments. Thus, we propose a virtual-marker function to obtain positions of unseen landmarks for maintaining data consistency. This work develops a portable clinical gait measurement system consisting of lightweight motion capture devices, force plates, and a walkway assembled from plywood boards. We evaluated the portable clinic gait system with 11 normal subjects in three consecutive days in a limited experimental space. Results of gait analysis based on the verification of within-day and between-day coefficients of multiple correlations show that the proposed portable gait system is reliable.

  16. Self-consistent perturbation theory for two dimensional twisted bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirodkar, Sharmila N.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    Theoretical modeling and ab-initio simulations of two dimensional heterostructures with arbitrary angles of rotation between layers involve unrealistically large and expensive calculations. To overcome this shortcoming, we develop a methodology for weakly interacting heterostructures that treats the effect of one layer on the other as perturbation, and restricts the calculations to their primitive cells. Thus, avoiding computationally expensive supercells. We start by approximating the interaction potential between the twisted bilayers to that of a hypothetical configuration (viz. ideally stacked untwisted layers), which produces band structures in reasonable agreement with full-scale ab-initio calculations for commensurate and twisted bilayers of graphene (Gr) and Gr/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures. We then self-consistently calculate the charge density and hence, interaction potential of the heterostructures. In this work, we test our model for bilayers of various combinations of Gr, h-BN and transition metal dichalcogenides, and discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the self-consistently calculated interaction potential. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

  17. Consistency of FMEA used in the validation of analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Oldenhof, M T; van Leeuwen, J F; Nauta, M J; de Kaste, D; Odekerken-Rombouts, Y M C F; Vredenbregt, M J; Weda, M; Barends, D M

    2011-02-20

    In order to explore the consistency of the outcome of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in the validation of analytical procedures, an FMEA was carried out by two different teams. The two teams applied two separate FMEAs to a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) analytical procedure used in the quality control of medicines. Each team was free to define their own ranking scales for the probability of severity (S), occurrence (O), and detection (D) of failure modes. We calculated Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs) and we identified the failure modes above the 90th percentile of RPN values as failure modes needing urgent corrective action; failure modes falling between the 75th and 90th percentile of RPN values were identified as failure modes needing necessary corrective action, respectively. Team 1 and Team 2 identified five and six failure modes needing urgent corrective action respectively, with two being commonly identified. Of the failure modes needing necessary corrective actions, about a third were commonly identified by both teams. These results show inconsistency in the outcome of the FMEA. To improve consistency, we recommend that FMEA is always carried out under the supervision of an experienced FMEA-facilitator and that the FMEA team has at least two members with competence in the analytical method to be validated. However, the FMEAs of both teams contained valuable information that was not identified by the other team, indicating that this inconsistency is not always a drawback.

  18. Consistency of captive giraffe behavior under two different management regimes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Meredith J

    2011-01-01

    Long-term animal behavior studies are sometimes conducted at a single site, leading to questions about whether effects are limited to animals in the same environment. Our ability to make general conclusions about behavior is improved when we can identify behaviors that are consistent across a range of environments. To extend Veasey and colleagues' ([1996b] Anim Welf 5:139-153) study, I compared not only activity budgets but also social behavior of an all-female group of giraffe at The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore (MZiB) to those previously observed in breeding groups at The San Diego Zoo's Wild Animal Park (SDZWAP; Bashaw et al. [2007] J Comp Psychol 121:46-53). Morning activity budgets and the maintenance of social relationships were consistent across groups. MZiB female giraffe interacted more frequently and the identity of animals that formed the strongest relationships was less predictable than at SDZWAP. Results support earlier findings that captive giraffe maintain social relationships and suggest that studies of giraffe social relationships and activity are generalizable across a range of captive conditions.

  19. Is scalar-tensor gravity consistent with polytropic stellar models?

    SciTech Connect

    Henttunen, K.; Vilja, I. E-mail: vilja@utu.fi

    2015-05-01

    We study the scalar field potential V(φ) in the scalar-tensor gravity with self-consistent polytropic stellar configurations. Without choosing a particular potential, we numerically derive the potential inside various stellar objects. We restrict the potential to conform to general relativity or to f(R) gravity inside and require the solution to arrive at SdS vacuum at the surface. The studied objects are required to obtain observationally valid masses and radii corresponding to solar type stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find that the resulting scalar-tensor potential V(φ) for the numerically derived polytrope that conforms to general relativity, in each object class, is highly dependent on the matter configuration as well as on the vacuum requirement at the boundary. As a result, every stellar configuration arrives at a potential V(φ) that is not consistent with the other stellar class potentials. Therefore, a general potential that conforms to all these polytropic stellar classes could not be found.

  20. Self-consistent viscous heating of rapidly compressed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Alejandro; Morgan, Brandon; Olson, Britton; Greenough, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Given turbulence subjected to infinitely rapid deformations, linear terms representing interactions between the mean flow and the turbulence dictate the flow evolution, whereas non-linear terms corresponding to turbulence-turbulence interactions are safely ignored. For rapidly deformed flows where the turbulence Reynolds number is not sufficiently large, viscous effects can't be neglected and tend to play a prominent role, as shown in Davidovits & Fisch (2016). For such a case, the rapid increase of viscosity in a plasma-as compared to the weaker scaling of viscosity in a fluid-leads to the sudden viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. As described in Davidovits & Fisch, increases in temperature caused by the direct compression of the plasma drive sufficiently large values of viscosity. We report on numerical simulations of turbulence where the increase in temperature is the result of both the direct compression (an inviscid mechanism) and the self-consistent viscous transfer of energy from the turbulent scales towards the thermal energy. A comparison between implicit large-eddy simulations against well-resolved direct numerical simulations is included to asses the effect of the numerical and subgrid-scale dissipation on the self-consistent viscous energy transfer. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Transport across nanogaps using self-consistent boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, D.; Kumar, R.

    2012-06-01

    Charge particle transport across nanogaps is studied theoretically within the Schrodinger-Poisson mean field framework. The determination of self-consistent boundary conditions across the gap forms the central theme in order to allow for realistic interface potentials (such as metal-vacuum) which are smooth at the boundary and do not abruptly assume a constant value at the interface. It is shown that a semiclassical expansion of the transmitted wavefunction leads to approximate but self consistent boundary conditions without assuming any specific form of the potential beyond the gap. Neglecting the exchange and correlation potentials, the quantum Child-Langmuir law is investigated. It is shown that at zero injection energy, the quantum limiting current density (Jc) is found to obey the local scaling law Jc ~ Vgα/D5-2α with the gap separation D and voltage Vg. The exponent α > 1.1 with α → 3/2 in the classical regime of small de Broglie wavelengths.

  2. Cortical orofacial motor representation: effect of diet consistency.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, L; Lee, J C; Sessle, B J

    2010-10-01

    Jaw and tongue motor alterations may occur following changes in food consistency, but whether such changes are associated with re-organization of motor representations within the facial sensorimotor cortex is unclear. We used intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recordings of evoked electromyographic responses to determine jaw (anterior digastric) and tongue (genioglossus) motor representations within the histologically defined face primary motor cortex (face-M1) and adjacent somatosensory cortex (face-S1) of rats fed hard (N = 6) or soft (N = 6) diet for 2 to 3 weeks. ICMS evoked jaw and tongue responses from an extensive area within the face-M1 and a smaller area within the face-S1. A significant contralateral predominance was reflected in the number and latency of ICMS-evoked jaw responses (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the hard- and soft-diet groups in jaw and tongue motor representations, suggesting that the rat's ability to adapt to changes in diet consistency may not be associated with significant neuroplasticity of sensorimotor cortex motor outputs.

  3. A consistent collinear triad approximation for operational wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. E.; Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Holthuijsen, L. H.

    2016-08-01

    In shallow water, the spectral evolution associated with energy transfers due to three-wave (or triad) interactions is important for the prediction of nearshore wave propagation and wave-driven dynamics. The numerical evaluation of these nonlinear interactions involves the evaluation of a weighted convolution integral in both frequency and directional space for each frequency-direction component in the wave field. For reasons of efficiency, operational wave models often rely on a so-called collinear approximation that assumes that energy is only exchanged between wave components travelling in the same direction (collinear propagation) to eliminate the directional convolution. In this work, we show that the collinear approximation as presently implemented in operational models is inconsistent. This causes energy transfers to become unbounded in the limit of unidirectional waves (narrow aperture), and results in the underestimation of energy transfers in short-crested wave conditions. We propose a modification to the collinear approximation to remove this inconsistency and to make it physically more realistic. Through comparison with laboratory observations and results from Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed modified collinear model is consistent, remains bounded, smoothly converges to the unidirectional limit, and is numerically more robust. Our results show that the modifications proposed here result in a consistent collinear approximation, which remains bounded and can provide an efficient approximation to model nonlinear triad effects in operational wave models.

  4. Consistent linguistic fuzzy preference relations method with ranking fuzzy numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan, Siti Amnah Mohd; Mohamad, Daud; Kamis, Nor Hanimah

    2014-12-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been developed to help decision makers in selecting the best criteria or alternatives from the options given. One of the well known methods in MCDM is the Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relation (CFPR) method, essentially utilizes a pairwise comparison approach. This method was later improved to cater subjectivity in the data by using fuzzy set, known as the Consistent Linguistic Fuzzy Preference Relations (CLFPR). The CLFPR method uses the additive transitivity property in the evaluation of pairwise comparison matrices. However, the calculation involved is lengthy and cumbersome. To overcome this problem, a method of defuzzification was introduced by researchers. Nevertheless, the defuzzification process has a major setback where some information may lose due to the simplification process. In this paper, we propose a method of CLFPR that preserves the fuzzy numbers form throughout the process. In obtaining the desired ordering result, a method of ranking fuzzy numbers is utilized in the procedure. This improved procedure for CLFPR is implemented to a case study to verify its effectiveness. This method is useful for solving decision making problems and can be applied to many areas of applications.

  5. Exposing Image Forgery by Detecting Consistency of Shadow

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yongzhen; Qin, Fan; Min, Weidong; Zhang, Guiling

    2014-01-01

    We propose two tampered image detection methods based on consistency of shadow. The first method is based on texture consistency of shadow for the first kind of splicing image, in which the shadow as well as main body is copied and pasted from another image. The suspicious region including shadow and nonshadow is first selected. Then texture features of the shadow region and the nonshadow region are extracted. Last, correlation function is used to measure the similarity of the two texture features. By comparing the similarity, we can judge whether the image is tampered. Due to the failure in detecting the second kind of splicing image, in which main body, its shadow, and surrounding regions are copied and pasted from another image, another method based on strength of light source of shadows is proposed. The two suspicious shadow regions are first selected. Then an efficient method is used to estimate the strength of light source of shadow. Last, the similarity of strength of light source of two shadows is measured by correlation function. By combining the two methods, we can detect forged image with shadows. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods are effective despite using simplified model compared with the existing methods. PMID:24757419

  6. Exposing image forgery by detecting consistency of shadow.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yongzhen; Qin, Fan; Min, Weidong; Zhang, Guiling

    2014-01-01

    We propose two tampered image detection methods based on consistency of shadow. The first method is based on texture consistency of shadow for the first kind of splicing image, in which the shadow as well as main body is copied and pasted from another image. The suspicious region including shadow and nonshadow is first selected. Then texture features of the shadow region and the nonshadow region are extracted. Last, correlation function is used to measure the similarity of the two texture features. By comparing the similarity, we can judge whether the image is tampered. Due to the failure in detecting the second kind of splicing image, in which main body, its shadow, and surrounding regions are copied and pasted from another image, another method based on strength of light source of shadows is proposed. The two suspicious shadow regions are first selected. Then an efficient method is used to estimate the strength of light source of shadow. Last, the similarity of strength of light source of two shadows is measured by correlation function. By combining the two methods, we can detect forged image with shadows. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods are effective despite using simplified model compared with the existing methods.

  7. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition.

    PubMed

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-14

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition.

  8. No globally consistent effect of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar traits.

    PubMed

    Koele, Nina; Dickie, Ian A; Oleksyn, Jacek; Richardson, Sarah J; Reich, Peter B

    2012-11-01

    The concept that ectomycorrhizal plants have a particular foliar trait suite characterized by low foliar nutrients and high leaf mass per unit area (LMA) is widely accepted, but whether this trait suite can be generalized to all ectomycorrhizal clades is unclear. We identified 19 evolutionary clades of ectomycorrhizal plants and used a global leaf traits dataset comprising 11,466 samples across c. 3000 species to test whether there were consistent shifts in leaf nutrients or LMA with the evolution of ectomycorrhiza. There were no consistent effects of ectomycorrhizal status on foliar nutrients or LMA in the 17 ectomycorrhizal/non-ectomycorrhizal pairs for which we had sufficient data, with some ectomycorrhizal groups having higher and other groups lower nutrient status than non-ectomycorrhizal contrasts. Controlling for the woodiness of host species did not alter the results. Our findings suggest that the concepts of ectomycorrhizal plant trait suites should be re-examined to ensure that they are broadly reflective of mycorrhizal status across all evolutionary clades, rather than reflecting the traits of a few commonly studied groups, such as the Pinaceae and Fagales.

  9. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8° to 15' are consistent with noise, and show no evidence of cosmic microwave background structure. Including small but important corrections for unresolved-source residuals, we demonstrate agreement (measured by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ≤ ℓ ≤ 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ℓ range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013 results. We also present results based on the 2013 likelihood analysis showing consistency at the 0.35% between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz power spectra. We analyse calibration procedures and beams to determine what fraction of these differences can be accounted for by known approximations or systematicerrors that could be controlled even better in the future, reducing uncertainties still further. Several possible small improvements are described

  10. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  11. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  12. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003720.htm Pericardial fluid culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pericardial fluid culture is a test performed on a sample of ...

  13. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  14. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF ... In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23d ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  16. Cross-Cultural Nongeneralizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1985-01-01

    This synthesis of the previous articles concludes that cultural considerations are important for effective evaluation practice. Culturally sensitive and situationally responsive evaluation practices can contribute to international understanding. (BS)

  17. Culture-negative endocarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the lining of one or more heart valves, but no endocarditis-causing germs can be found ... the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves. Alternative Names Endocarditis (culture-negative) Images Culture-negative ...

  18. Bile culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract. A specimen of bile is placed in culture media and observed for growth of microorganisms. If there ... no infection. If there is growth in the culture media, the growth is then isolated and identified to ...

  19. Cultural changes in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, Bill

    1991-01-01

    Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  20. Assessment of the Consistency among Precipitation Products over Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghebreyesus, Dawit; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-04-01

    This study addresses the analysis of the consistency among global precipitation products over arid regions. First, precipitation products were examined against in situ observations from the UAE network. Then, the consistency among the different products was assessed regionally over the Arabian Peninsula and the Sahara Desert. Four distinct independently-derived precipitation products, namely, Global Precipitation Climate Center (GPCC), Willmott-Matsuura 2001 (WM), Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), and CPC Morphing (CMORPH) were examined. Over the UAE, in situ monthly observations from 6 stations over a time period of 11 years, from 2000 to 2010 inclusive, were used. The correlation with in situ observations, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Relative Bias (rBIAS) were calculated to evaluate the precipitation products. The lowest areal averaged RMSE over all stations, ranging from 3.82mm to 9.98mm, was obtained with the GPCC indicating a higher agreement with in situ observations. The average RMSE of GPCC over the country was 6.18mm. However, the highest areal averaged RMSE, ranging from 9.44 to 19.52mm, was obtained with the WM product with average of 13.57mm. The results showed an overestimation of the observed rainfall values across all products with overall average of 42%. CMORPH product was found to be the most inconsistent products spatially across the UAE with rBIAS ranging from -47% in Al Ain to 372% in Dubai. The correlation with in situ observations was found to be higher with GPCC product ranging from 0.8450 to 0.9494. TRMM was second with an average of 0.8413, ranging from 0.7098 to 0.9248. Furthermore, Mean Relative Difference (MRD) was calculated to investigate the precision among the precipitation products. CMORPH was found to be inconsistent spatially being the lowest estimator for four stations (Adu Dhabi, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah) whereas being the highest estimator for the rest two stations (Dubai and Fujairah). Generally, the

  1. Do You Always Choose What You Like? Subtle Social Cues Increase Preference-Choice Consistency among Japanese But Not among Americans

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yukiko; Savani, Krishna; Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Kaino, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that stability of self-concept differs across cultures: in North American cultural contexts, people’s self-concept is stable across social contexts, whereas in Japan, different self-concepts are activated within specific social contexts. We examined the implications of this cultural difference for preference-choice consistency, which is people’s tendency to make choices that are consistent with their preferences. We found that Japanese were less likely than Americans to choose items that they liked the most, showing preference-choice inconsistency. We also investigated the conditions in which Japanese might exhibit greater preference-choice consistency. Consistent with research showing that in Japanese culture, the self is primarily conceptualized and activated by social contexts, we found that subtle social cues (e.g., schematic representations of human faces) increased preference-choice consistency among Japanese, but not among Americans. These findings highlight that choices do not reveal preferences to the same extent in all cultures, and that the extent to which choices reveal preferences depends on the social context. PMID:28270779

  2. Do You Always Choose What You Like? Subtle Social Cues Increase Preference-Choice Consistency among Japanese But Not among Americans.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yukiko; Savani, Krishna; Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Kaino, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that stability of self-concept differs across cultures: in North American cultural contexts, people's self-concept is stable across social contexts, whereas in Japan, different self-concepts are activated within specific social contexts. We examined the implications of this cultural difference for preference-choice consistency, which is people's tendency to make choices that are consistent with their preferences. We found that Japanese were less likely than Americans to choose items that they liked the most, showing preference-choice inconsistency. We also investigated the conditions in which Japanese might exhibit greater preference-choice consistency. Consistent with research showing that in Japanese culture, the self is primarily conceptualized and activated by social contexts, we found that subtle social cues (e.g., schematic representations of human faces) increased preference-choice consistency among Japanese, but not among Americans. These findings highlight that choices do not reveal preferences to the same extent in all cultures, and that the extent to which choices reveal preferences depends on the social context.

  3. Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E; Ivlev, Alexei V

    2016-06-01

    In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.

  4. Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-06-01

    In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.

  5. On consistent kinetic and derivative interactions for gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The only known fully ghost-free and consistent Lorentz-invariant kinetic term for a graviton (or indeed for any spin-2 field) is the Einstein-Hilbert term. Here we propose and investigate a new candidate family of kinetic interactions and their extensions to derivative interactions involving several spin-2 fields. These new terms generically break diffeomorphism invariance(s) and as a result can lead to the propagation of 5 degrees of freedom for a single spin-2 field—analogous to ghost-free Massive Gravity. We discuss under what circumstances these new terms can be used to build healthy effective field theories and in the process establish the 'Jordan' and 'Einstein' frame pictures for Massive-, Bi- and Multi-Gravity.

  6. Metabolome Consistency: Additional Parazoanthines from the Mediterranean Zoanthid Parazoanthus Axinellae

    PubMed Central

    Audoin, Coralie; Cocandeau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier P.; Bruschini, Adrien; Holderith, Serge; Genta-Jouve, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis of the organic extract obtained from the Mediterranean zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae yielded to the identification of five new parazoanthines F-J. The structures were fully determined by comparison of fragmentation patterns with those of previously isolated parazoathines and MS/MS spectra simulation of in silico predicted compounds according to the metabolome consistency. The absolute configuration of the new compounds has been assigned using on-line electronic circular dichroism (UHPLC-ECD). We thus demonstrated the potential of highly sensitive hyphenated techniques to characterize the structures of a whole family of natural products within the metabolome of a marine species. Minor compounds can be characterized using these techniques thus avoiding long isolation processes that may alter the structure of the natural products. These results are also of interest to identify putative bioactive compounds present at low concentration in a complex mixture. PMID:24957034

  7. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT), Version 5. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.; Waters, B.J.

    1992-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Produce Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 5.0 of the PCT procedure is attached.

  8. Nuclear waste glass Product Consistency Test (PCT), Version 3. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1990-11-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Product Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples.

  9. On consistent kinetic and derivative interactions for gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2015-04-17

    The only known fully ghost-free and consistent Lorentz-invariant kinetic term for a graviton (or indeed for any spin-2 field) is the Einstein-Hilbert term. Here we propose and investigate a new candidate family of kinetic interactions and their extensions to derivative interactions involving several spin-2 fields. These new terms generically break diffeomorphism invariance(s) and as a result can lead to the propagation of 5 degrees of freedom for a single spin-2 field — analogous to ghost-free Massive Gravity. We discuss under what circumstances these new terms can be used to build healthy effective field theories and in the process establish the ‘Jordan’ and ‘Einstein’ frame pictures for Massive-, Bi- and Multi-Gravity.

  10. Metabolome consistency: additional parazoanthines from the mediterranean zoanthid parazoanthus axinellae.

    PubMed

    Audoin, Coralie; Cocandeau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier P; Bruschini, Adrien; Holderith, Serge; Genta-Jouve, Grégory

    2014-05-30

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis of the organic extract obtained from the Mediterranean zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae yielded to the identification of five new parazoanthines F-J. The structures were fully determined by comparison of fragmentation patterns with those of previously isolated parazoathines and MS/MS spectra simulation of in silico predicted compounds according to the metabolome consistency. The absolute configuration of the new compounds has been assigned using on-line electronic circular dichroism (UHPLC-ECD). We thus demonstrated the potential of highly sensitive hyphenated techniques to characterize the structures of a whole family of natural products within the metabolome of a marine species. Minor compounds can be characterized using these techniques thus avoiding long isolation processes that may alter the structure of the natural products. These results are also of interest to identify putative bioactive compounds present at low concentration in a complex mixture.

  11. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift.

    PubMed

    Beck, Pieter S A; Juday, Glenn P; Alix, Claire; Barber, Valerie A; Winslow, Stephen E; Sousa, Emily E; Heiser, Patricia; Herriges, James D; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-04-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest productivity since 1982 across boreal Alaska by linking satellite estimates of primary productivity and a large tree-ring data set. Trends in both records show consistent growth increases at the boreal-tundra ecotones that contrast with drought-induced productivity declines throughout interior Alaska. These patterns support the hypothesized effects of an initiating biome shift. Ultimately, tree dispersal rates, habitat availability and the rate of future climate change, and how it changes disturbance regimes, are expected to determine where the boreal biome will undergo a gradual geographic range shift, and where a more rapid decline.

  12. The Brittle-Ductile Transition - A Self-Consistent Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, B.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Ord, A.; Yuen, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    The brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in the Earth is commonly viewed as a switch between two different constitutive behaviors, plastic and viscous, and is represented in models by various formulations. We show that thermal-mechanical coupling leads to a self consistent view where the BDT emerges naturally within one constitutive framework once a critical temperature is attained. Viscous folding occurs above this temperature and brittle fracturing below. Seismic activity is maximised at the BDT. Orogenesis emerges as a thermal-mechanical decoupling near the BDT during flexing of the lithosphere with the development of "crocodile" -like structures, fold-nappe systems and far-travelled thrust sheets. For quartz- feldspar composite materials this transition lies in a critical range of 500 K to 580 K.

  13. Consistent high-energy constraints in the anomalous QCD sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, Pablo; Sanz Cillero, Juan José

    2014-06-01

    The anomalous < VVP > Green function and related form-factors (π0 →γ*γ* and τ- →X-ντ vector form-factors, with X- = (KKπ)-, φ- γ, (φV)-) are analyzed in this letter in the large-NC limit. Within the single (vector and pseudoscalar) resonance approximation and the context of Resonance Chiral Theory, we show that all these observables overdetermine in a consistent way a unique set of compatible high-energy constraints for the resonance couplings. This result is in agreement with analogous relations found in the even intrinsic-parity sector of QCD like, e.g., FV2 = 3F2. The antisymmetric tensor formalism is considered for the spin-one resonance fields. Finally, we have also worked out and provide here the relation between the two bases of odd intrinsic-parity Lagrangian operators commonly employed in the literature.

  14. Thermodynamically consistent model of brittle oil shales under overpressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The concept of dual porosity is a common way for simulation of oil shale production. In the frame of this concept the porous fractured media is considered as superposition of two permeable continua with mass exchange. As a rule the concept doesn't take into account such as the well-known phenomenon as slip along natural fractures, overpressure in low permeability matrix and so on. Overpressure can lead to development of secondary fractures in low permeability matrix in the process of drilling and pressure reduction during production. In this work a new thermodynamically consistent model which generalizes the model of dual porosity is proposed. Particularities of the model are as follows. The set of natural fractures is considered as permeable continuum. Damage mechanics is applied to simulation of secondary fractures development in low permeability matrix. Slip along natural fractures is simulated in the frame of plasticity theory with Drucker-Prager criterion.

  15. A self-consistent spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics.

    PubMed

    Abert, Claas; Ruggeri, Michele; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Manchon, Aurelien; Praetorius, Dirk; Suess, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    We propose a three-dimensional micromagnetic model that dynamically solves the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation coupled to the full spin-diffusion equation. In contrast to previous methods, we solve for the magnetization dynamics and the electric potential in a self-consistent fashion. This treatment allows for an accurate description of magnetization dependent resistance changes. Moreover, the presented algorithm describes both spin accumulation due to smooth magnetization transitions and due to material interfaces as in multilayer structures. The model and its finite-element implementation are validated by current driven motion of a magnetic vortex structure. In a second experiment, the resistivity of a magnetic multilayer structure in dependence of the tilting angle of the magnetization in the different layers is investigated. Both examples show good agreement with reference simulations and experiments respectively.

  16. Consistency analysis on laser signal in laser guided weapon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ruiguang; Zhang, Wenpan; Guo, Hao; Gan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    The hardware-in-the-loop simulation is widely used in laser semi-active guidance weapon experiments, the authenticity of the laser guidance signal is the key problem of reliability. In order to evaluate the consistency of the laser guidance signal, this paper analyzes the angle of sight, laser energy density, laser spot size, atmospheric back scattering, sun radiation and SNR by comparing the different working state between actual condition and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Based on measured data, mathematical simulation and optical simulation result, laser guidance signal effects on laser seeker are determined. By using Monte Carlo method, the laser guided weapon trajectory and impact point distribution are obtained, the influence of the systematic error are analyzed. In conclusion it is pointed out that the difference between simulation system and actual system has little influence in normal guidance, has great effect on laser jamming. The research is helpful to design and evaluation of laser guided weapon simulation.

  17. Analyzing consistency of independent components: an fMRI illustration.

    PubMed

    Ylipaavalniemi, Jarkko; Vigário, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a powerful data-driven signal processing technique. It has proved to be helpful in, e.g., biomedicine, telecommunication, finance and machine vision. Yet, some problems persist in its wider use. One concern is the reliability of solutions found with ICA algorithms, resulting from the stochastic changes each time the analysis is performed. The consistency of the solutions can be analyzed by clustering solutions from multiple runs of bootstrapped ICA. Related methods have been recently published either for analyzing algorithmic stability or reducing the variability. The presented approach targets the extraction of additional information related to the independent components, by focusing on the nature of the variability. Practical implications are illustrated through a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment.

  18. Self-Consistent Study of Conjugated Aromatic Molecular Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Yun-Ye; Chen, Hao; Wang, Peng; Note, R.; Mizuseki, H.; Kawazoe, Y.

    2010-06-01

    We study the current through conjugated aromatic molecular transistors modulated by a transverse field. The self-consistent calculation is realized with density function theory through the standard quantum chemistry software Gaussian03 and the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The calculated I - V curves controlled by the transverse field present the characteristics of different organic molecular transistors, the transverse field effect of which is improved by the substitutions of nitrogen atoms or fluorine atoms. On the other hand, the asymmetry of molecular configurations to the axis connecting two sulfur atoms is in favor of realizing the transverse field modulation. Suitably designed conjugated aromatic molecular transistors possess different I - V characteristics, some of them are similar to those of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET). Some of the calculated molecular devices may work as elements in graphene electronics. Our results present the richness and flexibility of molecular transistors, which describe the colorful prospect of next generation devices.

  19. Self-consistent nonlocal feedback theory for electrocatalytic swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourhani, Amir; Crespi, Vincent H.; Lammert, Paul E.

    2015-03-01

    The phoretic propulsion mechanisms of electrocatalytic micro/nano-motors has received considerably more theoretical attention than the heterogeneous electrochemical processes underlying their operation. We present a flexible approach to such heterogeneous electrochemistry with nonlocal feedback using a surface bias potential field as a control parameter field with a locally open-circuit reference state. The framing in operational terms permits both convenient contact to experiment and potential for implementation in Frumkin-Butler-Volmer kinetics. Previous results are recovered in a simple approximation, and an approximate scaling form is deduced for motor speed as function of fuel concentration and swimmer size which is more consistent with data from the literature than the original linear fits. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-0820404 through the Penn State Center for Nanoscale Science.

  20. Self-consistent quantum kinetic theory of diatomic molecule formation.

    PubMed

    Forrey, Robert C

    2015-07-14

    A quantum kinetic theory of molecule formation is presented which includes three-body recombination and radiative association for a thermodynamically closed system which may or may not exchange energy with its surrounding at a constant temperature. The theory uses a Sturmian representation of a two-body continuum to achieve a steady-state solution of a governing master equation which is self-consistent in the sense that detailed balance between all bound and unbound states is rigorously enforced. The role of quasibound states in catalyzing the molecule formation is analyzed in complete detail. The theory is used to make three predictions which differ from conventional kinetic models. These predictions suggest significant modifications may be needed to phenomenological rate constants which are currently in wide use. Implications for models of low and high density systems are discussed.

  1. Self-consistent quantum kinetic theory of diatomic molecule formation

    SciTech Connect

    Forrey, Robert C.

    2015-07-14

    A quantum kinetic theory of molecule formation is presented which includes three-body recombination and radiative association for a thermodynamically closed system which may or may not exchange energy with its surrounding at a constant temperature. The theory uses a Sturmian representation of a two-body continuum to achieve a steady-state solution of a governing master equation which is self-consistent in the sense that detailed balance between all bound and unbound states is rigorously enforced. The role of quasibound states in catalyzing the molecule formation is analyzed in complete detail. The theory is used to make three predictions which differ from conventional kinetic models. These predictions suggest significant modifications may be needed to phenomenological rate constants which are currently in wide use. Implications for models of low and high density systems are discussed.

  2. Consistency of equations of motion in conformal frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Four-dimensional scalar-tensor theory is considered within two conformal frames, the Jordan frame (JF) and the Einstein frame (EF). The actions for the theory are equivalent and equations of motion can be obtained from each action. It is found that the JF equations of motion, expressed in terms of EF variables, translate directly into and agree with the EF equations of motion obtained from the EF action, provided that certain simple consistency conditions are satisfied, which is always the case. The implication is that a solution set obtained in one conformal frame can be reliably translated into a solution set for the other frame, and therefore the two frames are, at least, mathematically equivalent.

  3. Using Self Consistent Field Theory on Polymeric Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Konigslow, Kier; Park, Chul; Thompson, Russell

    The ability to predict the solubility of a particular solvent in a polymer fluid is essential to the production of polymer foams. For the past 40 years, the primary model employed to this end has been an expansion of Flory-Huggins lattice fluid theory developed by Sanchez and Lacombe (S-L theory). S-L theory, while useful in the uniform limit, is limited to homogeneous systems. Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT), which has long been in use in polymer physics, is a mean-field theory capable of modeling the equilibrium behaviour of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems. We are investigating whether SCFT, applied to polymer-solvent mixtures, is in agreement with SL-theory in the homogeneous limit. Should this prove successful, we hope to use SCFT to model more general mixtures, including inhomogeneous nanocellular polymer foam systems.

  4. UFMG Sydenham's chorea rating scale (USCRS): reliability and consistency.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Maia, Débora P; Cardoso, Francisco

    2005-05-01

    Despite the renewed interest in Sydenham's chorea (SC) in recent years, there were no valid and reliable scales to rate the several signs and symptoms of patients with SC and related disorders. The Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Sydenham's Chorea Rating Scale (USCRS) was designed to provide a detailed quantitative description of the performance of activities of daily living, behavioral abnormalities, and motor function of subjects with SC. The scale comprises 27 items and each one is scored from 0 (no symptom or sign) to 4 (severe disability or finding). Data from 84 subjects, aged 4.9 to 33.6 years, support the interrater reliability and internal consistency of the scale. The USCRS is a promising instrument for rating the clinical features of SC as well as their functional impact in children and adults.

  5. Deployable Rhombic Dodecahedral Modules Consisting of Struts and Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki

    A novel deployable rhombic dodecahedral module is proposed and its mechanical characteristics are investigated. This module has a rhombic dodecahedral shape and consists of struts, cables, and vertex joints. Two types of stowed configurations, planar and linear, are applicable to the module. Cables are provided to ensure the stability of the module. The module is deployed to its objective shape from the stowed configuration by changing the lengths of the cables. In order to investigate the structural characteristics of the deployable module, mechanism analyses are carried out, and a prototype is built and tested. The results clearly indicate that the proposed rhombic dodecahedral module is deployable and that it is stable in the deployed configuration.

  6. Consistency relations and conservation of ζ in holographic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Urakawa, Yuko

    2016-10-18

    It is well known that, in single clock inflation, the curvature perturbation ζ is constant in time on superhorizon scales. In the standard bulk description this follows quite simply from the local conservation of the energy momentum tensor in the bulk. On the other hand, in a holographic description, the constancy of the curvature perturbation must be related to the properties of the RG flow in the boundary theory. Here, we show that, in single clock holographic inflation, the time independence of correlators of ζ follows from the absence of the anomolous dimension of the energy momentum tensor in the boundary theory, and from the so-called consistency relations for vertex functions with a soft leg.

  7. Confirmation of PM typing protocols for consistent and reliable results.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C A; Nippes, D C; Ritzline, E L

    1996-05-01

    A recent report in the Perkin Elmer "Forensic Forum" bulletin described a modification to the previously published PM typing protocol indicating that in order to obtain consistent and reliable PM and DQA1 typing results, disodium EDTA should be added to the post-amplification mixture before denaturation of the DNA fragments. The analysis and validation of this suggestion is described in the accompanying paper. We report the evaluation of this additional step when typing for PM alleles and conclude that the standard operating procedures currently enforced at the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office and Indian River crime laboratories do not necessitate the need for the addition of disodium EDTA to the PM amplified products prior to the heat denaturation step. Further, depending on an individual laboratory's PM protocol, the recommendation by Perkin Elmer to add disodium EDTA to PM amplified products before typing has merit and should be carefully considered when determining laboratory PM typing protocols.

  8. Self-consistent undulator radiation via Lienard-Wiechert fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Luis R.; Tecimer, Musit; Kimel, Isidoro

    1995-09-01

    Using Lienard-Wiechert fields and the Lorentz Force relation we present self consistent 3D radiation studies of electron beams moving through periodic electromagnetic structures such as those present in synchrotrons and free-electron laser undulators. Besides providing an economical means of calculating 3D vector radiation fields, our approach yields new insights into individual electron motion as it is driven by both, the velocity fields (Coulomb Fields) and the radiation fields generated by other electrons. We present results of electron beam compression resulting from longitudinal radiation forces competing in opposition with repulsive velocity field forces. We discuss results of noiseless 3D Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission in the X-Ray region resulting from the interaction of a filamentary electron beam with a circularly polarized magnetic undulator.

  9. FRACGEN™ Stochastically Generates Fracture Networks Consistent with Data

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKoy, M.L.; Boyle, E.J.

    2006-10-01

    FRACGEN(tm) generates fracture networks for highly fractured reservoirs (< 60,000 fractures) consistent with field data (e.g., outcrop data, fmi and other logs) and a geologist’s intuition. It uses four Boolean models of increasing complexity through a Monte Carlo process that samples statistical distributions for various network attributes of each fracture set as found from the data. Three models account for hierarchical relations among fracture sets, and two generate fracture swarming. Termination/intersection frequencies may be controlled implicitly or explicitly. The code also is being upgraded to allow specification of fractal properties for the fracture network. FRACGEN provides an output file that specifies length, orientation, and effective aperture for each fracture. This output file can be used by a unique reservoir engineering code, NFFLOW, to perform reservoir engineering studies for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. This presentation describes use of FRACGEN to describe a reservoir in the Oriskany Sandstone in West Virginia.

  10. Consistent image presentation implemented using DICOM grayscale standard display function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, Kenneth S.; Omernick, Jon; French, John

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we evaluate our ability to achieve consistent image presentation across a wide range of output devices, focusing on digital x-ray radiography for chest applications. In particular we focus on dry versus wet printers of hardcopy prints. In this evaluation, we review the expected theoretical variability using the DICOM grayscale standard display function (GSDF). The GSDF maps DICOM presentation values to luminance values that are perceived by a human. We present our methodology for calibrating devices as evaluated on sixteen printers. Seven devices were selected for a human observer study to determine if there are perceptible differences in the presentation of a given image, focusing on differences between wet and dry processes. It was found that wet printers were preferred, however, there may be other logistical and practical reasons whey dry printers may be used.

  11. The product consistency test for the DWPF wasteform

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary specifications on the glass wasteform to be produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) require extensive characterization of the glass product both before actual production begins and then during production. To aid in this characterization, a leach test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT) was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90{degrees}C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples.

  12. The product consistency test for the DWPF wasteform

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1990-12-31

    The preliminary specifications on the glass wasteform to be produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) require extensive characterization of the glass product both before actual production begins and then during production. To aid in this characterization, a leach test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT) was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90{degrees}C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples.

  13. Interstellar Dust Models Consistent with Extinction, Emission, and Abundance Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubko, Viktor; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new interstellar dust models which have been derived by simultaneously fitting the far ultraviolet to near infrared extinction, the diffuse infrared emission, and, unlike previous models, the elemental abundances in dust for the diffuse interstellar medium. We found that dust models consisting of a mixture of spherical graphite and silicate grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, in addition to porous composite particles containing silicate, organic refractory, and water ice, provide an improved .t to the UV-to-infrared extinction and infrared emission measurements, while consuming the amounts of elements well within the uncertainties of adopted interstellar abundances, including B star abundances. These models are a signi.cant improvement over the recent Li & Draine (2001, ApJ, 554, 778) model which requires an excessive amount of silicon to be locked up in dust: 48 ppm (atoms per million of H atoms), considerably more than the solar abundance of 34 ppm or the B star abundance of 19 ppm.

  14. Consistency relation for multifield inflation scenario with all loop contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.

    2012-05-01

    The consistency relation between non-linear parameters f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} characterizing Non-Gaussianity generated in the super horizon scale have been emerged as a useful tool to rule out a large class of inflationary models all at once. In our previous work, we extended the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality up to 1-loop corrections. In this paper, we further extend the inequality up to all loop corrections, and found that it takes the same expression with the original Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality, τ{sub NL} ≥ ((6/5)f{sub NL}){sup 2}, where the equality is not satisfied in the case of single field models any more.

  15. Consistent two-lifetime model for spectral functions of superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, František; Hlubina, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Recently it has been found that models with at least two lifetimes have to be considered when analyzing the angle-resolved photoemission data in the nodal region of the cuprates [Kondo et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 7699 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8699]. In this paper we compare two such models. First we show that the phenomenological model used by Kondo et al. violates the sum rule for the occupation number. Next we consider the recently proposed model of the so-called Dynes superconductors, wherein the two lifetimes measure the strengths of pair-conserving and pair-breaking processes. We demonstrate that the model of the Dynes superconductors is fully consistent with known exact results, and we study in detail the resulting spectral functions. Finally, we show that the spectral functions in the nodal region of the cuprates can be fitted well by the model of the Dynes superconductors.

  16. Membrane stress profiles from self-consistent field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Christina L.; Müller, Marcus

    2017-03-01

    Using self-consistent field theory (SCFT), we develop an accurate, local expression for the stress profiles in membranes and soft matter interfaces, in general. The bond stresses are expressed in terms of pre-computed chain propagators, which are used to describe the statistical weight of the molecules and therefore require minimal additional calculations. In addition, we overcome the resolution limit of the molecular bond length by including the Irving and Kirkwood bond assignment and recover a constant normal stress profile across an interface. Using this theory, we find that the membrane lateral stress profile contains repulsive (positive) stresses in the regions of the head and tail groups, and attractive (negative) stresses near the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. We also verify that the zeroth and first moments of the stress profile correspond to the thermodynamic tension and product of the bending modulus and the spontaneous curvature, respectively.

  17. Thermodynamically consistent microstructure prediction of additively manufactured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing has risen to the top of research interest in advanced manufacturing in recent years due to process flexibility, achievability of geometric complexity, and the ability to locally modify and optimize materials. The present work is focused on providing an approach for incorporating thermodynamically consistent properties and microstructure evolution for non-equilibrium supercooling, as observed in additive manufacturing processes, into finite element analysis. There are two primary benefits of this work: (1) the resulting prediction is based on the material composition and (2) the nonlinear behavior caused by the thermodynamic properties of the material during the non-equilibrium solution is accounted for with extremely high resolution. The predicted temperature response and microstructure evolution for additively manufactured stainless steel 316L using standard handbook-obtained thermodynamic properties are compared with the thermodynamic properties calculated using the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. Data transfer from the CALPHAD approach to finite element analysis is discussed.

  18. Causal, Self-consistent Field Quantum Mass-Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scofield, Dillon

    2017-01-01

    An ab initio self-consistent field (SCF) description of the causal, current conserving, evolution of quantum mass-spacetime (QMST) manifolds is presented. The properties of QMSTs are shown to follow from the properties of their homogeneous, isotropic, affine tangent spaces as characterized by the Poincaré group. QMSTs with C l (4,C) Clifford algebra structure and tangent spaces are shown to be compatible with the Standard Model of elementary particle interactions. These QMSTs include the proton-electron-neutrino-neutron excitation system. Expressions for conserved Noether currents, stress-energies, and angular-momenta are shown to be corollaries of the theory. Methods to compute the quantum geometry of few-body QMSTs are discussed.

  19. Consistent regularization and renormalization in models with inhomogeneous phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Andersen, Jens O.

    2017-02-01

    In many models in condensed matter and high-energy physics, one finds inhomogeneous phases at high density and low temperature. These phases are characterized by a spatially dependent condensate or order parameter. A proper calculation requires that one takes the vacuum fluctuations of the model into account. These fluctuations are ultraviolet divergent and must be regularized. We discuss different ways of consistently regularizing and renormalizing quantum fluctuations, focusing on momentum cutoff, symmetric energy cutoff, and dimensional regularization. We apply these techniques calculating the vacuum energy in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in 1 +1 dimensions in the large-Nc limit and in the 3 +1 dimensional quark-meson model in the mean-field approximation both for a one-dimensional chiral-density wave.

  20. Formal verification of an oral messages algorithm for interactive consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1992-01-01

    The formal specification and verification of an algorithm for Interactive Consistency based on the Oral Messages algorithm for Byzantine Agreement is described. We compare our treatment with that of Bevier and Young, who presented a formal specification and verification for a very similar algorithm. Unlike Bevier and Young, who observed that 'the invariant maintained in the recursive subcases of the algorithm is significantly more complicated than is suggested by the published proof' and who found its formal verification 'a fairly difficult exercise in mechanical theorem proving,' our treatment is very close to the previously published analysis of the algorithm, and our formal specification and verification are straightforward. This example illustrates how delicate choices in the formulation of the problem can have significant impact on the readability of its formal specification and on the tractability of its formal verification.

  1. Self-Consistent Ornstein-Zernike Approximation for Lattice Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Dickman, R.; Stell, G. |

    1996-08-01

    A self-consistent approximation for the structure factor of three-dimensional lattice gases yields remarkably accurate predictions (less than 3{percent} error over most of the temperature range) for the correlation length, isothermal compressibility, specific heat, and the coexistence curve. Critical temperatures agree to within 0.2{percent}, and other critical properties to within (1{endash}2){percent}, of the best numerical estimates. Until temperature and density are within 1{percent} of their critical values, the approximate {ital effective} critical exponents do not differ appreciably from their estimated exact form; they attain their limiting spherical-model values only much closer to critical. The method should prove useful for a variety of three-dimensional lattice-gas and fluid problems; it is inappropriate to two dimensions, where it predicts criticality at zero temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Sustaining biological welfare for our future through consistent science.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2013-01-15

    Physiological anthropology presently covers a very broad range of human knowledge and engineering technologies. This study reviews scientific inconsistencies within a variety of areas: sitting posture; negative air ions; oxygen inhalation; alpha brain waves induced by music and ultrasound; 1/f fluctuations; the evaluation of feelings using surface electroencephalography; Kansei; universal design; and anti-stress issues. We found that the inconsistencies within these areas indicate the importance of integrative thinking and the need to maintain the perspective on the biological benefit to humanity. Analytical science divides human physiological functions into discrete details, although individuals comprise a unified collection of whole-body functions. Such disparate considerations contribute to the misunderstanding of physiological functions and the misevaluation of positive and negative values for humankind. Research related to human health will, in future, depend on the concept of maintaining physiological functions based on consistent science and on sustaining human health to maintain biological welfare in future generations.

  3. Sustaining biological welfare for our future through consistent science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Physiological anthropology presently covers a very broad range of human knowledge and engineering technologies. This study reviews scientific inconsistencies within a variety of areas: sitting posture; negative air ions; oxygen inhalation; alpha brain waves induced by music and ultrasound; 1/f fluctuations; the evaluation of feelings using surface electroencephalography; Kansei; universal design; and anti-stress issues. We found that the inconsistencies within these areas indicate the importance of integrative thinking and the need to maintain the perspective on the biological benefit to humanity. Analytical science divides human physiological functions into discrete details, although individuals comprise a unified collection of whole-body functions. Such disparate considerations contribute to the misunderstanding of physiological functions and the misevaluation of positive and negative values for humankind. Research related to human health will, in future, depend on the concept of maintaining physiological functions based on consistent science and on sustaining human health to maintain biological welfare in future generations. PMID:23317395

  4. Back to the Future: Consistency-Based Trajectory Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurien, James; Nayak, P. Pandurand; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Given a model of a physical process and a sequence of commands and observations received over time, the task of an autonomous controller is to determine the likely states of the process and the actions required to move the process to a desired configuration. We introduce a representation and algorithms for incrementally generating approximate belief states for a restricted but relevant class of partially observable Markov decision processes with very large state spaces. The algorithm presented incrementally generates, rather than revises, an approximate belief state at any point by abstracting and summarizing segments of the likely trajectories of the process. This enables applications to efficiently maintain a partial belief state when it remains consistent with observations and revisit past assumptions about the process' evolution when the belief state is ruled out. The system presented has been implemented and results on examples from the domain of spacecraft control are presented.

  5. Consistency condition for inflation from (broken) conformal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schalm, Koenraad; Aalst, Ted van der; Shiu, Gary E-mail: shiu@physics.wisc.edu

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum, i.e. the three-point correlation function of primordial density fluctuations, in slow-roll inflation. It follows from the defining property of slow-roll inflation that primordial correlation functions inherit most of their structure from weakly broken de Sitter symmetries. Using holographic techniques borrowed from the AdS/CFT correspondence, the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum can be mapped to a set of stress-tensor Ward identities in a weakly broken 2+1-dimensional Euclidean CFT. We construct the consistency condition from these Ward identities using conformal perturbation theory. This requires a second order Ward identity and the use of the evolution equation. Our result also illustrates a subtle difference between conformal perturbation theory and the slow-roll expansion.

  6. Rescattering corrections and self-consistent metric in planckian scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciafaloni, M.; Colferai, D.

    2014-10-01

    Starting from the ACV approach to transplanckian scattering, we present a development of the reduced-action model in which the (improved) eikonal representation is able to describe particles' motion at large scattering angle and, furthermore, UV-safe (regular) rescattering solutions are found and incorporated in the metric. The resulting particles' shock-waves undergo calculable trajectory shifts and time delays during the scattering process — which turns out to be consistently described by both action and metric, up to relative order R 2 /b 2 in the gravitational radius over impact parameter expansion. Some suggestions about the role and the (re)scattering properties of irregular solutions — not fully investigated here — are also presented.

  7. Modeling self-consistent multi-class dynamic traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lo, Shih-Ching

    2002-09-01

    In this study, we present a systematic self-consistent multiclass multilane traffic model derived from the vehicular Boltzmann equation and the traffic dispersion model. The multilane domain is considered as a two-dimensional space and the interaction among vehicles in the domain is described by a dispersion model. The reason we consider a multilane domain as a two-dimensional space is that the driving behavior of road users may not be restricted by lanes, especially motorcyclists. The dispersion model, which is a nonlinear Poisson equation, is derived from the car-following theory and the equilibrium assumption. Under the concept that all kinds of users share the finite section, the density is distributed on a road by the dispersion model. In addition, the dynamic evolution of the traffic flow is determined by the systematic gas-kinetic model derived from the Boltzmann equation. Multiplying Boltzmann equation by the zeroth, first- and second-order moment functions, integrating both side of the equation and using chain rules, we can derive continuity, motion and variance equation, respectively. However, the second-order moment function, which is the square of the individual velocity, is employed by previous researches does not have physical meaning in traffic flow. Although the second-order expansion results in the velocity variance equation, additional terms may be generated. The velocity variance equation we propose is derived from multiplying Boltzmann equation by the individual velocity variance. It modifies the previous model and presents a new gas-kinetic traffic flow model. By coupling the gas-kinetic model and the dispersion model, a self-consistent system is presented.

  8. Creation of Consistent Burn Wounds: A Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Ang, Chuan Han; Raju, Ashvin; Tan, Kong Bing; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Loo, Yihua; Wong, Yong Chiat; Lee, Hanjing; Lim, Jane; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Hauser, Charlotte AE

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn infliction techniques are poorly described in rat models. An accurate study can only be achieved with wounds that are uniform in size and depth. We describe a simple reproducible method for creating consistent burn wounds in rats. Methods Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and dorsum shaved. A 100 g cylindrical stainless-steel rod (1 cm diameter) was heated to 100℃ in boiling water. Temperature was monitored using a thermocouple. We performed two consecutive toe-pinch tests on different limbs to assess the depth of sedation. Burn infliction was limited to the loin. The skin was pulled upwards, away from the underlying viscera, creating a flat surface. The rod rested on its own weight for 5, 10, and 20 seconds at three different sites on each rat. Wounds were evaluated for size, morphology and depth. Results Average wound size was 0.9957 cm2 (standard deviation [SD] 0.1845) (n=30). Wounds created with duration of 5 seconds were pale, with an indistinct margin of erythema. Wounds of 10 and 20 seconds were well-defined, uniformly brown with a rim of erythema. Average depths of tissue damage were 1.30 mm (SD 0.424), 2.35 mm (SD 0.071), and 2.60 mm (SD 0.283) for duration of 5, 10, 20 seconds respectively. Burn duration of 5 seconds resulted in full-thickness damage. Burn duration of 10 seconds and 20 seconds resulted in full-thickness damage, involving subjacent skeletal muscle. Conclusions This is a simple reproducible method for creating burn wounds consistent in size and depth in a rat burn model. PMID:25075351

  9. The Properties of Hrad Vallis are Consistent with Volcanic Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, J.; Leverington, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The Hrad Vallis outflow channel heads on the northern flanks of Elysium Mons, one of the largest volcanoes on Mars. The head of the system is marked by a complex set of elongate depressions oriented radially to the central peak of Elysium Mons. The system is relatively simple, consisting of a single sinuous channel over much of its 1450 km length. Channel floors are mainly 50 to 430 m below adjacent plains, with local channel relief progressively diminishing as the distal parts of the system fade into the ridged plains of Utopia Planitia. Hrad Vallis possesses a range of characteristics typical of Martian outflow channels, including anastamosing reaches, streamlined erosional residuals, and channel terraces. Though much of the channel region is thinly mantled by sediments of aeolian or volcanic origin, local exposures of channel floors at Hrad Vallis show features including ridged and platy flows, shear zones, wake forms, and levees. The Hrad Vallis system is widely interpreted as having developed through large aqueous outbursts from the subsurface, but such origins are not congruous with the absence of clear deposits of fluvial or diluvial character, the relatively high elevation of the system head, mineralogical evidence that is suggestive of dry Martian conditions over much of the Hesperian and Amazonian, and the absence of realistic analog processes for development of large channel systems through aqueous outbursts from aquifers. Instead, the characteristics of the Hrad Vallis system are consistent with origins involving incision by low-viscosity lavas of mafic composition. The system heads on the flanks of a large shield volcano, terminates at extensive ridged volcanic plains, shows evidence for having been a conduit for large volumes of lava, and possesses contextual and morphological properties analogous to those of large volcanic channels of the Moon and Venus. Development of Hrad Valles is estimated to have involved eruption of approximately 100,000 cubic

  10. Binary nucleation kinetics. I. Self-consistent size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Wilemski, G.; Wyslouzil, B.E. ||

    1995-07-15

    Using the principle of detailed balance, we derive a new self-consistency requirement, termed the kinetic product rule, relating the evaporation coefficients and equilibrium cluster distribution for a binary system. We use this result to demonstrate and resolve an inconsistency for an idealized Kelvin model of nucleation in a simple binary mixture. We next examine several common forms for the equilibrium distribution of binary clusters based on the capillarity approximation and ideal vapor behavior. We point out fundamental deficiencies for each expression. We also show that each distribution yields evaporation coefficients that formally satisfy the new kinetic product rule but are physically unsatisfactory because they depend on the monomer vapor concentrations. We then propose a new form of the binary distribution function that is free of the deficiencies of the previous functions except for its reliance on the capillarity approximation. This new self-consistent classical (SCC) size distribution for binary clusters has the following properties: It satisfies the law of mass action; it reduces to an SCC unary distribution for clusters of a single component; and it produces physically acceptable evaporation rate coefficients that also satisfy the new kinetic product rule. Since it is possible to construct other examples of similarly well-behaved distributions, our result is not unique in this respect, but it does give reasonable predictions. As an illustration, we calculate binary nucleation rates and vapor activities for the ethanol--hexanol system at 260 K using the new SCC distribution and compare them to experimental results. The theoretical rates are uniformly higher than the experimental values over the entire vapor composition range. Although the predicted activities are lower, we find good agreement between the measured and theoretical slope of the critical vapor activity curve at a constant nucleation rate of 10{sup 7} cm{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}2}.

  11. Energetic Consistency and Coupling of the Mean and Covariance Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamical state of the ocean and atmosphere is taken to be a large dimensional random vector in a range of large-scale computational applications, including data assimilation, ensemble prediction, sensitivity analysis, and predictability studies. In each of these applications, numerical evolution of the covariance matrix of the random state plays a central role, because this matrix is used to quantify uncertainty in the state of the dynamical system. Since atmospheric and ocean dynamics are nonlinear, there is no closed evolution equation for the covariance matrix, nor for the mean state. Therefore approximate evolution equations must be used. This article studies theoretical properties of the evolution equations for the mean state and covariance matrix that arise in the second-moment closure approximation (third- and higher-order moment discard). This approximation was introduced by EPSTEIN [1969] in an early effort to introduce a stochastic element into deterministic weather forecasting, and was studied further by FLEMING [1971a,b], EPSTEIN and PITCHER [1972], and PITCHER [1977], also in the context of atmospheric predictability. It has since fallen into disuse, with a simpler one being used in current large-scale applications. The theoretical results of this article make a case that this approximation should be reconsidered for use in large-scale applications, however, because the second moment closure equations possess a property of energetic consistency that the approximate equations now in common use do not possess. A number of properties of solutions of the second-moment closure equations that result from this energetic consistency will be established.

  12. Applying Soft Arc Consistency to Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Silaghi, Marius C.; Hirayama, Katsutoshi; Yokoo, Makot; Matsuo, Hiroshi

    The Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (DCOP) is a fundamental framework of multi-agent systems. With DCOPs a multi-agent system is represented as a set of variables and a set of constraints/cost functions. Distributed task scheduling and distributed resource allocation can be formalized as DCOPs. In this paper, we propose an efficient method that applies directed soft arc consistency to a DCOP. In particular, we focus on DCOP solvers that employ pseudo-trees. A pseudo-tree is a graph structure for a constraint network that represents a partial ordering of variables. Some pseudo-tree-based search algorithms perform optimistic searches using explicit/implicit backtracking in parallel. However, for cost functions taking a wide range of cost values, such exact algorithms require many search iterations. Therefore additional improvements are necessary to reduce the number of search iterations. A previous study used a dynamic programming-based preprocessing technique that estimates the lower bound values of costs. However, there are opportunities for further improvements of efficiency. In addition, modifications of the search algorithm are necessary to use the estimated lower bounds. The proposed method applies soft arc consistency (soft AC) enforcement to DCOP. In the proposed method, directed soft AC is performed based on a pseudo-tree in a bottom up manner. Using the directed soft AC, the global lower bound value of cost functions is passed up to the root node of the pseudo-tree. It also totally reduces values of binary cost functions. As a result, the original problem is converted to an equivalent problem. The equivalent problem is efficiently solved using common search algorithms. Therefore, no major modifications are necessary in search algorithms. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by experimentation. The results show that it is more efficient than previous methods.

  13. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  14. [Embryo initiation from Pinus sibirica megagametophytes in in vitro culture].

    PubMed

    Tret'iakova, I N; Voroshilova, E V

    2014-01-01

    Megagametophytes of Siberian pine were cultured on an in vitro culture medium 1/2 LV supplemented with growth regulators 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) to form embryos. The competency of somatic cell of explants to embryogenesis manifested itself in an organized growth and polarity. A coenocyte consisting of long vacuolated cells was formed in the megagametophyte culture. Then, the migration of the nuclei to one of the poles of the cell, their division, and formation of embryoids was observed. The megagametophyte culture of the Siberian pine differed from the zygotic embryo culture by the absence of asymmetric division in the vacuolated cell.

  15. The relationship between organizational culture and performance in acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rowena; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw T O; Harrison, Stephen; Konteh, Fred; Walshe, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between senior management team culture and organizational performance in English acute hospitals (NHS Trusts) over three time periods between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008. We use a validated culture rating instrument, the Competing Values Framework, to measure senior management team culture. Organizational performance is assessed using a wide range of routinely collected indicators. We examine the associations between organizational culture and performance using ordered probit and multinomial logit models. We find that organizational culture varies across hospitals and over time, and this variation is at least in part associated in consistent and predictable ways with a variety of organizational characteristics and routine measures of performance. Moreover, hospitals are moving towards more competitive culture archetypes which mirror the current policy context, though with a stronger blend of cultures. The study provides evidence for a relationship between culture and performance in hospital settings.

  16. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  17. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  18. Teaching Culture through Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Janet C.

    Some of the literature on the role of teaching culture in second language instruction is reviewed, with some emphasis on the work of Ortunio and the Kluckholn model of French culture. One instructor's use of French print and television advertising to teach French culture is described. Values such as intellectuality, traditionalism, and patriotism…

  19. Resource Guide: Cultural Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Joyce A.; Peacock, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Offers resources for the study of cultural resilience. This term, used in American Indian culture theory, suggests that traditional culture can help to overcome oppression, abuse, poverty, and other social ills. Offers annotated reference to 19 books, articles, Internet sites, and other publications. (NB)

  20. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…