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Sample records for culture silene vulgaris

  1. Modification of polysaccharides from callus culture of Silene vulgaris (M.) G. using carbohydrases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gunter, E A; Popeyko, O V; Ovodov, Yu S

    2007-09-01

    Polysaccharides (pectin and intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans) were isolated from campion callus culture cultivated on medium with varied concentrations of pectinase and beta-galactosidase. A decrease in contents of arabinose residues in pectin and arabinogalactans and of galactose residues in arabinogalactans was associated with an increase in the activities of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and beta-galactosidase upon addition of pectinase into the medium. Pectinase destroyed the high-molecular-weight (more than 300 kD) fraction of pectin and decreased the content of galacturonic acid residues. alpha-L-Arabinofuranosidase transformed arabinogalactan into galactan, and galactan was destroyed under the influence of galactosidase. The contents of arabinogalactan and/or galactan in the cells were decreased, and it was released into the culture medium. Pectin samples with low contents of arabinose and galactose in the side chains and galactan samples were obtained from the callus grown on the medium with beta-galactosidase. Cultivation of the plant cells on medium containing carbohydrases resulted in modification of pectin and arabinogalactan of the cell walls.

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly and polymorphism detection in the flowering plant Silene vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Keller, Stephen R; Berardi, Andrea E; Sanderson, Brian J; Karpovich, John F; Taylor, Douglas R

    2012-03-01

    Members of the angiosperm genus Silene are widely used in studies of ecology and evolution, but available genomic and population genetic resources within Silene remain limited. Deep transcriptome (i.e. expressed sequence tag or EST) sequencing has proven to be a rapid and cost-effective means to characterize gene content and identify polymorphic markers in non-model organisms. In this study, we report the results of 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing of a polyA-selected and normalized cDNA library from Silene vulgaris. The library was generated from a single pool of transcripts, combining RNA from leaf, root and floral tissue from three genetically divergent European subpopulations of S. vulgaris. A single full-plate 454 run produced 959,520 reads totalling 363.6 Mb of sequence data with an average read length of 379.0 bp after quality trimming and removal of custom library adaptors. We assembled 832,251 (86.7%) of these reads into 40,964 contigs, which have a total length of 25.4 Mb and can be organized into 18,178 graph-based clusters or 'isogroups'. Assembled sequences were annotated based on homology to genes in multiple public databases. Analysis of sequence variants identified 13,432 putative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1320 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that are candidates for microsatellite analysis. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from 1577 contigs were used to generate genome-wide distributions that revealed several outliers with high diversity. All of these resources are publicly available through NCBI and/or our website (http://silenegenomics.biology.virginia.edu) and should provide valuable genomic and population genetic tools for the Silene research community. PMID:21999839

  3. Investigating past range dynamics for a weed of cultivation, Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sebasky, Megan E; Keller, Stephen R; Taylor, Douglas R

    2016-07-01

    Since the last glacial maximum (LGM), many plant and animal taxa have expanded their ranges by migration from glacial refugia. Weeds of cultivation may have followed this trend or spread globally following the expansion of agriculture or ruderal habitats associated with human-mediated disturbance. We tested whether the range expansion of the weed Silene vulgaris across Europe fit the classical model of postglacial expansion from southern refugia, or followed known routes of the expansion of human agricultural practices. We used species distribution modeling to predict spatial patterns of postglacial expansion and contrasted these with the patterns of human agricultural expansion. A population genetic analysis using microsatellite loci was then used to test which scenario was better supported by spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity was highest in southern Europe and declined with increasing latitude. Locations of ancestral demes from genetic cluster analysis were consistent with areas of predicted refugia. Species distribution models showed the most suitable habitat in the LGM on the southern coasts of Europe. These results support the typical postglacial northward colonization from southern refugia while refuting the east-to-west agricultural spread as the main mode of expansion for S. vulgaris. We know that S. vulgaris has recently colonized many regions (including North America and other continents) through human-mediated dispersal, but there is no evidence for a direct link between the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and current patterns of genetic diversity of S. vulgaris in Europe. Therefore, the history of range expansion of S. vulgaris likely began with postglacial expansion after the LGM, followed by more recent global dispersal by humans. PMID:27547314

  4. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

  5. The male-sterility polymorphism of Silene vulgaris: analysis of genetic dat from two populations and comparison with Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, D; Laporte, V

    1998-01-01

    Results are given of genetic studies of male sterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, approximately 0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely three, different cytoplasmic types, one of which appears to produce male sterility in progeny from any hermaphrodite pollen donor; in other words restorer alleles for this cytoplasm are rare or absent from the population. The other two populations can be carried in hermaphrodites that have the dominant restorers. In population 1, there are also probably three restorer loci with complementary recessive male-sterility alleles, as well as a locus with duplicate action, which cannot produce male sterility unless the plant is also homozygous for the recessive allele at another locus. The results from population 3 are quite similar, though there was no evidence in this population for an unrestored sterility cytoplasm. A similar joint nucleocytoplasmic model with multiple restorers fits data from Thymus vulgaris. PMID:9799278

  6. Fractionation of stable zinc isotopes in the field-grown zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the zinc-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Carignan, Jean; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-18

    Stable Zn isotope signatures offer a potential tool for tracing Zn uptake and transfer mechanisms within plant-soil systems. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens collected at a Zn-contaminated site (Viviez), a serpentine site (Vosges), and a noncontaminated site (Sainte Eulalie) in France. Meanwhile, a Zn-tolerant plant ( Silene vulgaris ) was also collected at Viviez for comparison. While δ(66)Zn was substantially differentiated among N. caerulescens from the three localities, they all exhibited an enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes of 0.40-0.72‰ from soil to root, followed by a depletion in heavy Zn from root to shoot (-0.10 to -0.50‰). The enrichment of heavy Zn in roots is ascribed to the transport systems responsible for Zn absorption into root symplast and root-to-shoot translocation, while the depletion in heavy Zn in shoots is likely to be mediated by a diffusive process and an efficient translocation driven by energy-required transporters (e.g., NcHMA4). The mass balance yielded a bulk Zn isotopic composition between plant and soil (Δ(66)Zn(plant-soil)) of -0.01‰ to 0.63‰ in N. caerulescens , indicative of high- and/or low-affinity transport systems operating in the three ecotypes. In S. vulgaris , however, there was no significant isotope fractionation between whole plant and rhizosphere soil and between root and shoot, suggesting that this species appears to have a particular Zn homeostasis. We confirm that quantifying stable Zn isotopes is useful for understanding Zn accumulation mechanisms in plants. PMID:22891730

  7. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  8. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  9. Carbon starvation increases endoglycosidase activities and production of "unconjugated N-glycans" in Silene alba cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lhernould, S; Karamanos, Y; Priem, B; Morvan, H

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of oligomannosides and xylomannosides corresponding to unconjugated N-glycans (UNGs) in the medium of a white campion (Silene alba) cell suspension. Attention has been focused on these oligosaccharides since it was shown that they confer biological activities in plants. In an attempt to elucidate the origin of these oligosaccharides, we studied two endoglycosidase activities, putative enzymes involved in their formation. The previously described peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activity and the endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity described in this paper were both quantified in white campion cells during the culture cycle with variable initial concentrations of sucrose. The lower the sucrose supply, the higher the two activities. Furthermore, endoglycosidase activities were greatly enhanced after the disappearance of sugar from the medium. The production of UNGs in the culture medium rose correlatively. These data strongly suggest that the production of UNGs in our white campion cell-suspension system is due to the increase of these endoglycosidase activities, which reach their highest levels of activity during conditions of carbon starvation. PMID:7991689

  10. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  11. Magnesium Uptake by the Green Microalga Chlorella vulgaris in Batch Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor-Ben Ayed, Hela; Taidi, Behnam; Ayadi, Habib; Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation (internal and superficial distribution) of magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) by the green freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was investigated under autotrophic culture in a stirred photobioreactor. The concentrations of the three forms of Mg(2+) (dissolved, extracellular, and intracellular) were determined with atomic absorption spectroscopy during the course of C. vulgaris growth. The proportions of adsorbed (extracellular) and absorbed (intracellular) Mg(2+) were quantified. The concentration of the most important pigment in algal cells, chlorophyll a, increased over time in proportion to the increase in the biomass concentration, indicating a constant chlorophyll/biomass ratio during the linear growth phase. The mean-average rate of Mg(2+) uptake by C. vulgaris grown in a culture medium starting with 16 mg/l of Mg(2+) concentration was measured. A clear relationship between the biomass concentration and the proportion of the Mg(2+) removal from the medium was observed. Of the total Mg(2+) present in the culture medium, 18% was adsorbed on the cell wall and 51% was absorbed by the biomass by the end of the experiment (765 h). Overall, 69% of the initial Mg(2+) were found to be removed from the medium. This study supported the kinetic model based on a reversible first-order reaction for Mg(2+) bioaccumulation in C. vulgaris, which was consistent with the experimental data. PMID:26628253

  12. Hydrogenase activity in aged, nonviable Desulfovibrio vulgaris cultures and its significance in anaerobic biocorrosion.

    PubMed

    Chatelus, C; Carrier, P; Saignes, P; Libert, M F; Berlier, Y; Lespinat, P A; Fauque, G; Legall, J

    1987-07-01

    Batch cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris stored at 32 degrees C for 10 months have been found to retain 50% of the hydrogenase activity of a 1-day culture. The hydrogenase found in old cultures needs reducing conditions for its activation. Viable cell counts are negative after 6 months, showing that the hydrogenase activity does not depend on the presence of viable cells. These observations are of importance in the understanding of anaerobic biocorrosion of metals caused by depolarization phenomena.

  13. A case of lupus vulgaris successfully treated with antituberculous therapy despite negative PCR and culture.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Gulsen; Karaduman, Aysen; Boztepe, Gonca; Ozkaya, Ozay; Sahin, Sedef; Erkin, Gul; Kolemen, Fikret

    2005-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a pink firm plaque with well-defined borders in the right infra-orbital skin area. On diascopy, the infiltrate exhibited a typical apple-jelly appearance. No acid-fast bacilli could be demonstrated. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay did not reveal the presence of mycobacteria in a lesional biopsy sample. Culture of biopsied tissue on Loewenstein-Jensen medium was negative. Although the tuberculosis culture and PCR did not confirm tuberculosis, a diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made considering the clinical and histopathological findings. After a 9-month antituberculous therapy, the lesion disappeared. We believe that a diagnosis of lupus vulgaris still depends more on clinical and histopathological findings than on tuberculosis culture or PCR.

  14. Chlorella vulgaris culture as a regulator of CO2 in a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Hu, Enzhu; Xie, Beizhen; Tong, Ling

    2013-08-01

    It is the primary task for a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) to maintain the stable concentrations of CO2 and O2. However, these concentrations could fluctuate based on various factors, such as the imbalance between respiration/assimilation quotients of the heterotrophic and autotrophic components. They can even be out of balance through catastrophic failure of higher plants in the emergency conditions. In this study, the feasibility of using unicellular Chlorella vulgaris of typically rapid growth as both “compensatory system” and “regulator” to control the balance of CO2 and O2 was analyzed in a closed ecosystem. For this purpose, a small closed ecosystem called integrative experimental system (IES) was established in our laboratory where we have been conducting multi-biological life support system experiments (MLSSE). The IES consists of a closed integrative cultivating system (CICS) and a plate photo-bioreactor. Four volunteers participated in the study for gas exchange by periodical breathing through a tube connected with the CICS. The plate photo-bioreactor was used to cultivate C. vulgaris. Results showed that the culture of C. vulgaris could be used in a situation of catastrophic failure of higher plant under the emergencies. And the productivity could recover itself to the original state in 3 to 5 days to protect the system till the higher plant was renewed. Besides, C. vulgaris could grow well and the productivity could be affected by the light intensity which could help to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 in the IES efficiently. Thus, C. vulgaris could be included in the design of a BLSS as a “compensatory system” in the emergency contingency and a “regulator” during the normal maintenance.

  15. Pentachlorophenol toxicity to a mixture of Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulgaris cultures.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Paulo; Stoichev, Teodor; Basto, M Clara P; Ramos, V; Vasconcelos, V M; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2014-05-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant due to its persistence and high toxicity. For the first time, PCP effects were investigated at laboratory scale on co-cultures of two ubiquitous freshwater phytoplankton species: the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The cells were exposed to environmental levels of PCP for 10 days in Fraquil culture medium, at nominal concentrations from 0.1 to 10,000 μg L(-1). Growth was assessed by area under growth curve (cell count vs. time). The phytoplankton community structure can be changed as a consequence of a PCP contamination. Low μg L(-1) levels of PCP are advantageous to M. aeruginosa. This is the first report of the promoting effect of PCP on the growth of aquatic cyanobacteria, using mixtures with microalgae. As a result of the direct toxic effects of high PCP concentrations on M. aeruginosa, C. vulgaris cell count increased given that in biological controls M. aeruginosa inhibited the C. vulgaris growth. At 16.7 mg L(-1), PCP already had direct toxic effects also on the microalga. The pH of culture medium tended to decrease with increasing PCP concentrations, which was mostly related to the growth inhibition of cyanobacterium caused by PCP. The PCP concentration was stable in the co-cultures, which differed from what has been observed in monocultures of the same two species. Short-term laboratory assays with two phytoplankton species gives important information on the species interactions, namely possible direct and indirect effects of a toxicant, and must be considered in ecotoxicity studies regarding environmental extrapolations. PMID:24681699

  16. Single-cell analysis reveals gene-expression heterogeneity in syntrophic dual-culture of Desulfovibrio vulgaris with Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhenhua; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-12-15

    Microbial syntrophic metabolism has been well accepted as the heart of how methanogenic and other anaerobic microbial communities function. In this work, we applied a single-cell RT-qPCR approach to reveal gene-expression heterogeneity in a model syntrophic system of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri, as compared with the D. vulgaris monoculture. Using the optimized primers and single-cell analytical protocol, we quantitatively determine gene-expression levels of 6 selected target genes in each of the 120 single cells of D. vulgaris isolated from its monoculture and dual-culture with M. barkeri. The results demonstrated very significant cell-to-cell gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected D. vulgaris genes in both the monoculture and the syntrophic dual-culture. Interestingly, no obvious increase in gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected genes was observed for the syntrophic dual-culture when compared with its monoculture, although the community structure and cell-cell interactions have become more complicated in the syntrophic dual-culture. In addition, the single-cell RT-qPCR analysis also provided further evidence that the gene cluster (DVU0148-DVU0150) may be involved syntrophic metabolism between D. vulgaris and M. barkeri. Finally, the study validated that single-cell RT-qPCR analysis could be a valuable tool in deciphering gene functions and metabolism in mixed-cultured microbial communities.

  17. Single-cell analysis reveals gene-expression heterogeneity in syntrophic dual-culture of Desulfovibrio vulgaris with Methanosarcina barkeri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhenhua; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-12-01

    Microbial syntrophic metabolism has been well accepted as the heart of how methanogenic and other anaerobic microbial communities function. In this work, we applied a single-cell RT-qPCR approach to reveal gene-expression heterogeneity in a model syntrophic system of Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri, as compared with the D. vulgaris monoculture. Using the optimized primers and single-cell analytical protocol, we quantitatively determine gene-expression levels of 6 selected target genes in each of the 120 single cells of D. vulgaris isolated from its monoculture and dual-culture with M. barkeri. The results demonstrated very significant cell-to-cell gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected D. vulgaris genes in both the monoculture and the syntrophic dual-culture. Interestingly, no obvious increase in gene-expression heterogeneity for the selected genes was observed for the syntrophic dual-culture when compared with its monoculture, although the community structure and cell-cell interactions have become more complicated in the syntrophic dual-culture. In addition, the single-cell RT-qPCR analysis also provided further evidence that the gene cluster (DVU0148-DVU0150) may be involved syntrophic metabolism between D. vulgaris and M. barkeri. Finally, the study validated that single-cell RT-qPCR analysis could be a valuable tool in deciphering gene functions and metabolism in mixed-cultured microbial communities.

  18. Biosynthesis and radical scavenging activity of betalains during the cultivation of red beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy root cultures.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Atanas; Kovatcheva, Petia; Georgiev, Vasil; Koleva, Irina; Ilieva, Mladenka

    2002-01-01

    Betalains biosynthesis and antiradical scavenging activity were investigated during cultivation of four hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris, obtained from different cultivars (Bordo, Egyptian, Detroit 2 and Detroit Dark Red). The best producer of betalains was a hairy root culture from Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit Dark Red (13.27 mg/g dry weight total pigment production). The ethanol extract, derived from roots of the same culture grown for 15 days under submerged conditions, showed a high antiradical activity (83% of inhibition of the stable DPPH.). PMID:12240990

  19. Production of betacyanins by a cell suspension culture of table beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Akita, T; Hina, Y; Nishi, T

    2000-09-01

    A cell suspension culture of table beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was established for efficient betacyanin production from violet callus induced from the hypocotyls of aseptic seedlings. This suspension culture produced large amounts of betacyanins. The betacyanin content increased with increasing cell growth during the log phase. Reducing the total nitrogen concentration (30 mM) and modifying the ratio of ammonium to nitrate (1:14) resulted in an increased betacyanin content. Supplementation of Fe2+ to the LS medium also promoted betacyanin production. The maximal betacyanin yield was achieved with a 2 mM Fe2+ concentration. Combining these conditions, we established a revised LS medium to improve betacyanin productivity (250 mg/l for a 14-day culture).

  20. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth).

  1. Culture of a high-chlorophyll-producing and halotolerant Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Deuchi, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    In order to increase the value of freshwater algae as raw ingredients for health foods and feed for seawater-based farmed fish, we sought to breed high-chlorophyll halotolerant Chlorella with the objective of generating strains with both high chlorophyll concentrations (≥ 5%) and halotolerance (up to 1% NaCl). We used the Chlorella vulgaris K strain in our research institute culture collection and induced mutations with UV irradiation and acriflavine which is known to effect mutations of mitochondrial DNA that are associated with chlorophyll production. Screenings were conducted on seawater-based "For Chlorella spp." (FC) agar medium, and dark-green-colored colonies were visually selected by macroscopic inspection. We obtained a high-chlorophyll halotolerant strain (designated C. vulgaris M-207A7) that had a chlorophyll concentration of 6.7% (d.m.), a level at least three-fold higher than that of K strain. This isolate also exhibited a greater survival rate in seawater that of K strain.

  2. A novel culture medium designed for the simultaneous enhancement of biomass and lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 26.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, Citlally; Chairez, Isaac; Fernández-Linares, Luis

    2016-07-01

    A novel culture medium to enhance the biomass and lipid production simultaneously by Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 26 was designed in three stages of optimization. Initially, a culture medium was inferred applying the response surface method to adjust six factors [NaNO3, NH4HCO3, MgSO4·7H2O, KH2PO4, K2HPO4 and (NH4)2HPO4], which were selected on the basement of BBM (Bold's Basal Medium) and HAMGM (Highly Assimilable Minimal Growth Medium) culture media. Afterwards, the nitrogen source compound was optimized to reduce both, ammonium and nitrate concentrations. As result of the optimization process, the proposed culture medium improved 40% the biomass (0.73gL(-1)) compared with the BBM medium and 85% the lipid concentration (281mgL(-1)), with respect to HAMGM medium. Some culture media components concentrations were reduced up to 50%. Gas chromatography analysis revealed that C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were the major fatty acids produced by C. vulgaris UTEX 26.

  3. Demography of zooplankton (Anuraeopsis fissa, Brachionus rubens and Moina macrocopa) fed Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acutus cultured on different media.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ventura, Jesús; Nandini, S; Sarma, S S S; Castellanos-Páez, Maria Elena

    2012-09-01

    Generally zooplankton growth is often limited by the quality of their algal diet. A cheaper common practice in aquaculture, is to culture algae with fertilizers; however, the demography of zooplankton when fed these algae has not yet been evaluated. We studied the population growth and life table demography of the rotifers Anuraeopsis fissa and Brachionus rubens, and the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. For this, the algae Scenedesmus acutus or Chlorella vulgaris were cultured on defined (Bold's basal) medium or the commercial liquid fertilizer (Bayfolan). Experiments were conducted at one algal concentration 1.0 x 10(6) cells/mL of C. vulgaris or its equivalent dry weight of 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mL of S. acutus. The population dynamics were tested at 23 +/- 1 degrees C in 100 mL transparent jars, each with 50mL of the test medium, with an initial density of 0.5indiv/mL, for a total of 48 test jars (3 zooplankton 2 algal species x 2 culture media x 4 replicates). For the life table experiments with M. macrocopa, we introduced 10 neonates (<24h old) into each test jar containing the specific algal type and concentration. For the rotifer experiments, we set 5mL tubes with one neonate each and 10 replicates for each algal species and culture medium. We found that the average rotifer life span was not influenced by the diet, but for M. macrocopa fed S. acutus cultured in Bold's medium, the average lifespan was significantly lower than with the other diets. The gross and net reproductive rates of A. fissa (ranging from 18-36 offspring per female) were significantly higher for C vulgaris cultured in Bold medium. Regardless of the culture medium, Chlorella resulted in significantly higher gross and net reproductive rates for B. rubens than S. acutus diets. The reproductive rates of M. macrocopa were significantly higher in all the tested diets except when fed with S. acutus in Bold medium. The population increase rate, derived from growth experiments of A. fissa and B. rubens

  4. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P. E.; Camacho-Díaz, B. H.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  5. Beta vulgaris L. suspension cultures permeabilized with triton X-100 retain cell viability and betacyanines production ability: a digital image analysis study.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Cuevas-Celis, Jonathan; Salcedo-Morales, Guadalupe; Trejo-Espino, José Luis; Arenas-Ocampo, Martha L; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The influence of Triton X-100 on Beta vulgaris L. permeabilized cell culture viability, regrowth, and ability to produce betacyanines was evaluated in this study. A non-destructive method based on the analysis of images in the RGB (red, green, blue) system was developed to estimate betacyanines content. A treatment for 15 min with 0.7 mM Triton X-100 induced the release of 30% of betacyanines without loss of cell viability (>or=70%). After this permeabilization treatment, B. vulgaris cultures regrew normally, reaching a maximum biomass concentration of 48% higher than non-permeabilized cultures after 14 days of culture. Also, maximum betacyanines concentration was only 25% lower than that of non-permeabilized cultures.

  6. Optimization of culture media for large-scale lutein production by heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Young; Kwon, Ji-Sue; Kang, Soon Tae; Kim, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yuchul; Han, Jae Gap; Park, Joon Hyun; Hwang, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with a purported role in protecting eyes from oxidative stress, particularly the high-energy photons of blue light. Statistical optimization was performed to growth media that supports a higher production of lutein by heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella vulgaris. The effect of media composition of C. vulgaris on lutein was examined using fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD). The results indicated that the presence of magnesium sulfate, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution significantly affected lutein production. The optimum concentrations for lutein production were found to be 0.34 g/L, 0.06 g/L, and 0.4 mL/L for MgSO4 ·7H2 O, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution, respectively. These values were validated using a 5-L jar fermenter. Lutein concentration was increased by almost 80% (139.64 ± 12.88 mg/L to 252.75 ± 12.92 mg/L) after 4 days. Moreover, the lutein concentration was not reduced as the cultivation was scaled up to 25,000 L (260.55 ± 3.23 mg/L) and 240,000 L (263.13 ± 2.72 mg/L). These observations suggest C. vulgaris as a potential lutein source.

  7. Optimization of culture media for large-scale lutein production by heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Young; Kwon, Ji-Sue; Kang, Soon Tae; Kim, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yuchul; Han, Jae Gap; Park, Joon Hyun; Hwang, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with a purported role in protecting eyes from oxidative stress, particularly the high-energy photons of blue light. Statistical optimization was performed to growth media that supports a higher production of lutein by heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella vulgaris. The effect of media composition of C. vulgaris on lutein was examined using fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD). The results indicated that the presence of magnesium sulfate, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution significantly affected lutein production. The optimum concentrations for lutein production were found to be 0.34 g/L, 0.06 g/L, and 0.4 mL/L for MgSO4 ·7H2 O, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution, respectively. These values were validated using a 5-L jar fermenter. Lutein concentration was increased by almost 80% (139.64 ± 12.88 mg/L to 252.75 ± 12.92 mg/L) after 4 days. Moreover, the lutein concentration was not reduced as the cultivation was scaled up to 25,000 L (260.55 ± 3.23 mg/L) and 240,000 L (263.13 ± 2.72 mg/L). These observations suggest C. vulgaris as a potential lutein source. PMID:24550199

  8. Comparison of Transcriptional Heterogeneity of Eight Genes between Batch Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilm and Planktonic Culture at a Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhenhua; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm formed on metal surfaces can change the physicochemical properties of metals and cause metal corrosion. To enhance understanding of differential gene expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris under planktonic and biofilm growth modes, a single-cell based RT-qPCR approach was applied to determine gene expression levels of 8 selected target genes in four sets of the 31 individual cells isolated from each growth condition (i.e., biofilm formed on a mild steel (SS) and planktonic cultures, exponential and stationary phases). The results showed obvious gene-expression heterogeneity for the target genes among D. vulgaris single cells of both biofilm and planktonic cultures. In addition, an increased gene-expression heterogeneity in the D. vulgaris biofilm when compared with the planktonic culture was also observed for seven out of eight selected genes at exponential phase, and six out of eight selected genes at stationary phase, respectively, which may be contributing to the increased complexity in terms of structures and morphology in the biofilm. Moreover, the results showed up-regulation of DVU0281 gene encoding exopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, and down-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., DVU0434 and DVU0588), stress responses (i.e., DVU2410) and response regulator (i.e., DVU3062) in the D. vulgaris biofilm cells. Finally, the gene (DVU2571) involved in iron transportation was found down-regulated, and two genes (DVU1340 and DVU1397) involved in ferric uptake repressor and iron storage were up-regulated in D. vulgaris biofilm, suggesting their possible roles in maintaining normal metabolism of the D. vulgaris biofilm under environments of high concentration of iron. This study showed that the single-cell based analysis could be a useful approach in deciphering metabolism of microbial biofilms. PMID:27199927

  9. Comparison of Transcriptional Heterogeneity of Eight Genes between Batch Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilm and Planktonic Culture at a Single-Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhenhua; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm formed on metal surfaces can change the physicochemical properties of metals and cause metal corrosion. To enhance understanding of differential gene expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris under planktonic and biofilm growth modes, a single-cell based RT-qPCR approach was applied to determine gene expression levels of 8 selected target genes in four sets of the 31 individual cells isolated from each growth condition (i.e., biofilm formed on a mild steel (SS) and planktonic cultures, exponential and stationary phases). The results showed obvious gene-expression heterogeneity for the target genes among D. vulgaris single cells of both biofilm and planktonic cultures. In addition, an increased gene-expression heterogeneity in the D. vulgaris biofilm when compared with the planktonic culture was also observed for seven out of eight selected genes at exponential phase, and six out of eight selected genes at stationary phase, respectively, which may be contributing to the increased complexity in terms of structures and morphology in the biofilm. Moreover, the results showed up-regulation of DVU0281 gene encoding exopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, and down-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., DVU0434 and DVU0588), stress responses (i.e., DVU2410) and response regulator (i.e., DVU3062) in the D. vulgaris biofilm cells. Finally, the gene (DVU2571) involved in iron transportation was found down-regulated, and two genes (DVU1340 and DVU1397) involved in ferric uptake repressor and iron storage were up-regulated in D. vulgaris biofilm, suggesting their possible roles in maintaining normal metabolism of the D. vulgaris biofilm under environments of high concentration of iron. This study showed that the single-cell based analysis could be a useful approach in deciphering metabolism of microbial biofilms. PMID:27199927

  10. Nitrous oxide (N2O) production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.

    2013-06-01

    Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic C. vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favoring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  11. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris microalgae cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.

    2013-10-01

    Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38-10.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions). These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  12. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Silene armeria.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Twelve triterpenoid saponins, including seven compounds (i.e., armerosides A-G) hitherto unknown, were isolated from whole plants of Silene armeria. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. From a biosynthetic perspective, C-23 oxidation of the sapogenin appears to be a key factor in the glycosylation pathway. PMID:27460531

  13. Origin and evolution of North American polyploid Silene (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Popp, Magnus; Oxelman, Bengt

    2007-03-01

    Nuclear DNA sequences from introns of the low-copy nuclear gene family encoding the second largest subunit of RNA polymerases and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, combined with the psbE-petL spacer and the rps16 intron from the chloroplast genome were used to infer origins and phylogenetic relationships of North American polyploid Silene species and their closest relatives. Although the vast majority of North American Silene species are polyploid, which contrasts to the diploid condition dominating in other parts of the world, the phylogenetic analyses rejected a single origin of the North American polyploids. One lineage consists of tetraploid Silene menziesii and its diploid allies. A second lineage, Physolychnis s.l., consists of Arctic, European, Asian, and South American taxa in addition to the majority of the North American polyploids. The hexaploid S. hookeri is derived from an allopolyploidization between these two lineages. The tetraploid S. nivea does not belong to any of these lineages, but is closely related to the European diploid S. baccifera. The poor resolution within Physolychnis s.l. may be attributed to rapid radiation, recombination among homoeologues, homoplasy, or any combination of these factors. No extant diploid donors could be identified in Physolychnis s.l. PMID:21636405

  14. [Examples of the keeping of drugs during the XVIth, XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries: silenes and drawers].

    PubMed

    Fievet, B

    1998-01-01

    Silenes are wooden boxes with colourful paintings for the keeping of drugs and can be found nowadays in three collections in France: Hotel-Dieu in Troyes (Aube), a pharmacy in Bauge (Maine-et-Loire) and St-Roch museum in Issoudun (Indre). Drawers can be related to silenes but they are more ordinary and less attractive.

  15. Expansion of the Pseudo-autosomal Region and Ongoing Recombination Suppression in the Silene latifolia Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ∼25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

  16. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  17. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction of

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Judy D.

    2006-06-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms biofilms under stress and nutrient limitation conditions. Analysis of the transcriptional responses to acid exposure suggested that genes encoding arginine and polyamine biosynthesis were increased in expression. A literature search showed that polyamines had been suggested to stimulate biofilm formation in some bacteria. Therefore, biofilm formation by D. vulgaris was then examined. Two different assay methods were used to estimate the biofilm formation. First, the classical crystal violet stainable material attached to glass test tubes was measured. Second protein attached to the test tube sides and especially precipitated at the bottom was measured.

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris Grown in Planktonic Culture and Mature Biofilm on a Steel Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Nie, Lei; Scholten, Johannes C.

    2007-08-01

    The build-up of biofilms of sulphate -reducing bacteria (SRB) on metals surfaces may lead to severe corrosion of iron. To understand the processes at molecular level, in this study, a whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray was used to examine differential expression patterns between planktonic populations and mature biofilm of model SRB species Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Statistical analysis revealed that 472 genes were differentially expressed (1.5 fold or more with a p value less than 0.025) when comparing biofilm to planktonic cells. Among the differentially expressed genes were several that corresponded to biofilm formation genes identified in many aerobic bacterial biofilms (i.e., Pseudomonas species and Escherichia coli), such as down-regulation of genes encoding flagellin, flagellar motor switch protein and chemotaxis proteins involved in cell motility and induction of genes encoding sugar transferase and glycogen synthase involved in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In addition, D. vulgaris biofilm-bound cells exhibited decreased transcription of genes involved in protein synthesis, energy metabolism and sulfate reduction, as well as genes involved in general stress responses. These findings were all consistent with early suggestion that the average physiology of biofilm cells were similar to planktonic cells of stationary phases. Most notably, up-regulation of large number of outer membrane proteins was observed in D. vulgaris biofilm. Although their function is still unknown, the higher expression of these genes in D. vulgaris biofilm could implicate important roles formation and maintenance of multi-cellular consortium on metal surface. The study provided insights into the metabolic networks associated with D. vulgaris biofilm formation and maintenance on an iron surface.

  19. Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Eike; Hlaváčková, Iva; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Fifty candidate microsatellite markers, generated using 454 shotgun sequencing, were tested for the widespread arctic/alpine herb Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). Methods and Results: Fourteen out of 50 markers resulted in polymorphic products with profiles that enabled interpretation. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.06 to 0.68. Analysis of F0 and F1 samples proved that one allele was always inherited maternally. Four multiplex mixes have been developed. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers for this species will be a valuable tool to study detailed small-scale genetic patterns in an arctic/alpine herb and to relate them to demographic parameters. PMID:26421249

  20. Fractal morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension culture permeabilized with Triton X-100®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Ocampo, M.; Alamilla-Beltrán, L.; Vanegas-Espinoza, P.; Camacho-Díaz, B.; Campos-Mendiola, R.; Gutiérrez-López, G.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, morphology of Beta vulgaris L. cells permeabilized with 0.7mM of Triton X-100® was evaluated using digital image processing and concepts of fractal dimension (perimeter- area relations). Important morphometric changes were found when the contact-time with chemical agent was increased. The size of cells decreased, the cells lost the roundness and their shape was more sinuous; this behaviour was a result of a probable shrinkage caused by the excess of exposure with the permeabilization agent. Morphology of B. vulgaris cells after permeabilization, exhibited a fractal nature since the slope of the ratio of the logarithm of the perimeter vs logarithm of the area was higher than unit. Fractal geometry of the cell morphology was affected as a result of the exposure to Triton X-100®. Those changes can be attributed to the loss of turgor and structure of the cell wall.

  1. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Matthew W.

    2006-06-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC29579 is a sulfate- reducing bacterium (SRB) that is commonly used as a model for direct and indirect heavy metal reduction, and can also be a causitative agent of metal corrosion. During growth with lactate and sulfate, internal carbohydrate levels increased throughout exponential-phase, and peaked as the cells transitioned to stationary-phase. The carbohydrate to protein ratio (C:P) peaked at 0.05 ug/ug as the cells transitioned to stationary-phase, and then declined to 0.02 ug/ug during extended stationary-phase. In contrast, a strain of D. vulgaris that does not contain the megaplasmid, maintained higher internal carbohydrate levels and the C:P ratio peaked at 0.1 ug/ug (2-fold increase compared to wild-type). Under the tested growth conditions, we observed biofilm formation in wild-type cells, but the plasmid-less strain formed less biofilm (2-fold decrease). We hypothesized that carbohydrate was re-allocated to the external cell proper for biofilm formation. However, biofilm contained relatively little carbohydrate (0.6 to 1.0 ug/ml) and had a similar C:P ratio compared to wild-type early stationary-phase cells. Staining with calcafluor white also indicated the presence of little external carbohydrate in D. vulgaris biofilms. Less biofilm was formed in the presence of protinease K, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, however, the growth of planktonic cells was not affected. In addition, when D. vulgaris biofilm was treated with a protease, less biofilm was observed. Electron micrographs suggested the presence of filaments between the biofilm cells, and filaments appeared to be susceptible to protease treatment. Biofilm filtrates contained soluble protein, and SDS-PAGE analysis suggested different polypeptide profiles between a filtrate, a planktonic, and a biofilm sample.

  2. First Report of Pseudobodo sp, a New Pathogen for a Potential Energy-Producing Algae: Chlorella vulgaris Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bangzhou; Yang, Luxi; Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Jingyan; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Liu, Jingwen; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4–5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant. PMID:24599263

  3. Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E.; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  4. Glacial refugia in pathogens: European genetic structure of anther smut pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica.

    PubMed

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  5. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Suwannarat, Warangkana; Niyomdecha, Rujira

    2011-07-01

    A mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was performed to enhance lipid production from industrial wastes. These included effluent from seafood processing plant and molasses from sugar cane plant. In the mixed culture, the yeast grew faster and the lipid production was higher than that in the pure cultures. This could be because microalga acted as an oxygen generator for yeast, while yeast provided CO(2) to microalga and both carried out the production of lipids. The optimal conditions for lipid production by the mixed culture were as follows: ratio of yeast to microalga at 1:1; initial pH at 5.0; molasses concentration at 1%; shaking speed at 200 rpm; and light intensity at 5.0 klux under 16:8 hours light and dark cycles. Under these conditions, the highest biomass of 4.63±0.15 g/L and lipid production of 2.88±0.16 g/L were obtained after five days of cultivation. In addition, the plant oil-like fatty acid composition of yeast and microalgal lipids suggested their high potential for use as biodiesel feedstock.

  6. Introgressive Hybridization between Anciently Diverged Lineages of Silene (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Anna; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Oxelman, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has played a major role during the evolution of angiosperms, mediating both gene flow between already distinct species and the formation of new species. Newly formed hybrids between distantly related taxa are often sterile. For this reason, interspecific crosses resulting in fertile hybrids have rarely been described to take place after more than a few million years after divergence. We describe here the traces of a reproductively successful hybrid between two ancestral species of Silene, diverged for about six million years prior to hybridization. No extant hybrids between the two parental lineages are currently known, but introgression of the RNA polymerase gene NRPA2 provides clear evidence of a temporary and fertile hybrid. Parsimony reconciliation between gene trees and the species tree, as well as consideration of clade ages, help exclude gene paralogy and lineage sorting as alternative hypotheses. This may represent one of the most extreme cases of divergence between species prior to introgressive hybridization discovered yet, notably at a homoploid level. Although species boundaries are generally believed to be stable after millions of years of divergence, we believe that this finding may indicate that gene flow between distantly related species is merely largely undetected at present. PMID:23861793

  7. Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

    2011-01-01

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

  8. [Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) morphogenesis in vitro: effects of phytohormone type and concentration in the culture medium, type of explants, and plant genotype on shoot regeneration frequency].

    PubMed

    Mishutkina, Ia V; Gaponenko, A K

    2006-02-01

    In vitro regeneration techniques have been optimized for seven strains and cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) bred in Russia. The frequency of shoot regeneration from somatic cells and tissues of sugar beet varies from 10 to 97% depending on the explant type, culture-medium composition, and genotype. The in vitro regeneration potential has been estimated in plants with different genotypes. The effect of medium composition (phytohormones and carbohydrates) on the frequency of the formation of a morphogenic callus competent for plant regeneration has been determined. The effect of the types and concentrations of various cytokines (zeatin, kinetin, and 6-benzylaminopurine) on direct shoot regeneration from cotyledon nodes has been estimated. The culture-medium composition has been optimized for direct shoot regeneration from petioles. The effects of different concentrations of abscisic acid on the frequency of shoot regeneration from a morphogenic callus has been studied. Micropropagation has been used to obtain petiole explants and reproduce the shoots obtained by direct regeneration from cotyledon nodes, petioles, and calluses. Improved shoot-regeneration methods can be used for both agrobacterial and bioballistic genetic transformation of the sugar beet genotypes studied.

  9. Gibberellins and stem growth as related to photoperiod Silene armeria L

    SciTech Connect

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Stem growth and flowering in the long-day plant Silene armeria L. are induced by exposure to a minimum of 3 to 6 long days (LD). Stem growth continues in subsequent short days (SD), albeit at a reduced rate. The growth retardant tetcyclacis inhibited stem elongation induced by LD, but had no effect on flowering. This indicates that photoperiodic control of stem growth in Silene is mediated by gibberellins (GA). The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of photoperiod on the levels and distribution of endogenous GAs in Silene and to determine the nature of the photoperiodic after-effect on stem growth in this plant. The GAs identified in extracts from Silene by full-scan combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry are members of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway. All of these GAs were present in plants under SD as well as under LD conditions. The GA{sub 53} level was highest in plants in SD, and decreased in plants transferred to LD conditions. By contrast, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} initially increased in plants transferred to LD, and then declined. Likewise, when Silene plants were returned from LD to SD, there was an increase in GA{sub 53}, and a decrease in GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} which ultimately reached levels similar to those found in plants kept in SD. Thus, measurements of GA levels in whole shoots of Silene as well as in individual parts of the plant suggest that the photoperiod modulates GA metabolism mainly through the rate of conversion of GA{sub 53}. As a result of LD induction, GA{sub 1} accumulates at its highest level in shoot tips which, in turn, results in stem elongation. In addition, LD also appear to increase the sensitivity of the tissue to GA, and this effect is presumably responsible for the photoperiodic after-effect on stem elongation in Silene.

  10. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy–gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy–gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy–gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy–gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious

  11. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-04-10

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy-gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy-gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy-gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy-gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious-gynomonoecious sexual

  12. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of betalain extracts from intact plants and hairy root cultures of the red beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit dark red.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Vasil Georgiev; Weber, Jost; Kneschke, Eva-Maria; Denev, Petko Nedyalkov; Bley, Thomas; Pavlov, Atanas Ivanov

    2010-06-01

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments that are widely used as food colorants, and have a wide range of desirable biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer properties. They can be produced from various plants, notably beetroot, but betalain products obtained in this way also have some undesirable properties and are difficult to standardize. A potentially attractive alternative is to use hairy root cultures. In the study reported here, we found that betalain extracts obtained from hairy root cultures of the red beetroot B. vulgaris cv. Detroit Dark Red also had higher antioxidant activity than extracts obtained from mature beetroots: six-fold higher 2,2-dyphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability (90.7% inhibition, EC(50) = 0.11 mg, vs 14.2% inhibition, EC(50) = 0.70 mg) and 3.28-fold higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (4,100 microM TE/g dry extract, vs 1,250 microM TE/g dry extract). The high antioxidant activity of the hairy root extracts was associated with increased concentrations (more than 20-fold) of total phenolic concomitant compounds, which may have synergistic effects with betalains. The presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, catechin hydrate, and epicatechin were detected in both types of extract, but at different concentrations. Rutin was only present at high concentration (1.096 mg.g(-1) dry extract) in betalain extracts from the hairy root cultures, whereas chlorogenic acid was only detected at measurable concentrations in extracts from intact plants. PMID:20195764

  13. Reduced stability and bi-allelic, coequal expression of profilaggrin mRNA in keratinocytes cultured from subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nirunsuksiri, W; Zhang, S H; Fleckman, P

    1998-06-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is an inherited scaling skin disorder in which expression of profilaggrin is reduced. Previous studies have indicated that the reduction is caused by defective post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Here we present evidence that profilaggrin mRNA in keratinocytes cultured from subjects with IV is intrinsically unstable and has a shorter half-life compared with that in normal cells. When IV-affected keratinocytes were treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, the steady-state level of profilaggrin mRNA was increased due to stabilization of the transcript. In addition, the number of filaggrin repeats within the profilaggrin gene was studied. The number of filaggrin repeats (10-12) in individuals with IV did not differ from that of unaffected subjects. Expression of the gene was bi-allelic and coequal in both control and affected individuals. Our results suggest a model in which a labile ribonuclease and a stabilizing factor may modulate the profilaggrin mRNA steady-state level in normal cells, whereas the stabilizing factor may be absent or functionally inactive in IV-affected keratinocytes.

  14. Antiulcer activity of extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of genera Lychnis and Silene of the Caryophyllaceae family.

    PubMed

    Krylova, S G; Zueva, E P; Zibareva, L N; Amosova, E N; Razina, T G

    2014-12-01

    We studied antiulcer activity of the extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of the Caryophyllaceae family: Lychnis chalcedonica L., Silene viridiflora L.Sp.Pl., and Silene frivaldszkyana Hampe. Experiments on the model of neurogenic and aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis showed unidirectional and pronounced gastroprotective effects of S. viridiflora and L. chalcedonica extracts comparable to the efficacy of famotidine. In these models, a course of intragastric treatment with the extracts reduced ulcerative lesions of all types. PMID:25432278

  15. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne. PMID:27189872

  16. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Ertuğrul H

    2014-03-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit and it is observed equally in both sexes and nearly all races. It generally begins at puberty, but the healing period is variable. There is no known etiological factor, except genetic tendency. Androgens play a very limited role in some female patients. The effects of cosmetics, foods and drinks are also discussible and too limited. There are four factors in acne pathogenesis: Increase of the sebum excretionKeratinization of infrainfundibulumBacterial colonization of the follicleInflammation It is mainly observed on the face and back, shoulders and chest. Initial lesions are comedons. Papules, pustules and cysts of severe types follow it. The most important factor in treatment is a very good patient-physician communication. Topical or systemic treatment or both can be used depending on the severity of acne. Benzoyl peroxyde, azelaic acid, AHA's antibiotics, retinoic acid and derivatives are the topical choices. For systemic treatment antibiotics are the most commonly used medicines, but isotretinoine has a very spesific place with the possibility of permanent healing. All kind of treatments need approximately six months for a good result.

  17. [Acne vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C

    2014-08-01

    Acne vulgaris is worldwide the most common skin disease. Acne is an inflammatory disorder in whose emergence androgens, PPAR ligands, the IGF-1 signaling pathway, regulating neuropeptides and environmental factors are probably involved. These factors interrupt the natural cycling process in the sebaceous gland follicle and support the transition of microcomedones to comedones and inflammatory lesions. Proinflammatory lipids and cytokines are mediators for the development of acne lesions. Bacterial antigens can potentate the inflammatory phenomena. Acne is predominantly treated with combination therapy. Selecting a treatment regimen depends on the exact classification of acne type and severity. The development of scars is the main criterion for the choice of systemic therapy. Retinoids for mild comedonal acne and the combination of retinoids with antibiotics and/or benzoyl peroxide for mild to moderate papulopustular acne are the drugs of first choice for topical treatment. The use of topical antibiotics is not recommended any more because of the development of resistant bacterial strains. Systemic antibiotics, in combination with topical retinoids and/or benzoyl peroxide, for moderate papular/nodular acne and isotretinoin for severe nodular/conglobate acne are the columns of systemic acne treatment. Systemic anti-androgens are used in women against moderate papulopustular acne. Due to advances in the understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms in recent years the development of new therapeutic agents with good efficacy and better side effect profile should be expected in the future.

  18. Acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-09-17

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne.

  19. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures.

  20. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. PMID:26338117

  1. Improvement on light penetrability and microalgae biomass production by periodically pre-harvesting Chlorella vulgaris cells with culture medium recycling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Fu, Qian; Xia, Ao; Zhu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    To improve light penetrability and biomass production in batch cultivation, a cultivation mode that periodically pre-harvesting partial microalgae cells from suspension with culture medium recycling was proposed. By daily pre-harvesting 30% microalgae cells from the suspension, the average light intensity in the photobioreactor (PBR) was enhanced by 27.05-122.06%, resulting in a 46.48% increase in total biomass production than that cultivated in batch cultivation without pre-harvesting under an incident light intensity of 160μmolm(-2)s(-1). Compared with the semi-continuous cultivation with 30% microalgae suspension daily replaced with equivalent volume of fresh medium, nutrients and water input was reduced by 60% in the proposed cultivation mode but with slightly decrease (12.82%) in biomass production. No additional nutrient was replenished when culture medium recycling. Furthermore, higher pre-harvesting ratios (40%, 60%) and lower pre-harvesting frequencies (every 2, 2.5days) were not advantageous for the pre-harvesting cultivation mode. PMID:27289058

  2. Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplasmic [correction of cytoplamic] diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites.

    PubMed

    Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

    2013-08-01

    Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics.

  3. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells.

  4. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells. PMID:27318799

  5. Habituation of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Cell Cultures to Quinclorac and Analysis of the Subsequent Cell Wall Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Encina, Antonio; Acebes, José Luis; Álvarez, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The herbicide quinclorac has been reported to inhibit incorporation of glucose both into cellulose and other cell wall polysaccharides. However, further work has failed to detect any apparent effect of this herbicide on the synthesis of the wall. In order to elucidate whether quinclorac elicits the inhibition of cellulose biosynthesis directly, in this study bean cell calli were habituated to grow on lethal concentrations of the herbicide and the modifications in cell wall composition due to the habituation process were analysed. Methods Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis, cell wall fractionation techniques, biochemical analyses and the immunolocation of different cell wall components with specific monoclonal antibodies were used to characterize the cell walls of quinclorac-habituated cells. Key Results Quinclorac-habituated cells were more irregularly shaped than non-habituated cells and they accumulated an extracellular material, which was more abundant as the level of habituation rose. Habituated cells did not show any decrease in cellulose content, but cell wall fractionation revealed that changes occurred in the distribution and post-depositional modifications of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I during the habituation process. Therefore, since the action of quinclorac on the cell wall does not seem to be due to a direct inhibition of any cell wall component, it is suggested that the effect of quinclorac on the cell wall could be due to a side-effect of the herbicide. Conclusions Long-term modifications of the cell wall caused by the habituation of bean cell cultures to quinclorac did not resemble those of bean cells habituated to the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. Quinclorac does not seem to act primarily as an inhibitor of cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:18408242

  6. BCG vaccine-induced lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Izumi, A K; Matsunaga, J

    1982-03-01

    A case of intradermal BCG vaccination was complicated by a lupus-like tuberculosis cutis progressive for over 30 years. The patient had been vaccinated twice with BCG in the affected site. A review of other BCG vaccine-induced cases of lupus vulgaris indicates that the incidence of this complication is markedly increased following multiple BCG vaccinations, but is rare following a single BCG vaccination. In our patient a skin biopsy specimen was characteristic for lupus vulgaris. Acid-fast stains from the tissue and cultures from the affected site were negative. The patient was successfully treated with rifampin.

  7. Identification of Molecular and Cellular Responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Biofilms under Culture Conditions Relevant to Field Conditions for Bioreduction of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Judy D. Wall

    2011-06-09

    Our findings demonstrated that D. vulgaris surface-adhered populations produce extracellular structures, and that that the cells have altered carbon and energy flux compared to planktonic cells. Biofilms did not have greatly increased carbohydrate accumulation. Interestingly genes present on the native plasmid found in D. vulgaris Hildenborough were necessary for wild type biofilm formation. In addition, extracellular appendages dependent on functions or proteins encoded by flaG or fliA also contributed to biofilm formation. Studies with SRB biofilms have indicated that the reduction and precipitation of metals can occur within the biofilm matrix; however, little work has been done to elucidate the physiological state of surface-adhered cells during metal reduction (Cr6+, U6+) and how this process is affected by nutrient feed levels (i.e., the stimulant).

  8. The large-X effect in plants: increased species divergence and reduced gene flow on the Silene X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-06-01

    The disproportionately large involvement of the X-chromosome in the isolation of closely related species (the large-X effect) has been reported for many animals, where X-linked genes are mostly hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. The expression of deleterious recessive mutations is thought to drive the frequent involvement of the X-chromosome in hybrid sterility, as well as to reduce interspecific gene flow for X-linked genes. Here, we evaluate the role of the X-chromosome in the speciation of two closely related plant species - the white and red campions (Silene latifolia and S. dioica) - that hybridize widely across Europe. The two species evolved separate sexes and sex chromosomes relatively recently (~10(7)  years), and unlike most animal species, most X-linked genes have intact Y-linked homologs. We demonstrate that the X-linked genes show a very small and insignificant amount of interspecific gene flow, while gene flow involving autosomal loci is significant and sufficient to homogenize the gene pools of the two species. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the large-X effect in Silene and comprise the first report of this effect in plants. Nonhemizygosity of many X-linked genes in Silene males indicates that exposure of recessive mutations to selection may not be essential for the occurrence of the large-X effect. Several possible causes of the large-X effect in Silene are discussed.

  9. Herbivory Increases Fruit Set in Silene latifolia: A Consequence of Induced Pollinator-Attracting Floral Volatiles?

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Salvatore; Fineschi, Silvia; Litto, Maria; Scopece, Giovanni; Trunschke, Judith; Schiestl, Florian P

    2015-07-01

    Although the effect of herbivory on plant reproduction has been investigated in some detail, little is known about how herbivores affect floral signalling. Here, we investigated the effect of foliar herbivory by the African Cotton Leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) on floral signalling and fruit set in the White Campion (Silene latifolia). We found no effects of herbivory on floral traits involved in visual signalling (flower number, corolla diameter, calyx length, petal length) or in amount of nectar produced. However, Spodoptera-infested plants emitted higher amounts of the two floral volatiles, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and β-ocimene, than control plants. Open pollinated, infested plants also were found to produce more fruits than control plants, but only with nocturnal pollinators. Experimental addition of the two induced floral volatiles to non-infested Silene flowers also led to the production of more fruits with nocturnal pollination. This suggests that higher fruit production in herbivore-infested plants was caused by increased nocturnal pollinator attraction, mediated by the induced floral emission of these two volatiles. Our results show that the effects of herbivory on plant reproductive success are not necessarily detrimental, as plants can compensate herbivory with increased investment in pollinator attraction.

  10. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  11. Endogenous gibberellins and stem growth as related to photoperiod in Silene armeria L

    SciTech Connect

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1989-04-01

    The early 13-hydroxylation gibberellin (GA) pathway operates in the long-day plant Silene armeria grown under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions. Thus, induction of stem growth must be related to quantitative changes in GA pattern. Using GC-SIM-MS and GAs labeled with stable isotopes as internal standards, the levels of GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} were measured in shoots and various organs of plants grown under different photoperiods. Exposure to 8 LD decreased the levels of GA{sub 53} and GA{sub 19}, and increased the levels of GA{sub 20} and particularly of GA{sub 1}; the latter GA accumulated to very high levels in expanding leaves and tips. When plants were exposed to LD, followed by SD, GA levels decreased, and the relative increases in stem length were correlated with the level of GA{sub 1} at the time the plants were returned to SD. These observations suggest that GA{sub 53}-oxidase, and probable also GA{sub 19}-oxidase, are under photoperiodic control. Furthermore, GA{sub 1} appears to be active per se in Silene in causing stem growth, since its level was always correlated with the degree of stem elongation.

  12. Demographic change and microhabitat variability in a grassland endemic, Silene douglasii var. oraria (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Kephart, S; Paladino, C

    1997-02-01

    Variable spatial and temporal environments are known to affect the population dynamics of plants, but studies of local scale variability and its relationship to demographic change within a population remain limited. Using mapped plants, we examined the population dynamics of a coastal grassland endemic, Silene douglasii var. oraria, in two habitats over 10 yr. We hypothesized that ecological differences between rocky and grassy habitats might influence demographic parameters, including adult survival, growth, and density. Soil pH, soil moisture. and other abiotic variables differed little between habitats, but microsite differences in light, soil depth. and vegetation height were related to variation in Silene density and plant circumference. We also found significantly higher population densities, lower adult mortality, and more juvenile recruitment in rocky areas. Finite rates of population growth varied across years and habitats (lambda = 0.82-1.12). with different patterns evident in the two habitats. In both, observed population sizes in 1992 were similar to matrix projections using 1982-1985 data. Populations declined in size in some years despite high adult survivorship and variable recruitment. More intensive study of seedlings is needed, including experimental evaluation of the role of light and competition. However, the habitat-specific differences we observed imply that ecological studies and conservation plans developed for rare plants should consider the effect of local scale variability on demography.

  13. 'Junk' DNA and long-term phenotypic evolution in Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Thomas R; Costich, Denise E

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content variation over orders of magnitude across species has been attributed to 'junk' repetitive DNA with limited adaptive significance. By contrast, our previous work on Silene latifolia showed that DNA content is negatively correlated with flower size, a character of clear adaptive relevance. The present paper explores this relationship in a broader phylogenetic context to investigate the long-term evolutionary impacts of DNA content variation. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and phenotype variation was determined for four closely related species of Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae). In addition to a consistent sexual dimorphism in DNA content across all of the species, we found DNA content variation among populations within, as well as among, species. We also found a general trend towards a negative correlation between DNA content and flower and leaf size over all four species, within males and females as well as overall. These results indicate that repetitive DNA may play a role in long-term phenotypic evolution. PMID:15801614

  14. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis. Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea. Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  15. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    PubMed

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  16. Lupus vulgaris: difficulties in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Julia; Caccetta, Tony Philip; Tait, Clare

    2013-05-01

    Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. It presents a diagnostic challenge due to its paucibacillary nature. This is a report of a case of a delayed diagnosis of lupus vulgaris, presenting as perianal and peristomal plaques, followed by a review of the diagnostic tools for lupus vulgaris and their limitations.

  17. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  18. Arsenate tolerance in Silene paradoxa does not rely on phytochelatin-dependent sequestration.

    PubMed

    Arnetoli, Miluscia; Vooijs, Riet; ten Bookum, Wilma; Galardi, Francesca; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Schat, Henk; Verkleij, Jos A C

    2008-04-01

    Arsenate tolerance, As accumulation and As-induced phytochelatin accumulation were compared in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from a mine site enriched in As, Cu and Zn, the other from an uncontaminated site. The mine population was significantly more arsenate-tolerant. Arsenate uptake and root-to-shoot transport were slightly but significantly higher in the non-mine plants. The difference in uptake was quantitatively insufficient to explain the difference in tolerance between the populations. As accumulation in the roots was similar in both populations, but the mine plants accumulated much less phytochelatins than the non-mine plants. The mean phytochelatin chain length, however, was higher in the mine population, possibly due to a constitutively lower cellular glutathione level. It is argued that the mine plants must possess an arsenic detoxification mechanism other than arsenate reduction and subsequent phytochelatin-based sequestration. This alternative mechanism might explain at least some part of the superior tolerance in the mine plants.

  19. Dioecious Silene latifolia plants show sexual dimorphism in the vegetative stage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior to this study, no differences in gene expression between male and female dioecious plants in the vegetative state had been detected. Among dioecious plants displaying sexual dimorphism, Silene latifolia is one of the most studied species. Although many sexually dimorphic traits have been described in S. latifolia, all of them are quantitative, and they usually become apparent only after the initiation of flowering. Results We present RT-PCR-based evidence that in S. latifolia, sexual dimorphism in gene expression is present long before the initiation of flowering. We describe three ESTs that show sex-specific (two male specific and one female specific) transcription at the rosette stage before the first flowering season. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study provides the first molecular evidence of early pre-flowering sexual dimorphism in angiosperms. PMID:20854681

  20. Identification of a novel retrotransposon with sex chromosome-specific distribution in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Tereza; Cegan, Radim; Kubat, Zdenek; Vrana, Jan; Vyskot, Boris; Vogel, Ivan; Kejnovsky, Eduard; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant species with chromosomal sex determination. Although the evolution of sex chromosomes in S. latifolia has been the subject of numerous studies, a global view of X chromosome structure in this species is still missing. Here, we combine X chromosome microdissection and BAC library screening to isolate new X chromosome-linked sequences. Out of 8 identified BAC clones, only BAC 86M14 showed an X-preferential signal after FISH experiments. Further analysis revealed the existence of the Athila retroelement which is enriched in the X chromosome and nearly absent in the Y chromosome. Based on previous data, the Athila retroelement belongs to the CL3 group of most repetitive sequences in the S. latifolia genome. Structural, transcriptomics and phylogenetic analyses revealed that Athila CL3 represents an old clade in the Athila lineage. We propose a mechanism responsible for Athila CL3 distribution in the S. latifolia genome. PMID:24751661

  1. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Elizabeth K S; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2015-06-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation.

  2. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  3. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  4. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Ethirajan, N; Dhanlaklshmi, M

    2008-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Cutaneous Tuberculosis constitutes a minor proportion of extra-pulmonary manifestations of Tuberculosis. Lupus Vulgaris (LV) is one of the clinical variants of Cutaneous Tuberculosis. A case of a large plaque type psoriasiform lesion of lupus vulgaris on the thigh, of 15 years' duration, in an 18-year-old girl is reported. This case highlights the ignorance level among the patients and consequent failure to avail proper anti-tuberculous treatment despite campaign in print and audio visual media.

  5. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by the flavone aglycone isovitexin causes aberrant petal and leaf morphology in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A M; van Brederode, J

    1996-05-01

    The morphological mutant "isovitexin" in Silene latifolia (the white campion) has small and up-curled petals and leaves. In this mutant the aglycone isovitexin is the only flavone present in the vacuole. In the present study it is shown that isovitexin has a strong toxic effect on mitochondria that is to a large extent abolished by glycosylation. This effect can be used to explain the aberrant morphology. Isovitexin acts at the level of the ubiquinone pool; cytochrome c - cytochrome aa3 oxidase activity was unaffected, and with either reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or succinate as a respiratory substrate, effects on respiration were found in Silene leaves-, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber- and sweet potato (Ipomoea batata L.) tuber mitochondria. Since in sweet potato electron transport via the cyanide insensitive pathway was also inhibited, with the ubiquinone pool as the only component (besides the dehydrogenases) shared by these two pathways, the site of inhibition must be at this level.

  6. Burkholderia phymatum Strains Capable of Nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris Are Present in Moroccan Soils ▿

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, C.; Delgado, M. J.; Girard, L.; Ramírez-Trujillo, A.; Caballero-Mellado, J.; Bedmar, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, nodC, and nifH genes of four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in Morocco soils were identified as Burkholderia phymatum. All four strains formed N2-fixing nodules on P. vulgaris and Mimosa, Acacia, and Prosopis species and reduced acetylene to ethylene when cultured ex planta. PMID:20472732

  7. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: IV. A Structural Comparison of the Wall Hemicellulose of Cell Suspension Cultures of Sycamore (Acer PseudoPlatAnus) and of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wilder, B M; Albersheim, P

    1973-05-01

    The molecular structure and chemical properties of the hemicellulose present in the isolated cell walls of suspension cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has recently been described by Bauer et al. (Plant Physiol. 51: 174-187). The hemicellulose of the sycamore primary cell wall is a xyloglucan. This polymer functions as an important cross-link in the structure of the cell wall; the xyloglucan is hydrogen-bonded to cellulose and covalently attached to the pectic polymers.The present paper describes the structure of a xyloglucan present in the walls and in the extracellular medium of suspension-cultured Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and compares the structure of the bean xyloglucan with the structure of the sycamore xyloglucan. Although some minor differences were found, the basic structure of the xyloglucans in the cell walls of these distantly related species is the same. The structure is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of four residues of beta-1, 4-linked glucose and three residues of terminal xylose linked to the 6 position of three of the glucosyl residues.

  8. Distribution and population structure of the anther smut Microbotryum silenes-acaulis parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant.

    PubMed

    Bueker, Britta; Eberlein, Chris; Gladieux, Pierre; Schaefer, Angela; Snirc, Alodie; Bennett, Dominic J; Begerow, Dominik; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range. There was significantly greater incidence of anther smut disease in more northern latitudes and where the host locations were less dense, indicating a major influence of environmental factors and/or host demographic structure on the pathogen distribution. Genetic analyses with seven microsatellite markers on recent collections of 195 M. silenes-acaulis individuals revealed three main genetic clusters, in North America, northern Europe and southern Europe, likely corresponding to differentiation in distinct refugia during the last glaciation. The lower genetic diversity in northern Europe indicates postglacial recolonization northwards from southern refugia. This study combining herbarium surveys and population genetics thus uniquely reveals the effects of climate and environmental factors on a plant pathogen species with an arctic-alpine distribution. PMID:26671732

  9. Distribution and population structure of the anther smut Microbotryum silenes-acaulis parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant.

    PubMed

    Bueker, Britta; Eberlein, Chris; Gladieux, Pierre; Schaefer, Angela; Snirc, Alodie; Bennett, Dominic J; Begerow, Dominik; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range. There was significantly greater incidence of anther smut disease in more northern latitudes and where the host locations were less dense, indicating a major influence of environmental factors and/or host demographic structure on the pathogen distribution. Genetic analyses with seven microsatellite markers on recent collections of 195 M. silenes-acaulis individuals revealed three main genetic clusters, in North America, northern Europe and southern Europe, likely corresponding to differentiation in distinct refugia during the last glaciation. The lower genetic diversity in northern Europe indicates postglacial recolonization northwards from southern refugia. This study combining herbarium surveys and population genetics thus uniquely reveals the effects of climate and environmental factors on a plant pathogen species with an arctic-alpine distribution.

  10. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    follicular plugging and multiple epithelioid cell granulomas, rimmed by lymphocytes in the deeper portion of the dermis, mainly peri-appendageal. Stain for acid-fast bacteria was negative. Cultures from the skin lesions were negative. The patient was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris with multiple lesions of varying morphology at different sites with pulmonary tuberculosis and healed lymph node involvement.

  11. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    follicular plugging and multiple epithelioid cell granulomas, rimmed by lymphocytes in the deeper portion of the dermis, mainly peri-appendageal. Stain for acid-fast bacteria was negative. Cultures from the skin lesions were negative. The patient was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris with multiple lesions of varying morphology at different sites with pulmonary tuberculosis and healed lymph node involvement. PMID:21548522

  12. Comparative high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and development of SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Silene is widely used as a model system for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions in plants, but advances in using the genus as a model system are impeded by the lack of available resources for studying its genome. Massively parallel sequencing cDNA has recently developed into an efficient method for characterizing the transcriptomes of non-model organisms, generating massive amounts of data that enable the study of multiple species in a comparative framework. The sequences generated provide an excellent resource for identifying expressed genes, characterizing functional variation and developing molecular markers, thereby laying the foundations for future studies on gene sequence and gene expression divergence. Here, we report the results of a comparative transcriptome sequencing study of eight individuals representing four Silene and one Dianthus species as outgroup. All sequences and annotations have been deposited in a newly developed and publicly available database called SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database. Results A total of 1,041,122 EST reads were generated in two runs on a Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing platform. EST reads were analyzed separately for all eight individuals sequenced and were assembled into contigs using TGICL. These were annotated with results from BLASTX searches and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized. Unassembled reads were kept as singletons and together with the contigs contributed to the unigenes characterized in each individual. The high quality of unigenes is evidenced by the proportion (49%) that have significant hits in similarity searches with the A. thaliana proteome. The SiESTa database is accessible at http://www.siesta.ethz.ch. Conclusion The sequence collections established in the present study provide an important genomic resource for four Silene and one Dianthus species and will help to further develop Silene as a

  13. Night life on the beach: selfing to avoid pollinator competition between two sympatric Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Buide, Mª Luisa; del Valle, José Carlos; Pissatto, Mônica; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Evolution of autonomous selfing may be advantageous because it allows for reproductive assurance. In co-flowering plants competing for pollinators, the least common and/or attractive could suffer pollen limitations. Silene niceensis and S. ramosissima are taxonomically related species sharing the same habitat, although S. ramosissima is less abundant and has a more restricted distribution. They also have the same a priori nocturnal pollinator syndrome, and show an overlapping flowering phenology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a selfing strategy in S. ramosissima allows it to avoid pollinator competition and/or interspecific pollen transfer with S. niceensis, which would thus enable both species to reach high levels of fruit and seed set. Methods The breeding system, petal colour, flower life span and degree of overlap between male and female phases, floral visitor abundance and visitation rates were analysed in two sympatric populations of S. niceensis and S. ramosissima in southern Spain. Key Results Autonomous selfing in S. ramosissima produced very high fruit and seed set, which was also similar to open-pollinated plants. Silene niceensis showed minimum levels of autonomous selfing, and pollen/ovule ratios were within the range expected for the breeding system. In contrast to S. niceensis, flower life span was much shorter in S. ramosissima, and male and female organs completely overlapped in space and time. Upper surface petals of both species showed differing brightness, chroma and hue. Flowers of S. niceensis were actively visited by moths, hawkmoths and syrphids, whereas those of S. ramosissima were almost never visited. Conclusions The findings show that different breeding strategies exist between the sympatric co-flowering S. niceensis and S. ramosissima, the former specializing in crepuscular–nocturnal pollination and the latter mainly based on autonomous selfing. These two strategies allow both species to share

  14. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Afsar, F Sule; Afsar, Ilhan; Diniz, Gulden; Asilsoy, Suna; Sorguc, Yelda

    2008-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  15. Lung and lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mukta, V; Jayachandran, K

    2011-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is chronic, postprimary, paucibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. We present the case of a 38 year old lady who was admitted with complaints of worsening breathlessness and low grade fever of one month duration. Examination showed multiple, nontender skin ulcers on bilateral lumbar areas, two oozing serosanguinous discharge and others scarred in the centre. Respiratory system examination and chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion. On investigation, pleural fluid was tuberculous in nature. Skin biopsy from the edge of ulcer was also suggestive of tuberculosis. Patient is doing well on antituberculous drugs. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease and is an example of the unusual presentation of lupus vulgaris in a case of pleural effusion.

  16. Silene patula (Siphonomorpha, Caryophyllaceae) in North Africa: a test of colonisation routes using chloroplast markers.

    PubMed

    Naciri, Yamama; Cavat, Fanny; Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Based on morphological characters, the North African Silene patula has been divided into two subspecies, ssp. patula found North of Kabylies and Atlas Mountains, and ssp. amurensis found south of these regions. In order to test the hypothesis that S. patula could have derived from S. italica through the Sicilian Channel during the Messinian, we sequenced three chloroplast loci, trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG and rpl12-rps20. Fifteen haplotypes were found on 211 herbarium specimens, associated with a huge differentiation within species. The hypothesis that S. patula had independently evolved as two different subspecies North and South of the mountains is refuted and a morphological adaptation to different pollinators is suggested to explain the differences between the two taxa. The Kabylies-Numidie-Kroumirie gathers a large proportion of haplotypes, which points to this region as a probable refugium or place of origin from which spatial expansions have subsequently occurred towards Morocco and the Aurès Mountains.

  17. Disentangling the causes of intrainflorescence variation in floral traits and fecundity in the hermaphrodite Silene acutifolia.

    PubMed

    Buide, M Luisa

    2008-04-01

    Inflorescence architecture directly determines variations in floral traits and fecundity. Disentangling these patterns of variation is crucial to understanding intraplant variation, which sometimes is directly attributed to competition for resources with developing fruits. The dichasial cymes of Silene acutifolia were experimentally manipulated in the field to analyze whether the declines in petal size, ovule number, fruit set, and seed/ovule ratio along the inflorescence are constrained by ontogenetic development or are phenotypically plastic in response to environmental changes. At the same time, the level of pollen deficit was measured on different positions of the dichasia. The results showed clearly that all measured variables were more influenced by architecture than by resource competition with developing fruits; the removal of central (basal) and primary lateral flowers in the dichasia did not increase either the measures of floral characters or fecundity. On the other hand, although most of the decline in fecundity was due to architectural effects, there was also a pollen limitation, dependent to some degree on inflorescence position, which was probably due to lower pollen availability in the population when secondary flowers are in the female phase.

  18. Differences in style length confer prezygotic isolation between two dioecious species of Silene in sympatry

    PubMed Central

    Nista, Phil; Brothers, Amanda N; Delph, Lynda F

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental signature of reinforcement is elevated prezygotic reproductive isolation between related species in sympatry relative to allopatry. However, this alone is inadequate evidence for reinforcement, as traits conferring reproductive isolation can occur as a by-product of other forces. We conducted crosses between Silene latifolia and S. diclinis, two closely related dioecious flowering plant species. Crosses with S. latifolia mothers from sympatry exhibited lower seed set than mothers from five allopatric populations when S. diclinis was the father. However, two other allopatric populations also exhibited low seed set. A significant interaction between style length and sire species revealed that seed set declined as style length increased when interspecific, but not intraspecific, fathers where used. Moreover, by varying the distance pollen tubes had to traverse, we found interspecific pollen placement close to the ovary resulted in seed set in both long- and short-styled S. latifolia mothers. Our results reveal that the long styles of S. latifolia in sympatry with S. diclinis contribute to the prevention of hybrid formation. We argue that forces other than reinforcing selection are likely to be responsible for the differences in style length seen in sympatry. PMID:26257882

  19. Glutathione depletion due to copper-induced phytochelatin synthesis causes oxidative stress in Silene cucubalus

    SciTech Connect

    Ric De Vos, C.H.; Vonk, M.J.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H. )

    1992-03-01

    The relation between loss of glutathione due to metal-induced phytochelatin synthesis and oxidative stress was studied in the roots of copper-sensitive and tolerant Silene cucubalus (L.) Wib., resistant to 1 and 40 micromolar Cu, respectively. The amount of nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds other then glutathione was taken as a measure of phytochelatins. At a supply of 20 micromolar Cu, which is toxic for sensitive plants only, phytochelatin synthesis and loss of total glutathione were observed only in sensitive plants within 6 h of exposure. When the plants were exposed to a range of copper concentrations for 3 d, a marked production of phytochelatins in sensitive plants was already observed at 0.5 micromolar Cu, whereas the production in tolerant plants was negligible at 40 micromolar or lower. The highest production in tolerant plants was only 40% of that in sensitive plants. In both varieties, the synthesis of phytochelatins was coupled to a loss of glutathione. Copper at toxic concentrations caused oxidative stress, as was evidenced by both the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and a shift in the glutathione redox couple to a more oxidized state. Depletion of glutathione by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine significantly increased the oxidative damage by copper. At a comparably low glutathione level, cadmium had no effect on either lipid peroxidation or the glutathione redox couple in buthionine sulfoximine-treated plants. These results indicate that copper may specifically cause oxidative stress by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione due to phytochelatin synthesis.

  20. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  1. Determinants of Genetic Structure in a Nonequilibrium Metapopulation of the Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter D.; Taylor, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic differentiation will be influenced by the demographic history of populations, opportunities for migration among neighboring demes and founder effects associated with repeated extinction and recolonization. In natural populations, these factors are expected to interact with each other and their magnitudes will vary depending on the spatial distribution and age structure of local demes. Although each of these effects has been individually identified as important in structuring genetic variance, their relative magnitude is seldom estimated in nature. We conducted a population genetic analysis in a metapopulation of the angiosperm, Silene latifolia, from which we had more than 20 years of data on the spatial distribution, demographic history, and extinction and colonization of demes. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to disentangle which features of the populations contributed to among population variation in allele frequencies, including the magnitude and direction of their effects. We show that population age, long-term size and degree of connectivity all combine to affect the distribution of genetic variance; small, recently-founded, isolated populations contributed most to increase FST in the metapopulation. However, the effects of population size and population age are best understood as being modulated through the effects of connectivity to other extant populations, i.e. FST diminishes as populations age, but at a rate that depends how isolated the population is. These spatial and temporal correlates of population structure give insight into how migration, founder effect and within-deme genetic drift have combined to enhance and restrict genetic divergence in a natural metapopulation. PMID:25198341

  2. Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P D; McCauley, D E; McAssey, E V; Taylor, D R

    2014-01-01

    Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped 135 and 170 individuals from 16 and 17 patches of the plant species Silene latifolia in Southwestern VA, sampled in 1993 and 2008, respectively. Individuals were genotyped at 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene, atp1. Normalized LD (D′) between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci varied considerably depending on which nuclear locus was considered (ranging from 0.005–0.632). Four of the 14 cyto-nuclear associations showed a statistically significant shift over approximately seven generations. However, the overall magnitude of this disequilibrium was largely stable over time. The observed origin and stability of cyto-nuclear LD is most likely caused by the slow admixture between anciently diverged lineages within the species' newly invaded range, and the local spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics that are known to structure genetic variation in this system. PMID:24002238

  3. Marginal Likelihood Estimate Comparisons to Obtain Optimal Species Delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Zeynep; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS), Stepping Stone sampling (SS), and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME) methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM) was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii. PMID:25216034

  4. Strong accumulation of chloroplast DNA in the Y chromosomes of Rumex acetosa and Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Steflova, P; Hobza, R; Vyskot, B; Kejnovsky, E

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences are often found in plant nuclear genomes, but patterns of their chromosomal distribution are not fully understood. The distribution of cpDNA on the sex chromosomes can only be studied in dioecious plant species possessing heteromorphic sex chromosomes. We reconstructed the whole chloroplast genome of Rumex acetosa (sorrel, XY1Y2 system) from next generation sequencing data. We systematically mapped the chromosomal localization of various regions of cpDNA in R. acetosa and in Silene latifolia (white campion, XY system) using fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found that cpDNA was accumulated on the Y chromosomes of both studied species. In R. acetosa, the entire Y chromosome gathered all parts of cpDNA equally. On the contrary, in S. latifolia, the majority of the cpDNA, corresponding to the single copy regions, was localized in the centromere of the Y chromosome, while the inverted repeat region was present also in other loci. We found a stronger accumulation of cpDNA on the more degenerated Y1 and Y2 chromosomes of R. acetosa than in evolutionary younger S. latifolia Y chromosome. Our data stressed the prominent role of the Y chromosome centromere in cpDNA accumulation.

  5. A White Campion (Silene latifolia) floral expressed sequence tag (EST) library: annotation, EST-SSR characterization, transferability, and utility for comparative mapping

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Maria Domenica; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Marais, Gabriel AB; Widmer, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Expressed sequence tag (EST) databases represent a valuable resource for the identification of genes in organisms with uncharacterized genomes and for development of molecular markers. One class of markers derived from EST sequences are simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, also known as EST-SSRs. These are useful in plant genetic and evolutionary studies because they are located in transcribed genes and a putative function can often be inferred from homology searches. Another important feature of EST-SSR markers is their expected high level of transferability to related species that makes them very promising for comparative mapping. In the present study we constructed a normalized EST library from floral tissue of Silene latifolia with the aim to identify expressed genes and to develop polymorphic molecular markers. Results We obtained a total of 3662 high quality sequences from a normalized Silene cDNA library. These represent 3105 unigenes, with 73% of unigenes matching genes in other species. We found 255 sequences containing one or more SSR motifs. More than 60% of these SSRs were trinucleotides. A total of 30 microsatellite loci were identified from 106 ESTs having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. The inheritance of these loci was tested via segregation analyses and their usefulness for linkage mapping was assessed in an interspecific cross. Tests for crossamplification of the EST-SSR loci in other Silene species established their applicability to related species. Conclusion The newly characterized genes and gene-derived markers from our Silene EST library represent a valuable genetic resource for future studies on Silene latifolia and related species. The polymorphism and transferability of EST-SSR markers facilitate comparative linkage mapping and analyses of genetic diversity in the genus Silene. PMID:19467153

  6. Lupus vulgaris in a child following BCG immunization.

    PubMed

    Kokcam, I; Kose, A; Yekeler, H; Doymaz, M Z

    2001-11-01

    A three year old girl presented with lupus vulgaris of the upper arm, which appeared 1 month after BCG immunization. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction after histology and culture were negative for mycobacteria. Complete healing followed 6 months of oral isoniazid.

  7. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: an Integrated Genomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Joyner, Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding, Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling, Jay D.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms. PMID:16707698

  8. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  9. Recycling of food waste as nutrients in Chlorella vulgaris cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kin Yan; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-10-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated in food waste hydrolysate. The highest exponential growth rate in terms of biomass of 0.8day(-1) was obtained in a hydrolysate consisting of 17.9gL(-1) glucose, 0.1gL(-1) free amino nitrogen, 0.3gL(-1) phosphate and 4.8mgL(-1) nitrate, while the growth rate was reduced in higher concentrated hydrolysates. C. vulgaris utilized the nutrients recovered from food waste for the formation of biomass and 0.9g biomass was produced per gram glucose consumed. The microalgal biomass produced in nutrient sufficient batch cultures consisted of around 400mgg(-1) carbohydrates, 200mgg(-1) proteins and 200mgg(-1) lipids. The conversion of nutrients derived from food waste and the balanced biomass composition make C. vulgaris a promising strain for the recycling of food waste in food, feed and fuel productions.

  10. [Lupus vulgaris manifestation as a destructive nose and facial tumor].

    PubMed

    Haller, D; Reisser, C

    2009-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most frequent manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis, but in Europe it is limited to isolated cases. Mainly immunocompetent individuals are affected by this result of an endogenous reinfection on a lymphogenous-less frequently hematogenous-pathway. Lupus vulgaris has been observed to develop in more than 50% of all patients who already suffer from other manifestations of tuberculosis. The development of a squamous cell carcinoma in the lupus vulgaris is a rare complication; therefore, lupus vulgaris is deemed a facultative precancerosis.A 68-year-old female Serbo-Croatian patient presented with an extensive ulcerative nose and facial tumor. Her anamnesis included a squamous cell carcinoma of the nose that had been excised alio loco 3 years before. Further examinations revealed enlarged cervical lymphoma on both sides, and pulmonary metastases were also suspected. The tumor biopsy revealed a necrotic, granulomatous inflammation. No acid-fast rods were seen on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. The tuberculous origin of this ulcerative skin tumor-the lupus vulgaris-as an endogenous reinfection of pulmonary tuberculosis manifestation was confirmed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in polymerase chain reaction and the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies in the bacterial culture (skin biopsy and bronchial secretion). The skin tumor as well as the pulmonary manifestation were successfully treated with combined tuberculostatic therapy and showed a dramatic response within 3 months.

  11. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M L; Del Valle, José C; Whittall, Justen B

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  12. Conservation of species in dynamic landscapes: divergent fates of Silene tatarica populations in riparian habitats.

    PubMed

    Jäkäläniemi, Anne; Tuomi, Juha; Siikamäki, Pirkko

    2006-06-01

    In transient environments, where local extinctions occur as a result of destruction or deterioration of the local habitat, the long-term persistence of a species requires successful colonizations at new, suitable sites. This kind of habitat tracking should be associated with the asynchronous dynamics of local populations, and it can be especially important for the conservation of rare plant species in riparian habitats. We determined spatiotemporal variation in the demography of the perennial Silene tatarica (L.) Pers. in 15 populations (1998-2003) located in periodically disturbed riparian habitats. The habitats differed according to their morphology (flat shores, slopes) and the amount of bare ground (open, intermediate, closed) along a successional gradient. We used elasticity and life-table response analyses and stochastic simulations to study the variation in population demography. Finite population growth rate was higher in intermediate habitats than in open and closed habitats. In stochastic simulations population size increased in most cases, but four populations were projected to become extinct within 12-70 years. The viability of local populations depended most on the survival and growth of juvenile individuals and on the fecundity of large fertile individuals. On a regional scale, the persistence of this species will require a viable network of local populations as protection against local extinctions caused by natural disturbances and succession. Accordingly, the long-term persistence of riparian species may depend on habitat changes; thus, their conservation requires maintenance of natural disturbance dynamics. Along regulated rivers, management activities such as the creation of open habitats for new colonization should be implemented. Similarly, these activities can be rather general requirements for the conservation of endangered species dependent on transient habitats along successional gradients.

  13. Genome Size, Quantitative Genetics and the Genomic Basis for Flower Size Evolution in Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    MEAGHER, THOMAS R.; GILLIES, AMANDA C. M.; COSTICH, DENISE E.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The overall goal of this paper is to construct an overview of the genetic basis for flower size evolution in Silene latifolia. It aims to examine the relationship between the molecular bases for flower size and the underlying assumption of quantitative genetics theory that quantitative variation is ultimately due to the impact of a number of structural genes. • Scope Previous work is reviewed on the quantitative genetics and potential for response to selection on flower size, and the relationship between flower size and nuclear DNA content in S. latifolia. These earlier findings provide a framework within which to consider more recent analyses of a joint quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flower size and DNA content in this species. • Key Results Flower size is a character that fits the classical quantitative genetics model of inheritance very nicely. However, an earlier finding that flower size is correlated with nuclear DNA content suggested that quantitative aspects of genome composition rather than allelic substitution at structural loci might play a major role in the evolution of flower size. The present results reported here show that QTL for flower size are correlated with QTL for DNA content, further corroborating an earlier result and providing additional support for the conclusion that localized variations in DNA content underlie evolutionary changes in flower size. • Conclusions The search image for QTL should be broadened to include overall aspects of genome regulation. As we prepare to enter the much-heralded post-genomic era, we also need to revisit our overall models of the relationship between genotype and phenotype to encompass aspects of genome structure and composition beyond structural genes. PMID:15596472

  14. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M. L.; del Valle, José C.; Whittall, Justen B.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  15. Effects of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate exposure on Chlorella vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueqing; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-10-01

    Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (SPP) is a rare mineral. In this study, SPP was synthesized from boric acid and borax through low-temperature crystallization, and its effects on the growth of the alga, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were assessed. The newly synthesized SPP was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The changes in C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities upon exposure to SPP for 168h were evaluated. Results showed that SPP treatment was detrimental to C. vulgaris growth during the first 24-120h of exposure. The harmful effects, however, diminished over time (168h), even at an effective medium concentration of 226.37mg BL(-1) (the concentration of boron applied per liter of culture medium). A similar trend was observed for chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a and b) and indicated that the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was not affected and that high levels of SPP may even promote chlorophyll synthesis. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of C. vulgaris increased during 24-120h exposure to SPP, but these activities gradually decreased as culture time progressed. In other words, the initial detrimental effects of synthetic SPP on C. vulgaris were temporary and reversible. This research provides a scientific basis for applications of SPP in the environment. PMID:27367150

  16. Enhancement of Chlorella vulgaris growth and bioremediation ability of aquarium wastewater using diazotrophs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sayeda Mohammed; Nasr, Hoda Shafeek; Abbas, Wafaa Tawfik

    2012-08-15

    Treatment of aquarium wastewater represents an important process to clean and recycle wastewater to be safely returned to the environment, used for cultivation or to minimize the multiple renewal of water. Chlorella vulgaris was an important freshwater microalgae which used in wastewater treatment, and increasing its potential of treatment can be achieved with existence of N2-fixing bacteria. Co-culturing of Chlorella vulgaris with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum brasilense or Azotobacter chroococcum in three different media; aquarium wastewater (AWW), sterile enriched natural aquarium wastewater (GPM) and synthetic wastewater media (SWW) were studied. Biomass yield of the microalgae was estimated by determination of chlorophylls (a and b), total carotenoid and the dry weight of C. vulgaris. Also determination of ammonia, nitrite, phosphate and nitrate in the culture were done. The presence of diazotrophs significantly increased the biomass of C. vulgaris by increasing its microalgae pigments (chlorophylls a and b, and total carotenoids). The highest pigments percentage was reported due to addition of A. brasilense to C. vulgaris (18.3-133.5%) compared to A. chroococcum (23.9-56.9%). As well as increased dry weight from 12 to 50%. There was also improved removal of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate; where, the highest removal percentage was reported due to addition of A. chroococcum to C. vulgaris (0.0-52%) compared to A. brasilense (0.6-16.4%). A. brasilense and A. chroococcum can support C. vulgaris biomass production and bioremediation activity in the aquarium to minimize the periodical water renewal.

  17. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly.

  18. Metabolic dynamics of Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm grown on a steel surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comparative metabolomics approach combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied first between planktonic cells and biofilms and then between pure cultures and biofilms of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The results revealed that the overall metabolic level of the biofilm cells was down-regulated, especially for metabolites related to the central carbon metabolism, compared to the planktonic cells and the pure culture of D. vulgaris. In addition, pathway enrichment analysis of the 58 metabolites identified by GC-MS showed that fatty acid biosynthesis in the biofilm cells was up-regulated, suggesting that fatty acids may be important for the formation, maintenance and function of D. vulgaris biofilm. This study offers a valuable perspective on the metabolic dynamics of the D. vulgaris biofilm. PMID:27299565

  19. Selection on floral characters in natural Spanish populations of Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wright, J W; Meagher, T R

    2004-03-01

    In insect-pollinated plants, floral characters are expected to play an important role in paternal and maternal reproductive success. Bateman's principle states that male reproductive success increases with more mating opportunities, while female reproductive success is limited by the amount of resources available to produce progeny, thus there should be greater selection on male floral characters than on female. In the case of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, floral characters are likely to be influenced by its association within its native European range with moths of the genus Hadena, which serve as both pollinators and seed predators. The present study addresses relationships between male and female reproductive success, spatial location and floral characters (corolla, calyx and claw) over a 2-year period in two Spanish populations of S. latifolia in the presence of Hadena moths. A maximum likelihood paternity analysis using genetic variation at six allozyme markers showed heterogeneity in male reproductive success. There was much less variation in female reproductive success. When this analysis was extended to include interplant distance as a causal factor underlying variation in male success, we found that successful pollination tended to be limited to nearby females, in accordance with exponential decay of pollen dispersal with increasing distance. When the paternity analysis included floral characters as a causal factor underlying variation in male success, our data showed little evidence for directional selection, but there was stabilizing selection in one of the two years for calyx diameter. Selection on female characters varied widely between sites and years, in most of the site/year combinations there was little selection on female floral characters; however, in one site/year there was evidence for selection on all three floral characters. We conclude that pollinators visit flowers that are close together, and that while floral characters are

  20. [Disseminated lichenoid form of lupus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Bork, K

    1985-12-01

    The disseminated forms of skin tuberculosis are extremely uncommon and can occur as acute miliary tuberculosis with skin involvement, which is a severe disease with a rapid course, or as slowly developing lupus vulgaris, i.e., "postexanthematic lupus vulgaris" or "lupus vulgaris disseminatus". A 61-year-old female patient developed unusual lichenoid brownish lesions caused by disseminated lupus vulgaris, which were confined to the right leg. The patient had no other signs of tuberculosis.

  1. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and associated bacteria in photobioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Lakaniemi, Aino‐Maija; Intihar, Veera M.; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Puhakka, Jaakko A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to test three flat plate photobioreactor configurations for growth of Chlorella vulgaris under non‐axenic conditions and to characterize and quantify associated bacterial communities. The photobioreactor cultivations were conducted using tap water‐based media to introduce background bacterial population. Growth of algae was monitored over time with three independent methods. Additionally, the quantity and quality of eukaryotes and bacteria were analysed using culture‐independent molecular tools based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR‐DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Static mixers used in the flat plate photobioreactors did not generally enhance the growth at the low light intensities used. The maximum biomass concentration and maximum specific growth rate were 1.0 g l−1 and 2.0 day−1 respectively. Bacterial growth as determined by QPCR was associated with the growth of C. vulgaris. Based on PCR‐DGGE, bacteria in the cultures mainly originated from the tap water. Bacterial community profiles were diverse but reproducible in all flat plate cultures. Most prominent bacteria in the C. vulgaris cultures belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria and especially to the genus Sphingomonas. Analysis of the diversity of non‐photosynthetic microorganisms in algal mass cultures can provide useful information on the public health aspects and unravel community interactions. PMID:21936882

  2. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  3. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  4. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  5. Urban legends: pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, N; Cozzani, E; Carrozzo, M; Grando, S A

    2012-07-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is the most common type of pemphigus. PV pathogenesis is still debated, and treatment remains challenging. We investigated five controversial topics: (1) What are the target antigens in PV? (2) Do desmogleins adequately address PV pathophysiology? (3) How does acantholysis occur in PV? (4) Is PV still a lethal disease? (5) What is the role of rituximab (RTX) in PV treatment? Results from extensive literature searches suggested the following: (1) Target antigens of PV include a variety of molecules and receptors that are not physically compartmentalized within the epidermis. (2) PV is caused by a variety of autoantibodies to keratinocyte self-antigens, which concur to cause blistering by acting synergistically. (3) The concept of apoptolysis distinguishes the unique mechanism of autoantibody-induced keratinocyte damage in PV from other known forms of cell death. (4) PV remains potentially life-threatening largely because of treatment side effects, but it is uncertain which therapies carry the highest likelihood of lethal risk. (5) RTX is a very promising treatment option in patients with widespread recalcitrant or life-threatening PV. RTX's cost is an issue, its long-term side effects are still unknown, and randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the optimal dosing regimen.

  6. Cell-wall polysaccharide composition and glycanase activity of Silene vulgaris callus transformed with rolB and rolC genes.

    PubMed

    Günter, Elena A; Shkryl, Yury N; Popeyko, Oxana V; Veremeichik, Galina N; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes on the composition of cell-wall polysaccharides and glycanase activity in the campion callus. The expression of the rolC gene reduces the yield of campion pectin, while the expression of the rolB or rolC gene inhibits the volumetric production of both pectin and intracellular arabinogalactan. The rol genes are involved in regulating the activity of glycanases and esterases, thereby contributing to the modification of polysaccharide structures, their molecular weight (Mw) and the degree of pectin methyl esterification (DE). The increase in pectin arabinose residue appears to be connected to a decrease in intracellular and extracellular α-l-arabinofuranosidase activity in transgenic campion calluses. In transgenic calluses expressing the rolB and rolC genes, the increase in pectin galactose residue is likely due to a decrease in β-galactosidase activity. The decrease in the Mw of pectin and its d-galacturonic acid content appears to be connected to an increase in extracellular polygalacturonase activity. Finally, the increase in pectinesterase activity causes a decrease in the DE of pectin. Thus, the expression of rolB and rolC genes in campion callus has a considerable effect on pectin's sugar composition, DE and Mw, while it appears to have an insignificant influence on intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans.

  7. Derivatization of phytochelatins from Silene vulgaris, induced upon exposure to arsenate and cadmium: comparison of derivatization with Ellman's reagent and monobromobimane.

    PubMed

    Sneller, F E; van Heerwaarden, L M; Koevoets, P L; Vooijs, R; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A

    2000-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are a family of thiol-rich peptides, with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n)()-Gly, with n = 2-11, induced in plants upon exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals and some metalloids, such as arsenic. Two types of PC analyses are currently used, i.e., acid extraction and separation on HPLC with either precolumn derivatization (pH 8.2) with monobromobimane (mBBr) or postcolumn derivatization (pH 7.8) with Ellman's reagent [5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), DTNB]. Although both methods were satisfactory for analysis of Cd-induced PCs, formation of (RS)(3)-As complexes during extraction of As-induced PCs rendered the DTNB method useless. This paper shows that precolumn derivatization with mBBr, during which the (RS)(3)-As complexes are disrupted, provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of both Cd- and As-induced PCs. In addition, derivatization efficiencies of both methods for the oligomers with n = 2-4 (PC(2)(-)(4)) are compared. Derivatization efficiency decreased from 71.8% and 81.4% for mBBr and DTNB derivatization, respectively, for PC(2) to 27.4% and 50.2% for PC(4). This decrease is most likely due to steric hindrance. Correction of measured thiol concentration is therefore advised for better quantification of PC concentrations in plant material.

  8. Derivatization of phytochelatins from Silene vulgaris, induced upon exposure to arsenate and cadmium: comparison of derivatization with Ellman's reagent and monobromobimane.

    PubMed

    Sneller, F E; van Heerwaarden, L M; Koevoets, P L; Vooijs, R; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A

    2000-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are a family of thiol-rich peptides, with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n)()-Gly, with n = 2-11, induced in plants upon exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals and some metalloids, such as arsenic. Two types of PC analyses are currently used, i.e., acid extraction and separation on HPLC with either precolumn derivatization (pH 8.2) with monobromobimane (mBBr) or postcolumn derivatization (pH 7.8) with Ellman's reagent [5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), DTNB]. Although both methods were satisfactory for analysis of Cd-induced PCs, formation of (RS)(3)-As complexes during extraction of As-induced PCs rendered the DTNB method useless. This paper shows that precolumn derivatization with mBBr, during which the (RS)(3)-As complexes are disrupted, provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of both Cd- and As-induced PCs. In addition, derivatization efficiencies of both methods for the oligomers with n = 2-4 (PC(2)(-)(4)) are compared. Derivatization efficiency decreased from 71.8% and 81.4% for mBBr and DTNB derivatization, respectively, for PC(2) to 27.4% and 50.2% for PC(4). This decrease is most likely due to steric hindrance. Correction of measured thiol concentration is therefore advised for better quantification of PC concentrations in plant material. PMID:10995306

  9. Lupus vulgaris of the popliteal fossa: a delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Ilknur Kivanc; Kayaoglu, Semra; Ekmekci, Tugba Rezan; Kutlu, Safiye; Arpag, Esra Saygin

    2007-07-13

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It commonly presents on the head and neck regions. The diagnosis may be difficult when LV occurs at unexpected regions or in unusual clinical forms. Sometimes special stains for the organism and mycobacterial cultures may be negative. Nevertheless, it is usually possible to reach the correct diagnosis of LV using clinical and histopathological findings. But at times, a therapeutic trial with antitubercular agents may be required.

  10. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Tense Bullae

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Emilie T; Lin, Shinko K; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a history of type II diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia presenting with pain, swelling, and crusting of the lips. One year after onset of mucosal lesions, she developed an abdominal eruption with several tense vesicles and bullae on an erythematous base. The hematoxylin and eosin stain sample was consistent with a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. The tense bullae of our patient highlight a rare phenotype of pemphigus vulgaris, which fits the mucocutaneous type because of involvement of the oral mucosa, with the exception of the findings of tense bullae. PMID:25663209

  11. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  12. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Badari Nath, A R S; Sivaramakrishna, A; Marimuthu, K M; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco. This PHA (Gibco) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures. PMID:25004904

  13. Atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, L G; Esterly, N B

    1994-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis remains a common skin problem in the pediatric age group. General approaches to management focus on reducing inflammation and pruritus as well as preventing xerosis. Ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common form of the ichthyoses and often is associated with atopic dermatitis. Recognition of these conditions is necessary to institute therapy that will alleviate the discomfort experienced by affected individuals.

  14. Embryo Development in Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jerry G.

    1973-01-01

    Endosperm liquid bathes the embryo of Phaseolus vulgaris from the heart stage through the late cotyledon state. This liquid was aspirated from many ovules of the same stage, pooled, and analyzed for the following constituents and parameters: [List: see text] PMID:16658350

  15. Case of lupus vulgaris diagnosed 50 years after onset.

    PubMed

    Uttawichai, Pattanawadee; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Kawana, Seiji

    2009-02-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but is a symptom that can lead to diagnosis of tuberculosis. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 79-year-old woman who had a 50-year history of a slowly growing plaque on her right cheek. She visited many hospitals without resolution and the plaque gradually enlarged. Recently, she was misdiagnosed with eczema and prescribed topical steroids that had no effect, and she subsequently visited our outpatient clinic. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on histopathology, culture and polymerase chain reaction, and isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol were administered as antituberculosis treatment. Although the incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis has decreased significantly in developed countries, knowledge and awareness of the disease are still of importance for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Acne Vulgaris and the Epidermal Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Thiboutot, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder that predominantly affects teenagers, but can also affect preadolescents and post-teen individuals. Despite the fact that acne vulgaris is the most common skin disorder encountered in ambulatory dermatology practice in the United States, there has been limited research on the epidermal permeability barrier in untreated skin of people with acne vulgaris and also after use of acne therapies. This article reviews the research results and discusses the available literature on this subject area. The importance of proper skin care as a component of the management of acne vulgaris is supported by the information that is currently available. PMID:23441236

  17. Nursery pollination by a moth in Silene latifolia: the role of odours in eliciting antennal and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Dötterl, S; Jürgens, A; Seifert, K; Laube, T; Weissbecker, B; Schütz, S

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s it has been known that the nursery pollinator Hadena bicruris is attracted to the flowers of its most important host plant, Silene latifolia, by their scent. Here we identified important compounds for attraction of this noctuid moth. Gas chromatographic and electroantennographic methods were used to detect compounds eliciting signals in the antennae of the moth. Electrophysiologically active compounds were tested in wind-tunnel bioassays to foraging naïve moths, and the attractivity of these compounds was compared with that to the natural scent of whole S. latifolia flowers. The antennae of moths detected substances of several classes. Phenylacetaldehyde elicited the strongest signals in the antennae, but lilac aldehydes were the most attractive compounds in wind-tunnel bioassays and attracted 90% of the moths tested, as did the scent of single flowers. Our results show that the most common and abundant floral scent compounds in S. latifolia, lilac aldehydes, attracted most of the moths tested, indicating a specific adaptation of H. bicruris to its host plant. PMID:16441752

  18. Evolutionary Strata on the X Chromosomes of the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia: Evidence From New Sex-Linked Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Forrest, Alan; Kamau, Esther; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X–Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum divergence (and thus the age of this plant's sex chromosome system) has remained uncertain. More genes are therefore needed. Here, by segregation analysis of intron size variants (ISVS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identify three new Y-linked genes, one being duplicated on the Y chromosome, and test for evolutionary strata. All the new genes have homologs on the X and Y chromosomes. Synonymous divergence estimated between the X and Y homolog pairs is within the range of those already reported. Genetic mapping of the new X-linked loci shows that the map is the same in all three families that have been studied so far and that X–Y divergence increases with genetic distance from the pseudoautosomal region. We can now conclude that the divergence value is saturated, confirming the cessation of X–Y recombination in the evolution of the sex chromosomes at ∼10–20 MYA. PMID:17287532

  19. Effects of the duration of cold stratification on early life stages of the Mediterranean alpine plant Silene ciliata.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, A; Escudero, A; Lara-Romero, C; Iriondo, J M

    2015-03-01

    Cold stratification provided by snow cover is essential to break seed dormancy in many alpine plant species. The forecast reduction in snow precipitation and snow cover duration in most temperate mountains as a result of global warming could threaten alpine plant populations, especially those at the edge of their species distribution, by altering the dynamics of early life stages. We simulated some effects of a reduction in the snow cover period by manipulating the duration of cold stratification in seeds of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean alpine specialist. Seeds from three populations distributed along an altitudinal gradient were exposed to different periods of cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 months) in the laboratory and then moved to common garden conditions in a greenhouse. The duration of the cold stratification treatment and population origin significantly affected seed emergence percentage, emergence rate and seedling size, but not the number of seedling leaves. The 6-month and 4-month cold stratification treatments produced higher emergence percentages and faster emergence rates than seeds without cold stratification treatment. No significant cold stratification duration x seed population origin interactions were found, thus differential sensitivity to cold stratification along elevation is not supported.

  20. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; McMahan, Kimberly L.; Lee, Yi-kang; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Authier, Nicolas; Piot, Jerome; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  1. A glacial survivor of the alpine Mediterranean region: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Iriondo, José María; García-Fernández, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae) is a species with a highly disjunct distribution which inhabits the alpine mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. We investigated the phylogeny and phylogeography of the species to (a) clarify the long-suggested division of S. ciliata into two subspecies, (b) evaluate its phylogenetic origin and (c) assess whether the species’ diversification patterns were affected by the Mediterranean relief. For this purpose, we collected DNA from 25 populations of the species that inhabit the mountains of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece and studied the plastid regions rbcL, rps16 and trnL. Major intraspecific variation was supported by all analyses, while the possibility of the existence of more varieties or subspecies was not favoured. Plastid DNA (cpDNA) evidence was in accordance with the division of S. ciliata into the two subspecies, one spreading west (Iberian Peninsula and Central Massif) and the other east of the Alps region (Italian and Balkan Peninsula). This study proposes that the species’ geographically disconnected distribution has probably derived from vicariance processes and from the Alps acting as a barrier to the species’ dispersal. The monophyletic origin of the species is highly supported. cpDNA patterns were shown independent of the chromosome evolution in the populations and could have resulted from a combination of geographic factors providing links and barriers, climatic adversities and evolutionary processes that took place during Quaternary glaciations. PMID:26312184

  2. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  3. Unrecognized dermatophyte infection in ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Grahovac, Maja; Budimcić, Dragomir

    2009-01-01

    A case of unrecognized widespread dermatophyte infection associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopy is described. Our patient was a young woman in which the diagnosis of ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis blocked the recognition of widespread dermatophyte infection for more than six months. The case showed some clinical peculiarities in terms of both extent of lesions and their clinical appearance.

  4. Sporotrichoid lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Anshul; Tiwari, Siddhi; Mathur, Deepak K; Bhargava, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis in India and can present as papular, nodular, plaque, ulcerative, vegetating, and tumid forms. Unusual variants include the frambesiform, gangrenous, ulcerovegetating, lichen simplex chronicus, myxomatous, and sporotrichoid types. We describe a rare sporotrichoid presentation of lupus vulgaris on the leg of a 28-year-old female of 12 years duration.

  5. Pemphigus vulgaris with solitary toxic thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Alfishawy, Mostafa; Anwar, Karim; Elbendary, Amira; Daoud, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together? PMID:25309761

  6. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  7. Strongylus vulgaris associated with usage of selective therapy on Danish horse farms-is it reemerging?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Vidyashankar, A N; Olsen, S N; Monrad, J; Thamsborg, S M

    2012-10-26

    Nematodes belonging to the order Strongylida are ubiquitous in grazing horses, and the large strongyle Strongylus vulgaris is considered the most pathogenic. This parasite was originally described widely prevalent in equine establishments, but decades of frequent anthelmintic treatment appears to have reduced the prevalence dramatically. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomin parasites have led to implementation of selective therapy to reduce further development of resistance. It has been hypothesized that S. vulgaris could reoccur under these less intensive treatment circumstances. The aim with the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of S. vulgaris and the possible association with usage of selective therapy. A total of 42 horse farms in Denmark were evaluated for the presence of S. vulgaris using individual larval cultures. Farms were either using a selective therapy principle based on regular fecal egg counts from all horses, or they treated strategically without using fecal egg counts. A total of 662 horses were included in the study. Covariate information at the farm and horse level was collected using a questionnaire. The overall prevalence of S. vulgaris was 12.2% at the individual level and 64.3% at the farm level. Farms using selective therapy had horse and farm prevalences of 15.4% and 83.3%, respectively, while the corresponding results for farms not using selective therapy were 7.7% and 38.9%. These findings were found statistically significant at both the horse and the farm level. Stud farms using selective therapy were especially at risk, and occurrence of S. vulgaris was significantly associated with the most recent deworming occurring more than six months prior. The results suggest that a strict interpretation of the selective therapy regimen can be associated with an increased prevalence of S. vulgaris. This suggests that modifications of the parasite control programs could be considered on the studied farms, but it

  8. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact. PMID:26647652

  9. Rapid de novo evolution of X chromosome dosage compensation in Silene latifolia, a plant with young sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Muyle, Aline; Zemp, Niklaus; Deschamps, Clothilde; Mousset, Sylvain; Widmer, Alex; Marais, Gabriel A B

    2012-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex chromosomes. However, this work has been limited by the paucity of sex-linked genes available. Here, we used 35 Gb of RNA-seq data from multiple males (XY) and females (XX) of an S. latifolia inbred line to detect sex-linked SNPs and identified more than 1,700 sex-linked contigs (with X-linked and Y-linked alleles). Analyses using known sex-linked and autosomal genes, together with simulations indicate that these newly identified sex-linked contigs are reliable. Using read numbers, we then estimated expression levels of X-linked and Y-linked alleles in males and found an overall trend of reduced expression of Y-linked alleles, consistent with a widespread ongoing degeneration of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. By comparing expression intensities of X-linked alleles in males and females, we found that X-linked allele expression increases as Y-linked allele expression decreases in males, which makes expression of sex-linked contigs similar in both sexes. This phenomenon is known as dosage compensation and has so far only been observed in evolutionary old animal sex chromosome systems. Our results suggest that dosage compensation has evolved in plants and that it can quickly evolve de novo after the origin of sex chromosomes.

  10. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea).

    PubMed

    Del Valle, José C; Buide, Ma L; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  11. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26448481

  12. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact.

  13. Decreased profilaggrin expression in ichthyosis vulgaris is a result of selectively impaired posttranscriptional control.

    PubMed

    Nirunsuksiri, W; Presland, R B; Brumbaugh, S G; Dale, B A; Fleckman, P

    1995-01-13

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is an autosomal dominant disorder of keratinization characterized by mild hyperkeratosis and reduced or absent keratohyalin granules in the epidermis. Profilaggrin, a major component of keratohyalin granules, is reduced or absent from the skin of individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris. In this report, we have further characterized the molecular basis of low profilaggrin expression, which occurs in this disease. In situ hybridization revealed little profilaggrin mRNA in ichthyosis vulgaris-affected epidermis. In keratinocytes cultured from the epidermis of affected individuals, the abundance of profilaggrin was reduced to less than 10% of normal controls, while the mRNA level was decreased to 30-60% of controls. Expression of K1 and loricrin, other markers of epidermal differentiation, were not affected. Nuclear run-on assays indicated that the decrease in mRNA levels was not caused by aberrant transcription. Nucleotide sequencing of 5'-upstream, 3'-non-coding, and flanking regions of the profilaggrin gene from ichthyosis vulgaris-affected individuals revealed only minor changes, probably due to genetic polymorphisms. Our results indicate that defective profilaggrin expression in ichthyosis vulgaris is a result of selectively impaired posttranscriptional control.

  14. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Pensel, P. E.; Maggiore, M. A.; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Denegri, M. G.; Elissondo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus. PMID:25180033

  15. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Pensel, P E; Maggiore, M A; Gende, L B; Eguaras, M J; Denegri, M G; Elissondo, M C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  16. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using industrial dairy waste as organic carbon source.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana P; Fernandes, Bruno; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José; Dragone, Giuliano

    2012-08-01

    Growth parameters and biochemical composition of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivated under different mixotrophic conditions were determined and compared to those obtained from a photoautotrophic control culture. Mixotrophic microalgae showed higher specific growth rate, final biomass concentration and productivities of lipids, starch and proteins than microalgae cultivated under photoautotrophic conditions. Moreover, supplementation of the inorganic culture medium with hydrolyzed cheese whey powder solution led to a significant improvement in microalgal biomass production and carbohydrate utilization when compared with the culture enriched with a mixture of pure glucose and galactose, due to the presence of growth promoting nutrients in cheese whey. Mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris using the main dairy industry by-product could be considered a feasible alternative to reduce the costs of microalgal biomass production, since it does not require the addition of expensive carbohydrates to the culture medium. PMID:22705507

  17. Expression of heavy metal tolerance in pollen and implications for gametophytic selection. [The plants used were clones of Silene dioica and Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in both sporophytic and microgametophytic phases of the angiosperm life cycle. Thus, selection in one phase could modify gene frequency in both phases. An attempt was made to investigate microgametophytic selection in response to toxic concentrations of heavy metals and the effect of this selection upon the resultant sporophyte generation. The plants used were clones of a zinc-tolerant Silene dioica, closely related nontolerant S. alba, and copper tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Mimulus guttatus. First, the expression of metal tolerance in pollen was established by in vitro pollen germination and tube growth, and was found to be associated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Second, to test the extent to which the parallel expression of metal tolerance was determined by the gametophytic genotype, tolerant but segregating clones were grown with and without added metals. Finally, selection was applied during pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization. In Silene, neither the tolerance of the pollen nor the metal content of the styles affected pollen tube growth rate. In Mimulus, pollen from the nontolerant source grew faster, but the metal content of the floral tissue had no significant effect on pollen tube growth rate, and only slightly reduced the fertilization ability of pollen from the nontolerant clone.

  18. Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Specialization in plant–insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of α-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds α-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

  19. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Jain, Sarika; Singh, Sunita

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.

  20. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  1. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    PubMed

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  2. Effects of brassinazole, an inhibitor of brassinosteroid biosynthesis, on light- and dark-grown Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Asami, Tadao

    2004-03-01

    Treatment of cultured Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells with 0.1-10 microM brassinazole (Brz2001), an inhibitor of brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, inhibits their growth during the first 48 h of cultivation in the light. This inhibition is prevented by the co-application of BR. This result suggests that the presence of endogenous BRs during the initial steps of the C. vulgaris cell cycle is indispensable for their normal growth in the light. In darkness, a treatment with 10 nM brassinolide (BL) promotes growth through the first 24 h of culture, but during the following 24 h the cells undergo complete stagnation. Treatment of dark-grown cells with either Brz2001 alone, or a mixture of 10 nM BL and 0.1/10 microM Brz2001, also stimulates their growth. The effects of treatment with 10 nM BL mixed with 0.1-10 microM of a mevalonate-pathway inhibitor (mevinolin), or a non-mevalonate-pathway inhibitor (clomazone), were also investigated. Mevinolin at these concentrations did not inhibit growth of C. vulgaris; however, clomazone did. Addition of BL overcame the inhibition. These results suggest that the mevalonate pathway does not function in C. vulgaris, and that the non-mevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis is responsible for the synthesis of one of the primary precursors in BR biosynthesis.

  3. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea)

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, José C.; Buide, Ma L.; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  4. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566

  5. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  6. Lupus vulgaris: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Wozniacka, Anna; Schwartz, Robert A; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Borun, Marta; Arkuszewska, Cecylia

    2005-04-01

    Although there has been a steady decline in the incidence of tuberculosis in recent years, it persists in some regions, and where AIDS is especially prevalent, the number of new cases has been increasing. Thus, cutaneous tuberculosis has re-emerged in areas with a high incidence of HIV infection and multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris has been and remains the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis. Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated tuberculosis are unusual, being seen in less than 0.5% of cases. Scrofuloderma, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis and lupus vulgaris comprise most cutaneous tuberculosis cases. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is derived from an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis and is employed beneficially as a relatively safe vaccination in Poland and other countries in which the prevalence of tuberculosis is high. However, BCG vaccination may produce complications, including disseminated BCG and lupus vulgaris, the latter seen in one of our two patients in whom lupus vulgaris at the inoculation site followed a second vaccination with BCG 12 years after the initial one. A similar phenomenon has been described after immunotherapy with BCG vaccination. Re-infection (secondary) inoculation cutaneous tuberculosis may also occur as a result of BCG vaccination, producing either lupus vulgaris or tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, probably depending upon the patient's degree of cell-mediated immunity. However, most lupus vulgaris cases are not associated with vaccination with BCG, as occurred in our first patient. For those who do develop lupus vulgaris, it can be persistent for a long period, in some cases for many decades. In the second patient we describe a lengthy duration and cutaneous reactivation at distant sites after more than 40 years.

  7. Management of pemphigus vulgaris during acute phase.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Murthy, P S; Rajagopal, R

    2003-01-01

    We present our experience with 21 patients of pemphigus vulgaris seen over a period of 10 years managed in service hospitals during acute phase of the disease. Age groups of patients ranged from 25-45 years. Eighteen (85.7%) were young adults, 30-40 years of age. Fifteen (71.4%) were men and 6 (28.6%) were women. All the cases were hospitalized in ICU, till the acute phase of the disease subsided. Complete hematological profile, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and repeated bacterial cultures from the skin were carried out in all patients at the time of admission and thereafter weekly. The treatment comprised of potassium permanganate lotion bath (1:10,000) and 1 framycetin gauze dressing of the denuded areas, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. All suspected infections and septicemia were treated with appropriate antibiotics. The corticosteroids were usually administered as a single dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. Cyclophosphamide was given at an initial dose of 50 mg/day and the dose was escalated to 100 mg/day. Once the bulk of the lesions were healed, the dose of corticosteroids was gradually lowered by approximately 50% every two weeks and cyclophosphamide was continued till patients were symptom-free. Out of 21 patients receiving corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and other supportive therapy, 20 (95%) had undergone clinical resolution of the disease. During follow up study 15 (71.4%) patients remained symptom-free and undergone clinical remission. Five patients (23.8%) had relapse, out of which 4 (19%) remained symptom free, after subsequent treatment. There was one death (4.7%) in our study.

  8. The electron transfer system of synthrophically grown desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Ringbauer, Joseph; HE, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  9. Lupus vulgaris developing at the site of misdiagnosed scrofuloderma.

    PubMed

    Motta, A; Feliciani, C; Toto, P; De Benedetto, A; Morelli, F; Tulli, A

    2003-05-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis primarily occurring in developing countries. The recent increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, especially due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, has led to a resurgence of extrapulmonary forms of this disease. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 33-year-old woman who had a 5-year history of a slowly growing plaque on her neck. The lesion was located at the site of surgery repairing the scar resulting from the incision of a subcutaneous abscess during childhood. This lesion was misdiagnosed as bacterial abscess. Histopathologic examination of the plaque revealed non-caseating tuberculoid granulomas consisting of lymphocytes, epithelioid and giant cells. Staining for acid-fast bacilli and culture from biopsied tissue was negative. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, performed on a skin biopsy specimen, was positive. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris developing at the site of a previous misdiagnosed scrofuloderma was made. Conventional antitubercular therapy with rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol was administered for 6 months, resulting in resolution of the lesion.

  10. The Electron Transfer System of Syntrophically Grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    PBD; ENIGMA; GTL; VIMSS; Walker, Christopher B.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin K.; Ringbauer Jr., Joseph A.; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Hazen, Terry C.; Stolyar, Sergey; Stahl, David A.

    2009-06-22

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  11. The electron transfer system of syntrophically grown Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.B.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.K.; Ringbauer, Jr., J.A.; He, Q.; Zhou, J.; Voordouw, G.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Hazen, T.C.; Stolyar, S.; Stahl, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic couplings between hydrogen producers and consumers are a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent upon growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, D. vulgaris up-regulated numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation when compared with sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn) and the well-characterized high-molecular weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and up-regulated. Additionally, a predicted operon coding for genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited up-regulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little affect on growth via sulfate-respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate-respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that understanding of microbial processes sustaining nutrient cycling must consider lifestyles not captured in pure culture.

  12. Quantification of nutrient-replete growth rates in five-ion hyperspace for Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of five ions, NO3-, PO43-, K+, Na+ and Cl- on growth rates and cell densities were quantified for Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophycea) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophycea) in batch cultures. A five dimensional experimental design, the five component mixture design projected across a total i...

  13. Harvesting freshwater Chlorella vulgaris with flocculant derived from spent brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Prochazkova, Gita; Kastanek, Petr; Branyik, Tomas

    2015-02-01

    One of the key bottlenecks of the economically viable production of low added value microalgal products (food supplements, feed, biofuels) is the harvesting of cells from diluted culture medium. The main goals of this work were to prepare a novel flocculation agent based on spent brewer's yeast, a brewery by-product, and to test its harvesting efficiency on freshwater Chlorella vulgaris in different environments. The yeast was first autolyzed/hydrolyzed and subsequently chemically modified with 2-chloro-N,N-diethylethylamine hydrochloride (DEAE). Second, optimal dosage of modified spent yeast (MSY) flocculant for harvesting C. vulgaris was determined in culture media of various compositions. It was found that the absence of phosphorus ions decreased (0.4 mg MSY/g biomass), while the presence of algogenic organic matter (AOM) increased (51 mg MSY/g biomass) the required dosage of flocculant as compared to complete mineral medium with phosphorus and without AOM (12 mg MSY/g biomass). PMID:25479390

  14. Interactive effect of brassinosteroids and cytokinins on growth, chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein content in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja

    2014-07-01

    Interaction between brassinosteroids (BRs) (brassinolide, BL; 24-epibrassinolide, 24-epiBL; 28-homobrassinolide, 28-homoBL; castasterone, CS; 24-epicastasterone, 24-epiCS; 28-homocastasterone, 28-homoCS) and adenine- (trans-zeatin, tZ; kinetin, Kin) as well as phenylurea-type (1,3-diphenylurea, DPU) cytokinins (CKs) in the regulation of cell number, phytohormone level and the content of chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) were examined. Chlorella vulgaris exhibited sensitivity to CKs in the following order of their stimulating properties: 10 nM tZ > 100 nM Kin >1 μM DPU. Exogenously applied BRs possessed the highest biological activity in algal cells at concentration of 10 nM. Among the BRs, BL was characterized by the highest activity, while 28-homoCS - by the lowest. The considerable increase in the level of all endogenous BRs by 27-46% was observed in C. vulgaris culture treated with exogenous 10 nM tZ. It can be speculated that CKs may stimulate BR activity in C. vulgaris by inducing the accumulation of endogenous BRs. CKs interacted synergistically with BRs increasing the number of cells and endogenous accumulation of proteins, chlorophylls and monosaccharides in C. vulgaris. The highest stimulation of algal growth and the contents of analyzed biochemical parameters were observed for BL applied in combination with tZ, whereas the lowest in the culture treated with both 28-homoCS and DPU. However, regardless of the applied mixture of BRs with CKs, the considerable increase in cell number and the metabolite accumulation was found above the level obtained in cultures treated with any single phytohormone in unicellular green alga C. vulgaris.

  15. Mechanistically harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris and Rhodotorula glutinis via modified montmorillonoid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the flocculation process of Chlorella vulgaris and Rhodotorula glutinis induced by inorganic salts modified montmorillonoid was conducted. The maximum flocculation efficiency (FE) of 98.50% for C. vulgaris and 11.83% for R. glutinis were obtained with 4g/L and 5g/L flocculant within the dosage scope of 1-5g/L. The difference of FE was then thermodynamically explained by the extended DLVO theory and the FE of R. glutinis was mechanically enhanced to 90.66% with 0.06g/L cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) at an optimum pH of 9. After that, aimed to utilize the remainder flocculant capacity, C. vulgaris culture was added to the aggregation of R. glutinis. Fortunately, the coagulation of R. glutinis and C. Vulgaris was achieved with 0.05g/L CPAM and 5g/L flocculant at pH 9 and the FE reached 90.15% and 91.24%, respectively. PMID:27420162

  16. Hexavalent chromium reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough causes transitory inhibition of sulfate reduction and cellgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Klonowska, A.; Clark, M.E.; Thieman, S.B.; Giles, B.J.; Wall,J.D.; Fields, M.W.

    2008-01-07

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a well-studiedsulfate reducer that can reduce heavy metals and radionuclides [e.g.,Cr(VI) and U(VI)]. Cultures grown in a defined medium had a lag period ofapproximately 30 h when exposed to 0.05 mM Cr(VI). Substrate analysesrevealed that although Cr(VI) was reduced within the first 5 h, growthwas not observed for an additional 20 h. The growth lag could beexplained by a decline in cell viability; however, during this time smallamounts of lactate were still utilized without sulfate reduction oracetate formation. Approximately 40 h after Cr exposure (0.05 mM),sulfate reduction occurred concurrently with the accumulation of acetate.Similar amounts of hydrogen were produced by Cr-exposed cells compared tocontrol cells, and lactate was not converted to glycogen duringnon-growth conditions. D. vulgaris cells treated with a reducing agentand then exposed to Cr(VI) still experienced a growth lag, but theaddition of ascorbate at the time of Cr(VI) addition prevented the lagperiod. In addition, cells grown on pyruvate displayed more tolerance toCr(VI) compared to lactate-grown cells. These results indicated that D.vulgaris utilized lactate during Cr(VI) exposure without the reduction ofsulfate or production of acetate, and that ascorbate and pyruvate couldprotect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(VI)/Cr(III) toxicity.

  17. The adaptive genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Santana, Margarida; Crasnier-Mednansky, Martine

    2006-07-01

    Peculiar attributes revealed by sequencing the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough are analyzed, particularly in relation to the presence of a phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS is a typical bacterial carbohydrate transport system functioning via group translocation. Novel avenues for investigations are proposed emphasizing the metabolic diversity of D. vulgaris Hildenborough, especially the likely utilization of mannose-type sugars. Comparative analysis with PTS from other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates regulatory functions for the PTS of D. vulgaris Hildenborough, including catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. Chemotaxis towards PTS substrates is considered. Evidence suggests that this organism may not be a strict anaerobic sulfate reducer typical of the ocean, but a versatile organism capable of bidirectional transmigration and adaptation to both water and terrestrial environments.

  18. Lupus vulgaris: unusual presentations over the face.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, S; Reddy, B S N

    2003-11-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. However, the occurrence of bizarre clinical presentations over atypical sites often leads to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment causing significant morbidity. This report seeks to highlight two unusual cases of lupus vulgaris occurring on the face of immunocompetent women and remarkably mimicking periorbital cellulitis and basal cell carcinoma, respectively. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With four-drug antitubercular therapy, both patients had a dramatic response.

  19. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  20. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  1. Effect of Vitamin D on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris and Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos, Susana; Krieg, Nadine; Norgauer, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis, a chronic skin disease with or without joint inflammation, has increased circulating proinflammatory cytokine levels. Vitamin D is involved in calcium homeostasis, bone formation, osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, as well as regulation of immune response. We aimed to study osteoclast differentiation and cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis, in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. Methods Serum levels of bone turnover markers were measured by ELISA in patients with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis, and healthy controls. PBMCs were isolated and cultured with or without RANKL/M-CSF and 1,25(OH)2D3. Osteoclast differentiation and cytokine secretion were assessed. Results Psoriatic arthritis patients had lower osteocalcin, as well as higher C-telopeptide of type I collagen and cathepsin K serum levels compared with psoriasis vulgaris patients and controls. RANKL/M-CSF-stimulated PBMCs from psoriatic arthritis patients produced higher proinflammatory cytokine levels and had a differential secretion profile in response to 1,25(OH)2D3, compared with psoriasis vulgaris and control PBMCs. Conclusions Our data confirmed altered bone turnover in psoriatic arthritis patients, and demonstrated increased osteoclastogenic potential and proinflammatory cytokine secretion capacity of these PBMCs compared with psoriasis vulgaris and controls. 1,25(OH)2D3 abrogated these effects. PMID:27050092

  2. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  3. Adjusting irradiance to enhance growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Nie, Changliang; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming

    2016-09-01

    Light is one of the most important factors affecting microalgae growth and biochemical composition. The influence of illumination on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) was investigated. Six progressive illumination intensities (0, 30, 90, 150, 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1)), were used for C. vulgaris cultivation at 25°C. Under 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1), the corresponding specific light intensity of 750×10(-6)μmol·m(-2)s(-1) per cell, algae obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.46g·L(-1)) on the 7th day, which was 3.5 times of that under 0μmol·m(-2)s(-1), and the greatest average specific growth rate (0.79 d(-1)) in the first 7days. The results showed the importance role of light in mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris. High light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1) would inhibit microalgae growth to a certain degree. The algal lipid content was the greatest (30.5%) at 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1) light intensity, which was 2.42 times as high as that cultured in dark. The protein content of C. vulgaris decreased at high light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1). The effect of irradiance on carbohydrate content was inversely correlated with that on protein. The available light at an appropriate intensity, not higher than 200μmol·m(-2)s(-1), was feasible for economical cultivation of C. vulgaris in MSGW. PMID:27484967

  4. Chemotaxonomy of iridoids in Linaria vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Guiso, Marcella; Tassone, Grazia; Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2007-11-01

    The phytochemical analysis of the extracts of Linaria vulgaris, has allowed to underline an iridoidic pattern similar to that of the other Linaria plants, with the presence of antirrinoside, antirride, 6-beta-idrossiantirride, 10-beta-glucosilaucubina and a new iridoidic compound, whose structure was demonstrated to be that of 4-carboxy-boonein.

  5. Ichthyosis vulgaris: the filaggrin mutation disease.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, J P; Godoy-Gijon, E; Elias, P M

    2013-06-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and is characterized clinically by xerosis, scaling, keratosis pilaris, palmar and plantar hyperlinearity, and a strong association with atopic disorders. According to the published studies presented in this review article, FLG mutations are observed in approximately 7·7% of Europeans and 3·0% of Asians, but appear to be infrequent in darker-skinned populations. This clinical review article provides an overview of ichthyosis vulgaris epidemiology, related disorders and pathomechanisms. Not only does ichthyosis vulgaris possess a wide clinical spectrum, recent studies suggest that carriers of FLG mutations may have a generally altered risk of developing common diseases, even beyond atopic disorders. Mechanistic studies have shown increased penetration of allergens and chemicals in filaggrin-deficient skin, and epidemiological studies have found higher levels of hand eczema, irritant contact dermatitis, nickel sensitization and serum vitamin D levels. When relevant, individuals should be informed about an increased risk of developing dermatitis when repeatedly or continuously exposed to nickel or irritants. Moreover, with our current knowledge, individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris should be protected against neonatal exposure to cats to prevent atopic dermatitis and should abstain from smoking to prevent asthma. Finally, they should be advised against excessive exposure to factors that decrease skin barrier functions and increase the risk of atopic dermatitis.

  6. Simultaneous nutrient removal and lipid production from pretreated piggery wastewater by Chlorella vulgaris YSW-04.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Sapireddy, Veer Raghavulu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Wontae; Timmes, Thomas C; Inamuddin; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2013-03-01

    The feasibility of using a microalga Chlorella vulgaris YSW-04 was investigated for removal of nutrients from piggery wastewater effluent. The consequent lipid production by the microalga was also identified and quantitatively determined. The wastewater effluent was diluted to different concentrations ranging from 20 to 80 % of the original using either synthetic media or distilled water. The dilution effect on both lipid production and nutrient removal was evaluated, and growth rate of C. vulgaris was also monitored. Dilution of the wastewater effluent improved microalgal growth, lipid productivity, and nutrient removal. The growth rate of C. vulgaris was increased with decreased concentration of piggery wastewater in the culture media regardless of the diluent type. Lipid production was relatively higher when using synthetic media than using distilled water for dilution of wastewater. The composition of fatty acids accumulated in microalgal biomass was dependent upon both dilution ratio and diluent type. The microalga grown on a 20 % concentration of wastewater effluent diluted with distilled water was more promising for generating high-efficient biodiesel compared to the other culture conditions. The highest removal of inorganic nutrients was also achieved at the same dilution condition. Our results revealed the optimal pretreatment condition for the biodegradation of piggery wastewater with microalgae for subsequent production of high-efficient biodiesel. PMID:22569638

  7. Identification of white campion (Silene latifolia) guaiacol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of veratrole, a key volatile for pollinator attraction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Silene latifolia and its pollinator, the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, represent an open nursery pollination system wherein floral volatiles, especially veratrole (1, 2-dimethoxybenzene), lilac aldehydes, and phenylacetaldehyde are of key importance for floral signaling. Despite the important role of floral scent in ensuring reproductive success in S. latifolia, the molecular basis of scent biosynthesis in this species has not yet been investigated. Results We isolated two full-length cDNAs from S. latifolia that show similarity to rose orcinol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical analysis showed that both S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase1 (SlGOMT1) &S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase2 (SlGOMT2) encode proteins that catalyze the methylation of guaiacol to form veratrole. A large Km value difference between SlGOMT1 (~10 μM) and SlGOMT2 (~501 μM) resulted that SlGOMT1 is 31-fold more catalytically efficient than SlGOMT2. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the SlGOMT genes are specifically expressed in flowers and male S. latifolia flowers had 3- to 4-folds higher level of GOMT gene transcripts than female flower tissues. Two related cDNAs, S. dioica O-methyltransferase1 (SdOMT1) and S. dioica O-methyltransferase2 (SdOMT2), were also obtained from the sister species Silene dioica, but the proteins they encode did not methylate guaiacol, consistent with the lack of veratrole emission in the flowers of this species. Our evolutionary analysis uncovered that SlGOMT1 and SlGOMT2 genes evolved under positive selection, whereas SdOMT1 and SdOMT2 genes show no evidence for selection. Conclusions Altogether, we report the identification and functional characterization of the gene, SlGOMT1 that efficiently catalyzes veratrole formation, whereas another copy of this gene with only one amino acid difference, SlGOMT2 was found to be less efficient for veratrole synthesis in S. latifolia. PMID:22937972

  8. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenrui; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Jing; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Yongkui

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C. vulgaris grew better in C. esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH(1)) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23548401

  9. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gille, Andrea; Trautmann, Andreas; Posten, Clemens; Briviba, Karlis

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae can contribute to a balanced diet because of their composition. Beside numerous essential nutrients, carotenoids are in the focus for food applications. The bioavailability of carotenoids from photoautotrophic-cultivated Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) was compared. An in vitro digestion model was used to investigate carotenoid bioaccessibility. Furthermore, the effect of sonication on bioaccessibility was assessed. Lutein was the main carotenoid in both species. C. reinhardtii showed higher amounts of lutein and β-carotene than C. vulgaris. In contrast to C. reinhardtii, no β-carotene and only 7% of lutein were bioaccessible in nonsonicated C. vulgaris. Sonication increased the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from C. vulgaris to a level comparable with C. reinhardtii (β-carotene: ≥ 10%; lutein: ≥ 15%). Thus, C. reinhardtii represents a good carotenoid source for potential use in foods without processing, while the application of processing methods, like sonication, is necessary for C. vulgaris. PMID:27146695

  10. Evolution of the syntrophic interaction between Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri: involvement of an ancient horizontal gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2007-01-05

    The sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the methanogenic archaea Methanosarcina barkeri can grow syntrophically on lactate. In this study, three functionally unknown genes of D. vulgaris, DVU2103, DVU2104 and DVU2108, were found to be up-regulated 2-4 fold following the lifestyle shift from syntroph to sulfatereducer; moreover, none of these genes were regulated when D. vulgaris was grown alone in various pure culture conditions. These results suggest that these genes may play roles related to the lifestyle change of D. vulgaris from syntroph to sulfate reducer. This hypothesis is further supported by phylogenomic analyses showing that homologies of these genes were only narrowly present in several groups of bacteria, most of which are restricted to a syntrophic life-style, such as Pelobacter carbinolicus, Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans, Syntrophomonas wolfei and Syntrophus aciditrophicus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genes tended to be clustered with archaeal genera, and they were rooted on archaeal species in the phylogenetic trees, suggesting that they originated from an archaeal methanogen and were horizontally transferred to a common ancestor of delta- Proteobacteria, Clostridia and Thermotogae. While lost in most species during evolution, these genes appear to have been retained in bacteria capable of syntrophic relationships, probably due to their providing a selective advantage. In addition, no significant bias in codon and amino acid usages was detected between these genes and the rest of the D. vulgaris genome, suggesting these gene transfers may have occurred early in the evolutionary history so that sufficient time has elapsed to allow an adaptation to the codon and amino acid usages of D. vulgaris. This report provides novel insights into the origin and evolution of bacterial genes involved in the syntrophic lifestyle.

  11. When is it worth being a self-compatible hermaphrodite? Context-dependent effects of self-pollination on female advantage in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, Emna; Touzet, Pascal; Billard, Emmanuelle; Dufay, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    In gynodioecious plant species with nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, females and hermaphrodites plants can coexist whenever female have higher seed fitness than hermaphrodites. Although the effect of self fertilization on seed fitness in hermaphrodites has been considered theoretically, this effect is far from intuitive, because it can either increase the relative seed fitness of the females (if it leads hermaphrodites to produce inbred, low quality offspring) or decrease it (if it provides reproductive assurance to hermaphrodites). Hence, empirical investigation is needed to document whether relative seed fitness varies with whether pollen is or is not limiting to seed production. In the current study, we measured fruit set and seed production in both females and hermaphrodites and the selfing rate in hermaphrodites in two experimental patches that differed in sex ratios in the gynodioecious plant Silene nutans. We found an impact of plant gender, patch, and their interaction, with females suffering from stronger pollen limitation when locally frequent. In the most pollen-limited situation, the selfing rate of hermaphrodites increased and provided hermaphrodites with a type of reproductive assurance that is not available to females. By integrating both the beneficial (reproductive assurance) and costly effects (through inbreeding depression) of self-pollination, we showed that whether females did or did not exhibit higher seed fitness depended on the degree of pollen limitation on seed production. PMID:26140201

  12. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  13. Isolation of early genes expressed in reproductive organs of the dioecious white campion (Silene latifolia) by subtraction cloning using an asexual mutant.

    PubMed

    Barbacar, N; Hinnisdaels, S; Farbos, I; Monéger, F; Lardon, A; Delichère, C; Mouras, A; Negrutiu, I

    1997-10-01

    The dioecious white campion (Silene latifolia) has been chosen as a working model for sexual development. In this species, sexual dimorphism is achieved through two distinct developmental blocks: inhibition of carpel development in male flowers, and early arrest of anther differentiation in female flowers. The combined advantages of the dioecious system and the availability of a sexual mutant lacking both male and female reproductive organs have been exploited in a molecular subtraction approach using male and asexual flower buds. This resulted in the cloning of 22 cDNA clones expressed in stamens at distinct stages of development. Fourteen of these clones corresponded to genes whose expression was detected in pre-meiotic stamens, a stage of development for which very little information is presently available. Furthermore, the absence of similarities with database sequences for ten clones suggests that they represent novel genes. Functional analysis of each clone will enable their positioning within the reproductive organ developmental pathway(s). In parallel, these clones are being exploited as developmental markers of early differentiation within the flower. PMID:9375394

  14. Ultrastructural analysis of the behavior of the dimorphic fungus Microbotryum violaceum in fungus-induced anthers of female Silene latifolia flowers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2005-12-01

    The development of male organs is induced in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia by infection with the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Stamens in a healthy female flower grow only to stage 6, whereas those in an infected female flower develop to the mature stage (stage 12), at which the stamens are filled with fungal teliospores instead of pollen grains. To investigate these host-parasite interactions, young floral buds and fungus-induced anthers of infected female flowers were examined by electron microscopy following fixation by a high-pressure freezing method. Using this approach, we found that parasitic hyphae of this fungus contain several extracellular vesicles and have a consistent appearance up to stage 8. At that stage, parasitic hyphae are observed adjacent to dying sporogenous cells in the infected female anther. At stage 9, an increased number of dead and dying sporogenous cells is observed, among which the sporogenous hyphae of the fungus develop and form initial teliospores. Several types of electron-dense material are present in proximity to some fungi at this stage. The initial teliospores contain two types of vacuoles, and the fungus cell wall contains abundant carbohydrate, as revealed by silver protein staining. The sporogenous cell is probably sensitive to infection by the fungus, resulting in disruption. In addition, the fungus accelerates cell death in the anther and utilizes constituents of the dead host cell to form the mature teliospore. PMID:16333578

  15. [Research progress on molecular ecology of Sciurus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Tian, Xin-min; Chen, Huan; Guo, Hui-yan; Jin, Jian-li; Zhang, Xiao-jun

    2015-03-01

    Today, the main threats for Sciurus vulgaris are illegal hunting, deforestation, and subsequent population fragmentation, combined with interspecific competition from S. carolinensis in some regions of Europe, which has led to a sharp reduction in the number of population. S. vulgaris has been listed as Near Threatened IUCN Red List and included in key protected wild animals in Jilin Province, China. The molecular ecology of S. vulgaris is developing rapidly with the rapid development of molecular biology methods. In particular, the research of mtDNA fragments and the application squirrel study microsatellite loci has further promoted the molecular ecology of S. vulgaris. In this study, the molecular phylogeny, the genetic diversity and the molecular phylogeography involving the molecular ecology of S. vulgaris were reviewed. Four areas for the future development in molecular ecology of S. vulgaris were proposed: 1) to further explore the molecular phylogeny relationship between S. vulgaris and S. lis; 2) the comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of S. vulgaris for continuous populations, isolated populations and metapopulation; 3) the analysis of molecular phylogeography of S. vulgaris based on other markers of nuclear; 4) to explore whether there existed the quaternary glacial refuge in Asia. PMID:26211081

  16. Acne vulgaris related to androgens - a review.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Khan, S I

    2014-01-01

    Sebum production is stimulated by androgens and is the key in the development of acne vulgaris. Several investigators have looked for direct relationships between serum androgen levels, sebum secretion rate and the presence of acne. The presence of acne in prepubertal girls and sebum production in both sexes correlate with serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels. Although increased serum androgen levels correlate with the presence of severe nodular acne in men and women, these levels are often within the normal range in mild to moderate acne. This raises the question of whether there is an increased local production of androgens within the sebaceous gland of patients with acne vulgaris that leads to increased sebum secretion.

  17. Management of pemphigus vulgaris: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gregoriou, Stamatis; Efthymiou, Ourania; Stefanaki, Christina; Rigopoulos, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    The main objective in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris is to control the disease, prevent relapses, and avoid adverse events associated with the prolonged use of steroids and immunosuppressive agents. Systemic corticosteroids remain the gold standard treatment for pemphigus vulgaris. Azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil are the first line of steroid-sparing treatment. Rituximab is extremely effective in recalcitrant pemphigus, when other treatments fail to control the disease. The European Dermatology Forum recommends tapering prednisolone by 25% every 2 weeks after the consolidation phase, and a 5 mg reduction every 4 weeks when the dose is reduced to <20 mg. If the patient relapses, options include increasing steroids back to the previous dose, adding an immunosuppressant if using steroid monotherapy, or replacing a first-line immunosuppressant by another if already on combination therapy. PMID:26543381

  18. Giant lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Sacchidanand, S; Sharavana, S; Mallikarjun, M; Nataraja, H V

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be an important public health problem even with the availability of highly effective anti-tuberculous drugs. It constitutes 0.1% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis that occurs in previously sensitized individuals with a moderate degree of immunity against tubercle bacilli. The different types of lupus vulgaris include plaque, ulcerative, vegetative, papular and nodular, and tumor forms. A 40-year-old man presented with large multiple plaques over right upper limb, right side of chest and back, and right lower limb for the past 30 years. Histopathology showed numerous noncaseating granulomas with Langhan's type of giant cells. The Mantoux test showed strong positivity and there was excellent response to anti-tuberculous treatment. This case is being reported because of its extreme chronicity of 30 years duration, unusually large size and multiplicity of lesions.

  19. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris with 30 years duration.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam; Kobierzycka, Monika; Cisło, Maria; Schwartz, Robert A; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2006-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a progressive form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in a person with a moderate to high degree of immunity. It is the most common type of cutaneous tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris can be mimicked by several other skin conditions, and a 69-y-old female is described with an extremely long history of extensive infiltrative skin lesions with abundant scaling. The lesions were localized on the right arm and forearm, and on the right lateral surface of the chest. The diascopic test was positive. Moreover, a large atrophic scar was seen in the region of right cubital fossa resulting in contracture of the right elbow joint. The histopathology strongly suggested the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by PCR examination. A polychemotherapeutic regimen (ethambutol 1250 mg/d, rifampicin 600 mg/d and isoniazid 300 mg/d) was successfully employed for the treatment of skin lesions.

  20. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  1. [ACNE VULGARIS--AETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Janda, Katarzyna; Chwilkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    A spotless skin is a rarity. Both women and men have different problems related to the complexion. One of the most common problems is acne, which affects an increasing number of people of all ages. Seborrhea skin areas rich in sebaceous glands, the formation of comedones, inflammation, and scars are characteristic for this disease. The aim of the study was to discuss the causes of acne vulgaris, methods of treatment, and proper care of the skin affected by this problem.

  2. Chloroplast Microsatellite Diversity in Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, F.; Bitocchi, E.; Bellucci, E.; Rau, D.; Rodriguez, M.; Attene, G.; Papa, R.; Nanni, L.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary studies that are aimed at defining the processes behind the present level and organization of crop genetic diversity represent the fundamental bases for biodiversity conservation and use. A Mesoamerican origin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris was recently suggested through analysis of nucleotide polymorphism at the nuclear level. Here, we have used chloroplast microsatellites to investigate the origin of the common bean, on the basis of the specific characteristics of these markers (no recombination, haploid genome, uniparental inheritance), to validate these recent findings. Indeed, comparisons of the results obtained through analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA should allow the resolution of some of the contrasting information available on the evolutionary processes. The main outcomes of the present study are: (i) confirmation at the chloroplast level of the results obtained through nuclear data, further supporting the Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris, with central Mexico representing the cradle of its diversity; (ii) identification of a putative ancestral plastidial genome, which is characteristic of a group of accessions distributed from central Mexico to Peru, but which have not been highlighted beforehand through analyses at the nuclear level. Finally, the present study suggests that when a single species is analyzed, there is the need to take into account the complexity of the relationships between P. vulgaris and its closely related and partially intercrossable species P. coccineus and P. dumosus. Thus, the present study stresses the importance for the investigation of the speciation processes of these taxa through comparisons of both plastidial and nuclear variability. This knowledge will be fundamental not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also to put P. coccineus and P. dumosus germplasm to better use as a source of useful diversity for P. vulgaris breeding. PMID:23346091

  3. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440

  4. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  5. Biogenic hydrogen and methane production from Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta biomass

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel and bioenergy production due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates and no need for external organic carbon supply. In this study, utilization of Chlorella vulgaris (a fresh water microalga) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (a marine microalga) biomass was tested as a feedstock for anaerobic H2 and CH4 production. Results Anaerobic serum bottle assays were conducted at 37°C with enrichment cultures derived from municipal anaerobic digester sludge. Low levels of H2 were produced by anaerobic enrichment cultures, but H2 was subsequently consumed even in the presence of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogens. Without inoculation, algal biomass still produced H2 due to the activities of satellite bacteria associated with algal cultures. CH4 was produced from both types of biomass with anaerobic enrichments. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling indicated the presence of H2-producing and H2-consuming bacteria in the anaerobic enrichment cultures and the presence of H2-producing bacteria among the satellite bacteria in both sources of algal biomass. Conclusions H2 production by the satellite bacteria was comparable from D. tertiolecta (12.6 ml H2/g volatile solids (VS)) and from C. vulgaris (10.8 ml H2/g VS), whereas CH4 production was significantly higher from C. vulgaris (286 ml/g VS) than from D. tertiolecta (24 ml/g VS). The high salinity of the D. tertiolecta slurry, prohibitive to methanogens, was the probable reason for lower CH4 production. PMID:21943287

  6. [Effect of magnesium deficiency on photosynthetic physiology and triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wei, Chang-Long; Yu, Shui-Yan; Shi, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Guo

    2014-04-01

    As an excellent biological resource, Chlorella has wide applications for production of biofuel, bioactive substances and water environment restoration. Therefore, it is very important to understand the photosynthetic physiology characteristics of Chlorella. Magnesium ions play an important role in the growth of microalgae, not only the central atom of chlorophyll, but also the cofactor of some key enzyme in the metabolic pathway. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of magnesium deficiency on several photosynthetic and physiological parameters and the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of the green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, in the photoautotrophic culture process. Chlorella vulgaris biomass, protein, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents decreased by 20%, 43.96%, 27.52% and 28.07% in response to magnesium deficiency, while the total oil content increased by 19.60%. Moreover, magnesium deficiency decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency F(v)/F(m) by 22.54%, but increased the non-photochemical quenching parameters qN. Our results indicated the decline of chlorophyll caused by magnesium, which affected the photosynthesis efficiency, lead to the growth inhibition of Chlorella vulgaris and affected the protein synthesis and increased the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation.

  7. Global transcriptomics analysis of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris change from syntrophic growth with Methanosarcina barkeri to sulfidogenic metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Plugge, Caroline M.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Nie, Lei; Brockman, Fred J.; Zhang, Weiwen

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Desulfovibrio vulgaris is a metabolically flexible microorganism. It can use sulfate as electron acceptor to catabolize a variety of substrates, or in the absence of sulfate can utilize organic acids and alcohols by forming a syntrophic association with hydrogen scavenging partner to relieve inhibition by hydrogen. These alternativemetabolic types increase the chance of survival for D. vulgaris in environments where one of the potential external electron acceptors becomes depleted. In this work, whole-genome D. vulgaris microarrays were used to determine relative transcript levels as D. vulgaris shifted its metabolism from syntroph in a lactate-oxidizing dual-culture with Methanosarcina barkeri to a sulfidogenic metabolism. Syntrophic dual-cultures were grown in two independent chemostats and perturbation was introduced after six volume changes with the addition of sulfate. The results showed that 132 genes were differentially expressed in D. vulgaris 2 hours after addition of sulfate. Functional analyses suggested that genes involved in cell envelope and energy metabolism were the most regulated when comparing syntrophic and sulfidogenic metabolism. Up-regulation was observed for genes encoding ATPase and the membrane-integrated energy conserving hydrogenase (Ech) when cells shifted to a sulfidogenic metabolism. A five-gene cluster encoding several lipo- and membrane-bound proteins was down-regulated when cells were shifted to a sulfidogenic metabolism. Interestingly, this gene cluster has orthologs found only in another syntrophic bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and four recently sequenced Desulfovibrio strains. This study also identified several novel c-type cytochrome encoding genes which may be involved in the sulfidogenic metabolism.

  8. Variation in the Breeding System of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), commonly known as selfheal, is a perennial herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine. Recent studies have found that P. vulgaris possesses anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-bacterial properties, which may lead to increased commercial demand. To date...

  9. The roles of female and hermaphroditic flowers in the gynodioecious-gynomonoecious Silene littorea: insights into the phenology of sex expression.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, I; Buide, M L; Narbona, E

    2013-11-01

    Some gynodioecious species have intermediate individuals that bear both female and hermaphroditic flowers. This phenomenon is known as a gynodioecious-gynomonoecious sexual system. Gender expression in such species has received little attention in the past, and the phenologies of male and female functions have also yet to be explored. In this study, we examined variations in gender patterns, their effects on female reproductive success and sex expression in depth throughout the flowering period in two populations. The studied populations of Silene littorea contained mostly gynomonoecious plants and the number of pure females was very low. The gynomonoecious plants showed high variability in the total proportion of female flowers. In addition, the proportion of female flowers in each plant varied widely across the flowering season. Although there was a trend towards maleness, our measures of functional gender suggested that most plants transmit their genes via both pollen and ovules. Fruit set and seed set were not significantly different among populations; in contrast, flower production significantly varied between the two populations - and among plants - with consequent variation in total seed production. Conversely, gender and sex expression were similar in both populations. Plants with higher phenotypic femaleness did not have higher fruit set, seed set or total female fecundity. The mating environment fluctuated little across the flowering period, but fluctuations were higher in the population with low flower production. We therefore conclude that the high proportion of gynomonoecious individuals in our studied populations of S. littorea may be advantageous for the species, providing the benefits of both hermaphroditic and female flowers.

  10. Rapid Degeneration of Noncoding DNA Regions Surrounding SlAP3X/Y After Recombination Suppression in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Nishiyama, Rie; Shibata, Fukashi; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes. Previous studies of sex chromosome–linked genes have suggested a gradual divergence between the X-linked and the Y-linked genes in proportion to the distance from the pseudoautosomal region. However, such a comparison has yet to be made for the noncoding regions. To better characterize the nonrecombining region of the X and Y chromosomes, we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing the sex chromosome–linked paralogs SlAP3X and SlAP3Y, including 115 kb and 73 kb of sequences, respectively, flanking these genes. The synonymous nucleotide divergence between SlAP3X and SlAP3Y indicated that recombination stopped approximately 3.4 million years ago. Sequence homology analysis revealed the presence of six long terminal repeat retrotransposon-like elements. Using the nucleotide divergence calculated between left and right long terminal repeat sequences, insertion dates were estimated to be 0.083–1.6 million years ago, implying that all elements detected were inserted after recombination stopped. A reciprocal sequence homology search facilitated the identification of four homologous noncoding DNA regions between the X and Y chromosomes, spanning 6.7% and 10.6% of the X chromosome–derived and Y chromosome–derived sequences, respectively, investigated. Genomic Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the noncoding DNA flanking SlAP3X/Y has homology to many regions throughout the genome, regardless of whether they were homologous between the X and Y chromosomes. This finding suggests that most noncoding DNA regions rapidly lose their counterparts because of the introduction of transposable elements and indels (insertion–deletions) after recombination has stopped. PMID:24122056

  11. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and many studies are done about acne and diet. Aim To determine the effect of insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Material and methods Two hundred and forty-three acne vulgaris patients and 156 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. The blood levels of insulin and glucose were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) Index was calculated. The values were compared with the control group. Results All of the patients were in the severe acne group according to their scores on the global acne scoring scale. While fasting blood glucose levels were not different between the groups (p > 0.05, 82.91 ±9.76 vs. 80.26 ±8.33), the fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p < 0.001, 14.01 ±11.94 vs. 9.12 ±3.53). Additionally, there was a highly significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of HOMA values (p < 0.001, 2.87 ±2.56 vs. 1.63 ±0.65). Conclusions These results suggest that insulin resistance may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne. PMID:26366152

  12. Addressing Free Radical Oxidation in Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Criscito, Maressa C.; Schlesinger, Todd E.; Verdicchio, Robert; Szoke, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparatively little attention has been paid to the role of free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris. Here, using the traditional abnormalities cited for acne, the authors address the role of free radical oxidation throughout the pathogenesis by detailing the chemistry that may contribute to clinical changes. To probe the effects of free radical oxidation and test an antioxidant, they conducted a preliminary study of topically applied vitamin E. Methods: Seventeen patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated over an eight-week period in two private dermatology practices in this open-label study. All patients enrolled were on the same baseline regimen of salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. This regimen was then supplemented with topical vitamin E in sunflower seed oil. Results: At the end of the eight-week period, all patients demonstrated clinical improvement, as indicated by a reduction in the number of lesions and global mean difference. A statistically significant reduction was noted as early as Week 2. Enrolled patients also expressed a positive experience due to good tolerability and easy application. Conclusion: Although the exact pathogenesis of acne vulgaris remains unknown, the presence of excessive reactive oxygen species can be implicated in each of the major abnormalities involved. This presence, along with the positive results of the authors’ preliminary study, demonstrates the need for more exploration on the use of topical antioxidants in limiting free radical oxidation in the acne model. This paper is designed to stimulate academic discussion regarding a new way of thinking about the disease state of acne. PMID:26962389

  13. Construction and Evaluation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Whole-Genome Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Z. He; Q. He; L. Wu; M.E. Clark; J.D. Wall; Jizhong Zhou; Matthew W. Fields

    2004-03-17

    ,4-cyclodiphosphate (MECDP) synthase. Spermidines are polyamines that are typically abundant in rapidly dividing cells and are essential growth factors in eukaryotic organisms. Polyamines are thought to stabilize DNA by the association of the amino groups with the phosphate residues of DNA and can also enhance tRNA and ribosome stability. The MECDP synthase enzyme is essential in Escherichia coli and participates in the nonmevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, a critical pathway present in some bacteria and apicomplexans but distinct from that used by mammals. Several of the highly up-regulated ORFs were annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins. Interestingly, an ORF that was predicted to contain a flocculin repeat domain was almost 9-fold up-regulated in stationary phase cells compared to logarithmically growing cells. The flocculin domain is commonly observed in fungi, and is thought to play a role during flocculation (non-sexual aggregation of single-cell microorganisms). These preliminary results have identified possible responses of D. vulgaris cells to stationary phase growth and suggest that polyamine production as well as cell aggregation and/or extracellular polymer production are responses of D. vulgaris during stationary phase. The initial microarray results indicate that the recently produced oligonucleotide microarrays are functional. We are currently optimizing growth conditions in order to culture D. vulgaris cells in the presence of uranium(VI) and to monitor whole-genome expression levels.

  14. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  15. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity. PMID:25778665

  16. Annular lupus vulgaris mimicking tinea cruris.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun; Oh, Chil Hwan

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress.

  17. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women.

  18. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  19. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update.

    PubMed

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  20. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  1. Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense in accumulating intracellular ammonium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular ammonium and activities of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were measured when the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild type strains of Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-attenuated mutants. After 48 h of immobilization, both wild types induced higher levels of intracellular ammonium in the microalgae than their respective mutants; the more IAA produced, the higher the intracellular ammonium accumulated. Accumulation of intracellular ammonium in the cells of C. vulgaris followed application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and its IAA-attenuated mutants, which had a similar pattern for the first 24 h. This effect was transient and disappeared after 48 h of incubation. Immobilization of C. vulgaris with any bacteria strain induced higher GS activity. The bacterial strains also had GS activity, comparable to the activity detected in C. vulgaris, but weaker than when immobilized with the bacteria. When net activity was calculated, the wild type always induced higher GS activity than IAA-attenuated mutants. GDH activity in most microalgae/bacteria interactions resembled GS activity. When complementing IAA-attenuated mutants with exogenous IAA, GS activity in co-immobilized cultures matched those of the wild type A. brasilense immobilized with the microalga. Similarity occurred when the net GS activity was measured, and was higher with greater quantities of exogenous IAA. It is proposed that IAA produced by A. brasilense is involved in ammonium uptake and later assimilation by C. vulgaris.

  2. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c3

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Min Sub; Wang, David T.; Zane, Grant M.; Wall, Judy D.; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling between carbon and sulfur metabolisms to the overall magnitude of the sulfur isotope effect, this study compared sulfur isotope fractionations by mutants of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. We tested mutant strains lacking one or two periplasmic (Hyd, Hyn-1, Hyn-2, and Hys) or cytoplasmic hydrogenases (Ech and CooL), and a mutant lacking type I tetraheme cytochrome (TpI-c3). In batch culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and its hydrogenase mutants had comparable growth kinetics and produced the same sulfur isotope effects. This is consistent with the reported redundancy of hydrogenases in D. vulgaris. However, the TpI-c3 mutant (ΔcycA) exhibited slower growth and sulfate reduction rates in batch culture, and produced more H2 and an approximately 50% larger sulfur isotope effect, compared to the wild type. The magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation in the CycA deletion strain, thus, increased due to the disrupted coupling of the carbon oxidation and sulfate reduction pathways. In continuous culture, wild-type D. vulgaris and the CycA mutant produced similar sulfur isotope effects, underscoring the influence of environmental conditions on the relative contribution of hydrogen cycling to the electron transport. The large sulfur isotope effects associated with the non-ideal stoichiometry of sulfate reduction in this study imply that simultaneous fermentation and sulfate reduction may be responsible for some of the large naturally-occurring sulfur isotope effects. Overall, mutant strains provide a powerful tool to test the effect of specific redox proteins and pathways on sulfur isotope fractionation. PMID:23805134

  3. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction.

  4. Lupus vulgaris: unusual presentation on face.

    PubMed

    Pilani, A; Vora, R V

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. As the disease has potential to mutilate when left untreated, leaving deforming scars and disfigurement, an early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Though the common type is plaque type, rarely mutilating and vegetative forms also are found. A 28 year old female, labourer presented with progressive annular plaque over right side of cheek extending upto right lower lid and ala of nose. There were two satellite plaques near the right side of giant lesion. On diascopy apple jelly nodule was seen. There was no regional lymhadenopathy. Histopathological examination showed many granulomas in upper dermis extending to deep dermis comprising of epitheloid cells with langhans' type of giant cells, lymphocytic infiltration & focal necrosis suggestive of lupus vulgaris. The consequences of failing to make an early diagnosis can be disastrous for the patients, as the progression of the disease can lead to necrosis, destruction of bones and cartilage leading to permanent deformity. Thus it is vital for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion of such atypical forms and take biopsy samples for histological and bacteriological studies.

  5. Pemphigus vulgaris in association with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Haustein, U F

    2000-12-01

    We report on a sixty-seven year old miner with pemphigus vulgaris characterised clinically by a three month history of relapsing oral lesions and blisters/erosions on the trunk, axillae and extremities, histologically by suprabasal cleavage due to acantholysis, immunologically by the epidermal intercellular net-like pattern due to deposits of IgG- and IgM-antibodies and complement C3 in the direct immunofluorescence as well as by serum antibodies to desmoglein 3 (130 KD) and plakoglobin (85 KD) by immunoblotting analysis. Silicosis has already been known for 6 years. In addition, antinuclear antibodies, anti-ssDNA-antibodies and anti-topoisomerase antibodies were found. Clinical improvement and clearing of skin symptoms could be achieved by systemic steroids in combination with cyclophosphamide. However, the patient died of sepsis deriving from recalcitrant pneumonia. Although the association of silicosis with various autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and dermatomyositis has been reported many times, our patient is, to the best of our knowledge, the second case with features of the two diseases: pemphigus vulgaris and silicosis.

  6. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Arican, Ozer; Belge Kurutas, Ergul; Sasmaz, Sezai

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the common dermatological diseases and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of oxidative stress in acne vulgaris. Forty-three consecutive acne patients and 46 controls were enrolled. The parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood of cases were measured spectrophotometrically. The values compared with control group, the relation between the severity and distribution of acne, and the correlation of each enzyme level were researched. CAT and G6PD levels in patients were found to be statistically decreased, and SOD and MDA levels were found to be statistically increased (P < .001). However, any statistical difference and correlation could not be found between the severity and distribution of lesions and the mean levels of enzymes. In addition, we found that each enzyme is correlated with one another. Our findings show that oxidative stress exists in the acne patients. It will be useful to apply at least one antioxidant featured drug along with the combined acne treatment. PMID:16489259

  7. Calcinosis cutis secondary to facial acne vulgaris: A rare complication.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Srimanta Kumar; Gupta, Nikhil; Vohra, Suruchi

    2015-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease commonly affecting the adolescent and young adults. It is characterized by the presence of pleomorphic skin lesions such as comadones, papules, pustules, and nodules. The common complications are postacne hyperpigmentation and scarring causing psychological impact. Calcinosis cutis is the pathologic deposition of insoluble calcium salt in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Calcinosis cutis following acne vulgaris is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of calcinosis cutis in acne vulgaris in a 55-year-old man.

  8. Calcinosis cutis secondary to facial acne vulgaris: A rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Srimanta Kumar; Gupta, Nikhil; Vohra, Suruchi

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease commonly affecting the adolescent and young adults. It is characterized by the presence of pleomorphic skin lesions such as comadones, papules, pustules, and nodules. The common complications are postacne hyperpigmentation and scarring causing psychological impact. Calcinosis cutis is the pathologic deposition of insoluble calcium salt in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Calcinosis cutis following acne vulgaris is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of calcinosis cutis in acne vulgaris in a 55-year-old man. PMID:26904448

  9. Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Fico, Gelsomina

    2014-01-01

    Three flavonoids were isolated from the leaf MeOH extracts of Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson collected from Italian Alps: rutin (1) and kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (2) from P. latifolia, and kaempferol 3-β-O-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2) gentiobioside (3) from P. vulgaris. The structures were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data, including those derived from 2D NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results. This article is the first to report on P. vulgaris tissue flavonoids after Harborne's study in 1968 and the first work ever on these compounds from P. latifolia.

  10. Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa response to pentachlorophenol and comparison with that of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Paulo; Stoichev, Teodor; Basto, M Clara P; Ramos, V; Vasconcelos, V M; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2014-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) effects on a strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated at laboratory scale. This is the first systematic ecotoxicity study of the effects of PCP on an aquatic cyanobacterium. The microalga Chlorella vulgaris was studied in the same conditions as the cyanobacterium, in order to compare the PCP toxicity and its removal by the species. The cells were exposed to environmental levels of PCP during 10 days, in Fraquil culture medium, at nominal concentrations from 0.01 to 1000 μg L(-1), to the cyanobacterium, and 0.01 to 5000 μg L(-1), to the microalga. Growth was assessed by area under growth curve (AUC, optical density vs time) and chlorophyll a content (chla). The toxicity profiles of the two species were very different. The calculated effective concentrations EC20 and EC50 were much lower to M. aeruginosa, and its growth inhibition expressed by chla was concentration-dependent while by AUC was not concentration-dependent. The cells might continue to divide even with lower levels of chla. The number of C. vulgaris cells decreased with the PCP concentration without major impact on the chla. The effect of PCP on M. aeruginosa is hormetic: every concentration studied was toxic except 1 μg L(-1), which promoted its growth. The legal limit of PCP set by the European Union for surface waters (1 μg L(-1)) should be reconsidered since a toxic cyanobacteria bloom might occur. The study of the removal of PCP from the culture medium by the two species is an additional novelty of this work. M. aeruginosa could remove part of the PCP from the medium, at concentrations where toxic effects were observed, while C. vulgaris stabilized it. PMID:24462928

  11. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Melinda A; Widrlechner, Mark P; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Murphy, Patricia; Hauck, Cathy; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Nikolau, Basil; Maury, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Background Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activities. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, water and ethanol extractions were tested for their ability to inhibit equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) replication. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent anti-lentiviral activity against virus in cell lines as well as in primary cell cultures with little to no cellular cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that the extracts were effective when added during the first four h of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting the virion itself or early entry events. Further analysis revealed that the extracts did not destroy EIAV virion integrity, but prevented viral particles from binding to the surface of permissive cells. Modest levels of anti-EIAV activity were also detected when the cells were treated with the extracts prior to infection, indicating that anti-EIAV botanical constituents could interact with both viral particles and permissive cells to interfere with infectivity. Size fractionation of the extract demonstrated that eight of the nine fractions generated from aqueous extracts displayed anti-viral activity. Separation of ethanol soluble and insoluble compounds in the eight active fractions revealed that ethanol-soluble constituents were responsible for the anti-viral activity in one fraction whereas ethanol-insoluble constituents were important for the anti-viral activity in two of the other fractions. In three of the five fractions that lost activity upon sub-fractionation, anti-viral activity was restored upon reconstitution of the fractions, indicating that synergistic anti-viral activity is present in several of the fractions. Conclusion

  12. Aqueous extract of dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris L. in acne vulgaris, a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fouladi, Rohollah F

    2012-12-01

    Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry) is a very well-known herb in traditional medicine. Apart from its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, the antilipogenic effect of barberry on the sebaceous glands in animals may further suggest it could be employed as an anti-acne agent. This study examined the effect of oral aqueous extract of barberry on acne vulgaris. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with moderate to severe acne vulgaris were randomly given oral gelatin capsules containing either aqueous extract of dried barberry (600 mg daily for 4 weeks, n = 25) or placebo (n = 24). Counts of facial noninflamed, inflamed, and total acne lesions, as well as the Michaelson's acne severity score were documented at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Both groups were comparable in terms of the patients' characteristics and baseline variables. After 4 weeks, the mean number of noninflamed, inflamed, and total lesions as well as mean Michaelson's acne severity score declined significantly by 43.25 ± 10.88% (median: 42.11%), 44.53 ± 11.78% (median: 45.45%), 44.64 ± 8.46% (median: 46.15%), and 44.38 ± 8.25% (median: 44.07%), respectively, among the extract receivers (p <.001 for all the changes). Similar changes were not significant in the placebo group. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to barberry. In conclusion, oral aqueous extract of dried barberry is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in teenagers with moderate to severe acne vulgaris.

  13. Model based optimization of feeding regimens in aquaculture: application to the improvement of Octopus vulgaris viability in captivity.

    PubMed

    Hormiga, José A; Almansa, Eduardo; Sykes, António V; Torres, Néstor V

    2010-09-01

    The culture of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), one important candidate to the aquaculture diversification, faces significant difficulties, mainly related with an inadequate first development stages diet. A mathematical model integrating disperse information on the nutrient composition throughout the species ontogenic development as well as on the effects of broodstock feeding and diet composition data of O. vulgaris, allowed us to predict the time evolution of paralarvae nutritional composition in terms of protein and lipid fractions and to design an optimal diet composition with the objective to ensure the maximal survival. The optimization routine showed that a diet based on the spider crab (Maja squinado) zoea composition is the most suitable for reaching the best survival rates. Results are verified by comparison with available experimental data. The obtained results and the prospective developments are a good example of how the systemic, quantitative model based approach can be used to analyse and contribute to the understanding of complex biological systems. PMID:20005909

  14. Changes in the metabolism of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris when coimmobilized in alginate with the nitrogen-fixing Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bashan, L E; Lebsky, V K; Hernandez, J P; Bustillos, J J; Bashan, Y

    2000-07-01

    In an agroindustrial wastewater pond, a naturally occurring unicellular microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was closely associated with the terrestrial plant-associative N2-fixing bacterium Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum. When the two microorganisms were artificially coimmobilized in alginate beads, they shared the same internal bead cavities, and the production of five microalgal pigments increased, but there were no effects on the number of the cells or the biomass of the microalga. The association, however, reduces the ability of C. vulgaris to remove ammonium ions and phosphorus from water. The bacterium produced nitrate from ammonium in synthetic wastewater with or without the presence of the microalga, and fixed nitrogen in two culture media. Our results suggest that interactions between microalgae and associative bacteria should be considered when cultivating microalgae for wastewater treatment.

  15. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  16. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases. PMID:26264195

  17. Lupus vulgaris of external nose--a case report.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, J S; Naveen, K N; Prasad, K C; Santhosh, S G; Hegde, J S

    2013-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis accounting for approximately 59% of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in India. We present a case of lupus vulgaris of external nose diagnosed early and treated with CAT-3 RNTCP regimen for six months without any nasal deformity except for a small scar over the dorsum of the nose. Patient followed up for one year after completion of the prescribed regimen, there being no recurrence of the lesion.

  18. [Mapping of pathogenic genes in two families with autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Gong, Hui-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Zheng-Mao; Wu, Ling-Qian; Liang, De-Sheng; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Pan, Qian; Bu, Feng-Xiao; Peng, Yu; Xia, Kun; Xia, Jia-Hui

    2008-07-01

    To localize the pathogenic genes of autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris, we ascertained two ichthyosis vulgaris families from Hunan Province. Venous blood samples were collected from affected and unaffected family members and genomic DNA was extracted. We then performed genome scan and linkage analysis using microsatellite markers around known ichthyosis vulgaris loci in chromosomes 1 and 10. In family 1, the locus linked to ichthyosis vulgaris was located near D1S498 (1q21), which overlapped with known ichthyosis vulgaris loci. In family 2, however, all known loci for ichthyosis vulgaris were excluded and the new locus remains to be identified.

  19. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration on lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris from enzymatic hydrolysates of lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs).

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Huang, He; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysates of the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) from biodiesel production were evaluated as nutritional sources for the mixotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris and lipid production at different temperature levels and substrate concentrations. Both parameters had a significant effect on cell growth and lipid production. It was observed that C. vulgaris could grow mixotrophically in a wide range of temperatures (20∼35 °C). The optimal temperature for cell growth and lipid accumulation of the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was between 25 and 30 °C. The neutral lipids of the culture at 25 °C accounted for as much as 82 % of the total lipid content in the microalga at culture day 8. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that the increase of saturated fatty acids was proportional to the increase in temperature. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.83 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity of 164 mg/L/day were obtained at an initial total sugar concentration of 10 g/L and an initial total concentration of amino acids of 1.0 g/L but decreased at lower and higher substrate concentrations. The present results show that LMBRS could be utilized by the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris for microalgal lipid production under the optimum temperature and substrate concentration.

  20. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration on lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris from enzymatic hydrolysates of lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs).

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Huang, He; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysates of the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) from biodiesel production were evaluated as nutritional sources for the mixotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris and lipid production at different temperature levels and substrate concentrations. Both parameters had a significant effect on cell growth and lipid production. It was observed that C. vulgaris could grow mixotrophically in a wide range of temperatures (20∼35 °C). The optimal temperature for cell growth and lipid accumulation of the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was between 25 and 30 °C. The neutral lipids of the culture at 25 °C accounted for as much as 82 % of the total lipid content in the microalga at culture day 8. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that the increase of saturated fatty acids was proportional to the increase in temperature. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.83 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity of 164 mg/L/day were obtained at an initial total sugar concentration of 10 g/L and an initial total concentration of amino acids of 1.0 g/L but decreased at lower and higher substrate concentrations. The present results show that LMBRS could be utilized by the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris for microalgal lipid production under the optimum temperature and substrate concentration. PMID:25138600

  1. Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    Previous behavioral studies in Octopus vulgaris revealed lateralization of eye use. In this study, the authors expanded the scope to investigate arm preferences. The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks. However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved. Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms. Four out of 8 subjects also showed a lateral bias. In addition, octopuses had a preference for a specific arm to reach into a T maze to retrieve a food reward. These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

  2. Dermatomyositis and pemphigus vulgaris: association or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Black, Michael; Marshman, Gillian

    2011-05-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with a pruritic photodistributed rash and dysphagia. Serum anti-nuclear antibody was positive (titre 1/1280) and skin and muscle biopsies confirmed a diagnosis of dermatomyositis. She was treated with oral prednisolone (5-50 mg/day), mometasone furoate 0.1% ointment and lotion, and tacrolimus 0.03% ointment. Four years later she presented with multiple painful scaly erosions on the face, scalp and trunk. Histopathology and direct and indirect immunofluorescence confirmed a diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. Repeated malignancy screens were negative. She was treated with methotrexate (10 mg/week) and prednisolone (50 mg/day slowly tapered to 5 mg/day), with good control of both diseases.

  3. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  4. Ichthyosis vulgaris and pycnodysostosis: an unusual occurrence.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Vinayak Y; Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Nagarsenkar, Suhel; Sahoo, Kulmani; Shah, Kuldeep B

    2012-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder whose gene responsible for this phenotype (CTSK), mapped to human chromosome 1q21, code for the enzyme cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease; with an estimated incidence of 1.7 per 1 million births. This clinical entity includes micromelic dwarfism, increased radiological bone density, dysplasia of the skull, acro-osteolysis, straightening of the mandibular angle and in some cases, dysplasia of the acromial end of the clavicle. Oral and maxillo-facial manifestations of this disease are very clear. Herein we reported a case of pycnodysostosis, showing short stature with widening of the sutures, unfused anterior and posterior fontanelles, crowding of teeth with dental caries and typical radiological features associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and palmoplantar keratoderma.

  5. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.

  6. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  7. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stolyar, Sergey; He, Qiang; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Borglin, Sharon E.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric; Hazen, Terry C.; Zhou, Jizhong; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Stahl, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotide microarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarray data to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The data showed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generally similar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled by unique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma S and sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to be absent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E. coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPase genes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone and protease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) was also elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellum synthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identified regulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of a D. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system. Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated in alkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protective involvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, and two putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 and DVU2580). PMID:17921288

  8. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    PubMed

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction. PMID:25449183

  9. Synergistic effect of auxins and brassinosteroids on the growth and regulation of metabolite content in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja

    2013-10-01

    The relationships between brassinosteroids (BRs) (brassinolide, BL; 24-epiBL; 28-homoBL; castasterone, CS; 24-epiCS; 28-homoCS) and auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA; indole-3-butyric acid, IBA; indole-3-propionic acid, IPA) in the regulation of cell number, phytohormone level and metabolism in green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Exogenously applied auxins had the highest biological activity in algal cells at 50 μM. Among the auxins, IAA was characterized by the highest activity, while IBA - by the lowest. BRs at 0.01 μM were characterized by the highest biological activity in relation to auxin-treated and untreated cultures of C. vulgaris. The application of 50 μM IAA stimulated the level of all detected endogenous BRs in C. vulgaris cells. The stimulatory effect of BRs in green algae was arranged in the following order: BL > 24-epiBL > 28-homoBL > CS > 24-epiCS > 28-homoCS. Auxins cooperated synergistically with BRs stimulating algal cell proliferation and endogenous accumulation of proteins, chlorophylls and monosaccharides in C. vulgaris. The highest stimulation of algal growth and the contents of analyzed biochemical parameters were observed for the mixture of BL with IAA, whereas the lowest in the culture treated with both 28-homoCS and IBA. However, regardless of the applied mixture of BRs with auxins, the considerable increase in cell number and the metabolite accumulation was found above the level obtained in cultures treated with any single phytohormone. Obtained results confirm that both groups of plant hormones cooperate synergistically in the control of growth and metabolism of unicellular green alga C. vulgaris.

  10. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  11. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  12. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Importance Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds) remains lacking. Objective To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design Database summary study. Setting Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence. PMID:26955297

  13. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris.

  14. Delayed diagnosis in a case of lupus vulgaris with unusual localization.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Can; Gerceker, Bengu; Ozdemir, Fezal; Kazandi, Alican

    2004-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis, and the usual sites of involvement are the head and neck. We present a forty-six-year-old woman with lupus vulgaris on the external surface of the left leg and foot, an unusual site. Based on histopathological and clinical features, this case was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris with unusual localization.

  15. Biotoxicity of nickel oxide nanoparticles and bio-remediation by microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ning; Shao, Kuishuang; Feng, Wei; Lin, Zhengzhi; Liang, Changhua; Sun, Yeqing

    2011-04-01

    Adverse effects of manufactured nickel oxide nanoparticles on the microalgae Chlorellavulgaris were determined by algal growth-inhibition test and morphological observation via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the NiO nanoparticles had severe impacts on the algae, with 72 h EC(50) values of 32.28 mg NiOL(-1). Under the stress of NiO nanoparticles, C. vulgaris cells showed plasmolysis, cytomembrane breakage and thylakoids disorder. NiO nanoparticles aggregated and deposited in algal culture media. The presence of algal cells accelerated aggregation of nanoparticles. Moreover, about 0.14% ionic Ni was released when NiO NPs were added into seawater. The attachment of aggregates to algal cell surface and the presence of released ionic Ni were likely responsible for the toxic effects. Interestingly, some NiO nanoparticles were reduced to zero valence nickel as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The maximum ratios of nickel reduction was achieved at 72 h of exposure, in accordance with the time-course of changes in soluble protein content of treated C. vulgaris, implying that some proteins of algae are involved in the process. Our results indicate that the toxicity and bioavailability of NiO nanoparticles to marine algae are reduced by aggregation and reduction of NiO. Thus, marine algae have the potential for usage in nano-pollution bio-remediation in aquatic system. PMID:21216429

  16. Optimisation of Potassium Chloride Nutrition for Proper Growth, Physiological Development and Bioactive Component Production in Prunella vulgaris L

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhang; Yu, Manman; Zhu, Zaibiao; Zhang, Lixia; Guo, Qiaosheng

    2013-01-01

    Prunella vulgaris L. is an important medicinal plant with a variety of pharmacological activities, but limited information is available about its response to potassium chloride (KCl) supplementation. P. vulgaris seedlings were cultured in media with four different KCl levels (0, 1.00, 6.00 and 40.00 mM). Characteristics relating to the growth, foliar potassium, water and chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, transpiration, nitrogen metabolism, bioactive constituent concentrations and yield were determined after three months. The appropriate KCl concentration was 6.00 mM to result in the highest values for dry weight, shoot height, spica and root weight, spica length and number in P. vulgaris. The optimum KCl concentration resulted in a maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pn) that could be associated with the highest chlorophyll content and fully open stomata conductance. A supply of surplus KCl resulted in a higher concentration of foliar potassium and negatively correlated with the biomass. Plants that were treated with the appropriate KCl level showed a greater capacity for nitrate assimilation. The Pn was significantly and positively correlated with nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities and was positively correlated with leaf-soluble protein and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Both KCl starvation (0 mM) and high KCl (40.00 mM) led to water loss through a high transpiration rate and low water absorption, respectively, and resulted in increased concentrations of ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA) and flavonoids, with the exception of rosmarinic acid (RA). Moreover, the optimum concentration of KCl significantly increased the yields of RA, UA, OA and flavonoids. Our findings suggested that significantly higher plant biomass; chlorophyll content; Pn; stronger nitrogen anabolism; lower RA, UA, OA and flavonoid accumulation; and greater RA, UA, OA and flavonoid yields in P. vulgaris could be expected in the presence of the appropriate KCl

  17. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans. Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Mikaïl, C; Abou, L; Portugal, H

    2004-12-01

    The antifungal effect of the essential oil from Satureja montana L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lavandula hybrida Reverchon, Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merril and Perry, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and six chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris L. on Candida albicans growth were studied. The most efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (MIC 80% = 0.016 microL/mL and Kaff = 296 microL/mL). The presence in the culture medium of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype (0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 microg/mL) and amphotericin B involved a decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B. In contrast, the combination of amphotericin B and low concentrations (0.00031-0.0025 microg/mL) of essential oil was antagonistic. The strongest decrease (48%) of the MIC 80% was obtained with medium containing 0.2 microL/mL of essential oil. These results signify that the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris thymol chemotype potentiates the antifungal action of amphotericin B suggesting a possible utilization of this essential oil in addition to antifungal drugs for the treatment of mycoses. PMID:15742351

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  19. Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade

    2013-01-01

    The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.

  20. The berberis story: Berberis vulgaris in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Bahadur, Saima Sher

    2007-01-01

    Barberry has played a prominent role in herbal healing for more than 2,500 years. Berberis vulgaris is a common garden bush, native to Europe and the British Isles, naturalized in North America, seems to have history as old as human race. Anthropologists believe in a ritual practice or sacred object, especially by Native Americans that it works as a supernatural power or as preventive or remedy of illness. It is a deciduous shrub having yellow flowers and scarlet colored fruit in the form of berries. Twenty two alkaloids have been reported so far from root, stem leaves and fruit of this plant, which are of medicinal importance. As a herbal remedy it has no match in serving human race since ancient times. It is the most widely used drug in Homeopathic system of medicine for kidney pain and for removal of kidney stones. In this article, we present countless blessings of nature encountered through this herb which are worthy of recording. PMID:17337435

  1. Impaired water barrier function in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, A; Takenouchi, K; Ito, M

    1995-01-01

    In acne vulgaris, abnormal follicular keratinization is important for comedo formation, yet the precise mechanisms of comedogenesis are not known. The present study examined the interrelationship between sebum secretion rate (SSR), lipid content and water barrier function (WBF) of the stratum corneum (SC) in 36 acne patients and 29 control subjects. All major SC lipid classes were separated and quantified by thin-layer chromatography/photodensitometry. WBF was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the hygroscopic properties and waterholding capacity of the SC. The SSR over a period of 3 h was significantly higher in patients with moderate acne than in control subjects, but no significant difference was noticed between patients with mild acne and control subjects. Significant differences between patients with both moderate and mild acne and control subjects were noted in the amount of sphingolipids (ceramides and free sphingosine), but not for any other lipid classes. Furthermore in acne patients, lower amounts of sphingolipids were observed corresponding with a diminished WBF. These results suggest that an impaired WBF caused by decreased amounts of ceramides may be responsible for comedo formation, since barrier dysfunction is accompanied by hyperkeratosis of the follicular epithelium.

  2. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider.

  3. An update on the management of acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Keri, Jonette; Shiman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Commonly used topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, sulfur and sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid, and retinoids. Systemic treatment is frequently used and includes the use of systemic antibiotics, oral contraceptives, antiandrogens, and retinoids. Other treatment modalities exist such as the use of superficial chemical peels as well as using laser and light devices for the treatment of acne. With the multitude of treatment options and the rapidly expanding newer technologies available to clinicians, it is important to review and be aware of the current literature and studies regarding the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:21436973

  4. Contribution of mobile genetic elements to Desulfovibrio vulgaris genome plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher; Stolyar, Sergey; Chivian, Dylan; Pinel, Nicolas; Gabster, Jeffrey; Dehal, Paramvir; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam; Stahl, David

    2009-01-01

    The genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain DePue, a sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium isolated from heavy metal-impacted lake sediment, was completely sequenced and compared with the type strain D. vulgaris Hildenborough. The two genomes share a high degree of relatedness and synteny, but harbour distinct prophage and signatures of past phage encounters. In addition to a highly variable phage contribution, the genome of strain DePue contains a cluster of open-reading frames not found in strain Hildenborough coding for the production and export of a capsule exopolysaccharide, possibly of relevance to heavy metal resistance. Comparative whole-genome microarray analysis on four additional D. vulgaris strains established greater interstrain variation within regions associated with phage insertion and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of the Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Mao, Yong; Huang, Zixia; Qu, Meng; Chen, Jun; Ding, Shaoxiong; Hong, Jingni; Sun, Tiantian

    2012-01-01

    Background Cephalopoda are a class of Mollusca species found in all the world's oceans. They are an important model organism in neurobiology. Unfortunately, the lack of neuronal molecular sequences, such as ESTs, transcriptomic or genomic information, has limited the development of molecular neurobiology research in this unique model organism. Results With high-throughput Illumina Solexa sequencing technology, we have generated 59,859 high quality sequences from 12,918,391 paired-end reads. Using BLASTx/BLASTn, 12,227 contigs have blast hits in the Swissprot, NR protein database and NT nucleotide database with E-value cutoff 1e−5. The comparison between the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system (CNS) library and the Aplysia californica/Lymnaea stagnalis CNS ESTs library yielded 5.93%/13.45% of O. vulgaris sequences with significant matches (1e−5) using BLASTn/tBLASTx. Meanwhile the hit percentage of the recently published Schistocerca gregaria, Tilapia or Hirudo medicinalis CNS library to the O. vulgaris CNS library is 21.03%–46.19%. We constructed the Phylogenetic tree using two genes related to CNS function, Synaptotagmin-7 and Synaptophysin. Lastly, we demonstrated that O. vulgaris may have a vertebrate-like Blood-Brain Barrier based on bioinformatic analysis. Conclusion This study provides a mass of molecular information that will contribute to further molecular biology research on O. vulgaris. In our presentation of the first CNS transcriptome analysis of O. vulgaris, we hope to accelerate the study of functional molecular neurobiology and comparative evolutionary biology. PMID:22768275

  6. Resistance of Trisomic and Diploid Hybrids of Beta vulgaris and B. procumbens to the Sugarbeet Nematode, Heterodera schachtiis Arnold.

    PubMed

    Steele, E; Savitsky, H

    1981-07-01

    Trisomic and diploid hybrids of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) X wild beet (B. procumbens Chr. Sin.) inherited the gene for resistance to Heterodera schachtii Schm. from B. procumbens. The hybrids showed partial resistance to H. schachtii, manifested in failure of larvae to reach maturity. Although significantly greater numbers of female nematodes developed on plants inoculated with populations from the Netherlands or Italy than on plants inoculated with a population from the Salinas Valley, California. the totals for all populations on resistant plants were small. Greater numbers of males than females developed on root-slice cultures of resistant hyhrids when compared to a susceptible cultivar.

  7. The use of photodynamic therapy for treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Current topical and most oral therapies for acne vulgaris have limited efficacy, especially in moderate to severe cases. Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and recently methyl aminolevulinate has been shown to be a safe and effective modality for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Consensus guidelines suggest that 30 to 60 minutes is sufficient 5-aminolevulinic acid contact time before photoactivation with blue light, red light, yellow light, broadband light, halogen, or pulsed dye laser devices. An average of three treatment can yield significant long-term improvement. PMID:17126741

  8. Recovery of temperate Desulfovibrio vulgaris bacteriophage on anovel host strain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.B.; Stolyar, S.S.; Pinel, N.; Yen, H.C.; He, Z.; Zhou,J.; Wall, J.D.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-04-02

    A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain DePue) closelyrelated to Desulfovibrio vulgaris ssp. vulgaris strain Hildenborough wasisolated from the sediment of a heavy-metal impacted lake usingestablished techniques. Although few physiological differences betweenstrains DePue and Hildenborough were observed, pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a significant genome reduction in strainDePue. Comparative whole-genome microarray and PCR analyses demonstratedthat the absence of genes annotated in the Hildenborough genome as phageor phage-related contributed to the significant genome reduction instrain DePue. Two morphotypically distinct temperate bacteriophage fromstrain Hildenborough were recovered using strain DePue as a host forplaque isolation.

  9. [Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sumangali Chandra; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Bygum, Anette

    2011-02-14

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is a common genetic skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:250 caused by mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin. This disorder manifests itself within the first year of life and is clinically characterized by dry, scaly skin, keratosis pilaris, palmar hyperlinearity and atopic manifestations. Patients with a severe phenotype are homozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations, whereas heterozygous patients show mild disease, suggesting semidominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. We present a patient with classic severe ichthyosis vulgaris, atopic eczema and two loss-of-function mutations.

  10. Lymphangitis occurring after intralesional Candida antigen injection for verruca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Zubritsky, Lindsey; Alikhan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Verruca vulgaris is a common dermatological disease with many treatment options including destructive modalities and more recently, immunotherapy. Intralesional injections of Candida antigen have been described as a safe and effective treatment with the most common adverse reactions including local reactions (burning, blistering, peeling), local erythema, and pain at the injection site. We describe the first reported case of lymphangitis after intralesional Candida antigen injection for verruca vulgaris in a healthy 18-year-old woman. The lymphangitis rapidly resolved with ibuprofen and cold compresses. Physicians should be aware of this potential adverse reaction when using this treatment modality and should be familiar with appropriate treatment of subsequent lymphangitis. PMID:27617613

  11. Coincident systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis vulgaris: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Da, G; Yu, Y; Han, J; Li, H

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease, but its association with other typical autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus has only occasionally been reported. We presented a 25-year-old female who developed systemic lupus erythematosus associated with psoriasis vulgaris. Her conditions were in good control after she got administration of prednisolone (5 mg/day) and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook (20 mg/day). It is necessary to integrate past history and physical examination to diagnose coincident SLE and psoriasis, and combined treatment with prednisolone and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook proves effective.

  12. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris.

  13. A case of multifocal lupus vulgaris that preceded pulmonary tuberculosis in an immune compromised patient.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Manabu; Urabe, Kazunori; Moroi, Yoichi; Koga, Tetsuya; Takeishi, Masaaki; Fujita, Masaki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2004-02-01

    We describe the rare case of a Japanese male with multifocal lupus vulgaris that preceded asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). He visited our hospital with multiple reddish plaques and erythema of 4-12 months duration. A skin biopsy revealed non-caseating epithelioid granulomas. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-hybridization from a skin biopsy specimen and was also isolated from a culture of the skin biopsy sample. The result of chest roentogenography was compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, the diagnosis of ATL was based upon the presence of atypical lymphocytes with convoluted nuclei in his peripheral blood and a positive anti-ATL antibody reaction. Cases of cutaneous tuberculosis presenting with unusual clinical features may be on the increase, accompanying the spread of tuberculosis in immunosuppressed patients, including those with ATL and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  14. Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test. PMID:26868257

  15. Differential expression patterns of non-symbiotic hemoglobins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Leiva-Eriksson, Nélida; Pin, Pierre A; Kraft, Thomas; Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Bülow, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Biennial sugar beet (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is a Caryophyllidae that has adapted its growth cycle to the seasonal temperature and daylength variation of temperate regions. This is the first time a holistic study of the expression pattern of non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHbs) is being carried out in a member of this group and under two essential environmental conditions for flowering, namely vernalization and length of photoperiod. BvHb genes were identified by sequence homology searches against the latest draft of the sugar beet genome. Three nsHb genes (BvHb1.1, BvHb1.2 and BvHb2) and one truncated Hb gene (BvHb3) were found in the genome of sugar beet. Gene expression profiling of the nsHb genes was carried out by quantitative PCR in different organs and developmental stages, as well as during vernalization and under different photoperiods. BvHb1.1 and BvHb2 showed differential expression during vernalization as well as during long and short days. The high expression of BvHb2 indicates that it has an active role in the cell, maybe even taking over some BvHb1.2 functions, except during germination where BvHb1.2 together with BvHb1.1-both Class 1 nsHbs-are highly expressed. The unprecedented finding of a leader peptide at the N-terminus of BvHb1.1, for the first time in an nsHb from higher plants, together with its observed expression indicate that it may have a very specific role due to its suggested location in chloroplasts. Our findings open up new possibilities for research, breeding and engineering since Hbs could be more involved in plant development than previously was anticipated.

  16. The hmc operon of Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough encodes a potential transmembrane redox protein complex.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M; Pollock, W B; Reij, M W; Keon, R G; Fu, R; Voordouw, G

    1993-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the hmc operon from Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Hildenborough indicated the presence of eight open reading frames, encoding proteins Orf1 to Orf6, Rrf1, and Rrf2. Orf1 is the periplasmic, high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) containing 16 c-type hemes and described before (W. B. R. Pollock, M. Loutfi, M. Bruschi, B. J. Rapp-Giles, J. D. Wall, and G. Voordouw, J. Bacteriol. 173:220-228, 1991). Orf2 is a transmembrane redox protein with four iron-sulfur clusters, as indicated by its similarity to DmsB from Escherichia coli. Orf3, Orf4, and Orf5 are all highly hydrophobic, integral membrane proteins with similarities to subunits of NADH dehydrogenase or cytochrome c reductase. Orf6 is a cytoplasmic redox protein containing two iron-sulfur clusters, as indicated by its similarity to the ferredoxin domain of [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio species. Rrf1 belongs to the family of response regulator proteins, while the function of Rrf2 cannot be derived from the gene sequence. The expression of individual genes in E. coli with the T7 system confirmed the open reading frames for Orf2, Orf6, and Rrf1. Deletion of 0.4 kb upstream from orf1 abolished the expression of Hmc in D. desulfuricans G200, indicating this region to contain the hmc operon promoter. The expression of two truncated hmc genes in D. desulfuricans G200 resulted in stable periplasmic c-type cytochromes, confirming the domain structure of Hmc. We propose that Hmc and Orf2 to Orf6 form a transmembrane protein complex that allows electron flow from the periplasmic hydrogenases to the cytoplasmic enzymes that catalyze the reduction of sulfate. The domain structure of Hmc may be required to allow interaction with multiple hydrogenases. Images PMID:8335628

  17. Development of a Model, Metal-reducing Microbial Community for a System Biology Level Assessment of Desulfovibrio vulgaris as part of a Community

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne; Schadt, Christopher; Miller, Lance; Phelps, Tommy; Brown, S. D.; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Drake, Megin; Yang, Z.K.; Podar, Mircea

    2010-05-17

    One of the largest experimental gaps is between the simplicity of pure cultures and the complexity of open environmental systems, particularly in metal-contaminated areas. These microbial communities form ecosystem foundations, drive biogeochemical processes, and are relevant for biotechnology and bioremediation. A model, metal-reducing microbial community was constructed as either syntrophic or competitive to study microbial cell to cell interactions, cell signaling and competition for resources. The microbial community was comprised of the metal-reducing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Additionally, Methanococcus maripaludis S2 was added to study complete carbon reduction and maintain a low hydrogen partial pressure for syntrophism to occur. Further, considerable work has been published on D. vulgaris and the D. vulgaris/ Mc. maripaludis co-culture both with and without stress. We are extending this work by conducting the same stress conditions on the model community. Additionally, this comprehensive investigation includes physiological and metabolic analyses as well as specially designed mRNA microarrays with the genes for all three organisms on one slide so as to follow gene expression changes in the various cultivation conditions as well as being comparable to the co- and individual cultures. Further, state-of -the-art comprehensive AMT tag proteomics allows for these comparisons at the protein level for a systems biology assessment of a model, metal-reducing microbial community. Preliminary data revealed that lactate oxidation by D. vulgaris was sufficient to support both G. sulfurreducens and M. maripaludis via the excretion of H2 and acetate. Fumarate was utilized by G. sulfurreducens and reduced to succinate since neither of the other two organisms can reduce fumarate. Methane was quantified, suggesting acetate and H2 concentrations were sufficient for M. maripaludis. Steady state community cultivation will allow for

  18. σ54-dependent regulome in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    DOE PAGES

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rajeev, Lara; Chen, Amy; Luning, Eric G.; Dubchak, Inna; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Novichkov, Pavel S.

    2015-11-10

    The σ54 subunit controls a unique class of promoters in bacteria. Such promoters, without exception, require enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) for transcription initiation. Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model bacterium for sulfate reduction studies, has a high number of EBPs, more than most sequenced bacteria. Finally, the cellular processes regulated by many of these EBPs remain unknown.

  19. Extrudability of four common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  20. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    PubMed

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  1. Acne vulgaris: A review of causes and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Well, Danielle

    2013-10-10

    Acne vulgaris is a disorder of the sebaceous follicle. The cause is multifactorial, and both adolescents and adults can be affected. Acne is associated with a significant financial burden and considerable psychological distress. Treatment options are reviewed, including over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, and in-office procedures.

  2. Gallium-67-citrate uptake in a case of acne vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, M.S.; Taylor, A.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    A case of increased Ga-67 uptake in a patient with active acne vulgaris is reported. The scan was requested in a search for metastatic testicular carcinoma or bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Careful clinical evaluation including physical examination was necessary in order to avoid an erroneous scan interpretation.

  3. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  4. Variation in Breeding Systems in Hypericum Perforatum and Prunella Vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effective conservation of new crop germplasm and its efficient use in new-crop development both rely on a clear understanding of the crop's reproductive biology. Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) and Prunella vulgaris (Common selfheal) are two medicinal plant species with potential for crop...

  5. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  6. Association between large strongyle genera in larval cultures--using rare-event poisson regression.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Vidyashankar, A N; Nielsen, M K

    2013-09-01

    Decades of intensive anthelmintic treatment has caused equine large strongyles to become quite rare, while the cyathostomins have developed resistance to several drug classes. The larval culture has been associated with low to moderate negative predictive values for detecting Strongylus vulgaris infection. It is unknown whether detection of other large strongyle species can be statistically associated with presence of S. vulgaris. This remains a statistical challenge because of the rare occurrence of large strongyle species. This study used a modified Poisson regression to analyse a dataset for associations between S. vulgaris infection and simultaneous occurrence of Strongylus edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. In 663 horses on 42 Danish farms, the individual prevalences of S. vulgaris, S. edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. were 12%, 3% and 12%, respectively. Both S. edentatus and Triodontophorus spp. were significantly associated with S. vulgaris infection with relative risks above 1. Further, S. edentatus was associated with use of selective therapy on the farms, as well as negatively associated with anthelmintic treatment carried out within 6 months prior to the study. The findings illustrate that occurrence of S. vulgaris in larval cultures can be interpreted as indicative of other large strongyles being likely to be present.

  7. [The isolation of a pure culture of Proteus hauseri from associated bacteria].

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, L V; Open'ko, L V

    1990-01-01

    A simple method for isolation of P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis pure culture from associations with other microorganisms has been developed. Medium for inoculation of a bacterial culture suspected of an association contains glycerin and asparaginic acid. The suggested method is simple and highly effective, reproducible at any bacteriologic laboratory, and is particularly valuable for improving the quality of etiologic diagnosis of pyoseptic diseases.

  8. Identification of Small RNAs in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Andrew; Joachimiak, Marcin; Deutschbauer, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Bender, Kelly

    2010-05-17

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of facilitating the removal of toxic metals such as uranium from contaminated sites via reduction. As such, it is essential to understand the intricate regulatory cascades involved in how D. vulgaris and its relatives respond to stressors in such sites. One approach is the identification and analysis of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs); molecules ranging in size from 20-200 nucleotides that predominantly affect gene regulation by binding to complementary mRNA in an anti-sense fashion and therefore provide an immediate regulatory response. To identify sRNAs in D. vulgaris, a bacterium that does not possess an annotated hfq gene, RNA was pooled from stationary and exponential phases, nitrate exposure, and biofilm conditions. The subsequent RNA was size fractionated, modified, and converted to cDNA for high throughput transcriptomic deep sequencing. A computational approach to identify sRNAs via the alignment of seven separate Desulfovibrio genomes was also performed. From the deep sequencing analysis, 2,296 reads between 20 and 250 nt were identified with expression above genome background. Analysis of those reads limited the number of candidates to ~;;87 intergenic, while ~;;140 appeared to be antisense to annotated open reading frames (ORFs). Further BLAST analysis of the intergenic candidates and other Desulfovibrio genomes indicated that eight candidates were likely portions of ORFs not previously annotated in the D. vulgaris genome. Comparison of the intergenic and antisense data sets to the bioinformatical predicted candidates, resulted in ~;;54 common candidates. Current approaches using Northern analysis and qRT-PCR are being used toverify expression of the candidates and to further develop the role these sRNAs play in D. vulgaris regulation.

  9. Could thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for hyperhidrosis also improve acne vulgaris?

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Ozge; Oznur, Bahar; Han, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to emphasize the therapeutic effect of thoracoscopic sympathicotomy performed at our clinic for facial/scalp hyperhidrosis or blushing on coincidental facial acne vulgaris based on previous reports indicating an association between the sympathetic nerve stimulus, epithelial melanocyte system and sebogenesis. Material and methods The possible therapeutic effects of sympathicotomy on facial acne vulgaris were analyzed in a study design of retrospective review with prospective collection of the data from March 2005 to March 2013. Results Forty-two patients were operated on at our clinic due to facial/scalp hyperhidrosis or blushing and 30 of these also had facial acne vulgaris. However, none harbored a systemic co-morbidity. The patients’ medical history indicated that they had used several medical therapies including topical or systemic antibiotherapies to treat their acne for several years but this had met with limited success and the treatment was stopped in all patients an average of 8 ± 2.4 months prior to the operations. Furthermore, the patients with acne vulgaris also underwent a thoracoscopic sympathicotomy procedure at the second costal head (R2) for hyperhidrosis or blushing. All 30 patients showed marked improvement of their acne grade at the first postoperative month (p < 0.01). Conclusions In this study, the patients’ facial acne vulgaris grade significantly improved after undergoing a sympathicotomy. This can be explained by the possible effect the nervous system had on the epithelial melanocyte system and sebogenesis. However, prospective studies with an increased number of patients are needed to verify our findings. PMID:26336432

  10. ICG laser therapy of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2004-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating

  11. Synergistic effects of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for enhancement of biomass and lipid yields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Ji, Hairui; Gong, Guiping; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    The optimal mixed culture model of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was confirmed to enhance lipid production. A double system bubble column photo-bioreactor was designed and used for demonstrating the relationship of yeast and alga in mixed culture. The results showed that using the log-phase cultures of yeast and alga as seeds for mixed culture, the improvements of biomass and lipid yields reached 17.3% and 70.9%, respectively, compared with those of monocultures. Growth curves of two species were confirmed in the double system bubble column photo-bioreactor, and the second growth of yeast was observed during 36-48 h of mixed culture. Synergistic effects of two species for cell growth and lipid accumulation were demonstrated on O2/CO2 balance, substance exchange, dissolved oxygen and pH adjustment in mixed culture. This study provided a theoretical basis and culture model for producing lipids by mixed culture in place of monoculture. PMID:24841576

  12. Synergistic effects of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for enhancement of biomass and lipid yields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Ji, Hairui; Gong, Guiping; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    The optimal mixed culture model of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was confirmed to enhance lipid production. A double system bubble column photo-bioreactor was designed and used for demonstrating the relationship of yeast and alga in mixed culture. The results showed that using the log-phase cultures of yeast and alga as seeds for mixed culture, the improvements of biomass and lipid yields reached 17.3% and 70.9%, respectively, compared with those of monocultures. Growth curves of two species were confirmed in the double system bubble column photo-bioreactor, and the second growth of yeast was observed during 36-48 h of mixed culture. Synergistic effects of two species for cell growth and lipid accumulation were demonstrated on O2/CO2 balance, substance exchange, dissolved oxygen and pH adjustment in mixed culture. This study provided a theoretical basis and culture model for producing lipids by mixed culture in place of monoculture.

  13. ROLE OF GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE AND GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN CHLORELLA VULGARIS DURING ASSIMILATION OF AMMONIUM WHEN JOINTLY IMMOBILIZED WITH THE MICROALGAE-GROWTH-PROMOTING BACTERIUM AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE(1).

    PubMed

    De-Bashan, Luz E; Magallon, Paola; Antoun, Hani; Bashan, Yoav

    2008-10-01

    Enzymatic activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) participating in the nitrogen metabolism and related ammonium absorption were assayed after the microalga Chlorella vulgaris Beij. was jointly immobilized with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. At initial concentrations of 3, 6, and 10 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , joint immobilization enhances growth of C. vulgaris but does not affect ammonium absorption capacity of the microalga. However, at 8 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , joint immobilization enhanced ammonium absorption by the microalga without affecting the growth of the microalgal population. Correlations between absorption of ammonium per cell and per culture showed direct (negative and positive) linear correlations between these parameters and microalga populations at 3, 6, and 10 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , but not at 8 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , where the highest absorption of ammonium occurred. In all cultures, immobilized and jointly immobilized, having the four initial ammonium concentrations, enzymatic activities of Chlorella are affected by A. brasilense. Regardless of the initial concentration of ammonium, GS activity in C. vulgaris was always higher when jointly immobilized and determined on a per-cell basis. When jointly immobilized, only at an initial concentration of 8 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) was GDH activity per cell higher.

  14. Functional genomic study of the environmentally important Desulfovibrio /Methanococcus syntrophic co-culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2008-12-01

    The use of microbe-oriented bioremediation for ameliorating extensive environmental pollution has fostered fundamental and applied studies of environmentally relevant microorganisms such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter metallireducens.. Concurrently, there has been an increasing appreciation that the physiology of these organisms in pure culture is not necessarily representative of its activities in the environment. To enable a better understanding of microbial physiology under more environmentally relevant conditions, the syntrophic growth between the sulfate reducing bacterium, D. vulgaris and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis serves as an ideal system for laboratory studies. Cell wide analyses using transcript, proteomics and metabolite analysis have been widely used to understand cellular activity at a molecular level. Using D. vulgaris and M. maripaludis arrays, and the iTRAQ proteomics method, we studied the physiology of the D. vulgaris / M. maripaludis syntrophic co- cultures. The results from this study allowed us to identify differences in cellular response in mono-culture vs. co-culture growth for both D. vulgaris and M. maripaludis.

  15. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Yujie; Feil, Helene; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Johnson, David R.; Lee, Patrick K. H.; West, Kimberlee A; Zinder, Stephen H.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0 0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1 0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8 0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0 0.5107 cells per lmol Cl released, compared with 6.8 0.9107 cells per lmol Cl released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3 1.8107 cells per lmol Cl released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a wholegenome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  16. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Yujie; Feil, Helene; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Shah, Manesh B.; Johnson, David R.; Lee, Patrick K. H.; West, Kimberlee A.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0 0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1 0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8 0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0 0.5107 cells per lmol Cl released, compared with 6.8 0.9107 cells per lmol Cl released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3 1.8107 cells per lmol Cl released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a wholegenome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  17. Harvesting Chlorella vulgaris by natural increase in pH: effect of medium composition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Dong Phuong; Frappart, Matthieu; Jaouen, Pascal; Pruvost, Jérémy; Bourseau, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris was harvested by autoflocculation resulting from the precipitation of magnesium or calcium compounds induced by a slow increase in pH in the absence of CO2 input. Autoflocculation was tested in two culture media with, respectively, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) ions as nitrogen source. The culture pH increased because of photosynthesis and CO2 stripping. pH rose to 11 after 8 h in the NO3- medium, but did not exceed 9 in the NH4+ medium. No flocculation took place in any of the media. Autoflocculation tests were repeated in the NO(3-)-based culture medium by progressively increasing the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ until inorganic compounds precipitated and flocculated microalgae. The minimal concentrations for flocculation were found to be 120 mg Ca2 L(-1) and 1000 mg Mg2+ L(-1). These values were, respectively, 3.5 times and 20 times higher than those allowing flocculation by NaOH addition. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement, and ionic chromatography suggest that the mechanisms involved are different. The rate of cell removal was close to 90% in both cases, but cells were more concentrated in the aggregates obtained by magnesium compound precipitation, with an estimated concentration close to 33 g (dry matter) L(-1), against 19 g L(-1) for calcium phosphates.

  18. Effects of Chromium(VI) and Chromium(III) on Desulfovibrio vulgaris Cells

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Clark; A. Klonowska; S.B. Thieman; B. Giles; J.D. Wall; and M.W. Fields

    2007-04-19

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC 29579 is a well studied sulfate reducer that has known capabilities of reducing heavy metals and radionuclides, like chromium and uranium. Cultures grown in a defined medium (i.e. LS4D) had a lag period of approximately 40 h when exposed to 50 μMof Cr(VI). Substrate analysis revealed that although chromium is reduced within the first 5 h, growth does not resume for another 35 h. During this time, small amounts of lactate are still utilized but the reduction of sulfate does not occur. Sulfate reduction occurs concurrently with the accumulation of acetate approximately 40 h after inoculation, when growth resumes. Similar amounts of hydrogen are produced during this time compared to hydrogen production by cells not exposed to Cr(VI); therefore an accumulation of hydrogen cannot account for the utilization of lactate. There is a significant decrease in the carbohydrate to protein ratio at approximately 25 h, and this result indicated that lactate is not converted to glycogen. Most probable number analysis indicated that cell viability decreased steadily after inoculation and reached approximately 6 x 104 cells/ml 20 h post-chromium exposure. Regeneration of reducing conditions during chromium exposure does not induce growth and in fact may make the growth conditions even more unfavorable. This result suggested that an increase in Eh was not solely responsible for the decline in viability. Cell pellets collected 10 h after chromium-exposure were unable to resume growth when suspended into fresh medium. Supernatants from these pellets were able to support cell growth upon re- inoculation. D. vulgaris cells treated with a non-dose dependent addition of ascorbate at the same time of Cr(VI) addition did not enter a lag period. Ascorbate added 3 h post-Cr(VI) exposure did not prevent the growth lag. These results indicated that Desulfovibrio utilized lactate to reduce Cr(VI) without the reduction of sulfate, that the decline in cell viability and

  19. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  20. CO2 Biofixation and Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Michał; Lasek, Janusz; Skawińska, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    CO2 biofixation was investigated using tubular bioreactors (15 and 1.5 l) either in the presence of green algae Chlorella vulgaris or Nannochloropsis gaditana. The cultivation was carried out in the following conditions: temperature of 25 °C, inlet-CO2 of 4 and 8 vol%, and artificial light enhancing photosynthesis. Higher biofixation were observed in 8 vol% CO2 concentration for both microalgae cultures than in 4 vol%. Characteristic process parameters such as productivity, CO2 fixation, and kinetic rate coefficient were determined and discussed. Simplified and advanced methods for determination of CO2 fixation were compared. In a simplified method, it is assumed that 1 kg of produced biomass equals 1.88 kg recycled CO2. Advance method is based on empirical results of the present study (formula with carbon content in biomass). It was observed that application of the simplified method can generate large errors, especially if the biomass contains a relatively low amount of carbon. N. gaditana is the recommended species for CO2 removal due to a high biofixation rate-more than 1.7 g/l/day. On day 10 of cultivation, the cell concentration was more than 1.7 × 10(7) cells/ml. In the case of C. vulgaris, the maximal biofixation rate and cell concentration did not exceed 1.4 g/l/day and 1.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, respectively. PMID:27052208

  1. CO2 Biofixation and Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Michał; Lasek, Janusz; Skawińska, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    CO2 biofixation was investigated using tubular bioreactors (15 and 1.5 l) either in the presence of green algae Chlorella vulgaris or Nannochloropsis gaditana. The cultivation was carried out in the following conditions: temperature of 25 °C, inlet-CO2 of 4 and 8 vol%, and artificial light enhancing photosynthesis. Higher biofixation were observed in 8 vol% CO2 concentration for both microalgae cultures than in 4 vol%. Characteristic process parameters such as productivity, CO2 fixation, and kinetic rate coefficient were determined and discussed. Simplified and advanced methods for determination of CO2 fixation were compared. In a simplified method, it is assumed that 1 kg of produced biomass equals 1.88 kg recycled CO2. Advance method is based on empirical results of the present study (formula with carbon content in biomass). It was observed that application of the simplified method can generate large errors, especially if the biomass contains a relatively low amount of carbon. N. gaditana is the recommended species for CO2 removal due to a high biofixation rate-more than 1.7 g/l/day. On day 10 of cultivation, the cell concentration was more than 1.7 × 10(7) cells/ml. In the case of C. vulgaris, the maximal biofixation rate and cell concentration did not exceed 1.4 g/l/day and 1.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, respectively.

  2. Mutualistic growth of the sulfate-reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough with different carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Santana, M M; Portillo, M C; Gonzalez, J M

    2012-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough genome presents a phosphotransferase system putatively involved in the transport of carbohydrates. However, utilization of sugars by this sulfate-reducing bacterium has never been reported. Herein, we have observed proliferation of D. vulgaris Hildenborough with some carbohydrates, in mutualism with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a non-fermentative, gram-negative gammaproteobacterium, or Microbacterium, a gram-positive actinobacterium. These results suggest the importance of feedback interactions between different heterotrophic bacterial species including the alternative for D. vulgaris of exploiting additional organic resources and novel habitats. Thus, D. vulgaris strongly participates in the mineralization of carbohydrates both in complex natural and artificial systems.

  3. Disseminated lupus vulgaris and papulonecrotic tuberculid: case report.

    PubMed

    Senol, M; Ozcan, A; Aydin, A; Karincaoglu, Y; Sasmaz, S; Sener, S

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis and extrapulmonary forms of this disease is increasing all over the world. Lupus vulgaris is the most prevalent form of cutaneous tuberculosis in Europe and the Middle East. Papulonecrotic tuberculid, the most common form of hyperergic response to mycobacteria or their fragments, is uncommon in children. We report lupus vulgaris with papulonecrotic tuberculid in a 12-year-old girl who had a 3-year history of slowly growing plaques on her trunk, extremities, and the tip of her nose and papuloulcerative lesions over her entire body. A skin biopsy specimen showed minimally caseating granulomatous inflammation. Staining for acid-fast bacilli was negative in both plaques and papules. Polymerase chain reaction identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in the patient's sputum, gastric fluid, and plaques and was negative in the papules. She was started on antituberculous therapy with four drugs and her lesions responded rapidly.

  4. Alexithymia and Acne Vulgaris: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Baykir, Murat; Ateş, Gülfem; Ekşioğlu, Meral

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess relationship between alexithymia and acne vulgaris in young people. Methods A hundred and eleven subjects between 15 and 25 years of age referred to out-patient clinic of dermatology with acne and 78 subjects applied to family physician for complaints other than acne were included in patient and control groups of the study, respectively. A questionnaire to determine demographic characteristics, an acne classification to determine severity of acne and Toronto Alexithymic Scale (TAS) to assess alexithymia were used. Results The mean scores of TAS were 52.7±10.8 and 51.7±10.7 in patient and control groups, respectively. Alexitymia was determined in 23.4% of the subjects in acne group and in 24.4% of control group. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of alexithymia, intermediate alexitymia and three-factors of TAS. Conclusion Alexithymia does not appear to be related to acne vulgaris. PMID:22216042

  5. A NEW LOTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACNE VULGARIS.

    PubMed

    EREAUX, L P

    1965-01-23

    A therapeutic assessment of a new lotion containing methylprednisolone, neomycin, colloidal sulfur and aluminum chlorhydroxide complex (Neo-Medrol Acne Lotion) was carried out on 187 patients suffering from acne vulgaris.Of the 187 patients, 165 showed excellent or good response. Following enthusiastic acceptance of the lotion by the patients in the initial study, a second random study with an additional 134 subjects was undertaken to compare the active lotion with the lotion base alone.The active lotion was superior to the placebo lotion in this study, at a statistically significant level. The overall findings suggest that this lotion is an efficient preparation for the control of acne vulgaris (early and late types) and it also showed promise in the treatment of a few cases of acne rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis facialis.

  6. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Alicja; Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear.

  7. [Side effects of minocycline in the treatment of acne vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Hoefnagel, J J; van Leeuwen, R L; Mattie, H; Bastiaens, M T

    1997-07-19

    Minocycline is the most commonly used systemic antibiotic in the long-term treatment (weeks to months) of severe acne vulgaris. Currently much attention is being paid in the Dutch and international literature to the safety of minocycline, after several reports on serious adverse events. The clinical efficacy of minocycline in the treatment of acne vulgaris is better than that of tetracycline and equal to that of doxycycline. The serious adverse events of minocycline therapy described consist of hyperpigmentation of various tissues, autoimmune disorders (systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune hepatitis) and serious hypersensitivity reactions (hypersensitivity syndrome reaction, pneumonitis and eosinophilia, and serum sickness-like syndrome). In relation to the number of prescriptions, the number of serious adverse events of minocycline described is small. However, it is very important that prescribing doctors should be aware of the possibility of these adverse events occurring during long-term minocycline therapy and able to recognize the characteristic symptoms at an early stage.

  8. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris of face: an uncommon presentation in India.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Ethirajan, N; Krishnaswami, B

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis affects the population world wide, more among those living in developing countries. The incidence of tuberculosis registered an upward trend even in developed countries, with the advent of HIV infection. Cutaneous tuberculosis accounts for about 1% of cases of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis presents with various lesions ranging from ulcerative to proliferative or hyperkeratotic lesions. The lesions may sometimes be associated with marked destruction of the tissues resulting in marked disfigurement, especially when it involves face as seen in cases of Lupus Vulgaris. A case of Lupus Vulgaris in a young woman with extensive ulceration of face which responded to ATT resulting in scarring of the face is reported for its rarity amongst Indian population as against western population.

  9. Annular lupus vulgaris: an unusual case undiagnosed for five years.

    PubMed

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Kiliç, Arzu; Külcü Cakmak, Seray; Gül, Ulker; Koçak, Oğuzhan; Demiriz, Murat

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a serious problem in both developing and developed countries. It is often confused with various cutaneous disorders both clinically and histopathologically.A 46-year-old woman attended our clinic with progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on her right upper extremity for 5 years. She had received many different therapies for these lesions at other institutions previously but these medications were not effective and the lesions deteriorated. On dermatological examination, well-demarcated, irregular bordered, violaceous colored, elevated and crusted annular lesions on her right hand dorsum and forearm were observed. She was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. Antituberculosis therapy was administered and regression of the lesions started in the second week of medication.We report a case of long-standing, undiagnosed and uncommon, annular form of lupus vulgaris. We want to stress that clinical and histopathological findings are still important for the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis.

  10. Phaseolus vulgaris RbohB functions in lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Quinto, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) catalyze the reduction of oxygen to generate superoxide anion, a kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS produced by RBOHs play essential roles in diverse processes, such as root hair development, stomata closure and signaling mechanisms in response to abiotic stimuli and during plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, we found that PvRbohB silencing in transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris roots had a negative impact on lateral root density. In this work, we show that the downregulation of PvRbohB affects both the growth and ROS levels in recently emerged lateral roots. In addition, we found that the PvRbohB promoter was activated during lateral root primordium initiation in the pericycle, and remained active throughout lateral root development. This study identifies RBOHs as potentially important players in lateral root development in P. vulgaris. PMID:23221754

  11. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear. PMID:27279815

  12. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25870697

  13. Pathogenic relevance of IgG and IgM antibodies against desmoglein 3 in blister formation in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Ota, Takayuki; Saito, Masataka; Hata, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ishiko, Akira; Yamada, Taketo; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Kowalczyk, Andrew P; Amagai, Masayuki

    2011-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease caused by IgG antibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). Previously, we isolated a pathogenic mAb against Dsg3, AK23 IgG, which induces a pemphigus vulgaris-like phenotype characterized by blister formation. In the present study, we generated a transgenic mouse expressing AK23 IgM to examine B-cell tolerance and the pathogenic role of IgM. Autoreactive transgenic B cells were found in the spleen and lymph nodes, whereas anti-Dsg3 AK23 IgM was detected in the cardiovascular circulation. The transgenic mice did not develop an obvious pemphigus vulgaris phenotype, however, even though an excess of AK23 IgM was passively transferred to neonatal mice. Similarly, when hybridoma cells producing AK23 IgM were inoculated into adult mice, no blistering was observed. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed IgM binding at the edges of desmosomes or interdesmosomal cell membranes, but not in the desmosome core, where AK23 IgG binding has been frequently detected. Furthermore, in an in vitro dissociation assay using cultured keratinocytes, AK23 IgG and AK23 IgM F(ab')(2) fragments, but not AK23 IgM, induced fragmentation of epidermal sheets. Together, these observations indicate that antibodies must gain access to Dsg3 integrated within desmosomes to induce the loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. These findings provide an important framework for improved understanding of B-cell tolerance and the pathophysiology of blister formation in pemphigus.

  14. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  15. [Clinical features and genetics of the ichthyosis vulgaris group].

    PubMed

    Traupe, H; Happle, R

    1980-12-11

    Combined application of clinical, genetic and histological criteria in general allows a definite diagnosis of autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris and of X-linked recessive ichthyosis. For differential diagnosis, the following rare syndromes should be considered: ichthyosis bullosa: Refsum syndrome; Jung-Vogel syndrome; ichthyosis with corneal opacity, pili torti and alopecia; ichthyosis with deafness, pili torti and dental anomalies; and ichthyosis with hepatosplenomegaly and cerebellar degeneration.

  16. An unusual central retinal dystrophy associated with ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Saatci, O A; Ozbek, Z; Köse, S; Durak, I; Kavukçu, S

    2000-06-01

    A number of ichthyosis syndromes may have retinal abnormalities such as the retinitis pigmentosa-like diffuse rod-cone dystrophy in Refsum's syndrome and the maculopathy in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. We present two sisters who have an unusual, almost identical, bilaterally symmetric central retinal dystrophy associated with ichthyosis vulgaris in the absence of other systemic disorders. We believe that this dystrophy has not been previously described in patients with any of the known varieties of ichthyosis.

  17. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species. PMID:23750233

  18. The Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Octopus vulgaris Suckers

    PubMed Central

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species. PMID:23750233

  19. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  20. Metastasized squamous cell carcinoma developed on lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, V; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Tănase, Loredana Elena; Mogoantă, S S

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the most frequent cutaneous tuberculosis, representing more than 55% of the tuberculoses with this location. Malignization can occur after a long latency (10-30 years), in 1-2% of the cases, and it is mainly in squamous cell carcinoma. The histological exam is highly important in the observation of neoplasic transformations. The authors present a 59-years-old female patient, from the rural environment, working as a farmer, with lupus vulgaris developing since her first childhood years. It started at the age of 2 years, at the right ear lobule, after the empiric perforation for earrings. The evolution was progressive, eccentric, interesting the pinna and the right cheek in the meanwhile. At the first examination, in 2002, a diffuse mass of red-yellowish infiltration was found at the level of the right ear and the right cheek. In the following two years, an ulcero-vegetating tumor developed at the level of the right ear lobule, accompanied by the presence of a right retromandibular adenopathy, of about 1 cm, which was proved by the histopathologic exam to be a squamous cell carcinoma developed from a lupus vulgaris. After scraping out the right retromandibular ganglion, detected by palpation, a histological exam showed ganglion metastasis.

  1. Detection of apoptosis in pemphigus vulgaris by TUNEL technique*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Vega-Memíje, Maria Elisa; García-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Aguilar-Urbano, Marco António

    2016-01-01

    Background Pemphigus is part of a group of blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. Based on its autoimmune origin, autoantibodies develop in pemphigus that are directed toward cell surface components of keratinocytes. However, some data cannot be explained, such as the lack of a relationship between autoantibody levels and the severity of clinical manifestations, treatment resistance, the presence of inflammatory infiltrates and the potential occurrence of apoptosis as determinants of vesicle formation. Objective To examine the presence of apoptosis in pemphigus vulgaris by TUNEL technique. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we selected 15 paraffin-embedded tissues from subjects who were diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The samples were subjected to TUNEL assay and examined under an Olympus BX61 fluorescence microscope. Positivity was categorized dichotomously, and the statistical analysis was performed using the X2 test. Results Positivity was observed in basal layer cells in 14 (93.3%) cases. In 13 (86.7%) of the positive cases, we noted espinosum and granular layers that formed the blister roof, and in 12 cases (80%), positive acantholytic cells were observed. Conclusions TUNEL positivity was observed in pemphigus vulgaris, implicating apoptosis in the pathophysiology of this condition, which can help guide the development of apoptotic blockers as therapeutics. PMID:27438195

  2. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars. PMID:26899601

  3. Growth of Chlorella vulgaris on sugarcane vinasse: the effect of anaerobic digestion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sheyla Santa Isabel; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; de Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Chinalia, Fábio Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    Microalgae farming has been identified as the most eco-sustainable solution for producing biodiesel. However, the operation of full-scale plants is still limited by costs and the utilization of industrial and/or domestic wastes can significantly improve economic profits. Several waste effluents are valuable sources of nutrients for the cultivation of microalgae. Ethanol production from sugarcane, for instance, generates significant amounts of organically rich effluent, the vinasse. After anaerobic digestion treatment, nutrient remaining in such an effluent can be used to grow microalgae. This research aimed to testing the potential of the anaerobic treated vinasse as an alternative source of nutrients for culturing microalgae with the goal of supplying the biodiesel industrial chain with algal biomass and oil. The anaerobic process treating vinasse reached a steady state at about 17 batch cycles of 24 h producing about 0.116 m(3)CH4 kgCODvinasse (-1). The highest productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass (70 mg l(-1) day(-1)) was observed when using medium prepared with the anaerobic digester effluent. Lipid productivity varied from 0.5 to 17 mg l(-1) day(-1). Thus, the results show that it is possible to integrate the culturing of microalgae with the sugarcane industry by means of anaerobic digestion of the vinasse. There is also the advantageous possibility of using by-products of the anaerobic digestion such as methane and CO2 for sustaining the system with energy and carbon source, respectively. PMID:24013860

  4. Isolation and algicidal characterization of Bowmanella denitrificans S088 against Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun; Zhao, Zhe

    2014-02-01

    One strain of algicidal bacterium, named as S088, was isolated from the intestine of healthy sea cucumbers (Stichopus horrens) in the South China Sea. Based on the analysis of its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence, S088 was identified as Bowmanella denitrificans. Importantly, the algicidal activity of S088 on Chlorella vulgaris was characterized in this study. The initial densities of bacterial and algal cell showed strong influence on the removal rates of chlorophyll a. When the strain S088 was cultured under a complete darkness condition at 30 °C, its algicidal activity reached the highest level. Furthermore, it was found that the filtered supernatant from bacterial cultures had full algicidal activity, suggesting that the secreted compounds from S088 are involved in the observed algicidal action of S088. Moreover, the algicidal compounds were heat tolerant and had no cytotoxicity against fish cells, indicating that S088 would have a promising application as a safe probiotics for S. horrens. Finally, this is the first report about the algicidal activities in B. denitrificans.

  5. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding for Ascorbate Peroxidase and Responsive to Salt Stress in Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dunajska-Ordak, Kamila; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    BvpAPX is a full-length cDNA-encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase isolated from leaves of salt-stressed beet (Beta vulgaris) plants. A high level of identity has been reported between the deduced amino acid sequence of BvpAPX and other known ascorbate peroxidases. The genomic sequence of BvpAPX revealed a gene composed of 5 exons and 4 introns. Several sequence motifs revealed in the 5'UTR region of the gene confer to BvpAPX a putative responsiveness to various abiotic stresses. We determined the effect of salt stress on BvpAPX expression in leaves of the cultivated beet varieties, Huzar and Janosik, and their wild salt-tolerant relative B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Plants were subjected to salt stress during a 32-day culture period (long-term salt treatment). An alternative salinization protocol consisted of an 18-h incubation of detached beet leaves in media supplemented with toxic salt concentrations (short-term salt treatment). RT-Q-PCR analysis revealed that BvpAPX expression markedly increased in leaves of plants subjected to conditions of long-term treatment with salinity, whereas BvpAPX transcript levels remained unaffected in detached leaves during short-term salt treatment. In addition, several leaf redox system parameters, such as ascorbate peroxidase activity or ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration, were determined in the leaves of beet plants subjected to salt stress conditions. PMID:24465083

  6. Zinc acclimation and its effect on the zinc tolerance of Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Muyssen, B T; Janssen, C R

    2001-11-01

    The effect of zinc acclimation of Raphidocelis subcapitata (syn. Selenastrum capricornutum) and Chlorella vulgaris on their sensitivity towards this metal was examined in a series of laboratory experiments. These two commonly used algal species were acclimated to 65 microg Zn/l and changes in zinc tolerance were monitored using standard growth inhibition tests. The chemically defined ISO medium was used as a control culture medium. Both species demonstrated a maximum increase in zinc tolerance of a factor of 3 after 100 days of acclimation. Shifts in the shape of the concentration-response curve due to acclimation were observed for R. subcapitata. Compared to non-acclimated algae, acclimated R. subcapitata exhibited higher growth rates in all zinc treatments as well as in the controls. This suggests that the use of ISO-medium results in sub-optimal growth due to zinc deficiency. These effects could not be demonstrated for C. vulgaris. The zinc tolerance of both species decreased significantly one week after returning the acclimated algae to control (ISO) medium. 72hEC50 values based on growth rate were two to four times higher than those calculated using biomass measurements. Algal toxicity test results, particularly if used for metal risk assessments, must not be conducted using nutrient deficient media. PMID:11680746

  7. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding for Ascorbate Peroxidase and Responsive to Salt Stress in Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dunajska-Ordak, Kamila; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    BvpAPX is a full-length cDNA-encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase isolated from leaves of salt-stressed beet (Beta vulgaris) plants. A high level of identity has been reported between the deduced amino acid sequence of BvpAPX and other known ascorbate peroxidases. The genomic sequence of BvpAPX revealed a gene composed of 5 exons and 4 introns. Several sequence motifs revealed in the 5'UTR region of the gene confer to BvpAPX a putative responsiveness to various abiotic stresses. We determined the effect of salt stress on BvpAPX expression in leaves of the cultivated beet varieties, Huzar and Janosik, and their wild salt-tolerant relative B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Plants were subjected to salt stress during a 32-day culture period (long-term salt treatment). An alternative salinization protocol consisted of an 18-h incubation of detached beet leaves in media supplemented with toxic salt concentrations (short-term salt treatment). RT-Q-PCR analysis revealed that BvpAPX expression markedly increased in leaves of plants subjected to conditions of long-term treatment with salinity, whereas BvpAPX transcript levels remained unaffected in detached leaves during short-term salt treatment. In addition, several leaf redox system parameters, such as ascorbate peroxidase activity or ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration, were determined in the leaves of beet plants subjected to salt stress conditions.

  8. Recurrent lupus vulgaris following repeated BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guèrin) vaccination.

    PubMed

    Saşmaz, R; Altinyazar, H C; Tatlican, S; Eskioğlu, F; Yurtsever, P

    2001-12-01

    We report a case of lupus vulgaris following BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guèrin) vaccination on the right shoulder. The patient had a history of lupus vulgaris on his left shoulder that developed following BCG vaccination and was treated successfully eight years ago.

  9. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  10. SILEN-C3, a Phase 2 Randomized Trial with Faldaprevir plus Pegylated Interferon α-2a and Ribavirin in Treatment-Naive Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O.; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143–2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  11. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy. PMID:26203886

  12. Skin lesion-associated pathogens from Octopus vulgaris: first detection of Photobacterium swingsii, Lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Perrucci, S; Vanni, A; Cersini, A; Lenzi, C; De Wolf, T; Fronte, B; Guarducci, M; Susini, F

    2015-07-23

    The common octopus Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most Mediterranean countries. Here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. Within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°C and microbiologically examined within 24 h. Bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and biochemical analyses. Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were only isolated from cultured animals. A conventional PCR targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and sequencing were performed on 2 bacterial isolates that remained unidentified after taxonomical and biochemical analysis. The sequence results indicated that the bacteria had a 99% identity with Lactococcus garvieae and Photobacterium swingsii. L. garvieae was confirmed using a specific PCR based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region, while P. swingsii was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. Although all animals examined were found to be infected by the protozoan species Aggregata octopiana localised in the intestines, it was also present in skin lesions of 2 of the animals. Betanodavirus was detected in both cultured and wild individuals by cell culture, PCR and electron microscopy. These findings are the first report of L. garvieae and betanodavirus from skin lesions of common octopus and the first identification of P. swingsii both in octopus skin lesions and in marine invertebrates in Italy.

  13. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently.

  14. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  15. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in garden beets (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Edward; Zhou, Haihong; Krasinska, Karolina M; Chien, Allis; Becker, Christopher H

    2006-05-01

    Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (L-Aze) is a toxic and teratogenic non-protein amino acid. In many species, including man, L-Aze is misincorporated into protein in place of proline, altering collagen, keratin, hemoglobin, and protein folding. In animal models of teratogenesis, it causes a wide range of malformations. The role of L-Aze in human disease has been unexplored, probably because the compound has not been associated with foods consumed by humans. Herein we report the presence of L-Aze in the garden or table beet (Beta vulgaris).

  16. Atypical forms of lupus vulgaris - a case series.

    PubMed

    Saritha, Mohanan; Parveen, Basheer Ahamed; Anandan, Venkatesan; Priyavathani, Malathy R; Tharini, Karuvelan G

    2009-02-01

    Atypical presentations of cutaneous tuberculosis are not so uncommon and are frequently overlooked in clinical practice, leading to late diagnosis and increased morbidity. We report three cases of lupus vulgaris with atypical presentations. The cases mimicked other chronic skin lesions like actinomycosis, mycetoma, and so on. Strong clinical suspicion, histopathology, and response to antituberculous treatment led to the diagnosis and all three had excellent response to treatment. Today, when tuberculosis threatens to burst into pandemics again, early diagnosis and treatment are more important than ever for control and prevention of morbidity.

  17. Lupus vulgaris with tubercular lymphadenitis and IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Khaira, Ambar; Rathi, Om P; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sharma, Alok; Dinda, Amit K; Tiwari, Suresh C

    2008-02-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a 10-year history of a large crusted plaque over the right thigh for 10 years and small reddish plaque over the left upper back for 3 months. On routine evaluation, she was found to have hematuria. Skin biopsy from the lesion was suggestive of skin tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris), and kidney biopsy showed features of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Fine-needle aspiration from the inguinal lymph node was consistent with granulomatous disease. The patient has been on anti-tubercular treatment, and the hematuria has subsided.

  18. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  19. Spina ventosa with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy: Multifocal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sood, Shikha; Gupta, Mudita

    2015-12-01

    Tuberculous dactylitis is a rare yet well-recognized disease of small bones of the hands and feet. It occurs in young children below five years of age. Tubercular dactylitis with lupus vulgaris and lymphadenopathy was suspected clinically and radiologically in an 8-year-old girl who had multiple soft tissue swelling of hands and feet with ulceration, encrustations, and an atrophic scar with lytic expansile lesions of the small bones of the hands and feet. Tubercular lymph node involvement was confirmed histopathologically.

  20. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently. PMID:23410632

  1. R factors from Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hedges, R W

    1975-04-01

    Eighty-nine R factors were transmitted by conjugation to Escherichia coli K12 from isolates of Proteus hauseri (P. mirabilis plus P vulgaris). More than half were non-selftranmissible. The remainder included plasmids assigned to the previously defined groups FII,A-C complex, J, N and P, as well as some not belonging to any knwon compatibility groups. R factors from strains isolated in India, Thailand and Japan carried plasmids whose inheritance was extremely unstable in E. coli K12. All belonged to a new compatibility group, V.

  2. The role of hormones in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; MARINA, MIHAELA ELENA; ORASAN, REMUS IOAN

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, common skin disease, which affects the patient’s quality of life to the highest degree. Several exogenous factors and endogenous hormonal changes may act as triggers for psoriasis. The skin possesses a true endocrine system, which is very important in multiple systemic diseases. A number of conditions are associated with psoriasis, and its severity can also be influenced by hormones. Even though the sex hormones and prolactin have a major role in psoriasis pathogenicity, there are a lot of other hormones which can influence the psoriasis clinical manifestations: glucocorticoids, epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and insulin. PMID:27004020

  3. Evaluation of nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne vulgaris according to treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ozuguz, Pınar; Callioglu, Elif E; Tulaci, Kamil G; Kacar, Seval D; Balta, Ilknur; Asik, Gulsah; Karatas, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne during treatments with tetracycline and isotretinoin. Swab specimens were taken from the right and left nasal cavities and oropharynx of 55 patients with acne and 20 healthy volunteers who were admitted to the dermatology department (Etlik Educational and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) before the administration of treatment and in the third month of treatment. Study participants were divided into four groups as follows: patients with acne on topical treatment only, systemic isotretinoin, and systemic tetracycline, and the control group. Of 55 patients with acne, 18 were male and 37 were female. The mean age of the patients and the control group was 22.21 ± 4.22 and 21.95 ± 7.64, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the nasal flora of five patients, normal flora was suppressed in the oropharyngeal cultures of seven patients, and normal flora grew in the cultures of the other 20 patients who were on tetracycline treatment. On the other hand, normal flora grew in the nasal and oropharyngeal cultures of all the patients who were on isotretinoin treatment. Treatment options and follow-up procedures for acne vulgaris may lead to the development of bacterial resistance and damage to flora. In particular, systemic tetracycline treatment leads to changes in flora of the nose and throat in patients with acne with an increased carriage of S. aureus. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the duration of tetracycline treatment in order to not increase the risk of disturbance of microbial flora.

  4. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of heather (Calluna vulgaris) and evaluation of anti-hepatitis C virus activity of the extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Risco, Mónica Rodriguez; Vázquez, Erika; Sheldon, Julie; Steinmann, Eike; Riebesehl, Nina; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-02-16

    Previous studies using lipid extracts of heather (Calluna vulgaris) leaves showed the presence of high concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid. These two compounds have been reported to present antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction of heather was studied with the aim of assessing a potential anti-HCV activity of the extracts owing to their triterpenic acid content. Supercritical extraction assays were carried out exploring the pressure range of 20-50 MPa, temperatures of 40-70°C and 0-15% of ethanol cosolvent. The content of oleanolic and ursolic acid in the extracts were determined, and different samples were screened for cellular cytotoxicity and virus inhibition using a HCV cell culture infection system. Antiviral activity was observed in most extracts. In general, superior anti-HCV activity was observed for higher contents of oleanolic and ursolic acids in the extracts. PMID:25550074

  6. Properties of aromatic residues in ferricytochrome c3 of desulforvibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F studied by 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Su; Enoki, Minoru; Ohbu, Ayako; Fan, Kejung; Niki, Katsumi; Akutsu, Hideo; Kyogoku, Yoshimasa

    1991-01-01

    Conditions for the specific labelling of the tetrahaeme protein cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F during culture of this sulphate-reducing bacterium in a minimal medium were established. Phenylalanine and tyrosine residues were specifically deuterated at more than 85% efficiency. Cytochrome c3 has nine histidine, three tyrosine and two phenylalamine residues. Eight histidine imidazoles are ligated to four haeme groups. Using the deuterated cytochrome c3, aromatic proton signals of phenylalanine and tyrosine residues in the fully oxidized state were identified. However, the signals of one phenylalanine residue were missing and this was tentatively assigned to Phe20. The aromatic proton signals of His67 were also assigned p2H titration. Its pk1 was much higher than that for the free histidine residue. No tyrosine residue was ionized up to p2H 12.

  7. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production.

  8. A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2012-03-01

    Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34-3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18477, suggesting that at least 18477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered.

  9. Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Komeylizadeh, Hossein; Tabaei, Seyyed-Javadi Seyyed; Abadi, Alireza

    2008-09-01

    One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25 degrees C for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica.

  10. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant.

  11. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  12. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  13. Chlorella vulgaris up-modulation of myelossupression induced by lead: the role of stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Mary L S; Torello, Cristiane O; Perhs, Simone M C; Rocha, Michelle C; Bechara, Etelvino J H; Morgano, Marcelo A; Valadares, Marize C; Rodrigues, Ana Paula O; Ramos, Aline Lisie; Soares, Chrislaine O

    2008-09-01

    In this study, Chlorella vulgaris (CV) was examined for its chelating effects on the ability of bone marrow stromal cell layer to display myeloid progenitor cells in vitro in lead-exposed mice, using the long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). In addition, the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, an important hematopoietic stimulator, as well as the numbers of adherent and non-adherent cells were also investigated. Mice were gavage treated daily with a single 50mg/kg dose of CV for 10 days, concomitant to continuous offering of 1300ppm lead acetate in drinking water. We found that CV up-modulates the reduced ability of stromal cell layer to display myeloid progenitor cells in vitro in lead-exposed mice and restores both the reduced number of non-adherent cells and the ability of stromal cells from these mice to produce IL-6. Monitoring of lead poisoning demonstrated that CV treatment significantly reduced lead levels in blood and tissues, completely restored the normal hepatic ALA levels, decreased the abnormally high plasma ALA and partly recovered the liver capacity to produce porphyrins. These findings provide evidence for a beneficial use of CV for combination or alternative chelating therapy to protect the host from the damage induced by lead poisoning.

  14. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis: from anecdote to translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Bowe, W; Patel, N B; Logan, A C

    2014-06-01

    Acne vulgaris has long been postulated to feature a gastrointestinal mechanism, dating back 80 years to dermatologists John H. Stokes and Donald M. Pillsbury. They hypothesised that emotional states (e.g. depression and anxiety) could alter normal intestinal microbiota, increase intestinal permeability, and contribute to systemic inflammation. They were also among the first to propose the use of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures. In recent years, aspects of this gut-brain-skin theory have been further validated via modern scientific investigations. It is evident that gut microbes and oral probiotics could be linked to the skin, and particularly acne severity, by their ability to influence systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, glycaemic control, tissue lipid content, and even mood. This intricate relationship between gut microbiota and the skin may also be influenced by diet, a current area of intense scrutiny by those who study acne. Here we provide a historical background to the gut-brain-skin theory in acne, followed by a summary of contemporary investigations and clinical implications.

  15. [Growth inhibition and mechanism of cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride on Chlorella vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Ge, Fei; Tao, Neng-Guo; Zhu, Run-Liang; Wang, Na

    2009-06-15

    Growth inhibition of cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC), a cationic surfactants, on Chlorella vulgaris was investigated at batch culture in laboratory. Furthermore, the corresponding mechanisms were studied by the determination of absorption capacity, Zeta potential, activity of acid phosphatase and ultrastructure of algae. Results show that the growth inhibition by CATC is enhanced with its concentration increasing from 0.1 mg/L to 1 mg/L, and 96 h-EC50 of CTAC is 0.18 mg/L. In the presence of 0.3 mg/L CTAC in 8 d, the inhibition efficiency of biomass reaches 70.7%. Meanwhile, the absorption of nitrogen and iron is inhibited 83.9% and 86.2% respectively with Zeta potential of algae cell increasing from -12.5 mV to -6.7 mV. Furthermore, the relative activity of acid phosphatase declines to 23.1% at the same time. Plasmolysis, distortion of pyrenoid and swelling of lysosome is observed in the cell. Above phenomena indicates that CTAC increases the Zeta potential of algae cell and thus inhibites the absorption of nitrogen and iron. In addition, CTAC may affect the metabolism of phosphorus and change the ultrastructure of algae cell. PMID:19662866

  16. Super-resolution microscopy reveals altered desmosomal protein organization in pemphigus vulgaris patient tissue

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Warren, Maxine F.; Feldman, Ron J.; Swerlick, Robert A.; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune epidermal blistering disease in which autoantibodies (IgG) are directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). In order to better understand how PV IgG alters desmosome morphology and function in vivo, PV patient biopsies were analyzed by structured illumination microscopy (SIM), a form of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. In patient tissue, desmosomal proteins were aberrantly clustered and localized to PV IgG-containing endocytic linear arrays. Patient IgG also colocalized with markers for lipid rafts and endosomes. Additionally, steady-state levels of Dsg3 were decreased and desmosomes were reduced in size in patient tissue. Desmosomes at blister sites were occasionally split, with PV IgG decorating the extracellular faces of split desmosomes. Desmosome splitting was recapitulated in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes both to PV IgG and to mechanical stress, demonstrating that splitting at the blister interface in patient tissue is due to compromised desmosomal adhesive function. These findings indicate that Dsg3 clustering and endocytosis are associated with reduced desmosome size and adhesion defects in PV patient tissue. Further, this study reveals that super-resolution optical imaging is powerful approach for studying epidermal adhesion structures in normal and diseased skin. PMID:26763424

  17. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis: from anecdote to translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Bowe, W; Patel, N B; Logan, A C

    2014-06-01

    Acne vulgaris has long been postulated to feature a gastrointestinal mechanism, dating back 80 years to dermatologists John H. Stokes and Donald M. Pillsbury. They hypothesised that emotional states (e.g. depression and anxiety) could alter normal intestinal microbiota, increase intestinal permeability, and contribute to systemic inflammation. They were also among the first to propose the use of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures. In recent years, aspects of this gut-brain-skin theory have been further validated via modern scientific investigations. It is evident that gut microbes and oral probiotics could be linked to the skin, and particularly acne severity, by their ability to influence systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, glycaemic control, tissue lipid content, and even mood. This intricate relationship between gut microbiota and the skin may also be influenced by diet, a current area of intense scrutiny by those who study acne. Here we provide a historical background to the gut-brain-skin theory in acne, followed by a summary of contemporary investigations and clinical implications. PMID:23886975

  18. Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Philippe G; Pintado, Manuela E; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-02-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) - water soluble derivatives from chitin, are an interesting group of molecules for several biological applications, for they can enter plant cells and bind negatively charged molecules. Several studies reported an enhanced plant growth and higher crop yield due to chitosan application in soil grown plants, but no studies have looked on the effect of COS application on plant mineral nutrient dynamics in hydroponically grown plants. In this study, Phaseolus vulgaris was grown in hydroponic culture and the effect of three different concentrations of COS on plant growth and mineral accumulation was assessed. There were significant changes in mineral allocations for Mo, B, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Na, Al and K among treatments. Plant morphology was severely affected in high doses of COS, as well as lignin concentration in the stem and the leaves, but not in the roots. Chlorophyll A, B and carotenoid concentrations did not change significantly among treatments, suggesting that even at higher concentrations, COS application did not affect photosynthetic pigment accumulation. Plants grown at high COS levels had shorter shoots and roots, suggesting that COS can be phytotoxic to the plant. The present study is the first detailed report on the effect of COS application on mineral nutrition in plants, and opens the door for future studies that aim at utilizing COS in biofortification or phytoremediation programs.

  19. Electron mediators accelerate the microbiologically influenced corrosion of 304 stainless steel by the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiyu; Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Yang, Ke; Gu, Tingyue

    2015-02-01

    In the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) caused by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron oxidation happens outside sessile cells while the utilization of the electrons released by the oxidation process for sulfate reduction occurs in the SRB cytoplasm. Thus, cross-cell wall electron transfer is needed. It can only be achieved by electrogenic biofilms. This work hypothesized that the electron transfer is a bottleneck in MIC by SRB. To prove this, MIC tests were carried out using 304 stainless steel coupons covered with the Desulfovibrio vulgaris (ATCC 7757) biofilm in the ATCC 1249 medium. It was found that both riboflavin and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), two common electron mediators that enhance electron transfer, accelerated pitting corrosion and weight loss on the coupons when 10ppm (w/w) of either of them was added to the culture medium in 7-day anaerobic lab tests. This finding has important implications in MIC forensics and biofilm synergy in MIC that causes billions of dollars of damages to the US industry each year.

  20. Evaluation of chitooligosaccharide application on mineral accumulation and plant growth in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Philippe G; Pintado, Manuela E; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2014-02-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COS) - water soluble derivatives from chitin, are an interesting group of molecules for several biological applications, for they can enter plant cells and bind negatively charged molecules. Several studies reported an enhanced plant growth and higher crop yield due to chitosan application in soil grown plants, but no studies have looked on the effect of COS application on plant mineral nutrient dynamics in hydroponically grown plants. In this study, Phaseolus vulgaris was grown in hydroponic culture and the effect of three different concentrations of COS on plant growth and mineral accumulation was assessed. There were significant changes in mineral allocations for Mo, B, Zn, P, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Na, Al and K among treatments. Plant morphology was severely affected in high doses of COS, as well as lignin concentration in the stem and the leaves, but not in the roots. Chlorophyll A, B and carotenoid concentrations did not change significantly among treatments, suggesting that even at higher concentrations, COS application did not affect photosynthetic pigment accumulation. Plants grown at high COS levels had shorter shoots and roots, suggesting that COS can be phytotoxic to the plant. The present study is the first detailed report on the effect of COS application on mineral nutrition in plants, and opens the door for future studies that aim at utilizing COS in biofortification or phytoremediation programs. PMID:24388524

  1. Dynamics of Campylobacter colonization of a natural host, Sturnus vulgaris (European starling).

    PubMed

    Colles, F M; McCarthy, N D; Howe, J C; Devereux, C L; Gosler, A G; Maiden, M C J

    2009-01-01

    Wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) shed Campylobacter at high rates, suggesting that they may be a source of human and farm animal infection. A survey of Campylobacter shedding of 957 wild starlings was undertaken by culture of faecal specimens and genetic analysis of the campylobacters isolated: shedding rates were 30.6% for Campylobacter jejuni, 0.6% for C. coli and 6.3% for C. lari. Genotyping by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antigen sequence typing established that these bacteria were distinct from poultry or human disease isolates with the ST-177 and ST-682 clonal complexes possibly representing starling-adapted genotypes. There was seasonal variation in both shedding rate and genotypic diversity, both exhibiting a maximum during the late spring/early summer. Host age also affected Campylobacter shedding, which was higher in younger birds, and turnover was rapid with no evidence of cross-immunity among Campylobacter species or genotypes. In nestlings, C. jejuni shedding was evident from 9 days of age but siblings were not readily co-infected. The dynamics of Campylobacter infection of starlings differed from that observed in commercial poultry and consequently there was no evidence that wild starlings represent a major source of Campylobacter infections of food animals or humans. PMID:18826435

  2. Dynamics of Campylobacter colonization of a natural host, Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, F M; McCarthy, N D; Howe, J C; Devereux, C L; Gosler, A G; Maiden, M C J

    2009-01-01

    Wild European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) shed Campylobacter at high rates, suggesting that they may be a source of human and farm animal infection. A survey of Campylobacter shedding of 957 wild starlings was undertaken by culture of faecal specimens and genetic analysis of the campylobacters isolated: shedding rates were 30.6% for Campylobacter jejuni, 0.6% for C. coli and 6.3% for C. lari. Genotyping by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antigen sequence typing established that these bacteria were distinct from poultry or human disease isolates with the ST-177 and ST-682 clonal complexes possibly representing starling-adapted genotypes. There was seasonal variation in both shedding rate and genotypic diversity, both exhibiting a maximum during the late spring/early summer. Host age also affected Campylobacter shedding, which was higher in younger birds, and turnover was rapid with no evidence of cross-immunity among Campylobacter species or genotypes. In nestlings, C. jejuni shedding was evident from 9 days of age but siblings were not readily co-infected. The dynamics of Campylobacter infection of starlings differed from that observed in commercial poultry and consequently there was no evidence that wild starlings represent a major source of Campylobacter infections of food animals or humans. PMID:18826435

  3. Proteus vulgaris urinary tract infections in rats; treatment with nitrofuran derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hossack, D. J. N.

    1962-01-01

    Ascending urinary tract infections with stone formation have been produced experimentally in rats, using a modification of the method of Vermuelen & Goetz (1954a, b). A zinc disc infected with a culture of Proteus vulgaris was inserted into the bladder by suprapubic cystotomy under ether anaesthesia. The pH of the urine rises from 6.9 to 8 or 9 and calculi develop in the bladder within a few days of infection. The bladder and ureters become swollen, distended and inflamed, and renal abscesses develop. Death from renal failure generally occurs within 10 days of infection. Oral treatment with nitrofurantoin was commenced three days after infection and continued for one month. This arrested the initial rise in urine alkalinity and stone formation, and few, if any, macroscopic lesions were found at post-mortem examination. Of nine nitrofuran derivatives examined for activity against this infection several showed slight activity, but only one, N-(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)-γ-butyric acid, was as active as nitrofurantoin when given at four times the dose, but it was also one-third as toxic. It is concluded that this technique is suitable for the examination of potential urinary antiseptics. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:13964160

  4. Treatment of acne vulgaris with fractional radiofrequency microneedling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo

    2014-07-01

    Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P < 0.05). Inflammatory lesions responded better than non-inflammatory lesions (P < 0.05). Adverse effects such as pinpoint bleeding, pain and erythema were noted, but were transient and not severe enough to stop treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris.

  5. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products.

  6. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. PMID:23751216

  7. [A case of systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with psoriasis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Shidara, Kumi; Soejima, Makoto; Shiseki, Mariko; Ohta, Syuji; Nishinarita, Makoto

    2003-12-01

    A 49-years-old female admitted to our hospital because of skin eruptions on the extremities in 1985. She had suffered from polyarthralgia, skin eruptions since 1983. Physical examinations revealed discoid lesion, central nervous system involvement, and polyarthritis. Laboratory tests revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hypocomplementemia. Antinuclear antibody, ant-DNA antibody, LE test were positive. From these findings, she was diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She developed lupus peritonitis in 1990 and 1994, which was successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy. Since then, the activity of SLE was in good control under administration of prednisolone 10 mg/day. Chilblain lupus was seen from 1993, Raynaud's phenomenon from 1996, and she further developed subcutaneous induration on her chest, back and upper extremities in 1999. Skin biopsy findings were compatible with lupus panniculitis. In 2002, erythematous patches with scales were observed on her right hand and left knee, and these skin lesions were histologically diagnosed as psoriasis vulgaris. An autoimmune response similar to SLE is speculated in psoriasis. We describe a rare case of SLE with various skin lesions including psoriasis vulgaris.

  8. Toxicological Responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Dichloromethane and Dichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shijin; Zhang, Huaxing; Yu, Xiang; Qiu, Lequan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity effects of dichloromethane and dichloroethane on Chlorella vulgaris at the physiological and molecular level. Data showed that the cell number, chlorophyll a, and total protein content gradually decreased with increasing dichloromethane and dichloroethane concentrations over a 96-h exposure. Lower doses of two organic solvents had stimulatory effects on catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Malondialdehyde showed a concentration-dependent increase in response to dichloromethane and dichloroethane exposure. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to different concentrations of dichloromethane and dichloroethane exposure. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay demonstrated that dichloromethane and dichloroethane reduced the transcript abundance of psaB, whereas that of psbC changed depending on the toxicant after 24 h of exposure. Dichloromethane and dichloroethane affected the activity of antioxidant enzymes, disrupted the chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduced transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris, leading to metabolic disruption and cell death. PMID:24550665

  9. Bacteriophage Typing of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Proteus morganii

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, William C.; Jeffries, Charles D.

    1974-01-01

    A bacteriphage typing scheme for differentiating Proteus isolated from clinical specimens was developed. Twenty-one distinct patterns of lysis were seen when 15 bacteriophages isolated on 8 Proteus mirabilis, 1 P. vulgaris, and 1 P. morganii were used to type 162 of 189 (85.7%) P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris isolates. Seven phages isolated on 3 P. morganii were used to type 13 of 19 (68.4%) P. morganii isolates. Overall, 84.1% of the 208 isolates were lysed by at least 1 phage at routine test dilution (RTD) or 1,000 × RTD. Fifty isolates, retyped several weeks after the initial testing, showed no changes in lytic patterns. The phages retained their titers after storage at 4 C for several months. A computer analysis of the data showed that there was no relationship between the source of the isolate and bacteriophage type. This bacteriophage typing system may provide epidemiological information on strains involved in human infections. PMID:4589141

  10. Stability and loading properties of curcumin encapsulated in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Yaser; Sabahi, Hossein; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2016-11-15

    Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenols with pharmacological function, was successfully encapsulated in algae (Alg) cell (Chlorella vulgaris) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Fluorescence micrographs, TGA, DSC and FTIR spectra suggested the hypothesis inclusion Cur in Nano-empty spaces inside cell wall of Alg. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of Alg and Cur at algae/curcumin complex was 3.8% and 33% higher than their free forms at 0-300°C and 300-600°C ranges, respectively. After encapsulation in Alg cells, the photostability of Cur was enhanced by about 2.5-fold. Adsorption isotherm of Cur into Alg was fitted with the Freundlich isotherm. The microcapsules were loaded with Cur up to about 55% w/w which is much higher than other reported bio-carriers. In conclusion, the data proved that Chlorella vulgaris cell can be used as a new stable carrier for Cur. PMID:27283686

  11. Verruca vulgaris of tympanic membrane treated with topical immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Verruca vulgaris is a common skin disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but it rarely involves the tympanic membrane. The current treatments for verruca are usually destructive and irreversible, should not be performed universally; the most relevant therapy will be variable subject to disease location, severity, and the patient's immune status. In this report, we demonstrated a case with verruca vulgaris of tympanic membrane, who had topical immunomodulatory agent treatment successfully with well-preserved hearing, and who has no any recurrence up to now for 3 years. In clinical, to cure verruca on the vulnerable tympanic membrane without hearing sequela is a dilemma, and there is no any treatment guideline due to its rarity. Topical immunomodulatory agent with high selectivity, showed great competence on this occasion and verified its practicability in treating verruca on unapproachable area, or where bearing vital functions; the convenient out-patient-based application also ensures good compliance. However, it does need longer duration and higher costs than the other routine treatment modalities. PMID:24321751

  12. Oral Spironolactone in Post-teenage Female Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    Oral spironolactone has been used for over two decades in the dermatological setting. Although it is not generally considered a primary option in the management of female patients with acne vulgaris, the increase in office visits by post-teenage women with acne vulgaris has recently placed a spotlight on the use of this agent in this subgroup of patients. This article reviews the literature focusing on the use of oral spironolactone in this subset of women with acne vulgaris, including discussions of the recommended starting dose, expected response time, adjustments in therapy, potential adverse effects, and patient monitoring. PMID:22468178

  13. Detection of filaggrin gene mutation (2282del4) in Pakistani Ichthyosis vulgaris families.

    PubMed

    Naz, Naghma; Samdani, Azam Jah

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to detect an 811 bp filaggrin (FLG) gene fragment known to carry a mutation 2282del4 which causes ichthyosis vulgaris. Seven clinically examined ichthyosis vulgaris families were included in this study. An 811 bp FLG gene fragment was targeted in the genomic DNA of all the members of the seven families by PCR amplification using known primers RPT1P7 and RPT2P1. Successful amplification of an 811 bp FLG gene fragment in all the families suggested the possible role of the 2282del4 mutation in causing ichthyosis vulgaris in Pakistani population.

  14. Development of lichen planus and psoriasis on lesions of vitiligo vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ujiie, H; Sawamura, D; Shimizu, H

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports a unique case of coexistence of vitiligo vulgaris, lichen planus and psoriasis vulgaris in a 53-year-old man. Five years after the onset of vitiligo, lichen planus developed on his lower lip. Another 4 years after the onset of lichen planus, he also exhibited psoriasis on his upper arms and trunk. Both the lichen planus and psoriasis occurred on lesions of the preceding vitiligo vulgaris. We discuss potential mechanisms for association of these three dermatoses, including Koebner phenomenon and photodamage.

  15. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Men, Yujie; Feil, Helene; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Johnson, David R; Lee, Patrick K H; West, Kimberlee A; Zinder, Stephen H; Andersen, Gary L; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-02-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0±0.01 μmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1±0.3 μmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8±0.1 μmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0±0.5 × 10(7) cells per μmol Cl(-) released, compared with 6.8±0.9 × 10(7) cells per μmol Cl(-) released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3±1.8 × 10(7) cells per μmol Cl(-) released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a whole-genome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H(2) and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  16. Sustainable syntrophic growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Methanobacterium congolense: Global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Y.; Feil, H.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Shah, M.B.; Johnson, D.R.; Lee, P.K.H; West, K.A.; Zinder, S.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.

    2011-03-01

    Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (DE195) was grown in a sustainable syntrophic association with Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DVH) as a co-culture, as well as with DVH and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobacterium congolense (MC) as a tri-culture using lactate as the sole energy and carbon source. In the co- and tri-cultures, maximum dechlorination rates of DE195 were enhanced by approximately three times (11.0±0.01 lmol per day for the co-culture and 10.1±0.3 lmol per day for the tri-culture) compared with DE195 grown alone (3.8±0.1 lmol per day). Cell yield of DE195 was enhanced in the co-culture (9.0±0.5 x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released, compared with 6.8±0.9x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released for the pure culture), whereas no further enhancement was observed in the tri-culture (7.3±1.8x 107 cells per lmol Cl{sup -} released). The transcriptome of DE195 grown in the co-culture was analyzed using a whole-genome microarray targeting DE195, which detected 102 significantly up- or down-regulated genes compared with DE195 grown in isolation, whereas no significant transcriptomic difference was observed between co- and tri-cultures. Proteomic analysis showed that 120 proteins were differentially expressed in the co-culture compared with DE195 grown in isolation. Physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic results indicate that the robust growth of DE195 in co- and tri-cultures is because of the advantages associated with the capabilities of DVH to ferment lactate to provide H2 and acetate for growth, along with potential benefits from proton translocation, cobalamin-salvaging and amino acid biosynthesis, whereas MC in the tri-culture provided no significant additional benefits beyond those of DVH.

  17. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 microg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  18. Phytochelatin induction by selenate in Chlorella vulgaris, and regulation of effect by sulfate levels.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Denina B D; Emery, R J Neil

    2011-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are short metal detoxification peptides made from the sulfur-rich molecule glutathione. The production of PCs by algae caused by Se exposure has never been studied, although many algae accumulate Se, forming Se-rich proteins and peptides, and higher plants have demonstrated PC production when treated with Se; therefore, a goal of the current study was to examine whether Se induces PC production in algae. Furthermore, selenate is thought to compete with sulfate in the S assimilation pathway, and sulfate therefore may have a protective effect against the toxic effects of high doses of Se in algae. Hence, the interaction of selenate and sulfate was investigated with respect to the induction of PCs. Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in media with either low (31.2 µM) or high (312 µM) concentrations of sulfate. These cultures were exposed to selenate in doses of 7, 35, and 70 nM for 48 h. In a separate treatment, Cd (890 nM) was added as a positive PC-inducing control, and one no-metal negative control was used. Total Se and Se speciation were determined, and glutathione, phytochelatin-2, and phytochelatin-3 were quantified in each of cell digests, cell medium, and cell lysates. We found that PCs and their precursor glutathione were induced by selenate as well as by a Cd control. The high concentration of sulfate was able to counter selenate-induced production of PCs and glutathione. These data support two possible mechanisms: a negative feedback system in the S assimilation pathway that affects PC production when sulfate is abundant, and competition for uptake at the ion transport level between selenate and sulfate.

  19. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  20. Narrow- and Broad-Host-Range Symbiotic Plasmids of Rhizobium spp. Strains That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Susana; Martinez, Esperanza; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Agrobacterium transconjugants containing symbiotic plasmids from different Rhizobium spp. strains that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris were obtained. All transconjugants conserved the parental nodulation host range. Symbiotic (Sym) plasmids of Rhizobium strains isolated originally from P. vulgaris nodules, which had a broad nodulation host range, and single-copy nitrogenase genes conferred a Fix+ phenotype to the Agrobacterium transconjugants. A Fix− phenotype was obtained with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from P. vulgaris nodules that had a narrow host range and reiterated nif genes, as well as with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from other legumes that presented single nif genes and a broad nodulation host range. This indicates that different types of Sym plasmids can confer the ability to establish an effective symbiosis with P. vulgaris. Images PMID:16347637

  1. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency.

  2. Lupus Vulgaris Erythematoides: report of a patient initially misdiagnosed as dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Lopez, Francisco; Fueyo-Casado, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lara, Leire

    2013-05-15

    A small percentage of patients with tuberculosis present with cutaneous findings, which may be difficult to diagnose. We present a patient diagnosed with a rare, non-scarring form of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB), classically termed as lupus vulgaris erythematoides.

  3. Th-17 and the lack of efficacy of ustekinumab in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María; Vazquez-González, Denisse; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2013-03-15

    Systemic corticosteroids represent an effective treatment for pemphigus vulgaris (PV). However, this treatment is related to many adverse side effects. Herein, we report a case of PV treated with ustekinumab.

  4. Lupus vulgaris in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and persistent IgG deficiency.

    PubMed

    Düzgün, N; Duman, M; Sonel, B; Peksari, Y; Erdem, C; Tokgöz, G

    1997-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed a persistent, acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia with IgG deficiency. The hypogammaglobulinaemia was probably a complication of high dose corticosteroid treatment. The serum IgG level remained subnormal despite intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Lupus vulgaris, which developed on the nasal cartilage in this patient with SLE, is not an expected finding. This patient is probably the first reported case of SLE associated with lupus vulgaris.

  5. Development of Strongylus vulgaris-specific serum antibodies in naturally infected foals.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M K; Vidyashankar, A N; Gravatte, H S; Bellaw, J; Lyons, E T; Andersen, U V

    2014-03-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is regarded as the most pathogenic helminth parasite infecting horses. Migrating larvae cause pronounced endarteritis and thrombosis in the cranial mesenteric artery and adjacent branches, and thromboembolism can lead to ischemia and infarction of large intestinal segments. A recently developed serum ELISA allows detection of S. vulgaris-specific antibodies during the six-month-long prepatent period. A population of horses has been maintained at the University of Kentucky without anthelmintic intervention since 1979, and S. vulgaris has been documented to be highly prevalent. In 2012, 12 foals were born in this population, and were studied during a 12-month period (March-March). Weekly serum samples were collected to monitor S. vulgaris specific antibodies with the ELISA. Nine colts underwent necropsy at different time points between 90 and 300 days of age. At necropsy, Strongylus spp. and Parascaris equorum were identified to species and stage and enumerated. Initial statistical findings indicate a significant interaction between foal age and ELISA results (p<0.042). All foals had initial evidence of S. vulgaris-directed maternal antibodies transferred in the colostrum, but then remained ELISA negative during their first three months of life. Foals born in February and March became ELISA positive at about 12 weeks of age, while those born in April and May went positive at about 15 and 21 weeks, respectively. Foal date of birth was significantly associated with ELISA results (p<0.0001). This could be explained by birth date-dependent differences in parasite exposure. One foal remained ELISA-negative throughout the course of 30 weeks during the study. A significant association was found between ELISA values and larval S. vulgaris burdens (p<0.0001) as well as a three-way interaction between S. vulgaris, S. edentatus, and P. equorum burdens (p<0.001). A plateau with a subsequent decline in ELISA values corresponded with S. vulgaris larvae leaving

  6. Blistering mucocutaneous diseases of the oral mucosa--a review: part 2. Pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Darling, Mark R; Daley, Tom

    2006-02-01

    Oral mucous membranes may be affected by a variety of blistering mucocutaneous diseases. In this paper, we review the clinical manifestations, typical microscopic and immunofluorescence features, pathogenesis, biological behaviour and treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Although pemphigus vulgaris is not a common disease of the oral cavity, its potential to cause severe or life-threatening disease is such that the general dentist must have an understanding of its pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management. PMID:16480607

  7. Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris: Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis and Deduction of Putative Cognate Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Wu, Gang; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-01-20

    ABSTRACT-Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) composed of sensory histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR), constitute a key element of the mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to changes in environments. A large number of TCSTSs including 59 putative HKs and 55 RRs were identified from the Desulfovibrio vulgaris genome, indicating their important roles in regulation of cellular metabolism. In this study, the structural and phylogenetic analysis of all putative TCSTSs in D. vulgaris was performed. The results showed D. vulgaris contained an unexpectedly large number of hybrid-type HKs, implying that multiple-step phosphorelay may be a common signal transduction mechanism in D. vulgaris. Most TCSTS components of D. vulgaris were found clustered into several subfamilies previously recognized in other bacteria and extensive co-evolution between D. vulgaris HKs and RRs was observed, suggesting that the concordance of HKs and RRs in cognate phylogenetic groups could be indicative of cognate TCSTSs...

  8. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  9. Cannibalistic behavior of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Garci, Manuel E; Roura, Alvaro; González, Angel F; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Guerra, Angel

    2014-11-01

    The first description of cannibalism in wild adult Octopus vulgaris is presented from 3 observations made in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), which were filmed by scuba divers. These records document common traits in cannibalistic behavior: (a) it was intercohort cannibalism; (b) attacks were made by both males and females; (c) in 2 of the records, the prey were transported to the den, which was covered with stones of different sizes; (d) the predator started to eat the tip of the arms of its prey; (e) predation on conspecifics occurred even if there were other abundant prey available (i.e., mussels); and (f) the prey/predator weight ratio in the 3 cases ranged from 20% to 25% body weight. The relationships between this behavior and sex, defense of territory, energy balance, food shortage, competition and predation, as well as how the attacker kills its victim are discussed. PMID:25198542

  10. Polyphosphate during the Regreening of Chlorella vulgaris under Nitrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Lam, Paul K. S.; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphosphate (Poly-P) accumulation has been reported in Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency conditions with sufficient P supply, and the process has been demonstrated to have great impact on lipid productivity. In this article, the utilization of polyphosphates and the regreening process under N resupplying conditions, especially for lipid production reviving, were investigated. This regreening process was completed within approximately 3–5 days. Polyphosphates were first degraded within 3 days in the regreening process, with and without an external P supply, and the degradation preceded the assimilation of phosphate in the media with an external P offering. Nitrate assimilation was markedly influenced by the starvation of P after polyphosphates were exhausted in the medium without external phosphates, and then the reviving process of biomass and lipid production was strictly impeded. It is, thus, reasonable to assume that simultaneous provision of external N and P is essential for overall biodiesel production revival during the regreening process. PMID:26426008

  11. Mapping the Two-component Regulatory Networks in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric; Dehal, Paramvir; Joachimiak, Marcin; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    D. vulgaris Hildenborough has 72 response regulators. The Desulfovibrio are sulfate reducing bacteria that are important in the sulfur and carbon cycles in anoxic habitats. Its large number of two componenent systems are probably critical to its ability to sense and respond to its environment. Our goal is to map these RRs to the genes they regulate using a DNA-affinity-purification-chip (DAP-chip) protocol. First target determined usuing EMSA. A positive target was determined for as many RRs as possible using EMSA. Targets were selected based on gene proximity, regulon predictions and/or predicted sigma54 dependent promoters. qPCR was used to ensure that the target was enriched from sheared genomic DNA before proceeding to the DAP-chip.

  12. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds. PMID:26210209

  13. Immunotherapy for acne vulgaris: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Simonart, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    There is a high unmet clinical need for new and better treatments in acne vulgaris. Propionibacterium acnes has a strong proinflammatory activity and targets molecules involved in the innate cutaneous immunity, keratinocytes and sebaceous glands of the pilosebaceous follicle. The role of P. acnes in acne confers legitimacy on the possible benefits of immunization-based approaches, which may represent a solution for limiting the development of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes. Various immunization-based approaches have been developed over the last decades, including killed pathogen-based vaccines, vaccination against cell wall-anchored sialidase, monoclonal antibodies to the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson factor of P. acnes, anti-Toll-like receptors vaccines and natural antimicrobial peptides. This review summarizes the current evidence and explores the challenges to making this a realistic treatment option for the future.

  14. Enhancing methane production of Chlorella vulgaris via thermochemical pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Lara; Mahdy, Ahmed; Timmers, Rudolphus A; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    To enhance the anaerobic digestion of Chlorella vulgaris, thermochemical pretreatments were conducted. All pretreatments markedly improved solubilisation of carbohydrates. Thermal treatments and thermal treatments combined with alkali resulted in 5-fold increase of soluble carbohydrates while thermal treatment with acid addition enhanced by 7-fold. On the other hand, proteins were only solubilized with thermo-alkaline conditions applied. Likewise, all the pretreatments tested improved methane production. Highest anaerobic digestion was accomplished by thermal treatment at 120°C for 40 min without any chemical addition. As a matter of fact, hydrolysis constant rate was doubled under this condition. According to the energetic analysis, energy input was higher than the extra energy gain at the solid concentration employed. Nevertheless, higher biomass organic load pretreatment may be an option to achieve positive energetic balances. PMID:24096280

  15. Cannibalistic behavior of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Garci, Manuel E; Roura, Alvaro; González, Angel F; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Guerra, Angel

    2014-11-01

    The first description of cannibalism in wild adult Octopus vulgaris is presented from 3 observations made in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), which were filmed by scuba divers. These records document common traits in cannibalistic behavior: (a) it was intercohort cannibalism; (b) attacks were made by both males and females; (c) in 2 of the records, the prey were transported to the den, which was covered with stones of different sizes; (d) the predator started to eat the tip of the arms of its prey; (e) predation on conspecifics occurred even if there were other abundant prey available (i.e., mussels); and (f) the prey/predator weight ratio in the 3 cases ranged from 20% to 25% body weight. The relationships between this behavior and sex, defense of territory, energy balance, food shortage, competition and predation, as well as how the attacker kills its victim are discussed.

  16. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile. PMID:17926127

  17. The Perception of Glass Patterns by Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Glass patterns are structured dot stimuli used to investigate the visual perception of global form. Studies have demonstrated that humans and pigeons differ in their processing of circular versus linearly organized Glass patterns. To test whether this comparative difference is characteristic of birds as a phylogenetic class, we investigated for the first time how a passerine (starlings, Sturnus vulgaris) discriminated multiple Glass patterns from random dot stimuli in a simultaneous discrimination. Examining acquisition, steady-state performance, and the effects of diminishing global coherence, it was found that the perception of Glass patterns by five starlings differed from human perception and corresponded to that established with pigeons. This suggests an important difference in how birds and primates are specialized in their processing of circular visual patterns, perhaps related to face perception, or in how these highly visual animals direct attention to the global and local components of spatially separated form stimuli. PMID:25117091

  18. Nootropic Effects of Filipendula Vulgaris Moench Water Extract Fractions.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Amelchenko, V P

    2015-07-01

    Nootropic activity of water extract fractions from aerial parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench was demonstrated on the models of hermetic volume hypoxia, conditioned passive avoidance response, open field test, and forced swimming with a load. The fractions stimulated hypoxic resistance, normalized orientation and exploratory behavior, improved conditioned response reproduction during testing after hypoxic injury, and increased exercise tolerance. Fractionation of the extract led to dissociation of the effect components, which suggests that individual constituents have specific characteristics. Ethylacetate fraction exhibited most pronounced nootropic activity and was superior to plant extract by some characteristics. The detected effects seemed to be caused by modulation of the hippocampus activity the under the effects of phenol and triterpene compounds.

  19. Future therapies for pemphigus vulgaris: Rituximab and beyond.

    PubMed

    Huang, Amy; Madan, Raman K; Levitt, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The conventional treatment for patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) centers on global immunosuppression, such as the use of steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs, to decrease titers of antidesmoglein autoantibodies responsible for the acantholytic blisters. Global immunosuppressants, however, cause serious side effects. The emergence of anti-CD20 biologic medications, such as rituximab, as an adjunct to conventional therapy has shifted the focus to targeted destruction of autoimmune B cells. Next-generation biologic medications with improved modes of delivery, pharmacology, and side effect profiles are constantly being developed, adding to the diversity of options for PV treatment. We review promising monoclonal antibodies, including veltuzumab, obinutuzumab (GA-101), ofatumumab, ocaratuzumab (AME-133v), PRO131921, and belimumab. PMID:26792592

  20. Oral pemphigus vulgaris: A case report with direct immunofluorescence study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sangeetha Jeevan; Nehru Anand, SP; Gunasekaran, Nandhini; Krishnan, Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a chronic, autoimmune, intraepidermal blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. The initial clinical manifestation is frequently the development of intraoral lesions, and later, the lesions involve the other mucous membranes and skin. The etiology of this disease still remains obscure although the presence of autoantibodies is consistent with an autoimmune disease. These antibodies are targeted against the adhesion proteins of keratinocytes, leading to acantholysis (disruption of spinous layer, leading to intraepidermal clefting) and blister formation. Because only oral lesions are present initially, the chances of misdiagnosing the disease as another condition are increased, leading to inappropriate therapy. In this article, we report a case of PV with only oral manifestations in a 36-year-old male. PMID:27721634

  1. Newer approaches to the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Simonart, Thierry

    2012-12-01

    The multifactorial etiology of acne vulgaris makes it challenging to treat. Current treatments include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, topical and systemic antibiotics, azelaic acid, and systemic isotretinoin. Adjunctive and/or emerging approaches include topical dapsone, taurine bromamine, resveratrol, chemical peels, optical treatments, as well as complementary and alternative medications. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the therapies available for acne and their latest developments, including new treatment strategies (i.e. re-evaluation of the use of oral antibiotics and avoidance of topical antibiotic monotherapy, use of subantimicrobial antibiotic dosing, use of low-dose isotretinoin, optical treatments), new formulations (microsponges, liposomes, nanoemulsions, aerosol foams), new combinations (fixed-combination products of topical retinoids and topical antibiotics [essentially clindamycin] or benzoyl peroxide), new agents (topical dapsone, taurine bromamine, resveratrol) and their rationale and likely place in treatment. Acne vaccines, topical natural antimicrobial peptides, and lauric acid represent other promising therapies. PMID:22920095

  2. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments.

  3. Oxidation of Octopus vulgaris hemocyanin by nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Salvato, B.; Giacometti, G.M.; Beltramini, M.; Zilio, F.; Giacometti, G.; Magliozzo, R.S.; Peisach, J.

    1989-01-24

    The reaction of Octopus vulgaris hemocyanin with nitrite was studied under a variety of conditions in which the green half-met derivative is formed. Analytical evidence shows that the amount of chemically detectable nitrite in various samples of the derivative is not proportional to the cupric copper detected by EPR. The kinetics of oxidation of hemocyanin as a function of protein concentration and pH, in the presence of nitrite and ascorbate, is consistent with a scheme in which NO/sub 2/ is the reactive oxidant. We suggest that the green half-methemocyanin contains a metal center with one cuprous and one cupric copper without an exogenous nitrogen oxide ligand.

  4. Polyphosphate during the Regreening of Chlorella vulgaris under Nitrogen Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Polyphosphate (Poly-P) accumulation has been reported in Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency conditions with sufficient P supply, and the process has been demonstrated to have great impact on lipid productivity. In this article, the utilization of polyphosphates and the regreening process under N resupplying conditions, especially for lipid production reviving, were investigated. This regreening process was completed within approximately 3-5 days. Polyphosphates were first degraded within 3 days in the regreening process, with and without an external P supply, and the degradation preceded the assimilation of phosphate in the media with an external P offering. Nitrate assimilation was markedly influenced by the starvation of P after polyphosphates were exhausted in the medium without external phosphates, and then the reviving process of biomass and lipid production was strictly impeded. It is, thus, reasonable to assume that simultaneous provision of external N and P is essential for overall biodiesel production revival during the regreening process. PMID:26426008

  5. Enhancing methane production of Chlorella vulgaris via thermochemical pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Lara; Mahdy, Ahmed; Timmers, Rudolphus A; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    To enhance the anaerobic digestion of Chlorella vulgaris, thermochemical pretreatments were conducted. All pretreatments markedly improved solubilisation of carbohydrates. Thermal treatments and thermal treatments combined with alkali resulted in 5-fold increase of soluble carbohydrates while thermal treatment with acid addition enhanced by 7-fold. On the other hand, proteins were only solubilized with thermo-alkaline conditions applied. Likewise, all the pretreatments tested improved methane production. Highest anaerobic digestion was accomplished by thermal treatment at 120°C for 40 min without any chemical addition. As a matter of fact, hydrolysis constant rate was doubled under this condition. According to the energetic analysis, energy input was higher than the extra energy gain at the solid concentration employed. Nevertheless, higher biomass organic load pretreatment may be an option to achieve positive energetic balances.

  6. Thermogravimetric analysis of the gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Camila Emilia; Moreira, Paulo Firmino; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-12-01

    The gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris under an atmosphere of argon and water vapor was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The data were interpreted by using conventional isoconversional methods and also by the independent parallel reaction (IPR) model, in which the degradation is considered to happen individually to each pseudo-component of biomass (lipid, carbohydrate and protein). The IPR model allows obtaining the kinetic parameters of the degradation reaction of each component. Three main stages were observed during the gasification process and the differential thermogravimetric curve was satisfactorily fitted by the IPR model considering three pseudocomponents. The comparison of the activation energy values obtained by the methods and those found in the literature for other microalgae was satisfactory. Quantification of reaction products was performed using online gas chromatography. The major products detected were H2, CO and CH4, indicating the potential for producing fuel gas and syngas from microalgae.

  7. The perception of Glass patterns by starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad A J; Cook, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    Glass patterns are structured dot stimuli used to investigate the visual perception of global form. Studies have demonstrated that humans and pigeons differ in their processing of circular versus linearly organized Glass patterns. To test whether this comparative difference is characteristic of birds as a phylogenetic class, we investigated for the first time how a passerine (starlings, Sturnus vulgaris) discriminated multiple Glass patterns from random-dot stimuli in a simultaneous discrimination. By examining acquisition, steady-state performance, and the effects of diminishing global coherence, it was found that the perception of Glass patterns by 5 starlings differed from human perception and corresponded to that established with pigeons. This suggests an important difference in how birds and primates are specialized in their processing of circular visual patterns, perhaps related to face perception, or in how these highly visual animals direct attention to the global and local components of spatially separated form stimuli. PMID:25117091

  8. Thermogravimetric analysis of the gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Camila Emilia; Moreira, Paulo Firmino; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-12-01

    The gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris under an atmosphere of argon and water vapor was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The data were interpreted by using conventional isoconversional methods and also by the independent parallel reaction (IPR) model, in which the degradation is considered to happen individually to each pseudo-component of biomass (lipid, carbohydrate and protein). The IPR model allows obtaining the kinetic parameters of the degradation reaction of each component. Three main stages were observed during the gasification process and the differential thermogravimetric curve was satisfactorily fitted by the IPR model considering three pseudocomponents. The comparison of the activation energy values obtained by the methods and those found in the literature for other microalgae was satisfactory. Quantification of reaction products was performed using online gas chromatography. The major products detected were H2, CO and CH4, indicating the potential for producing fuel gas and syngas from microalgae. PMID:26447558

  9. Study of the effect of extract of Thymus vulgaris on anxiety in male rats.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Hoseini, Faeghe; Shahidi, Siamak; Baharlouei, Negar

    2016-07-01

    There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ( bǎi lǐ xiāng) in the treatment of anxiety in humans. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of extract of T. vulgaris on rat behavior in the EPM. In the present study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: saline group and T. vulgaris groups (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg infusion for 7 days by feeding). During the test period, the total distance covered by animals, the number of open- and closed-arm entries, and the time spent in open and closed arms of the EPM were recorded. T. vulgaris increased open-arm exploration and open-arm entry in the EPM, whereas extract of this plant has no effects on the total distance covered by animals and the number of closed-arm entries. The results of the present experiment indicate that T. vulgaris may have an anxiolytic profile in rat behavior in the EPM test, which is not influenced by the locomotor activity. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms by which T. vulgaris extract exerts an anxiolytic effect in rats. PMID:27419090

  10. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabra, S.R.; He, Q.; Huang, K.H.; Gaucher, S.P.; Alm, E.J.; He,Z.; Hadi, M.Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2005-09-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class ofsulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature.Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation ofmetal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in thedirection of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under avariety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of thisorganism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-celltranscriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-foldchange or greater; Z>1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13oC from a growthtemperature of 37oC for this organism and suggested both direct andindirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categoriesthat were significantly affected included posttranslationalmodifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energyproduction and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport,metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; andbiogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed thepresence of features of both negative and positive regulation whichincluded the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to thealternate sigma factors ?32 and ?54. While mechanisms of heat shockcontrol for some genes appeared to coincide with those established forEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique controlschemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of proteinexpression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggestedgood agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shockproteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), andAhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility ofposttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES(DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several periplasmic ABCtransporters.

  11. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, S. R.; He, Q.; Huang, K. H.; Gaucher, S. P.; Alm, E. J.; He, Z.; Hadi, M. Z.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A. P.; Singh, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature. Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation of metal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in the direction of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under a variety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of this organism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-cell transcriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-fold change or greater; Z ≥ 1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463 genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13°C from a growth temperature of 37°C for this organism and suggested both direct and indirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categories that were significantly affected included posttranslational modifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energy production and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport, metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; and biogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed the presence of features of both negative and positive regulation which included the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to the alternate sigma factors σ32 and σ54. While mechanisms of heat shock control for some genes appeared to coincide with those established for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique control schemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of protein expression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggested good agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shock proteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), and AhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility of posttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES (DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several

  12. Actin expression in germinating seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, M A; Campos, F; Díaz, C; Colmenero-Flores, J M; Dantán, E; Sánchez, F; Covarrubias, A A

    1999-02-01

    Actin was present at very low levels in the seeds of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) compared with those from other species, and was observed mostly in the embryo. A time-course of actin expression in germinating bean seeds revealed an induced expression of both the mRNA and protein. Initially, the actin mRNA in seeds was barely detectable by northern blot analysis. However, there was a substantial increase in the expression of the actin mRNA at 24, 48 and 72 h after imbibition, compared with an internal control consisting of a late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) type IV gene from P. vulgaris. An increase in the amount of actin in total seed extracts that parallelled that of the mRNA was detected by western blotting starting at 24 h after imbibition. This increase was more apparent when the embryo alone was analyzed. Two-dimensional west-ern blots initially revealed three actin isoforms with isoelectric points (pIs) of approximately 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8,the amounts of which increased within a 48-h period,when a new minor isoform of pI approximately 5.5 appeared; however, after 72 h, the pI-5.8 isoform had almost disappeared and the pI-5.5 isoform had disappeared completely, indicating that these two minor isoforms are expressed transiently. These results indicate that actin is at very low levels in the dry seed but undergoes an increased and differential expression during imbibition, an event probably required to carry out all the necessary functions for germination.

  13. Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M.A.; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2007-11-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energymetabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered.

  14. Comparison between the efficacy of metronidazole vaginal gel and Berberis vulgaris (Berberis vulgaris) combined with metronidazole gel alone in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Mansoure; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafieian; Miraj, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most prevalent complications among reproductive-aged women. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of Berberis vulgaris have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Objectives This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of Berberis vulgaris 5% (in metronidazole base) with metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% on bacterial vaginosis on 80 patients referred to the Hajar Hospital from January 2012 to April 2013. Methods This study was a randomized clinical trial research on 80 women affected by bacterial vaginosis, who were randomly divided into two groups of 40 participants. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain. Berberis vulgaris 5% (in metronidazole gel base) or metronidazole vaginal gel for five-night usage was prescribed to each group, and after two to seven days therapeutic effects and Amsel criteria were assessed. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 16 using Student t-test, chi-square, and ANOVA tests. Results Findings of the study showed a statistically significant difference with regard to treatment response between the study groups (p<0.001), and the Berberis vulgaris group had a better response than the metronidazole gel group. The patients in groups of Berberis vulgaris in a metronidazole gel base did not experience any relapse, but, in the metronidazole group, 30% of patients experienced relapse during three weeks’ follow-up. Conclusions Findings of the study showed that adding Berberis vulgaris fruit extract on metronidazole improve the efficacy of bacterial vaginosis therapy. Clinical trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT ID: IRCT201411102085N13. Funding Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences supported this research. PMID:27757195

  15. Uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for uranium rhizofiltration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minjune; Jawitz, James W; Lee, Minhee

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory scale rhizofiltration experiments were performed to investigate uranium and cesium accumulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) and its potential for treatment of uranium contaminated groundwater. During 72 h of rhizofiltration, the roots of the bean accumulated uranium and cesium to concentrations 317-1019 times above the initial concentrations, which ranged from 100 to 700 μg l(-1) in artificially contaminated solutions. When the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3, the ability to accumulate uranium was 1.6 times higher than it was for solutions of pH 7 and pH 9. With an initial uranium concentration of 240 μg l(-1) in genuine groundwater at pH 5, the bean reduced the uranium concentration by 90.2% (to 23.6 μg l(-1)) within 12 h and by 98.9% (to 2.8 μg l(-1)) within 72 h. A laboratory scale continuous clean-up system reduced uranium concentrations from 240 μg l(-1) to below 10 μg l(-1) in 56 h; the whole uranium concentration in the bean roots during system operation was more than 2600 μg g(-1) on a dry weight basis. Using SEM and EDS analyses, the uranium removal in solution at pH 7 was determined based on adsorption and precipitation on the root surface in the form of insoluble uranium compounds. The present results demonstrate that the rhizofiltration technique using beans efficiently removes uranium and cesium from groundwater as an eco-friendly and cost-effective method.

  16. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  17. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  18. [Relationships between population characters of Undinula vulgaris (Copepoda) and environment in the East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoli

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data of four seasonal oceanographic censuses in 1997 approximately 2000 in the East China Sea (23 degrees 30' approximately 33 degrees N, 118 degrees 30' approximately 128 degrees E), this paper discussed the relationships between the ecological characters of natural Undinula vulgaris population and its environment in the Sea, with the data of 1979 approximately 1980 compared. The results showed that there was a very clear seasonal change of the dominance, abundance, and occurrence frequency of U. vulgaris, i.e.,autumn (0.09, 556 ind x 100 m(-3), 93.69%) >summer (0.03, 86 ind x 100 m(-3), 68.49%) >winter (0.02, 42 ind x 100 m(-3), 53.85%) >spring (0.01, 16 ind x 100 m(-3), 34.35%). As a dominant species of pelagic copepods in the Sea, U. vulgaris showed its predominance mainly in autumn. The percentage of U. vulgaris in the total abundance of pelagic copepods was 2.31% in spring, 4.80% in summer, 3.80% in winter, and 9.90% in autumn, while its occurrence frequency was the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter. Comparing the results of this study with the data of 1979 approximately 1980, the importance of U. vulgaris in pelagic copepods in the Sea was decreased in spring, summer and autumn, but increased in winter, which might be related with the global warming in winter. The main environmental factors affecting U. vulgaris abundance were the bottom water factors that closely related with the warm current in the ocean. Because of its sensibility to low temperature and coastal water mass, U. vulgaris could be used as a good indicator of warm current, and, as a good food for fishes, this species plays an important role in marine fishing in the middle-south part of the East China Sea.

  19. Localization of cytochromes in the outer membrane of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) and their role in anaerobic biocorrosion.

    PubMed

    Van Ommen Kloeke, F; Bryant, R D; Laishley, E J

    1995-12-01

    A protocol was developed whereby the outer and cytoplasmic membranes of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) were isolated and partially characterized. The isolated outer membrane fractions from cultures grown under high (100 ppm) and low (5 ppm) Fe2+ conditions were compared by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and showed that several protein bands were derepressed under the low iron conditions, most notably at 50 kDa, and 77.5 kDa. Outer membrane isolated from low iron cultured cells was found to contain two proteins, 77.5 kDa and 62.5 kDa in size, that reacted with a heme-specific stain and were referred to as high molecular weight cytochromes. Studies conducted on the low iron isolated outer membrane by a phosphate/mild steel hydrogen evolution system showed that addition of the membrane fraction caused an immediate acceleration in H2 production. A new model for the anaerobic biocorrosion of mild steel is proposed.

  20. Batch and fed-batch production of betalains by red beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots in a bubble column reactor.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Atanas; Georgiev, Milen; Bley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Hairy root cultures from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.), which could be used for the commercial production of biologically active betalain pigments, were cultivated in a 3 L bubble column bioreactor in batch mode with various rates of air supply. Both the growth of the roots and betalain volumetric yields were highest (12.7 g accumulated dry biomass/L and 330.5 mg/ L, respectively) with a 10 L/h (0.083 vvm) air supply. The air flow rate also influenced the betacyanins/betaxanthins ratios in the cultures. Growth and betalains production were then examined in two fed-batch regimes (with a 10 L/h air supply), in which nutrient medium was fed just once or on five occasions, designated FBI and FBII, respectively. The root mass accumulation was increased in the FBI feeding regime (to 13.3 g accumulated dry biomass/ L), while in FBII the betalains content was ca. 11% higher (15.1 mg betacyanins/g dry weight and 14.0 mg betaxanthins/g dry weight) than in the most productive batch regime. Data on the time course of the utilization of major components in the medium during both operational modes were also collected. The implications of the information acquired are discussed, and the performance of the hairy roots (in terms of both growth and betalains production) in the bubble column reactor and previously investigated cultivation systems is compared.

  1. Orally administered extract from Prunella vulgaris attenuates spontaneous colitis in mdr1a-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Haarberg, Kelley MK; Wymore Brand, Meghan J; Overstreet, Anne-Marie C; Hauck, Catherine C; Murphy, Patricia A; Hostetter, Jesse M; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Wannemuehler, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of a Prunella vulgaris (P. vulgaris) ethanolic extract to attenuate spontaneous typhlocolitis in mdr1a-/- mice. METHODS: Vehicle (5% ethanol) or P. vulgaris ethanolic extract (2.4 mg/d) were administered daily by oral gavage to mdr1a-/- or wild type FVBWT mice from 6 wk of age up to 20 wk of age. Clinical signs of disease were noted by monitoring weight loss. Mice experiencing weight loss in excess of 15% were removed from the study. At the time mice were removed from the study, blood and colon tissue were collected for analyses that included histological evaluation of lesions, inflammatory cytokine levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Administration of P. vulgaris extracts to mdr1a-/- mice delayed onset of colitis and reduced severity of mucosal inflammation when compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Oral administration of the P. vulgaris extract resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) serum levels of IL-10 (4.6 ± 2 vs 19.4 ± 4), CXCL9 (1319.0 ± 277 vs 3901.0 ± 858), and TNFα (9.9 ± 3 vs 14.8 ± 1) as well as reduced gene expression by more than two-fold for Ccl2, Ccl20, Cxcl1, Cxcl9, IL-1α, Mmp10, VCAM-1, ICAM, IL-2, and TNFα in the colonic mucosa of mdr1a-/- mice compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Histologically, several microscopic parameters were reduced (P < 0.05) in P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/- mice, as was myeloperoxidase activity in the colon (2.49 ± 0.16 vs 3.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.05). The numbers of CD4+ T cells (2031.9 ± 412.1 vs 5054.5 ± 809.5) and germinal center B cells (2749.6 ± 473.7 vs 4934.0 ± 645.9) observed in the cecal tonsils of P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/- were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) from vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice were found to produce serum antibodies to antigens derived from members of the intestinal microbiota, indicative of severe colitis and a loss of adaptive tolerance to the members of the microbiota. These serum antibodies were greatly

  2. LC-MS/MS based proteomic analysis and functional inference of hypothetical proteins in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Nie, Lei; Scholten, Johannes C.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2006-11-03

    ABSTRACT In the previous study, the whole-genome gene expression profiles of D. vulgaris in response to oxidative stress and heat shock were determined. The results showed 24-28% of the responsive genes were hypothetical proteins that have not been experimentally characterized or whose function can not be deduced by simple sequence comparison. To further explore the protecting mechanisms employed in D. vulgaris against the oxidative stress and heat shock, attempt was made in this study to infer functions of these hypothetical proteins by phylogenomic profiling along with detailed sequence comparison against various publicly available databases. By this approach we were ableto assign possible functions to 25 responsive hypothetical proteins. The findings included that DVU0725, induced by oxidative stress, may be involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, implying that the alternation of lipopolysaccharide on cell surface might service as a mechanism against oxidative stress in D. vulgaris. In addition, two responsive proteins, DVU0024 encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and DVU1670 encoding predicted redox protein, were sharing co-evolution atterns with rubrerythrin in Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Clostridium perfringens, respectively, implying that they might be part of the stress response and protective systems in D. vulgaris. The study demonstrated that phylogenomic profiling is a useful tool in interpretation of experimental genomics data, and also provided further insight on cellular response to oxidative stress and heat shock in D. vulgaris.

  3. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  4. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume.

  5. In vitro activity of heather [Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull] extracts on selected urinary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vučić, Dragana M; Petković, Miroslav R; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanović, Olgica D; Vasić, Sava M; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2014-11-15

    Calluna vulgaris L. Hull (Ericaceae) has been used for treatment of urinary tract infections in traditional medicine. In this study we analyzed in vitro antibacterial activity of the plant extracts on different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris, as well as the concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 67.55 to 142.46 mg GAE/g. The concentrations of flavonoids in extracts were determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and the values ranged from 42.11 to 63.68 mg RUE/g. The aqueous extract of C. vulgaris showed a significant antibacterial activity. The values of MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml for this extract. Proteus vulgaris strains were found to be the most sensitive. The results obtained suggest that all tested extracts of C. vulgaris inhibit the growth of human pathogens, especially the aqueous extract.

  6. In vitro activity of heather [Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull] extracts on selected urinary tract pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Vučić, Dragana M.; Petković, Miroslav R.; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B.; Stefanović, Olgica D.; Vasić, Sava M.; Čomić, Ljiljana R.

    2014-01-01

    Calluna vulgaris L. Hull (Ericaceae) has been used for treatment of urinary tract infections in traditional medicine. In this study we analyzed in vitro antibacterial activity of the plant extracts on different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris, as well as the concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 67.55 to 142.46 mg GAE/g. The concentrations of flavonoids in extracts were determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and the values ranged from 42.11 to 63.68 mg RUE/g. The aqueous extract of C. vulgaris showed a significant antibacterial activity. The values of MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml for this extract. Proteus vulgaris strains were found to be the most sensitive. The results obtained suggest that all tested extracts of C. vulgaris inhibit the growth of human pathogens, especially the aqueous extract. PMID:25428676

  7. A study on aromatic profiles of Thymus hyemalis and Spanish T. vulgaris essential oils at five physiological stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrubs of clonal selections of Thymus hyemalis L. and Spanish T. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris were harvested at five phenological stages during the plant growing cycle: vegetative (VEG), floral (FL), floral-fructification (FL-FR), fructification (FR), and passed fructification (FR-pas). The volatile pro...

  8. The inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six human pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Microorganisms are responsible for many problems in industry and medicine because of biofilm formation. Therefore, this study was aimed to examine the effect of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six pathogenic bacteria. Materials and methods: Antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against the planktonic form of the bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. MIC and MBC values were evaluated using macrobroth dilution technique. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. Results: According to disc diffusion test (MIC and MBC), the ability of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris ) extracts for inhibition of bacteria in planktonic form was confirmed. In dealing with biofilm structures, the inhibitory effect of the extracts was directly correlated to their concentration. Except for the inhibition of biofilm formation, efficacy of each extract was independent from type of solvent. Conclusion: According to the potential of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts to inhibit the test bacteria in planktonic and biofilm form, it can be suggested that Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts can be applied as antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic bacteria particularly in biofilm forms. PMID:26442753

  9. Association of HSD17B3 and HSD3B1 polymorphisms with acne vulgaris in Southwestern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Wen-Juan; Yang, Cheng; Yang, Ting; He, Jun-Dong; Yang, Zhi; He, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder. Previous studies have indicated that genetic background factors play key roles in the onset of acne. Our previous investigation implicated several genes in the androgen metabolism pathway with acne vulgaris in the Han Chinese population. Thus, we further investigated genes and genetic variants that play important roles in this pathway for their relationship with the pathology of acne. In this study, a total of 610 subjects, including 403 acne patients and 207 healthy controls, were genotyped for 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 genes. This study shows that rs6428829 in HSD3B1 was associated with acne vulgaris in Han patients from Southwest China, even after adjusting for age and sex. The GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05) and G allele carriers were associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05). In addition, the haplotype AAT in HSD3B1 significantly increased the risk of acne vulgaris in the case-control study (p < 0.05). Furthermore, for another gene in this pathway, HSD17B3, the haplotype H8 was significantly associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris. Based on these analyses, our study indicates that the cutaneous androgen metabolism-regulated genes HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 increase the susceptibility to acne vulgaris in Han Chinese from Southwest China.

  10. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-02-01

    Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered acutely to rats (a) given access to regular food and water, (b) given access to regular food, water, and a chocolate-flavored beverage, or (c) infused with a starch bolus. P. vulgaris extract and the combination produced comparable reductions in intake of regular food and chocolate-flavored beverage; conversely, C. scolymus extract was ineffective on both parameters. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts additively contributed to the reducing effect of the combination on glycemic rise. These results suggest that a mixture of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts is preferable over each single extract, as it combines the anorectic effect of the P. vulgaris extract with the hypoglycemic effect of both extracts. These data support the recent clinical use of the combination of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts in the control of appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia and represent a successful example of translational research in the nutraceutical field.

  11. Comparative genomics approaches within Beta vulgaris to reveal loci relevant to root development and secondary metabolite storage traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development and patterning of Beta vulgaris root tissues is key to obtaining a good crop. This study aims to undertake a comparative systems biology approach for the study of root development, physiology, and storage characteristics within two B. vulgaris crop types, sugar beet and red beet. Generat...

  12. Purification and Characterization of Asparaginase from Phaseolus vulgaris Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh A.; Elshal, Mohamed F.; Kumosani, Taha A.; Aldahlawi, Alia M.

    2015-01-01

    L-asparaginase from bacteria has been used in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize L-asparaginase from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds instead of microbial sources. L-asparaginase was purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme has molecular mass of 79 kDa. The purified asparaginase had very low activity toward a number of asparagine and glutamine analogues. L-asparaginase was free from glutaminase activity. Kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax of purified enzyme, were found to be 6.72 mM and 0.16 μM, respectively. The enzyme had optimum pH at 8.0. The enzyme showed high stability at alkaline pH (pH 7.5–9.0) when incubated for up to 24 h. L-asparaginase had the same temperature optimum and thermal stability at 37°C. K+ was able to greatly enhance the activity of asparaginase by 150% compared with other metals tested. In conclusion, L-asparaginase showed no glutaminase activity and good stability over a wide range of physiological conditions, and thus it could be used as a potential candidate for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:26413120

  13. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase from Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Catalase, an antioxidant and hydroperoxidase enzyme protects the cellular environment from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide by facilitating its degradation to oxygen and water. Molecular information on a cnidarian catalase and/or peroxidase is, however, limited. In this work an apparent full length cDNA sequence coding for a catalase (HvCatalase) was isolated from Hydra vulgaris using 3’- and 5’- (RLM) RACE approaches. The 1859 bp HvCatalase cDNA included an open reading frame of 1518 bp encoding a putative protein of 505 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.44 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HvCatalase contained several highly conserved motifs including the heme-ligand signature sequence RLFSYGDTH and the active site signature FXRERIPERVVHAKGXGA. A comparative analysis showed the presence of conserved catalytic amino acids [His(71), Asn(145), and Tyr(354)] in HvCatalase as well. Homology modeling indicated the presence of the conserved features of mammalian catalase fold. Hydrae exposed to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating its catalase mRNA transcription. These results indicated that the HvCatalase gene is involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. PMID:22521743

  14. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers. PMID:24284894

  15. SNP marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Andrés J; Chavarro, Martha C; Blair, Matthew W

    2011-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have become a genetic technology of choice because of their automation and high precision of allele calls. In this study, our goal was to develop 94 SNPs and test them across well-chosen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm. We validated and accessed SNP diversity at 84 gene-based and 10 non-genic loci using KASPar technology in a panel of 70 genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations and have been previously evaluated for SSRs. SNPs exhibited high levels of genetic diversity, an excess of middle frequency polymorphism, and a within-genepool mismatch distribution as expected for populations affected by sudden demographic expansions after domestication bottlenecks. This set of markers was useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes but less useful for distinguishing within each gene pool. In summary, slightly greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool but polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Our survey results represent a baseline for the choice of SNP markers for future applications because gene-associated SNPs could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Finally, we discuss that the ideal genetic marker combination with which to carry out diversity, mapping and association studies in common bean should consider a mix of both SNP and SSR markers.

  16. Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.

    PubMed

    Giarratana, F; Muscolino, D; Beninati, C; Giuffrida, A; Panebianco, A

    2014-07-01

    Anisakiasis is an important food-borne disease especially in countries with high fish consumption. The increase of cases of human disease and the virtual absence of effective treatments have prompted the research on new active compounds against Anisakis larvae. As well known, the disease is related to the consumption of raw or almost raw seafood products, but also marinated and/or salted fishery products, if the processing is insufficient to destroy nematode larvae can represent a risks for the consumers. In the light of the biocidal efficacy against different pathogens demonstrated for various essential oils, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) against anisakidae larvae. The TEO at 10% and 5% concentration in oil sunflower seeds, caused in vitro the death of all larvae within 14 h, with cuticle and intestinal wall damages. The results obtained showing a significant activity against Anisakis larvae, suggest further investigation on TEO as a larvicidal agent and on its potential use in the industrial marinating process.

  17. Signaling dependent and independent mechanisms in pemphigus vulgaris blister formation.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masataka; Stahley, Sara N; Caughman, Christopher Y; Mao, Xuming; Tucker, Dana K; Payne, Aimee S; Amagai, Masayuki; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune epidermal blistering disease caused by autoantibodies directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-3 (Dsg3). Significant advances in our understanding of pemphigus pathomechanisms have been derived from the generation of pathogenic monoclonal Dsg3 antibodies. However, conflicting models for pemphigus pathogenicity have arisen from studies using either polyclonal PV patient IgG or monoclonal Dsg3 antibodies. In the present study, the pathogenic mechanisms of polyclonal PV IgG and monoclonal Dsg3 antibodies were directly compared. Polyclonal PV IgG cause extensive clustering and endocytosis of keratinocyte cell surface Dsg3, whereas pathogenic mouse monoclonal antibodies compromise cell-cell adhesion strength without causing these alterations in Dsg3 trafficking. Furthermore, tyrosine kinase or p38 MAPK inhibition prevents loss of keratinocyte adhesion in response to polyclonal PV IgG. In contrast, disruption of adhesion by pathogenic monoclonal antibodies is not prevented by these inhibitors either in vitro or in human skin explants. Our results reveal that the pathogenic activity of polyclonal PV IgG can be attributed to p38 MAPK-dependent clustering and endocytosis of Dsg3, whereas pathogenic monoclonal Dsg3 antibodies can function independently of this pathway. These findings have important implications for understanding pemphigus pathophysiology, and for the design of pemphigus model systems and therapeutic interventions.

  18. Indocyanine green-laser thermolysis of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2005-08-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy and photothermolysis. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser photothermolysis in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris. Two volunteers with back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during a month after the treatment have shown that ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec.

  19. Carbon assimilation and export in sugar beet leaves. [Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, M.A.; Geiger, D.K.; Servaites, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    Net carbon exchange rates (NCE), starch accumulation rates, gas exchange, and the maximum amount of carbon available for export were studied in Beta vulgaris L. following a 25% increase or a 25% decrease in ambient CO/sub 2/ (340 ..mu..l/L). Changing CO/sub 2/ by 25% above or below ambient had no effect on the ratio of internal CO/sub 2/ to ambient CO/sub 2/. Stomatal aperature adjusted in both cases to maintain the same relative stomatal limitation to NCE. Increasing CO/sub 2/ 25% increased NCE and water use efficiency, but slightly decreased stomatal conductance by 9% below leaves maintained at ambient. In contrast, a 25% reduction in CO/sub 2/ decreased NCE and water use efficiency. Decreasing CO/sub 2/ caused an increase in conductance also by 9%. Increasing CO/sub 2/ increased starch storage by 36%, but caused no change in the ratio of starch accumulation to NCE. A reduction in CO/sub 2/ caused a 60% decrease in the rate of starch storage and decreased the ratio of starch accumulation to NCE by one-half. The maximum amount of carbon available for export was increased 25% by increasing CO/sub 2/, but decreased by 5% following a reduction in CO2 level. These data are evidence that export rates are maintained at the expense of starch synthesis during periods of low NCE.

  20. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers

    PubMed Central

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers. PMID:24284894

  1. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris and Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, Stephanie; Boylan, Derek

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (< 1000 mrems) may produce beneficial effects in organisms. Thus the effect of low doses of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation (12 doses ranging from 0.04 mrems of alpha radiation to 17 mrems of gamma radiation) on Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  2. The Effect of Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris growth and Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan, Derek; Durham, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Radiation affects human life in disparately subtle and dramatic ways. For instance, nuclear reactions in the Sun produce light and heat that are essential for human existence, while recent research implies that the flux of cosmic ray particles may also have an impact on humans' daily lives. According to the EPA the average American receives 310 mrems of radiation per year, well under a total dose of 50,000 mrems and higher doses that cause symptoms ranging from nausea to death. However, scientists hypothesize that exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (< 1000 mrems) may produce beneficial effects in organisms. Thus the effect of low doses of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation (12 doses ranging from 0.04 mrems of alpha radiation to 17 mrems of gamma radiation) on Phaseolus vulgaris was tested. The same radiation was also tested on the performance of aerogel, a material used in particle detectors. Aerogel will be used in experiments at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory and has been previously observed to change its optical characteristics after being used in experiments. To determine the level of cosmic ray flux and possible contribution to our experiments a detector was created using scintillator material and 2-inch phototubes. Results from our experiments will be presented. Supported in part by NSF grant 1019521 and 1039446.

  3. Quality of life issues for South Africans with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Vawda, N B; Gordhan, A H; Nkwanyana, N; Aboobaker, J

    2005-01-01

    The adverse effects of acne on the psyche have been established in patients from 'first world' countries. There has been no in depth study in predominantly black patients from Africa addressing this issue. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of acne patients attending a dermatology unit in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A questionnaire was completed and acne graded by the Global Acne Grading scale. Psychological morbidity and quality of life (QOL) were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire and Dermatology Specific Quality of Life Questionnaires, respectively. We found that clinical severity was not associated with patient perception or psychological distress. The QOL measures such as feelings, social activities, performance at work or school, activities of daily living and overall mental health were found to be associated with distress with associated P-values of 0.0002, 0.0168, 0.0032, 0.033 and < 0.0001, respectively. The severity of acne was not associated with psychological distress. Painful and bleeding lesions were associated with distress levels; P = 0.042 and P = 0.019, respectively. In conclusion, South African patients with acne vulgaris suffer significant psychological distress, which affects the quality of their lives. PMID:15663491

  4. Reduction of uranium by cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Widman, P.K.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism for U(VI) reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) was investigated. The H2-dependent U(VI) reductase activity in the soluble fraction of the cells was lost when the soluble fraction was passed over a cationic exchange column which extracted cytochrome c3. Addition of cytochrome c3 back to the soluble fraction that had been passed over the cationic exchange column restored the U(VI)-reducing capacity. Reduced cytochrome c3 was oxidized by U(VI), as was a c-type cytochrome(s) in whole-cell suspensions. When cytochrome c3 was combined with hydrogenase, its physiological electron donor, U(VI) was reduced in the presence of H2. Hydrogenase alone could not reduce U(VI). Rapid U(VI) reduction was followed by a subsequent slow precipitation of the U(IV) mineral uraninite. Cytochrome c3 reduced U(VI) in a uranium-contaminated surface water and groundwater. Cytochrome c3 provides the first enzyme model for the reduction and biomineralization of uranium in sedimentary environments. Furthermore, the finding that cytochrome c3 can catalyze the reductive precipitation of uranium may aid in the development of fixed-enzyme reactors and/or organisms with enhanced U(VI)-reducing capacity for the bioremediation of uranium- contaminated waters and waste streams.

  5. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers.

  6. Reduction of uranium by cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lovley, D R; Widman, P K; Woodward, J C; Phillips, E J

    1993-11-01

    The mechanism for U(VI) reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) was investigated. The H2-dependent U(VI) reductase activity in the soluble fraction of the cells was lost when the soluble fraction was passed over a cationic exchange column which extracted cytochrome c3. Addition of cytochrome c3 back to the soluble fraction that had been passed over the cationic exchange column restored the U(VI)-reducing capacity. Reduced cytochrome c3 was oxidized by U(VI), as was a c-type cytochrome(s) in whole-cell suspensions. When cytochrome c3 was combined with hydrogenase, its physiological electron donor, U(VI) was reduced in the presence of H2. Hydrogenase alone could not reduce U(VI). Rapid U(VI) reduction was followed by a subsequent slow precipitation of the U(IV) mineral uraninite. Cytochrome c3 reduced U(VI) in a uranium-contaminated surface water and groundwater. Cytochrome c3 provides the first enzyme model for the reduction and biomineralization of uranium in sedimentary environments. Furthermore, the finding that cytochrome c3 can catalyze the reductive precipitation of uranium may aid in the development of fixed-enzyme reactors and/or organisms with enhanced U(VI)-reducing capacity for the bioremediation of uranium-contaminated waters and waste streams.

  7. Octomeric pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Garczarek, Florian; Dong, Ming; Typke, Dieter; Witkowska, H Ewa; Hazen, Terry C; Nogales, Eva; Biggin, Mark D; Glaeser, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    Pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductatse (PFOR) carries out the central step in oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. We have purified this enzyme from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) as part of a systematic characterization of as many multiprotein complexes as possible for this organism, and the three-dimensional structure of this enzyme has been determined by a combination of electron microscopy (EM), single particle image analysis, homology modeling and computational molecular docking. Our results show that the 1MDa DvH PFOR complex is a homo-octomer, or more precisely, a tetramer of the dimeric form of the related enzyme found in Desulfovibrio africanus (Da), with which it shares a sequence identity of 69%. Our homology model of the DvH PFOR dimer is based on the Da PFOR X-ray structure. Docking of this model into our 17A resolution EM-reconstruction of negatively stained DvH PFOR octomers strongly suggests that the difference in oligomerization state for the two species is due to the insertion of a single valine residue (Val383) within a surface loop of the DvH enzyme. This study demonstrates that the strategy of intermediate resolution EM reconstruction coupled to homology modeling and docking can be powerful enough to infer the functionality of single amino acid residues. PMID:17400475

  8. Fontibacillus phaseoli sp. nov. isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    PubMed

    Flores-Félix, José David; Mulas, Rebeca; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, María José; Rivas, Raúl; Brañas, Javier; Mulas, Daniel; González-Andrés, Fernando; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated BAPVE7BT, was isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate into the genus Fontibacillus with Fontibacillus panacisegetis KCTC 13564T its closest relative with 97.1 % identity. The isolate was observed to be a Gram-positive, motile and sporulating rod. The catalase test was negative and oxidase was weak. The strain was found to reduce nitrate to nitrite and to produce β-galactosidase but the production of gelatinase, caseinase, urease, arginine dehydrolase, ornithine or lysine decarboxylase was negative. Acetoin production and aesculin hydrolysis were found to be positive. Growth was observed to be supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon source. MK-7 was identified as the predominant menaquinone and the major fatty acid (43.7 %) as anteiso-C15:0, as occurs in the other species of the genus Fontibacillus. Strain BAPVE7BT displayed a complex lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, four glycolipids, four phospholipids, two lipids, two aminolipids and an aminophospholipid. Mesodiaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The G+C content was determined to be 45.6 mol% (Tm). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain BAPVE7BT should be considered a new species of genus Fontibacillus, for which the name Fontibacillus phaseoli sp. nov. is proposed (type strain, LMG 27589T, CECT 8333T).

  9. Molecular characterization of two superoxide dismutases from Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Metz, Richard; Huebner, Henry J.; Porter, Weston; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Apparent full-length cDNA sequences coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (HvMnSOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (HvEC-SOD) were isolated from Hydra vulgaris in order to understand their expression and 3D structures; and explore their possibility of being used as for biomarkers for environmental stress and toxicity. The deduced HvMnSOD protein consists of 219 amino acids of which first 21 amino acids constitute a presumed mitochondria-targeting signal peptide whereas HvEC-SOD protein consists of 189 amino acids of which first 19 amino acids constitute a presumed signal peptide. Molecular model generated for HvMnSOD displayed the N-terminal long alpha antiparallel hairpin and the C-terminal mixed alpha/beta fold characteristic of MnSODs and that for HvEC-SOD displayed the characteristic CuZnSOD beta-barrel fold. Hydrae subjected to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating MnSOD and EC-SOD mRNA transcription. These results indicated that these genes are involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. Hence the expression of these SODs in hydra may have potential as molecular biomarkers for assessing stress, toxicity and pro-oxidant quality of chemicals and aquatic environmental quality. PMID:17150313

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments. PMID:25042247

  11. Song predicts immunocompetence in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Deborah L; Ball, Gregory F

    2002-01-01

    According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, sexually selected characteristics predict immune function and this relationship is mediated by testosterone. In the present study, we investigated whether bird song could predict immunity in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We recorded the singing and reproductive behaviours of 16 adult male starlings in an outdoor aviary and then assessed their cell-mediated and humoral immunity in vivo. The males were observed in groups of four for 2 h each day over a 4-day period. For each male, the number of songs produced was recorded and the average song-bout length was computed. Next, cell-mediated and humoral immunity were assessed via cutaneous swelling responses to the T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin and antibody responses to a novel antigen, keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Song rate and song-bout length were positively correlated with cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. Additionally, a negative relationship between plasma testosterone concentration and antibody response was observed. These data demonstrate that male starling song can be used as a predictor of immunocompetence, with more robust singers exhibiting enhanced immunity. Whether this relationship is mediated directly by testosterone requires further investigation. PMID:11958717

  12. Contrasting activity patterns of two related octopus species, Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Daniela V; Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael; Mather, Jennifer; Ploberger, Werner; Reschenhofer, Erhard

    2006-08-01

    Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris have overlapping habitats and are exposed to similar temporal changes. Whereas the former species is described as nocturnal in the field, there are conflicting reports about the activity time of the latter one. To compare activity patterns, the authors tested both species in the laboratory. Octopuses were exposed to a light-dark cycle and held under constant dim light for 7 days each. O. macropus showed nocturnal and light-cued activity. According to casual observations, O. vulgaris started out nocturnal but had switched to mostly diurnal when the experiment began. Individual variation of its activity was found. The different activity patterns of O. macropus and O. vulgaris might reflect their lifestyles, the latter species being more generalist.

  13. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs. PMID:20973400

  14. Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Al-Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Ismaily, Abla; Al-Ali, Sameer; Ramadurai, Rajesh; Jain, Rishi; McKinley-Grant, Lynn; Mughal, Tariq I

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic.

  15. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris: a comparative study of infusion polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Ferreira, Marília Locatelli; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

    2014-02-15

    The aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris are used in infusions for the treatment of several diseases. Besides secondary metabolites, carbohydrates are also extracted with hot water and are present in the infusions. The plant carbohydrates exhibit several of therapeutic properties and their biological functions are related to chemical structure. In this study, the polysaccharides from infusions of the aerial parts of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris were isolated and characterized. In the A. absinthium infusion, a type II arabinogalactan was isolated. The polysaccharide had a Gal:Ara ratio of 2.3:1, and most of the galactose was (1 → 3)- and (1 → 6)-linked, as typically found in type II arabinogalactans. In the A. vulgaris infusion, an inulin-type fructan was the main polysaccharide. NMR analysis confirmed the structure of the polymer, which is composed of a chain of fructosyl units β-(2 ← 1) linked to a starting α-d-glucose unit.

  16. Lipid accumulation from pinewood pyrolysates by Rhodosporidium diobovatum and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Luque, Luis; Orr, Valerie C A; Chen, Sean; Westerhof, Roel; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rossum, Guus van; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of pinewood pyrolysates as a carbon source for lipid production and cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Thermal decomposition of pinewood and fractional condensation were used to obtain an oil rich in levoglucosan which was upgraded to glucose by acid hydrolysis. Blending of pyrolytic sugars with pure glucose in both nitrogen rich and nitrogen limited conditions was studied for R. diobovatum, and under nitrogen limited conditions for C. vulgaris. Glucose consumption rate decreased with increasing proportions of pyrolytic sugars increasing cultivation time. While R. diobovatum was capable of growth in 100% (v/v) pyrolytic sugars, C. vulgaris growth declined rapidly in blends greater than 20% (v/v) until no growth was detected in blends >40%. Finally, the effects of pyrolysis sugars on lipid composition was evaluated and biodiesel fuel properties were estimated based on the lipid profiles. PMID:27208736

  17. Caleosin from Chlorella vulgaris TISTR 8580 is salt-induced and heme-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Charuchinda, Pairpilin; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Yamada, Daisuke; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and functional properties of lipid droplet-associated proteins in algae remain scarce. We report here the caleosin gene from Chlorella vulgaris encodes a protein of 279 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence alignment showed high similarity to the putative caleosins from fungi, but less to plant caleosins. When the C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 cells were treated with salt stress (0.3 M NaCl), the level of triacylglycerol increased significantly. The mRNA contents for caleosin in Chlorella cells significantly increased under salt stress condition. Caleosin gene was expressed in E. coli. Crude extract of E. coli cells exhibited the cumene hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of aniline. Absorption spectroscopy showed a peak around 415 nm which was decreased upon addition of cumene hydroperoxide. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests caleosin existed as the oligomer. These data indicate that a fresh water C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 contains a salt-induced heme-protein caleosin. PMID:25703935

  18. Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Ismaily, Abla; Al-Ali, Sameer; Ramadurai, Rajesh; Jain, Rishi; McKinley-Grant, Lynn; Mughal, Tariq I.

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic. PMID:27226905

  19. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide. PMID:19767424

  20. The effect of cadmium on the growth and antioxidant response for freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinfeng; Qiu, Hongchen; Chang, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Zaimin; Yin, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of exogenously applied cadmium on the physiological response of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. The study investigated the long-term effect (18 days) of cadmium on the levels of algae biomass, assimilation pigment composition, soluble protein, oxidative status (production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion), antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase enzyme) in C. vulgaris. The results showed that growth, the amount of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids gradually decreased with increasing cadmium over 18 days exposure. Cadmium at concentration of 7 mg L(-1) inhibited algal growth expressed as the number of cells. Our research found that C. vulgaris has a high tolerance to cadmium. Contents of chlorophylls (Chl a and Chl b) and carotenoids (Car) of C. vulgaris was significantly decline with rising concentration of cadmium (p < 0.05). The decrease of 54.04 and 93.37 % in Chl a, 60.65 and 74.32 % in Chl b, 50.00 and 71.88 % in total carotenoids was noticed following the treatment with 3 and 7 mg L(-1) cadmium doses compared with control treatment, respectively. Cadmium treatments caused a significant change in the physiological competence (calculated as chlorophyll a/b) which increased with increasing Cd(II) doses up to 1 mg L(-1) but decreased at 3 mg L(-1). While accumulation of soluble protein was enhanced by presence of cadmium, the treatment with cadmium at 3 and 7 mg L(-1) increased the concentration of soluble proteins by 88, 95.8 % in C. vulgaris, respectively. Moreover, low doses of cadmium stimulated enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in C. vulgaris, The content of peroxidase increased with the increasing cadmium concentration, and had slightly decreased at the concentration of 7 mg L(-1), but was still higher than control group, which showed that cadmium

  1. The effect of cadmium on the growth and antioxidant response for freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinfeng; Qiu, Hongchen; Chang, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Zaimin; Yin, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of exogenously applied cadmium on the physiological response of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. The study investigated the long-term effect (18 days) of cadmium on the levels of algae biomass, assimilation pigment composition, soluble protein, oxidative status (production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion), antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase enzyme) in C. vulgaris. The results showed that growth, the amount of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids gradually decreased with increasing cadmium over 18 days exposure. Cadmium at concentration of 7 mg L(-1) inhibited algal growth expressed as the number of cells. Our research found that C. vulgaris has a high tolerance to cadmium. Contents of chlorophylls (Chl a and Chl b) and carotenoids (Car) of C. vulgaris was significantly decline with rising concentration of cadmium (p < 0.05). The decrease of 54.04 and 93.37 % in Chl a, 60.65 and 74.32 % in Chl b, 50.00 and 71.88 % in total carotenoids was noticed following the treatment with 3 and 7 mg L(-1) cadmium doses compared with control treatment, respectively. Cadmium treatments caused a significant change in the physiological competence (calculated as chlorophyll a/b) which increased with increasing Cd(II) doses up to 1 mg L(-1) but decreased at 3 mg L(-1). While accumulation of soluble protein was enhanced by presence of cadmium, the treatment with cadmium at 3 and 7 mg L(-1) increased the concentration of soluble proteins by 88, 95.8 % in C. vulgaris, respectively. Moreover, low doses of cadmium stimulated enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase) in C. vulgaris, The content of peroxidase increased with the increasing cadmium concentration, and had slightly decreased at the concentration of 7 mg L(-1), but was still higher than control group, which showed that cadmium

  2. Bindi Tuberculosis - Lupus Vulgaris Associated with Bindi Use: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gyanshankar; Rathi, Sushil; Mulani, Jasmin

    2015-05-01

    Cutaneous lesions are relatively uncommon manifestations of tuberculosis (TB). A 40-year-old female presented with skin lesion over the forehead since two months. She used to apply bindi over the same area since past 25 years. Based on skin biopsy and other ancillary investigations, she was diagnosed as a case of lupus vulgaris and initiated on anti TB medications following which, the lesion regressed. Thus, we herein report the first case of cutaneous tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris) associated with long term use of bindi.

  3. Effects of copper on reserve mobilization in embryo of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Karmous, Inès; Bellani, Lorenza M; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Muccifora, Simonetta

    2015-07-01

    The present research reports a biochemical and micro-submicroscopic analysis of copper effect on reserve mobilization during germination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif seeds. Dry embryonic cells are rich in protein bodies and little starch grains. In Cu-treated embryos copper inhibited 50% of albumin and globulin mobilization after 72 h imbibition. The severe alterations in treated embryo cells, observed by electron microscope, were probably the cause of the inability to utilize the amino acids freed by protein mobilization and so possibly the cause of the inhibition of P. vulgaris embryonic axis elongation. PMID:25693830

  4. A CASE OF PSEUDO-LUPUS VULGARIS CAUSED BY A BLASTOMYCES

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, T. Caspar; Stokes, William Royal

    1898-01-01

    The case reported, in this article is one of a somewhat extensive cutaneous disease, which occurred in a man, 33 years of age, who gave the following history: The disease first made its appearance, eleven and a half years ago, at the back of the left ear, as a pimple which soon became pustular. The process extended forward, very slowly and gradually encroached upon and covered almost the entire face, the central portion of which now presents an atrophic cicatricial condition. Another similar lesion occurred, one month after the primary invasion, on the back of the hand, which healed in about four years, after treatment with caustic. A third lesion appeared on the right side of the scrotum (six months after), which increased in size for a year and then healed spontaneously. A fourth inoculation appeared, on the anterior surface of the left thigh just above the internal condyle, and grew for a year, after which it gradually healed spontaneously. A fifth lesion appeared on the back of the neck and also healed spontaneously after growing for a year. The disease when first examined presented many of the features of a lupus vulgaris. There were no enlarged lymphatic glands and the patient's health had always been good. The family and personal history revealed no syphilitic or tuberculous taint. Sections from the cutaneous lesions showed the presence of what appeared to be budding blastomycetes. The sections also presented pathological features similar to those seen in the first case recorded by Gilchrist; in many sections almost typical tubercles were found. The organisms in the tissue are chiefly spherical, unicellular bodies varying from 10–20 µ in diameter, and consist of a doubly contoured membrane, which encloses a fine granular protoplasm with sometimes a vacuole. Many budding forms in various stages were found; nonucleus could be demonstrated, neither were any mycelium or hyphæ present in the tissues. The parasites were almost always found outside of cells

  5. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  6. Endocervical culture

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal culture; Female genital tract culture; Culture - cervix ... During a vaginal examination, the health care provider uses a ... fungus grow. Further tests may be done to identify the specific ...

  7. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  8. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  9. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  10. Unilateral refractory (erosive) conjunctivitis: a peculiar manifestation of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Sharma, Sonal; Sardana, Kabir

    2005-01-01

    A woman aged 57 years had conjunctivitis of the right eye since February 2003. It had started with a pinhead-sized blister at the margin of the upper eyelid and was progressive in nature. Intense redness of the right eye, lacrimation, and severe pain confined to the right forehead were the major complaints. She had been under medical care ever since, without any tangible outcome. Its refractory nature impelled the ophthalmologist to seek dermatologic consultation, for apparently the diagnosis seemed to have eluded the consultant. Accordingly, she reported on March 2, 2004 for the opinion of severe incessant itching, profuse lacrimation, and pain that was confined only to the right eye and forehead. The very fact that she had reported with continuous rubbing of the right eye re-enforced the suspicion of the episode being an exclusive expression of pemphigus vulgaris of the eye that probably was the reason for ineffectiveness of the drugs given thus far to her. Examination of the right eye was marked by intense inflammation of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, apparent in the form of severe redness (Figure 1). The conjunctiva was studded with several scattered minute erosions. Corneal opacity and cataract were its accompaniment, whereas the left eye was normal. Mucous membrane of the oral cavity was thoroughly scanned for blister and/or erosions but was normal. The rest of the skin surface was also unaffected. Nikolsky's sign was elicited by asking the patient to rub the eye. In fact, this was responsible for periodic recurrence of the episode. Tzanck test was performed by preparing, fixing, and Giemsa staining the smear from one of the erosions over the conjunctiva. The stained slides were examined under oil-immersion, which revealed plentiful acantholytic cells characterized by large nucleus containing nucleoli and occupying almost the entire eosinophilic cytoplasm and basophilic cell wall. The two biopsies from the conjunctiva were also taken with the help of

  11. Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Choung, Myoung-Gun; Choi, Byoung-Rourl; An, Young-Nam; Chu, Yong-Ha; Cho, Young-Son

    2003-11-19

    This investigation was conducted to determine the structures and amounts of anthocyanins obtained from seed coats of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Korea. Anthocyanins in the seed coat of kidney bean were extracted with 1% HCl/20% CH(3)OH, and the crude anthocyanin extracts were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Five major anthocyanins were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, LC/ES-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of these five anthocyanins were elucidated as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Using RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection, each of the five anthocyanins was separated within 12 min by using a gradient elution. It was proved that the application of RP-HPLC could be an excellent method for determining the composition and contents of anthocyanins in kidney bean. The preponderance of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside are observed in red and black kidney beans, respectively. However, in this study, it is reported for the first time that the contents and composition of anthocyanins in speckled seed depend on the classes of speckle color. The contents of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and total anthocyanins in seed coats of 16 kidney beans cultivated in Korea were in the ranges of 0-0.04, 0-2.61, 0-0.12, 0-0.17, 0-0.59 and 0-2.78 mg/g of dried seed coats, respectively.

  12. Thermoregulation of water foraging wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Polistes dominulus)

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the thermoregulation of water foraging wasps (Vespula vulgaris, Polistes dominulus) under special consideration of ambient temperature and solar radiation was conducted. The body surface temperature of living and dead wasps was measured by infrared thermography under natural conditions in their environment without disturbing the insects’ behaviour. The body temperature of both of them was positively correlated with Ta and solar radiation. At moderate Ta (22–28 °C) the regression lines revealed mean thorax temperatures (Tth) of 35.5–37.5 °C in Vespula, and of 28.6–33.7 °C in Polistes. At high Ta (30–39 °C) Tth was 37.2–40.6 °C in Vespula and 37.0–40.8 °C in Polistes. The thorax temperature excess (Tth–Ta) increased at moderate Ta by 1.9 °C (Vespula) and 4.4 °C (Polistes) per kW−1 m−2. At high Ta it increased by 4.0 °C per kW−1 m−2 in both wasps. A comparison of the living water foraging Vespula and Polistes with dead wasps revealed a great difference in their thermoregulatory behaviour. At moderate Ta (22–28 °C) Vespula exhibited distinct endothermy in contrast to Polistes, which showed only a weak endothermic activity. At high Ta (30–39 °C) Vespula reduced their active heat production, and Polistes were always ectothermic. Both species exhibited an increasing cooling effort with increasing insolation and ambient temperature. PMID:19589341

  13. Characterization of iron uptake from hydroxamate siderophores by Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Allnutt, F.C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Iron uptake by Chlorella vulgaris from ferric-hydroxamate siderophores and the possible production of siderophores by these algae was investigated. No production of siderophores or organic acids was observed. Iron from the two hydroxamate siderophores tested, ferrioximine B (Fe/sup 3 +/-DFOB) and ferric-rhodotorulate (Fe/sup 3 +/-RA), was taken up at the same rate as iron chelated by citrate or caffeate. Two synthetic chelates, Fe/sup 3 +/-EDTA and Fe/sup 3 +/-EDDHA, provided iron at a slower rate. Iron uptake was inhibited by 50 ..mu..M CCCP or 1 mM vanadate. Cyanide (100 ..mu..M KCN) or 25 ..mu..M antimycin A failed to demonstrate a link between uptake and respiration. Labeled iron (/sup 55/Fe) was taken up while labeled ligands ((/sup 14/C) citrate or RA) were not accumulated. Cation competition from Ni/sup 2 +/ and Co/sup 2 +/ observed using Fe/sup 3 +/-DFOB and Fe/sup 3 +/-RA while iron uptake from Fe/sup 3 +/-citrate was stimulated. Iron-stress induced iron uptake from the hydroxamate siderophores. Ferric reduction from the ferric-siderophores was investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and bathophenathroline disulfonate (BPDS). Ferric reduction was induced by iron-stress and inhibited by CCCP. A close correlation between iron uptake and ferric reduction was measured by the EPR method. Ferric reduction measured by the BPDS method was greater than that measure by EPR. BPDS reduction was interpreted to indicate a potential for reduction while EPR measures the physiological rate of reduction. BPDS inhibition of iron uptake and ferricyanide interference with reduction indicate that reduction and uptake occur exposed to the external medium. Presumptive evidence using a binding dose response curve for Fe/sup 3 +/-DFOB indicated that a receptor may be involved in this mechanism.

  14. [Dietary fiber and pectin fractions of Beta vulgaris var. conditiva].

    PubMed

    Dongowski, G

    1996-04-01

    The alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from red beet (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva Alef.) (3.31% of the edible substance) was extracted sequentially with water, ammonium oxalate, 0.05 N HCl and 0.05 N NaOH. Accordingly 3.93 g, about 0.8 g, 2.96 g resp. 3.80 g galacturonan/100 g AIS were extracted with this procedure. These pectin extracts were purified as Cu2 +-salts and fractionated into a water-soluble and a water-insoluble part. The composition of neutral monosaccharide units was estimated in the fractions. Gal, Ara and Glc dominated; Xyl, Rha and Man were also present but in smaller amounts. A higher GalA content was found in the soluble fractions (with the exception of the alkali extract). Pectins from red beet are middle- or low-esterified and partially acetylated. The composition of the AIS and of the residue after pectin extraction (RE) was determined (14.6 resp. 9.5% pectin; 10,6 resp. 17.6% protein; 58.7 resp. 64.9% total polysaccharides). In the AIS 23.3% soluble and 54.7% insoluble dietary fiber were estimated, whereas in RE 15.3 resp. 54.7% were found (enzymatic method). Following dietary fiber fractions were determined by the detergent method for both preparations: 39.0 resp. 52.7% NDF; 6.3 resp. 4.5% NDF filtrate; 23.6 resp. 41.8% ADF; 1.2 resp. 1.8% lignin. The water binding capacity decreased from 19.85 g water (AIS) to 11. 53 g water (RE) related to 1 g AUS. From these just 50% were found in the NDF fractions and about 13% in the ADF fractions. Alterations of the grown biological structures during pectin extraction and dietary fiber analysis (detergent method) were investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Riyanto, Puguh; Subchan, Prasetyowati; Lelyana, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is the commonest skin disorder, whereas soybean isoflavone had been proved as antiandrogen that is it can inhibit the enzyme 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase,17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 5α-reductase. The purpose of this study is to prove the advantage of soybean isoflavone as antiandrogen on AV. Methods: this study is a clinical study using randomized pretest-posttest control group design. This study is a study with 40 samples randomized into 2 groups, i.e. placebo group and 160 mgs of isoflavone group, the duration is 12 weeks, conducted a double-blind manner. The dependent variabel is total of AV lesion, whereas the intermediate variable is DHT that will be examined using ELISA. Defferential test and multivariate analysis were performed on dependent, independent and intermediate variables. Results: This study found that the difference in mean of total AV lesion before treatment was not significant (p: 0.099), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Difference of mean DHT level before treatment was not significant (p: 0.574), whereas after treatment it differed significantly (p: 0.000), with significant delta difference (p: 0.000). Delta of DHT (p: 0.003) (r: 0.736) had significant influence on delta of total AV lesion (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study concludes that supplementation with 160 mgs/day of soybean isoflavone can reduce total AV lesion as a result of decreased DHT level. PMID:26413190

  16. Geometry applied to breeding common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Lima, J G; Ramalho, M A P

    2016-01-01

    The primary components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grain yield (W) are the number of pods (X), the number of grains per pod (Y), and the weight of the grains (Z). In 1964, Grafius suggested using geometry in plant breeding; W corresponds to the volume of a parallelepiped with three axes, X, Y, and Z. Because the cube is the largest parallelepiped by volume, maximum yield is obtained when the relative contributions of X, Y, and Z are the same. We evaluated individual plants of a 'Talismã' x 'L.59583' cross in two sowing periods. The sum of squares of deviations from the ideal plant (GI), i.e., the plant in which the X, Y, and Z contributions were the same, was estimated. Mean and variance genetic components, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between the characteristics were also estimated. Good concordance was observed in the magnitude and direction of the genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates of the paired characteristics. However, a low GI heritability (h(2)r = 6.7%) indicated that success due to selection should be small. Ninety-four progenies of 'Pérola' x 'ESAL 686' crosses were also evaluated, where X, Y, Z, and W were obtained and GI was estimated. The h(2) estimate was higher, but still low (h(2) = 39.0%). Therefore, the selection of individuals to obtain plants in which the X, Y, and Z products tend to the cube is unfeasible, because the sums of X, Y, and Z vary between individuals. In addition, the GI h2 value was low. PMID:27173247

  17. Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Choung, Myoung-Gun; Choi, Byoung-Rourl; An, Young-Nam; Chu, Yong-Ha; Cho, Young-Son

    2003-11-19

    This investigation was conducted to determine the structures and amounts of anthocyanins obtained from seed coats of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Korea. Anthocyanins in the seed coat of kidney bean were extracted with 1% HCl/20% CH(3)OH, and the crude anthocyanin extracts were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Five major anthocyanins were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, LC/ES-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of these five anthocyanins were elucidated as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Using RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection, each of the five anthocyanins was separated within 12 min by using a gradient elution. It was proved that the application of RP-HPLC could be an excellent method for determining the composition and contents of anthocyanins in kidney bean. The preponderance of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside are observed in red and black kidney beans, respectively. However, in this study, it is reported for the first time that the contents and composition of anthocyanins in speckled seed depend on the classes of speckle color. The contents of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and total anthocyanins in seed coats of 16 kidney beans cultivated in Korea were in the ranges of 0-0.04, 0-2.61, 0-0.12, 0-0.17, 0-0.59 and 0-2.78 mg/g of dried seed coats, respectively. PMID:14611168

  18. I Know My Neighbour: Individual Recognition in Octopus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Tricarico, Elena; Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about individual recognition (IR) in octopuses, although they have been abundantly studied for their sophisticated behaviour and learning capacities. Indeed, the ability of octopuses to recognise conspecifics is suggested by a number of clues emerging from both laboratory studies (where they appear to form and maintain dominance hierarchies) and field observations (octopuses of neighbouring dens display little agonism between each other). To fill this gap in knowledge, we investigated the behaviour of 24 size-matched pairs of Octopus vulgaris in laboratory conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental design was composed of 3 phases: Phase 1 (acclimatization): 12 “sight-allowed” (and 12 “isolated”) pairs were maintained for 3 days in contiguous tanks separated by a transparent (and opaque) partition to allow (and block) the vision of the conspecific; Phase 2 (cohabitation): members of each pair (both sight-allowed and isolated) were transferred into an experimental tank and were allowed to interact for 15 min every day for 3 consecutive days; Phase 3 (test): each pair (both sight-allowed and isolated) was subject to a switch of an octopus to form pairs composed of either familiar (“sham switches”) or unfamiliar conspecifics (“real switches”). Longer latencies (i.e. the time elapsed from the first interaction) and fewer physical contacts in the familiar pairs as opposed to the unfamiliar pairs were used as proxies for recognition. Conclusions Octopuses appear able to recognise conspecifics and to remember the individual previously met for at least one day. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study showing the occurrence of a form of IR in cephalopods. Future studies should clarify whether this is a “true” IR. PMID:21533257

  19. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  20. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, Matthew W; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans.

  1. Foraging rate versus sociality in the starling Sturnus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, R A; Kacelnik, A

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that social conditions often modify foraging behaviour, but the theoretical interpretation of the changes produced is not straightforward. Changes may be due to alterations of the foraging currency (the mathematical expression that behaviour maximizes) and/or of the available resources. An example of the latter is when both solitary and social foragers maximize rates of gain over time, but competition alters the behaviour required to achieve this, as assumed by ideal free distribution models. Here we examine this problem using captive starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Subjects had access to two depleting patches that replenished whenever the alternative patch was visited. The theoretical rate-maximizing policy was the same across all treatments, and consisted of alternating between patches following a pattern that could be predicted using the marginal value theorem (MVT). There were three treatments that differed in the contents of an aviary adjacent to one of the two patches (called the 'social' patch). In the control treatment, the aviary was empty, in the social condition it contained a group of starlings, and in a non-specific stimulus control it contained a group of zebra finches. In the control condition both patches were used equally and behaviour was well predicted by the MVT. In the social condition, starlings foraged more slowly in the social than in the solitary patch. Further, foraging in the solitary patch was faster and in the social patch slower in the social condition than in the control condition. Although these changes are incompatible with overall rate maximization (gain rate decreased by about 24% by self-imposed changes), if the self-generated gain functions were used the MVT was a good predictor of patch exploitation under all conditions. We discuss the complexities of nesting optimal foraging models in more comprehensive theoretical accounts of behaviour integrating functional and mechanistic perspectives. PMID:10687821

  2. Low-dose intragastric administration of Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) does not induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Haas, H; Herzig, K H; André, S; Galle, J; Gronow, A; Gabius, H J

    2001-04-01

    Native Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) poses a potential health threat, when ingested with improperly cooked red kidney beans. Since PHA triggers human basophilic granulocytes in culture to rapidly release considerable amounts of interleukin-(IL-)4 and IL-13, key cytokines for inducing immunoglobulin E (IgE) production, the question was addressed whether this lectin can evoke in vivo IgE production. IgE-low-responder (Sprague-Dawley) rats received PHA (6 mg/rat/day) intragastrically by gavage over a period of 10 days. Up to day 35, there was no IgE induction regardless of whether the animals were boostered subcutaneously with PHA or not, indicating that PHA cannot be regarded as a general IgE inducer in rats. PMID:11788794

  3. Increased Growth of the Microalga Chlorella vulgaris when Coimmobilized and Cocultured in Alginate Beads with the Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Luz E.; Bashan, Yoav

    2000-01-01

    Coimmobilization of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the plant-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense in small alginate beads resulted in a significantly increased growth of the microalga. Dry and fresh weight, total number of cells, size of the microalgal clusters (colonies) within the bead, number of microalgal cells per cluster, and the levels of microalgal pigments significantly increased. Light microscopy revealed that both microorganisms colonized the same cavities inside the beads, though the microalgae tended to concentrate in the more aerated periphery while the bacteria colonized the entire bead. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid addition to microalgal culture prior to immobilization of microorganisms in alginate beads partially imitated the effect of A. brasilense. We propose that coimmobilization of microalgae and plant-growth-promoting bacteria is an effective means of increasing microalgal populations within confined environments. PMID:10742237

  4. Guard cell protoplasts: isolation, culture, and regeneration of plants.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Guard cell protoplasts have been used extensively in short-term experiments designed to elucidate the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate stomatal movements. The utility of uard cell protoplasts for other types of longer-term signal transduction experiments is just now being realized. Because highly purified, primary isolates of guard cell protoplasts are synchronous initially, they are uniform in their responses to changes in culture conditions. Such isolates have demonstrated potential to reveal mechanisms that underlie hormonal signalling for plant cell survival, cell cycle re-entry, reprogramming of genes during dedifferentiation to an embryogenic state, and plant cell thermotolerance. Plants have been regenerated from cultured guard cell protoplasts of two species: Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco, and Beta vulgaris, sugar beet. Plants genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance have been regenerated from cultured guard cell protoplasts of B. vulgaris. The method for isolating, culturing, and regenerating plants from guard cell protoplasts of N. glauca is described here. A recently developed procedure for large-scale isolation of these cells from as many as nine leaves per experiment is described. Using this protocol, yields of 1.5-2 x 10(7) per isolate may be obtained. Such yields are sufficient for standard methods of molecular, biochemical, and proteomic analysis.

  5. Maximizing biomass productivity and cell density of Chlorella vulgaris by using light-emitting diode-based photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Feist, Adam M; Herjolfsson, Gisli; Brynjolfsson, Sigurdur; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2012-10-31

    Green microalgae have recently drawn attention as promising organisms for biofuel production; however, the question is whether they can grow sufficient biomass relative to limiting input factors to be economically feasible. We have explored this question by determining how much biomass the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris can produce in photobioreactors based on highly efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). First, growth results were improved under the less expensive light of 660 nm LEDs, developing them in the laboratory to meet the performance levels of the traditional but more expensive 680 nm LEDs by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). We then optimized several other key parameters, including input superficial gas velocity, CO(2) concentration, light distribution, and growth media in reference to nutrient stoichiometry. Biomass density thereby rose to approximately 20 g dry-cell-weight (gDCW) per liter (L). Since the light supply was recognized as a limiting factor, illumination was augmented by optimization at systematic level, providing for a biomass productivity of up to 2.11 gDCW/L/day, with a light yield of 0.81 gDCW/Einstein. These figures, which represent the best results ever reported, point to new dimensions in the photoautotrophic performance of microalgal cultures.

  6. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development.

  7. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with swine wastewater for simultaneous nutrient/COD removal and carbohydrate production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ren, Nanqi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-12-01

    Swine wastewater, containing a high concentration of COD and ammonia nitrogen, is suitable for the growth of microalgae, leading to simultaneous COD/nutrients removal from the wastewater. In this study, an isolated carbohydrate-rich microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 was adopted to perform swine wastewater treatment. Nearly 60-70% COD removal and 40-90% NH3-N removal was achieved in the mixotrophic and heterotrophic culture, depending on the dilution ratio of the wastewater, while the highest removal percentage was obtained with 20-fold diluted wastewater. Mixotrophic cultivation by using fivefold diluted wastewater resulted in the highest biomass concentration of 3.96 g/L. The carbohydrate content of the microalga grown on the wastewater can reach up to 58% (per dry weight). The results indicated that the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can efficiently reduce the nutrients and COD level, and the resulting microalgal biomass had high carbohydrate content, thereby having potential applications for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals. PMID:26433786

  8. Investigation and modeling of the effects of light spectrum and incident angle on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Souliès, Antoine; Legrand, Jack; Marec, Hélène; Pruvost, Jérémy; Castelain, Cathy; Burghelea, Teodor; Cornet, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth investigation of how various illumination conditions influence microalgal growth in photobioreactors (PBR) has been presented. Effects of both the light emission spectrum (white and red) and the light incident angle (0° and 60°) on the PBR surface were investigated. The experiments were conducted in two fully controlled lab-scale PBRs, a torus PBR and a thin flat-panel PBR for high cell density culture. The results obtained in the torus PBR were used to build the kinetic growth model of Chlorella vulgaris taken as a model species. The PBR model was then applied to the thin flat-panel PBR, which was run with various illumination conditions. Its detailed representation of local rate of photon absorption under various conditions (spectral calculation of light attenuation, incident angle influence) enabled the model to take into account all the tested conditions with no further adjustment. This allowed a detailed investigation of the coupling between radiation field and photosynthetic growth. Effects of all the radiation conditions together with pigment acclimation, which was found to be relevant, were investigated in depth. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:247-261, 2016.

  9. Effect of cooking and germination on phenolic composition and biological properties of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    López, Ana; El-Naggar, Tarek; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ortega, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Palomino, Olga M; Carretero, M Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Legumes are the basés diet in several countries. They hold a high nutritional value, but other properties related to human health are nowadays being studied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of processes (boiling or germination) on the phenolic composition of dark beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. c.v. Tolosana) and their effect on their antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer ability. Phenolic composition of raw and processed dark beans was analysed by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC. Astrocytes cultures (U-373) have been used to test their neuroprotective effect. Anticancer activities were evaluated on three different cell lines (renal adenocarcinoma (TK-10), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and melanoma (UACC-62)) by sulphorhodamine B method. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition have been observed between raw and processed dark beans that influence the antioxidant activity, mainly for germinated samples which show a decrease of antioxidant capacity. Although every assayed extracts decreased reactive oxygen species release and exhibited cytotoxicity activities on cancer cell lines, raw beans proved to be the most active in neuroprotective and antitumoral effects; this sample is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins. This study further demonstrated that phenolic composition of dark beans is related with cooking process and so with their neuroprotective and anticancer activity; cooking of dark beans improves their digestion and absorption at intestinal level, while maintaining its protective ability on oxidative process at cellular level.

  10. Small Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    Presents a notion of small culture as an alternative to what has become the default notion of large culture in applied linguistics, social science, and popular usage. A small-culture view of English-language curriculum settings reveals mismatches between professional-academic and organizational cultures at the mezzo level of the institution. (VWL)

  11. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Arion vulgaris--Proteins for Probably Successful Survival Strategies?

    PubMed

    Bulat, Tanja; Smidak, Roman; Sialana, Fernando J; Jung, Gangsoo; Rattei, Thomas; Bilban, Martin; Sattmann, Helmut; Lubec, Gert; Aradska, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The Spanish slug, Arion vulgaris, is considered one of the hundred most invasive species in Central Europe. The immense and very successful adaptation and spreading of A. vulgaris suggest that it developed highly effective mechanisms to deal with infections and natural predators. Current transcriptomic and proteomic studies on gastropods have been restricted mainly to marine and freshwater gastropods. No transcriptomic or proteomic study on A. vulgaris has been carried out so far, and in the current study, the first transcriptomic database from adult specimen of A. vulgaris is reported. To facilitate and enable proteomics in this non-model organism, a mRNA-derived protein database was constructed for protein identification. A gel-based proteomic approach was used to obtain the first generation of a comprehensive slug mantle proteome. A total of 2128 proteins were unambiguously identified; 48 proteins represent novel proteins with no significant homology in NCBI non-redundant database. Combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed an extensive repertoire of novel proteins with a role in innate immunity including many associated pattern recognition, effector proteins and cytokine-like proteins. The number and diversity in gene families encoding lectins point to a complex defense system, probably as a result of adaptation to a pathogen-rich environment. These results are providing a fundamental and important resource for subsequent studies on molluscs as well as for putative antimicrobial compounds for drug discovery and biomedical applications. PMID:26986963

  12. Identification of Nutritional Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators for Arabidopsis development and stress responses. A hybridization approach using miRNAs-macroarrays was used to identify miRNAs that respond to nutritional stress in Phaseolus vulgaris. miRNAs-macroarrays were prepared by printing nylon filters with DNA syntheti...

  13. Cornea regeneration in the Pacific giant octopus, Octopus dofleini, and the common octopus, O. vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Dingerkus, G; Santoro, E D

    1981-04-15

    Cornea regeneration in a Pacific giant octopus, Octopus dofleini, occurred within 10 days after the injury was observed. Surgical removal of the cornea in a common octopi, O. vulgaris experimentally duplicated this cornea regeneration within a 10-day period. It is, therefore, concluded that besides sucking discs, arms, and nerve fibres, octopi can also regenerate corneal tissue. PMID:7238810

  14. Novel bioconversions of municipal effluent and CO₂ into protein riched Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Li, Yuji; Cheng, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-03-01

    Batch, modified semi-continuous and continuous cultivations of Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN 2010 cells in municipal effluent were performed and analyzed. The experiments were carried out in 7.5-L photo-bioreactors, to which 2% of CO2 was supplied. Biomass and specific growth rate of C. vulgaris were 0.528-0.760gl(-1) and 0.200-0.374d(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, it could efficiently remove ammonia-N, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, CODCr and BOD5 by around 98.0%, 90.9-93.6%, 89.9-91.8%, 60.7-90.0% and 83.4-88.4%, respectively. Algal protein content was 550±30.0mgg(-1) of the harvested biomass of C. vulgaris which was rich in eight kinds of essential amino acids (around 44.5% of the total). The processes of cultivation of C. vulgaris in municipal effluent could be proposed as dual-beneficial approaches, which could produce profitable byproducts and simultaneously reduce the contaminations to environment. PMID:23399495

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mint family produces many metabolites with medicinal properties. Several species are reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm, peppermint, hyssop, basil, sage and self-heal. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activity of self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), we tested water an...

  16. Learning and memory in Octopus vulgaris: a case of biological plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zarrella, Ilaria; Ponte, Giovanna; Baldascino, Elena; Fiorito, Graziano

    2015-12-01

    Here we concisely summarize major aspects of the learning capabilities of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, a solitary living marine invertebrate. We aim to provide a backdrop against which neurobiology of these animals can be further interpreted and thus soliciting further interest for one of the most advanced members of invertebrate animals. PMID:26186237

  17. σ54-dependent regulome in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rajeev, Lara; Chen, Amy; Luning, Eric G.; Dubchak, Inna; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Novichkov, Pavel S.

    2015-11-10

    The σ54 subunit controls a unique class of promoters in bacteria. Such promoters, without exception, require enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) for transcription initiation. Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model bacterium for sulfate reduction studies, has a high number of EBPs, more than most sequenced bacteria. Finally, the cellular processes regulated by many of these EBPs remain unknown.

  18. The combined use of topical benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Handojo, I

    1979-01-01

    A clinical trial using tretinoin lotion 0.05%, benzoyl peroxide 5% and 10% as topical application was performed on 250 ambulatory patients suffering from various degrees of acne vulgaris. The results indicate that tretinoin applied in the morning and benzoyl peroxide applied at night is the most efficacious regimen to be used, with minimal side effects.

  19. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on common beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  20. Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of acne vulgaris: a critical appraisal using the AGREE II instrument.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards.