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Sample records for cultured tobacco by-2

  1. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis—total protein content, thiols—reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  2. Early steps in the oxidative burst induced by cadmium in cultured tobacco cells (BY-2 line).

    PubMed

    Olmos, Enrique; Martínez-Solano, Juan R; Piqueras, Abel; Hellín, Eladio

    2003-01-01

    The rapid generation of H(2)O(2) by Cd(2+)-treated plant cells was investigated in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells. The starting point for the generation of H(2)O(2) has been located at the cell plasma membrane using cytochemical methods. Treatment of the cells with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and imidazol, both inhibitors of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, prevented the generation of H(2)O(2) induced by Cd(2+). These data suggest the involvement of an NADPH oxidase-like enzyme leading to H(2)O(2) production through O(2)(*-) dismutation by superoxide dismutase enzymes. To investigate the implication of Ca(2+) channels in a Cd(2+)-induced oxidative burst, different inhibitors of Ca(2+) channels were used. Only La(3+) totally inhibited the generation of H(2)O(2) induced by Cd(2+). However, verapamil and nifedipine, inhibitors of Ca(2+) channels, were not effective. Calmodulin or a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase is also implicated in the signal transduction sequence, based on the results obtained with two types of calmodulin antagonists, fluphenazine and N-(-6-amino-hexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W-7) and staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinases. However, neomycin, an inhibitor of the phosphoinositide cycle, did not inhibit the generation of H(2)O(2) induced by Cd(2+), suggesting mainly an induction of the oxidative burst mediated by calmodulin and/or calmodulin-dependent proteins.

  3. Myosin XI-Dependent Formation of Tubular Structures from Endoplasmic Reticulum Isolated from Tobacco Cultured BY-2 Cells1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Ueda, Haruko; Hashimoto, Kohsuke; Orii, Hidefumi; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimmen, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    The reticular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of tubular and lamellar elements and is arranged in the cortical region of plant cells. This network constantly shows shape change and remodeling motion. Tubular ER structures were formed when GTP was added to the ER vesicles isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultured BY-2 cells expressing ER-localized green fluorescent protein. The hydrolysis of GTP during ER tubule formation was higher than that under conditions in which ER tubule formation was not induced. Furthermore, a shearing force, such as the flow of liquid, was needed for the elongation/extension of the ER tubule. The shearing force was assumed to correspond to the force generated by the actomyosin system in vivo. To confirm this hypothesis, the S12 fraction was prepared, which contained both cytosol and microsome fractions, including two classes of myosins, XI (175-kD myosin) and VIII (BY-2 myosin VIII-1), and ER-localized green fluorescent protein vesicles. The ER tubules and their mesh-like structures were arranged in the S12 fraction efficiently by the addition of ATP, GTP, and exogenous filamentous actin. The tubule formation was significantly inhibited by the depletion of 175-kD myosin from the S12 fraction but not BY-2 myosin VIII-1. Furthermore, a recombinant carboxyl-terminal tail region of 175-kD myosin also suppressed ER tubule formation. The tips of tubules moved along filamentous actin during tubule elongation. These results indicated that the motive force generated by the actomyosin system contributes to the formation of ER tubules, suggesting that myosin XI is responsible not only for the transport of ER in cytoplasm but also for the reticular organization of cortical ER. PMID:21427277

  4. Morphological and quantitative changes in mitochondria, plastids, and peroxisomes during the log-to-stationary transition of the growth phase in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed a wide-range and high-resolution transmission electron microscope acquisition system and obtained giga-pixel images of tobacco BY-2 cells during the log and stationary phases of cell growth. We demonstrated that the distribution and ultrastructure of compartments involved in membrane traffic (i.e., Golgi apparatus, multivesicular body, and vesicle cluster) change during the log-to-stationary transition. Mitochondria, peroxisomes, and plastids were also enumerated. Electron densities of mitochondria and peroxisomes were altered during the growth-phase shift, while their numbers were reduced by nearly half. Plastid structure dramatically changed from atypical to spherical with starch granules. Nearly the same number of plastids was observed in both log and stationary phases. These results indicate that mechanisms regulating organelle populations differ from organelle to organelle. PMID:26855065

  5. NtPolI-like1 and NtPolI-like2, bacterial DNA polymerase I homologs isolated from BY-2 cultured tobacco cells, encode DNA polymerases engaged in DNA replication in both plastids and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuriko; Sakai, Atsushi; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takio, Susumu; Takusagawa, Mari; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Two cDNAs encoding homologs of bacterial DNA polymerase I were isolated from cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, and the corresponding genes were named NtPolI-like1 and NtPolI-like2. High sequence similarity suggested that they are orthologous genes each derived from respective parental species of N. tabacum, an allotetraploid plant. Each of the NtPolI-like1/2 gene products had a putative transit peptide for plastid localization at the N-terminus, followed by a 3'-5' exonuclease domain in the internal region, and a DNA polymerase domain in the C-terminal region. Among family A DNA polymerases, NtPolI-like proteins formed, together with other plant DNA polymerase I homologs, a phylogenetic group distinct from mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma in animals and fungi, as well as eukaryotic cell nuclear-localized repair enzymes. In contrast to computer predictions, experiments with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein and Western blotting analysis suggested dual targeting of the gene products to both plastids and mitochondria. The recombinant NtPolI-like2 protein exhibited DNA polymerase activity in vitro. Their biochemical character roughly coincided with those of the 116 kDa DNA polymerases found in the plastid and mitochondrial nuclei (nucleoids) isolated from BY-2 cells. Pre-treatment of the organelle nuclear extracts with anti-NtPolI-like antibody removed most of the DNA polymerase activity. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses demonstrated transient activation of NtPolI-like gene expression in the initial phase of cell proliferation, exactly when the 116 kDa DNA polymerases in the isolated organelle nuclei were activated and preferential synthesis of organelle DNAs occurred. Taken together, our results suggest that NtPolI-like1/2 genes encode DNA polymerases engaged in DNA replication in both plastids and mitochondria.

  6. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  7. Scale-up of hydrophobin-assisted recombinant protein production in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Lauri J; Bailey, Michael J; Joensuu, Jussi J; Ritala, Anneli

    2014-05-01

    Plant suspension cell cultures are emerging as an alternative to mammalian cells for production of complex recombinant proteins. Plant cell cultures provide low production cost, intrinsic safety and adherence to current regulations, but low yields and costly purification technology hinder their commercialization. Fungal hydrophobins have been utilized as fusion tags to improve yields and facilitate efficient low-cost purification by surfactant-based aqueous two-phase separation (ATPS) in plant, fungal and insect cells. In this work, we report the utilization of hydrophobin fusion technology in tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cell platform and the establishment of pilot-scale propagation and downstream processing including first-step purification by ATPS. Green fluorescent protein-hydrophobin fusion (GFP-HFBI) induced the formation of protein bodies in tobacco suspension cells, thus encapsulating the fusion protein into discrete compartments. Cultivation of the BY-2 suspension cells was scaled up in standard stirred tank bioreactors up to 600 L production volume, with no apparent change in growth kinetics. Subsequently, ATPS was applied to selectively capture the GFP-HFBI product from crude cell lysate, resulting in threefold concentration, good purity and up to 60% recovery. The ATPS was scaled up to 20 L volume, without loss off efficiency. This study provides the first proof of concept for large-scale hydrophobin-assisted production of recombinant proteins in tobacco BY-2 cell suspensions.

  8. Activation of tobacco retrotransposons during tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hirochika, H

    1993-01-01

    Sequences of at least three new families of retrotransposons (Tto1-Tto3) were amplified by PCR from cDNA prepared from protoplasts of an established tobacco cell line, based on the fact that certain amino acids are highly conserved in the reverse transcriptases encoded by retrotransposons. Structural analysis indicates that Tto1 is 5.5 kb long and has features typical of retrotransposons. Transcription of Tto1 starting in the long terminal repeat was active only in cultured cells. Protoplast formation enhanced the transcription. The copy number of Tto1 increased 10-fold in established cell lines; it also increased in plants regenerated from tissue cultures and in transgenic plants. These results indicate that Tto1 is activated during tissue culture. This is the first demonstration of activation of a plant retrotransposon by tissue culture. The copy number of Tto2 and a previously isolated transposon, Tnt1, also increased in established cell lines, indicating that these two retrotransposons may also be activated by tissue culture. These three retrotransposons are cryptic in normally propagated plants: no difference in the copy number was observed between individuals of the same cultivars or even between different cultivars. Images PMID:8389699

  9. A geminivirus AYVV-derived shuttle vector for tobacco BY2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tamilselvi, D; Anand, G; Swarup, S

    2004-08-01

    We have developed a plant- Escherichia coli pASV shuttle vector from the essential elements of the Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). The geminivirus vector contains the AYVV genome with the coat-protein deletion, the E. coli vector backbone of pUC19, a unique cloning site and gene expression cassettes for plant selection and reporter gene activity. The replication of pASV vectors was compared in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum BY2 cells, and the latter were found to be suitable for long-term maintenance of the vectors in culture. The vector DNA was detected at regular intervals by PCR, beta-glucuronidase expression analysis and plasmid rescue during a 4-month culture period. A novel methylation-based PCR assay was carried out to show de novo replication for pASV-derived vectors in 2-month-old tobacco BY2 cell lines. This is the first report of the extrachromosomal replication of monopartite begomovirus with stability and foreign gene expression in long-term cell cultures.

  10. Amino Acid Transport into Cultured Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, H. Michael; Henke, Randolph R.

    1981-01-01

    Lysine transport into suspension-cultured Wisconsin-38 tobacco cells was observed. Uptake was linear (up to 90 minutes) with respect to time and amount of tissue only after 4 to 6 hours preincubation in calcium-containing medium. The observed cellular accumulation of lysine was against a concentration gradient and not due to exchange diffusion. Transport was stimulated by low pH and characterized by a biphasic uptake isotherm with two Km values for lysine. System I (Km ≃ 5 × 10−6 molar; Vmax ≃ 180 nanomoles per gram fresh weight per hour) and system II (Km ≃ 10−4 molar; Vmax ≃ 1900 nanomoles per gram fresh weight per hour) were inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and a variety of respiratory inhibitors. This inhibition was not due to increased efflux. In antagonism experiments, system I was inhibited most effectively by basic amino acids, followed by the sulfur amino acids. System I was only slightly inhibited by the neutral and aromatic amino acids and was not inhibited by the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acids. Transport by system II was inhibited by all of the tested amino acids (including aspartic and glutamic acids) and analogs; however, this system was not inhibited by d-arginine. Neither system was strongly inhibited by d-lysine or the lysine analog S-2-aminoethyl-l-cysteine. Arginine was shown to be a competitive inhibitor of both systems with values for Ki similar to the respective Km values. These studies suggest the presence of at least two amino acid permeases in W-38 tobacco cells. PMID:16661678

  11. Cysteine Transport into Cultured Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, H. Michael; Smith, Ivan K.

    1977-01-01

    Cysteine transport by tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Xanthi) cultured on liquid B-5 medium was examined. Transport was linear with time or amount of tissue and had a pH optimum of 4.5. Cysteine transport over a wide concentration range was biphasic. The isotherm, for descriptive convenience, was divided into two segments both of which obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Km for high affinity transport was in the range 1.7 × 10−5m(±0.17) while the Km for low affinity transport was in the range 3.5 × 10−4m(±0.13). Maximum velocities were 3 to 6 nmoles/g fresh weight/minute and 13 to 16 nmoles/g fresh weight/minute, respectively. Azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol caused more than 90% inhibition of net transport by either system. N,N′-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was not inhibitory while the inhibition by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone was dependent on the cysteine concentration. Only those compounds that were inhibitory to transport caused significant efflux of labeled material from preloaded cells. Tobacco cells that had been preincubated in iodoacetamide or N-ethylmaleimide did not transport cysteine while similar treatments with dithiothreitol were only slightly inhibitory or had no effect on transport. Transport by either system was, to some extent, inhibited by all other tested amino acids and analogs. Alanine, methionine, and S-methyl cysteine were most effective in inhibiting cysteine transport. Both alanine and methionine were competitive inhibitors of cysteine transport by either system with inhibition constants that were similar to the Km for the particular system. PMID:16660190

  12. A novel cell division factor from tobacco 2B-13 cells that induced cell division in auxin-starved tobacco BY-2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Eguchi, Kentaro; Nishida, Ikuo; Laukens, Kris; Witters, Erwin; van Onckelen, Harry; Nagata, Toshiyuki

    2006-06-01

    Effects of auxin as plant hormones are widespread; in fact in almost all aspects of plant growth and development auxin plays a pivotal role. Although auxin is required for propagating cell division in plant cells, its effect upon cell division is least understood. If auxin is depleted from the culture medium, cultured cells cease to divide. It has been demonstrated in this context that the addition of auxin to auxin-starved nondividing tobacco BY-2 cells induced semisynchronous cell division. On the other hand, there are some cell lines, named habituated cells, that can grow without auxin. The cause and reason for the habituated cells have not been clarified. A habituated cell line named 2B-13 is derived from the tobacco BY-2 cell line, which has been most intensively studied among plant cell lines. When we tried to find the difference between two cell lines of BY-2 and 2B-13 cells, we found that the addition of culture filtrated from the auxin-habituated 2B-13 cells induced semisynchronous cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. The cell division factor (CDF) that is responsible for inducing cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells was purified to near-homogeneity by sequential passage through a hydroxyapatite column, a ConA Sepharose column and a Sephadex gel filtration column. The resulting purified fraction appeared as a single band of high molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels by silver staining and was able to induce cell division in auxin-starved BY-2 cells. Identification of the protein by MALD-TOF-MS/MS revealed that it is structurally related to P-glycoprotein from Gossypioides kirkii, which belongs to ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters. The significance of CDF as a possible ABC-transporter is discussed in relationship to auxin-autotrophic growth and auxin-signaling pathway.

  13. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide affect cell wall metabolism in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pacoda, Daniela; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Dalessandro, Giuseppe

    2004-10-01

    The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and a combination of both on the metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cultured cells in the presence of D-[U-14C]glucose or D-[U-14C]galactose as radioactive tracers. We found that the radiolabelling of newly synthesised total cell wall polysaccharides (pectins, hemicelluloses and alpha-cellulose), buffer-soluble polysaccharides, and membrane-associated polysaccharides decreased under the influence of exogenous systems generating H2O2 and NO. However, when the total amount of newly synthesised cell wall polysaccharides was calculated as a percentage of the total cellular radioactivity (ethanol-soluble pool plus the homogenate of ethanol-insoluble material), all treatments showed negligible effects in the presence of D-[U-14C]glucose or D-[U-14C]galactose as tracers. This occurred because the treatments generating H2O2, NO and H2O2 plus NO caused a marked decrease in the concentration of the ethanol-soluble pool as well as in the total radioactivity found in the homogenate of the ethanol-insoluble material. Most of the radioactivity taken up by the cells was evolved as 14CO2 during the respiratory processes. A qualitative and quantitative characterisation of the ethanol-soluble pool showed that radioactive UDP-sugars in BY-2 suspension cultured cells were differentially reduced by all treatments. Therefore, the decrease of the newly synthesised cell wall polysaccharides seems to be strictly dependent on the reduction of the UDP-sugars pool.

  14. Tobacco use in the Dominican Republic: understanding the culture first

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, A M; Ossip‐Klein, D J; Diaz, S; Chin, N P; Sierra, E; Quiñones, Z; Dye, T D; McIntosh, S; Armstrong, L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To conduct formative research on the landscape of tobacco use to guide survey and subsequent intervention development in the Dominican Republic (DR). Design Rapid Assessment Procedures, systematic qualitative methods (participant‐observations, in‐depth interviewing, focus groups) using bilingual mixed age and gendered teams from the United States and DR. Subjects Over 160 adults (men and women), ages 18 to 90 years, current, former and never smokers, community members and leaders from six underserved, economically disadvantaged DR communities. Main outcome measures Key domains: tobacco use patterns and attitudes; factors affecting smoking initiation, continuation, quitting; perceived risks/benefits/effects of smoking; and awareness/effects of advertising/regulations. Results Perceptions of prevalence varied widely. While “everybody” smokes, smokers or ex‐smokers were sometimes difficult to find. Knowledge of health risks was limited to the newly mandated statement “Fumar es prejudicial para la salud” [Smoking is harmful to your health]. Smokers started due to parents, peers, learned lifestyle, fashion or as something to do. Smoking served as an escape, relaxation or diversion. Quit attempts relied on personal will, primarily for religious or medical reasons. Social smoking (custom or habit) (< 10 cigarettes per day) was viewed as a lifestyle choice rather than a vice or addiction. Out of respect, smokers selected where they smoked and around whom. Health care providers typically were reactive relative to tobacco cessation, focusing on individuals with smoking related conditions. Tobacco advertising was virtually ubiquitous. Anti‐tobacco messages were effectively absent. Cultures of smoking and not smoking coexisted absent a culture of quitting. Conclusions Systematic qualitative methods provided pertinent information about tobacco attitudes and use to guide subsequent project steps. Integrating qualitative then quantitative research can

  15. Analyzing Cell Wall Elasticity After Hormone Treatment: An Example Using Tobacco BY-2 Cells and Auxin.

    PubMed

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy, and related nano-indentation techniques, is a valuable tool for analyzing the elastic properties of plant cell walls as they relate to changes in cell wall chemistry, changes in development, and response to hormones. Within this chapter I will describe a method for analyzing the effect of the phytohormone auxin on the cell wall elasticity of tobacco BY-2 cells. This general method may be easily altered for different experimental systems and hormones of interest.

  16. The fas locus of the phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians affects mitosis of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Temmerman, W; Ritsema, T; Simón-Mateo, C; Van Montagu, M; Mironov, V; Inzé, D; Goethals, K; Holsters, M

    2001-03-09

    The effect of Rhodococcus fascians, the causal agent of leafy gall disease, on the mitotic behavior of synchronized tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells was investigated. Incubation of aphidicolin-synchronized BY-2 cells with R. fascians cells specifically resulted in a broader mitotic index peak, an effect that was linked to an intact and expressed fas virulence locus. The obtained results pointed towards an effect of R. fascians on the prophase of mitosis. The relevance of these results to the virulence of the bacterium is discussed.

  17. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  18. Sulfated lentinan induced mitochondrial dysfunction leads to programmed cell death of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Yaofeng; Shen, Lili; Qian, Yumei; Yang, Jinguang; Wang, Fenglong

    2017-04-01

    Sulphated lentinan (sLTN) is known to act as a resistance inducer by causing programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. Using tobacco BY-2 cell model, morphological and biochemical studies revealed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to sLNT induced PCD. Cell viability, and HO/PI fluorescence imaging and TUNEL assays confirmed a typical cell death process caused by sLNT. Acetylsalicylic acid (an ROS scavenger), diphenylene iodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases) and protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (a protonophore and an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) inhibited sLNT-induced H2O2 generation and cell death, suggesting that ROS generation linked, at least partly, to a mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-like activation. This conclusion was further confirmed by double-stained cells with the mitochondria-specific marker MitoTracker RedCMXRos and the ROS probe H2DCFDA. Moreover, the sLNT-induced PCD of BY-2 cells required cellular metabolism as up-regulation of the AOX family gene transcripts and induction of the SA biosynthesis, the TCA cycle, and miETC related genes were observed. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of sLNT-induced ROS generation, which possibly provided new insight into the sLNT-mediated antiviral response, including PCD.

  19. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…

  20. Characterization of the programmed cell death induced by metabolic products of Alternaria alternata in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan-Dan; Jia, Yu-Jiao; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Xue, Zhong-Cai; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2011-02-01

    Alternaria alternata has received considerable attention in current literature and most of the studies are focused on its pathogenic effects on plant chloroplasts, but little is known about the characteristics of programmed cell death (PCD) induced by metabolic products (MP) of A. alternata, the effects of the MP on mitochondrial respiration and its relation to PCD. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of MP-induced PCD in non-green tobacco BY-2 cells and to explore the role of mitochondrial inhibitory processes in the PCD of tobacco BY-2 cells. MP treatment led to significant cell death that was proven to be PCD by the concurrent cytoplasm shrinkage, chromatin condensation and DNA laddering observed in the cells. Moreover, MP treatment resulted in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), rapid ATP depletion and a respiratory decline in the tobacco BY-2 cells. It was concluded that the direct inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), alternative pathway (AOX) capacity and catalase (CAT) activity by the MP might be the main contributors to the MP-induced ROS burst observed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The addition of adenosine together with the MP significantly inhibited ATP depletion without preventing PCD; however, when the cells were treated with the MP plus CAT, ROS overproduction was blocked and PCD did not occur. The data presented here demonstrate that the ROS burst played an important role in MP-induced PCD in the tobacco BY-2 cells.

  1. Acid-growth response and alpha-expansins in suspension cultures of bright yellow 2 tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells possess an expansin-mediated acid-growth mechanism was examined by multiple approaches. BY2 cells grew three times faster upon treatment with fusicoccin, which induces an acidification of the cell wall. Exogenous expansins likewise stimulated BY2 cell growth 3-fold. Protein extracted from BY2 cell walls possessed the expansin-like ability to induce extension of isolated walls. In western-blot analysis of BY2 wall protein, one band of 29 kD was recognized by anti-expansin antibody. Six different classes of alpha-expansin mRNA were identified in a BY2 cDNA library. Northern-blot analysis indicated moderate to low abundance of multiple alpha-expansin mRNAs in BY2 cells. From these results we conclude that BY2 suspension-cultured cells have the necessary components for expansin-mediated cell wall enlargement.

  2. Cytokinin Activation of Thiamine Biosynthesis in Tobacco Callus Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Digby, John; Skoog, Folke

    1966-01-01

    Bioassays of tissue extracts show that high (500-1000 μg/liter) kinetin concentrations which permit growth of tobacco callus cultures on media without added thiamine activate the biosynthesis of this vitamin by the tissues. Although the tissue concentration of thiamine may fall appreciably, it is maintained at a level adequate for survival and slow growth of the cultures, and there is a large net increase in total thiamine content per culture with time. In the second and subsequent passages of tissue on a thiamine free medium, growth is obtained only when high kinetin concentrations are maintained. Effective inhibition of growth by antithiamines suggests that thiamine is utilized by the high-kinetin tissue. In the presence of low (30-100 μg/liter) kinetin concentrations, which would be optimal for growth in the presence of thiamine, growth only occurs early in the first passage of tissue from a medium with the vitamin to one without it. The thiamine concentration in the tissues falls to low levels, and no net biosynthesis is apparent. The tissues turn dark and die after 2 to 3 weeks. In contrast with this, in the absence of both added thiamine and kinetin no appreciable growth occurs, but the tissues keep their normal appearance, retain their thiamine content, and may stay alive for several weeks. PMID:16656301

  3. A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Emerging racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use behaviors and resulting long-term health outcomes highlight the importance of developing culturally tailored/targeted tobacco prevention and cessation interventions. This manuscript describes the efficacy and the components of prevention and cessation interventions developed for minority adolescents. Methods: Thirteen studies focused on culturally tailoring and targeting tobacco prevention/cessation interventions were selected and information on intervention design (type, number of sessions), setting (school or community), theoretical constructs, culture-specific components (surface/deep structures), and treatment outcomes were extracted. Results: Of the 13 studies, 5 focused on prevention, 4 on cessation, and 4 combined prevention and cessation, and most of the studies were primarily school-based, while a few used community locations. Although diverse minority groups were targeted, a majority of the studies (n = 6) worked with Hispanic adolescents. The most common theoretical construct examined was the Social Influence Model (n = 5). The overall findings indicated that culturally tailoring cessation interventions did not appear to improve tobacco quit rates among minority adolescents, but culturally tailored prevention interventions appeared to produce lower tobacco initiation rates among minority adolescents than control conditions. Conclusions: The results of review suggest that there is a critical need to develop better interventions to reduce tobacco use among minority adolescents and that developing a better understanding of cultural issues related to both cessation and initiation of tobacco use among minority populations is a key component of this endeavor. PMID:22614548

  4. Effects of tyrosine kinase and phosphatase inhibitors on mitosis progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sheremet, Ya A; Yemets, A I; Azmi, A; Vissenberg, K; Verbelen, J P; Blume, Ya B

    2012-01-01

    To test whether reversible tubulin phosphorylation plays any role in the process of plant mitosis the effects of inhibitors of tyrosine kinases, herbimycin A, genistein and tyrphostin AG 18, and of an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, sodium orthovanadate, on microtubule organization and mitosis progression in a synchronized BY-2 culture has been investigated. It was found that treatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinases of BY-2 cells at the G2/M transition did not lead to visible disturbances of mitotic microtubule structures, while it did reduce the frequency of their appearance. We assume that a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation level could alter the microtubule dynamic instability parameters during interphase/prophase transition. All types of tyrosine kinase inhibitors used caused a prophase delay: herbimycin A and genistein for 2 h, and tyrphostin AG18 for 1 h. Thereafter the peak of mitosis was displaced for 1 h by herbimycin A or genistein exposure, but after tyrphostin AG18 treatment the timing of the mitosis-peak was comparable to that in control cells. Enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation induced by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor resulted in the opposite effect on BY-2 mitosis transition. Culture treatment with sodium orthovanadate during 1 h resulted in an accelerated start of the prophase and did not lead to the alteration in time of the mitotic index peak formation, as compared to control cells. We suppose that the reversible tyrosine phosphorylation can be involved in the regulation of interphase to M phase transition possibly through regulation of microtubule dynamics in plant cells.

  5. Production of Haploid Tobacco Plants Using Anther Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Belzer, Norbert F.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a tobacco haploid experiment in which students learn the cytogenetic technique of metaphase analysis of chromosomes and experience the basic principles of haploidy, diploidy, and polyploidy. (YDS)

  6. Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... from poor households are frequently employed in tobacco farming to provide family income. These children are especially ... 19% of the world's population, meet the best practice for pictorial warnings, which includes the warnings in ...

  7. Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

  8. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Methods Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Key Results Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. Conclusions A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and

  9. Cultural competency and tobacco control training in US medical schools: many but missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Powers, Catherine A; Zapka, Jane; Biello, Katie B; O'Donnell, Joseph; Prout, Marianne; Geller, Alan

    2010-09-01

    Tobacco-related morbidity and mortality disproportionately burdens America's most vulnerable populations, and many physicians in the USA are untrained in smoking cessation skills with patients of various literacy levels and races and ethnicities. An anonymous survey was administered to 860 second year and 827 fourth year students at 12 medical schools. A faculty representative at each of the schools completed an assessment of the curriculum and rated medical students' knowledge and skills for cultural competency. Report of experience in tobacco counseling for persons of various literacy levels and ethnicities rose from 42% (second year students) to 82% (fourth year students) and 48% (second year students) to 91% (fourth year students), respectively. However, only 37% of second year students and 40% of fourth year students reported that they had ever been taught to employ culturally competent strategies for tobacco cessation. This study found that almost two thirds of students in 12 medical schools reported no exposure to teaching about cultural competency and tobacco cessation, and approximately one third reported no practical experience with tobacco cessation counseling persons of various races and ethnicities. Effective cultural competency training for tobacco control should include teaching the social constructs of race, ethnicity, and socio-cultural concepts within a medical context. Additionally, students should receive supervised clinical opportunities to practice counseling, including opportunities to discuss and reflect on their experiences.

  10. Reigniting Tobacco Ritual: Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Establishment Culture in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Mary V.; Chang, Judy; Sidani, Jaime E.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Soule, Eric; Balbach, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use in the United States. Its appeal may stem from its social, ritualistic, and aesthetic nature. Our aim in this study was to understand WTS as a social ritual with the goal of informing prevention efforts. Methods: We conducted a covert observational study consisting of 38 observation sessions in 11 WTS establishments in 3 U.S. cities. Data collection was based on an established conceptual framework describing ritualistic elements of tobacco use. Iterative codebook development and qualitative thematic synthesis were used to analyze data. Results: Atmospheres ranged from quiet coffee shop to boisterous bar party environments. While some children and older adults were present, the majority of clientele were young adults. Men and women were evenly represented. However, there were 19 occurrences of a male smoking by himself, but no women smoked alone. The vast majority (94%) of the clientele were actively smoking waterpipes. All 83 observed groups manifested at least 1 of the ritual elements of our conceptual framework, while 41 of the 83 observed groups (49%) demonstrated all 4 ritual elements. Conclusions: Despite its heterogeneity, WTS is often characterized by 1 or more established elements of a tobacco-related social ritual. It may be valuable for clinical and public health interventions to acknowledge and address the ritualistic elements and social function of WTS. PMID:24972889

  11. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures.

  12. Rhodococcus fascians infection accelerates progression of tobacco BY-2 cells into mitosis through rapid changes in plant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Olivier; Vereecke, Danny; Mol, Adeline; Lenjou, Marc; Van Bockstaele, Dirk; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2007-01-01

    * To characterize plant cell cycle activation following Rhodococcus fascians infection, bacterial impact on cell cycle progression of tobacco BY-2 cells was investigated. * S-phase-synchronized BY-2 cells were cocultivated with R. fascians and cell cycle progression was monitored by measuring mitotic index, cell cycle gene expression and flow cytometry parameters. Cell cycle alteration was further investigated by cDNA-AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism). * It was shown that cell cycle progression of BY-2 cells was accelerated only upon infection with bacteria whose virulence gene expression was induced by a leafy gall extract. Thirty-eight BY-2 genes showed a differential expression within 6 h post-infection. Among these, seven were previously associated with specific plant cell cycle phases (in particular S and G2/M phases). Several genes also showed a differential expression during leafy gall formation. * R. fascians-infected BY-2 cells provide a simple model to identify plant genes related to leafy gall development. R. fascians can also be regarded as a useful biotic agent to alter cell cycle progression and, thereby, gain a better understanding of cell cycle regulation in plants.

  13. Culture Change From Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Green, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century-one of the greatest improvements in public health-illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable. The role of health communication in predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing the normative social changes that ensued, however, has been less well documented with the linear, cause-and-effect methods of controlled intervention research. We examine the role of mass communication in the cultural transformation that reduced tobacco use, concluding that its influence on reduction in tobacco use follows a pathway as much through secondary transmissions within groups of people as through direct influence on individuals.

  14. Mevalonate-derived isopentenyl diphosphate is the biosynthetic precursor of ubiquinone prenyl side chain in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Disch, A; Hemmerlin, A; Bach, T J; Rohmer, M

    1998-01-01

    Study of the incorporation of 13C-labelled glucose or pyruvate into the isoprenoids of tobacco BY-2 cells allowed the biosynthetic origin of isopentenyl diphosphate to be determined. Sterols synthesized in the cytoplasm and the prenyl chain of ubiquinone Q10 located in mitochondria were derived from the same isopentenyl diphosphate pool, synthesized from acetyl-CoA through mevalonate, whereas the prenyl chain of plastoquinone was obtained from the mevalonate-independent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate route, like all chloroplast isoprenoids from higher plants. These results are in accord with the compartmentation and complete enzymic independence of the biosynthesis of long-chain all-trans polyprenols in mitochondria and chloroplasts. PMID:9531505

  15. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Malpass, Gloria E.; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, G.L.; Howlett, Allyn C.

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  16. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  17. Stress and Tobacco Use among African-American Adolescents: The Buffering Effect of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Johnson, Jessica; Nguyen, Anh; Hood, Kristina; Tademy, Raymond; Clark, Trenette; Nasim, Aashir

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality and a primary reason for health disparities among African Americans. In this study we explore the role of stress in smoking and cultural factors that protect against stress among African-American adolescents. Our sample consisted of 239 youth who were recruited into the study while…

  18. Culture Change from Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingood, William C., Jr.; Allegrante, John P.; Green, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century--one of the greatest improvements in public health--illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable.…

  19. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  20. Microtubule reorganization in tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing GFP-MBD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Microtubule organization plays an important role in plant morphogenesis; however, little is known about how microtubule arrays transit from one organized state to another. The use of a genetically incorporated fluorescent marker would allow long-term observation of microtubule behavior in living cells. Here, we have characterized a Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell line that had been stably transformed with a gfp-mbd construct previously demonstrated to label microtubules (J. Marc et al., 1998, Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939). Fluorescence levels were low, but interphase and mitotic microtubule arrays, as well as the transitions between these arrays, could be observed in individual gfp-mbd-transformed cells. By comparing several attributes of transformed and untransformed cells it was concluded that the transgenic cells are not adversely affected by low-level expression of the transgene and that these cells will serve as a useful and accurate model system for observing microtubule reorganization in vivo. Indeed, some initial observations were made that are consistent with the involvement of motor proteins in the transition between the spindle and phragmoplast arrays. Our observations also support the role of the perinuclear region in nucleating microtubules at the end of cell division with a progressive shift of these microtubules and/or nucleating activity to the cortex to form the interphase cortical array.

  1. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  2. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: procedures to evaluate cytotoxicity in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Dantas, Denise Conceição Mesquita; Linden, Rafael; Ziulkoski, Ana Luiza

    2016-06-01

    The risks associated to tobacco smoking are not ceased with smoke extinction. Many toxic compounds remain in the environment after the cigarette is extinguished and accumulated in the air or on surfaces. However, little is known about the risks of this exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate procedures to collect thirdhand smoke (THS) and prepare the samples to perform three in vitro toxicity tests. Cellulose papers and cotton wipes were used to impregnate with nicotine solution and smoke cigarette in a chamber or in smoker's home. Samples were immersed in methanol or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) to expose Hep-2 cells. MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU) and trypan blue assays were performed. The concentration of nicotine in DMEM extract of THS in paper and cotton was similar to those in methanol extract (p > 0.05). Alterations in the mitochondrial and lysosomal functions were found in both paper and cotton samples; however, the cytotoxic effect was not always observed. There was a decrease of 21-31% in MTT assay and 38-56% in NRU assay (p < 0.003). There was a dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes and lysosomal viability; the correlation was higher for cotton samples (r = -0.843, p < 0.001). As a dose-response relationship was found only in NRU assay, this test may be a more suitable choice rather than the MTT assay. Paper and wipe sampling can be reliable markers of tobacco smoke contamination. Moreover, these materials, if properly prepared, can be used as substrate providers to perform cellular assays.

  3. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Gloria E; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, G L; Howlett, Allyn C

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1h or 5h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research.

  4. 1-Butanol targets the Golgi apparatus in tobacco BY-2 cells, but in a different way to Brefeldin A.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Markus; Robinson, David G

    2007-01-01

    The effects of 1-butanol on the organelles of the early secretory pathway in tobacco BY-2 cells have been examined, because this primary alcohol is known to interfere with phospholipase D an enzyme whose activity contributes to COPI-vesicle formation. Since the fungal lactone Brefeldin A (BFA) also prevents COPI-vesicle production by the Golgi apparatus, the sequential and simultaneous application of these two inhibitors was also investigated. 1-Butanol, but not 2-butanol caused rapid changes in the morphology of the BY-2 Golgi apparatus resulting in extended curved cisternae. By contrast with BFA-treated cells, ER cisternae did not attach laterally to these structures, and ER-Golgi fusion hybrids were not obtained with 1-butanol. However, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that 1-butanol, like BFA, elicited the release of the GTPase ARF1 from Golgi membranes. Washing out the butanol resulted in re-attachment of ARF1 and a recovery of Golgi stack morphology. BY-2 cells treated sequentially with 1-butanol then BFA (each 30 min), did not reveal any BFA-typical changes in Golgi structure. Cells treated first with BFA, then 1-butanol retained the typical ER-Golgi sandwich morphology induced by BFA, but were larger. When 1-butanol and BFA were added together (for a 30 min period), even larger Golgi aggregates were formed with, again, no ER attachments. Thus, although both inhibitors had the Golgi apparatus as their principle cytological target and both interfere with coatomer attachment, they differ in their ability to induce an interaction with the ER.

  5. Nitric oxide modulates cadmium influx during cadmium-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenwen; Xu, Wenzhong; Xu, Hua; Chen, Yanshan; He, Zhenyan; Ma, Mi

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive gas and functions as a signaling molecule in plants exposed to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses including cadmium (Cd(2+)). Cd(2+) is a non-essential and toxic heavy metal, which has been reported to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. Here, we investigated the role of NO in Cd(2+)-induced PCD in tobacco BY-2 cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2). In this work, BY-2 cells exposed to 150 microM CdCl(2) underwent PCD with TUNEL-positive nuclei, significant chromatin condensation and the increasing expression of a PCD-related gene Hsr203J. Accompanied with the occurring of PCD, the production of NO increased significantly. The supplement of NO by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) had accelerated the PCD, whereas the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) alleviated this toxicity. To investigate the mechanism by which NO exerted its function, Cd(2+) concentration was measured subsequently. SNP led more Cd(2+) content than Cd(2+) treatment alone. By contrast, the prevention of NO by L-NAME decreased Cd(2+) accumulation. Using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique, we analyzed the pattern and rate of Cd(2+) fluxes. This analysis revealed the promotion of Cd(2+) influxes into cells by application of SNP, while L-NAME and cPTIO reduced the rate of Cd(2+) uptake or even resulted in net Cd(2+) efflux. Based on these founding, we concluded that NO played a positive role in CdCl(2)-induced PCD by modulating Cd(2+) uptake and thus promoting Cd(2+) accumulation in BY-2 cells.

  6. Dihydrosphingosine-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells is independent of H₂O₂ production.

    PubMed

    Lachaud, Christophe; Da Silva, Daniel; Amelot, Nicolas; Béziat, Chloé; Brière, Christian; Cotelle, Valérie; Graziana, Annick; Grat, Sabine; Mazars, Christian; Thuleau, Patrice

    2011-03-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0, DHS), one of the most abundant free sphingoid Long Chain Base (LCB) in plants, has been recently shown to induce both cytosolic and nuclear calcium transient increases and a correlated Programmed Cell Death (PCD) in tobacco BY-2 cells. In this study, in order to get deeper insight into the LCB signaling pathway leading to cell death, the putative role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) has been investigated. We show that DHS triggers a rapid dose-dependent production of H₂O₂ that is blocked by diphenyleniodonium (DPI), indicating the involvement of NADPH oxidase(s) in the process. In addition, while DPI does not block DHS-induced calcium increases, the ROS production is inhibited by the broad spectrum calcium channel blocker lanthanum (La³+). Therefore, ROS production occurs downstream of DHS-induced Ca²+ transients. Interestingly, DHS activates expression of defense-related genes that is inhibited by both La³+ and DPI. Since DPI does not prevent DHS-induced cell death, these results strongly indicate that DHS-induced H₂O₂ production is not implicated in PCD mechanisms but rather would be associated to basal cell defense mechanisms.

  7. A versatile coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Buntru, Matthias; Vogel, Simon; Stoff, Katrin; Spiegel, Holger; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a powerful method for the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins, especially proteins that are difficult to express in living cells. Here we describe a coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates (BYLs). Using a combination of fractional factorial designs and response surface models, we developed a cap-independent system that produces more than 250 μg/mL of functional enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and about 270 μg/mL of firefly luciferase using plasmid templates, and up to 180 μg/mL eYFP using linear templates (PCR products) in 18 h batch reactions. The BYL contains actively-translocating microsomal vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, promoting the formation of disulfide bonds, glycosylation and the cotranslational integration of membrane proteins. This was demonstrated by expressing a functional full-size antibody (∼ 150 μg/mL), the model enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) (∼ 7.3 U/mL), and a transmembrane growth factor (∼ 25 μg/mL). Subsequent in vitro treatment of GOx with peptide-N-glycosidase F confirmed the presence of N-glycans. Our results show that the BYL can be used as a high-throughput expression and screening platform that is particularly suitable for complex and cytotoxic proteins.

  8. "Asian yuppies...are always looking for something new and different": creating a tobacco culture among young Asians

    PubMed Central

    Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify and analyse the themes employed by the Asian based transnational tobacco companies to construct a tobacco culture among Asian young men and women. Methods: Systematic review of relevant tobacco industry documents made public through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The industry utilised six vehicles and themes to construct a tobacco culture in Asia: music, entertainment (including nightclubs, discos, and movies), adventure, sport (including motorsports, soccer, and tennis), glamour (beauty and fashion), and independence. Conclusions: The tobacco industry set about constructing a tobacco culture that sought to make smoking desirable, even normal, for young men and women. Understanding the way industry constructed this culture provides insights into ways that culture might now be challenged. Countering the transnational nature of many activities will require coordinated effort at the international, regional, and national levels. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will be a powerful tool in this process. All nations throughout Asia are encouraged to support the FCTC and its broad protocols addressing advertising and sponsorship. Measures are also required to disassociate smoking from progress in sex equality. PMID:15564216

  9. In tobacco BY-2 cells xyloglucan oligosaccharides alter the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Lien; Perrotta, Lara; Acosta, Alexis; Orellana, Esteban; Spadafora, Natasha; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Beatrice M; Albani, Diego; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Francis, Dennis; Rogers, Hilary J

    2014-10-01

    Xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) are breakdown products of XGs, the most abundant hemicelluloses of the primary cell walls of non-Poalean species. Treatment of cell cultures or whole plants with XGOs results in accelerated cell elongation and cell division, changes in primary root growth, and a stimulation of defence responses. They may therefore act as signalling molecules regulating plant growth and development. Previous work suggests an interaction with auxins and effects on cell wall loosening, however their mode of action is not fully understood. The effect of an XGO extract from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) on global gene expression was therefore investigated in tobacco BY-2 cells using microarrays. Over 500 genes were differentially regulated with similar numbers and functional classes of genes up- and down-regulated, indicating a complex interaction with the cellular machinery. Up-regulation of a putative XG endotransglycosylase/hydrolase-related (XTH) gene supports the mechanism of XGO action through cell wall loosening. Differential expression of defence-related genes supports a role for XGOs as elicitors. Changes in the expression of genes related to mitotic control and differentiation also support previous work showing that XGOs are mitotic inducers. XGOs also affected expression of several receptor-like kinase genes and transcription factors. Hence, XGOs have significant effects on expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

  10. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Glucosylation of Scopoletin to Scopolin in Tobacco Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Fumitsugu; Okazaki, Mitsuo; Miura, Yoshiharu

    1982-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) stimulated the formation of scopoletin and scopolin in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. `Bright Yellow') cell culture. It especially stimulated the uptake of scopoletin from culture medium into the cells and the glucosylation of scopoletin to its monoglucoside, scopolin. This phenomenon is peculiar to 2,4-D, in contrast to other plant hormones. 2,4-D (1 μg/ml) stimulated the glucosylation of scopoletin to scopolin by enhancing UDP-glucose:scopoletin glucosyltransferase (SGTase) activity. The enhancement of SGTase activity caused by treatment with 2,4-D was observed when the syntheses of RNA and protein were inhibited by either actinomycin-D and/or cycloheximide. However, the stimulatory effect of 2,4-D was inhibited by treatment with dinitrophenol. Furthermore, SGTase with or without treatment by 2,4-D in vivo for 24 hours, was isolated from cultured tobacco cells. The enzymes were purified about 200-fold by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and chromatography with Sephadex G-100, DEAE-cellulose, and hydroxyapatite. The specific activity of 2,4-D-treated SGTase was 10 times higher than that of untreated SGTase even in the purified fraction, which showed one protein band under electrophoresis. These results suggest that the enhancement of SGTase activity by 2,4-D is due to the energy-dependent activation of the enzyme already present, but not due to the de novo synthesis of the enzyme. Images PMID:16662301

  11. Bioconversion of stilbenes in genetically engineered root and cell cultures of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Diego; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Moyano, Elisabeth; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Corchete, Purificación; Palazon, Javier

    2017-03-27

    It is currently possible to transfer a biosynthetic pathway from a plant to another organism. This system has been exploited to transfer the metabolic richness of certain plant species to other plants or even to more simple metabolic organisms such as yeast or bacteria for the production of high added value plant compounds. Another application is to bioconvert substrates into scarcer or biologically more interesting compounds, such as piceatannol and pterostilbene. These two resveratrol-derived stilbenes, which have very promising pharmacological activities, are found in plants only in small amounts. By transferring the human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) gene to tobacco hairy roots and cell cultures, we developed a system able to bioconvert exogenous t-resveratrol into piceatannol in quantities near to mg L(-1). Similarly, after heterologous expression of resveratrol O-methyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvROMT) in tobacco hairy roots, the exogenous t-resveratrol was bioconverted into pterostilbene. We also observed that both bioconversions can take place in tobacco wild type hairy roots (pRiA4, without any transgene), showing that unspecific tobacco P450 hydroxylases and methyltransferases can perform the bioconversion of t-resveratrol to give the target compounds, albeit at a lower rate than transgenic roots.

  12. Bioconversion of stilbenes in genetically engineered root and cell cultures of tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Diego; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Moyano, Elisabeth; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Corchete, Purificación; Palazon, Javier

    2017-01-01

    It is currently possible to transfer a biosynthetic pathway from a plant to another organism. This system has been exploited to transfer the metabolic richness of certain plant species to other plants or even to more simple metabolic organisms such as yeast or bacteria for the production of high added value plant compounds. Another application is to bioconvert substrates into scarcer or biologically more interesting compounds, such as piceatannol and pterostilbene. These two resveratrol-derived stilbenes, which have very promising pharmacological activities, are found in plants only in small amounts. By transferring the human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) gene to tobacco hairy roots and cell cultures, we developed a system able to bioconvert exogenous t-resveratrol into piceatannol in quantities near to mg L−1. Similarly, after heterologous expression of resveratrol O-methyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvROMT) in tobacco hairy roots, the exogenous t-resveratrol was bioconverted into pterostilbene. We also observed that both bioconversions can take place in tobacco wild type hairy roots (pRiA4, without any transgene), showing that unspecific tobacco P450 hydroxylases and methyltransferases can perform the bioconversion of t-resveratrol to give the target compounds, albeit at a lower rate than transgenic roots. PMID:28345676

  13. Transcriptome analysis of tobacco BY-2 cells elicited by cryptogein reveals new potential actors of calcium-dependent and calcium-independent plant defense pathways.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Nicolas; Dorlhac de Borne, François; San Clemente, Hélène; Mazars, Christian; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Brière, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cryptogein is a proteinaceous elicitor secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea, which induces a hypersensitive response in tobacco plants. We have previously reported that in tobacco BY-2 cells treated with cryptogein, most of the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were upregulated and cell wall-bound phenolics accumulated. Both events were Ca(2+) dependent. In this study, we designed a microarray covering a large proportion of the tobacco genome and monitored gene expression in cryptogein-elicited BY-2 cells to get a more complete view of the transcriptome changes and to assess their Ca(2+) dependence. The predominant functional gene categories affected by cryptogein included stress- and disease-related proteins, phenylpropanoid pathway, signaling components, transcription factors and cell wall reinforcement. Among the 3819 unigenes whose expression changed more than fourfold, 90% were Ca(2+) dependent, as determined by their sensitivity to lanthanum chloride. The most Ca(2+)-dependent transcripts upregulated by cryptogein were involved in defense responses or the oxylipin pathway. This genome-wide study strongly supports the importance of Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional regulation of regulatory and defense-related genes contributing to cryptogein responses in tobacco.

  14. Biochemical and Immunocytochemical Characterization of Two Types of Myosins in Cultured Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Etsuo; Yukawa, Chiharu; Muto, Shoshi; Sonobe, Seiji; Shimmen, Teruo

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated a myosin (referred to as 170-kD myosin) from lily pollen tubes, which consists of 170-kD heavy chain and calmodulin (CaM) light chain and is responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. A 170-kD polypeptide that has similar antigenicity to the 170-kD myosin heavy chain of lily pollen tubes was also present in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells, and possessed the ability to interact with F-actin in an ATP-dependent manner. In addition to this myosin, we identified biochemically another kind of myosin in BY-2 cells. This myosin consisted of a CaM light chain and a 175-kD heavy chain with antigenicity different from the 170-kD myosin heavy chain. In the present study, we referred to this myosin as 175-kD myosin. This myosin was able to translocate rhodamine-phalloidin (RP)-labeled F-actin at an average velocity of about 9 μm/s in the motility assay in vitro. In contrast, the sliding velocity of RP-labeled F-actin translocated by fractions containing the 170-kD myosin was 3 to 4 μm/s. The velocity of cytoplasmic streaming in living BY-2 cells ranged from 2 to 9 μm/s. The motile activity of 175-kD myosin in vitro was inhibited by Ca2+ at concentrations higher than 10−6 m. Immunoblot analyses using an antiserum against the heavy chain of 170- or 175-kD myosin revealed that in tobacco plants, the 175-kD myosin was expressed in leaf, stem, and root, but not in germinating pollen, while 170-kD myosin was present in all of these plant parts and in germinating pollen. These results suggest that the two types of myosins, 170 and 175 kD, presumably participate in cytoplasmic streaming in BY-2 cells and other somatic cells of tobacco plants. PMID:10517844

  15. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 per cent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  16. Apollo 12 lunar material: effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Weete, J D; Walkinshaw, C H; Laseter, J L

    1972-02-11

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 percent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  17. Proteins Associated with Adaptation of Cultured Tobacco Cells to NaCl 1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra K.; Handa, Avtar K.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Bressan, Ray A.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands (molecular weights of 58, 37, 35.5, 34, 26, 21, 19.5, and 18 kilodaltons) increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands (54, 52, 17.5, and 16.5 kilodaltons) are reduced. Enhanced levels of 43- and 26-kilodalton polypeptides are present in both NaCl and PEG-induced water stress adapted cells but are not detectable in unadapted cells. In addition, PEG adapted cells have enhanced levels of 29-, 17.5-, 16.5-, and 11-kilodalton polypeptides and reduced levels of 58-, 54-, 52-, 37-, 35.5-, 34-, 21-, 19.5-, and 18-kilodalton polypeptide bands. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate 35S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From our results, we suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:16664357

  18. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco.

  19. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K.L.N.; Siva Raju, K.; Ravisankar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco. PMID:26887223

  20. Proliferation of the Golgi apparatus in tobacco BY-2 cells during cell proliferation after release from the stationary phase of growth.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Moses; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-08-01

    We have recently developed a new method aimed at mass photo-conversion of photo-convertible fluorescence protein (PFP) fluorescence in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells. Using this method we reported recently that the Golgi apparatus is generated by the de novo formation from ER and the division of pre-existing Golgi stacks with similar extents In this work we report that the proliferation of the Golgi apparatus in tobacco cells that enter the growing cycle from the non-dividing cycle is quite similar to that in rapidly growing cells and that de novo formation from the ER and division of pre-existing stacks seems to contribute almost equally to the proliferation.

  1. Biochemical Basis of Resistance of Tobacco Callus Tissue Cultures to Hydroxyphenylethylamines.

    PubMed Central

    Negrel, J.; Javelle, F.; Paynot, M.

    1993-01-01

    It has been reported that hydroxyphenylethylamines, such as tyramine and octopamine, are toxic to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus cultures grown in the presence of auxins, whereas calli grown in the presence of cytokinins and crown gall cultures are resistant to these amines (P. Christou and K.A. Barton [1989] Plant Physiol 89: 564-568). In an attempt to understand the underlying mechanism of this resistance, we compared the fates of tyramine in tyramine-sensitive and tyramine-resistant tobacco tissue cultures (cv Xanthi nc). The very rapid formation of black-colored oxidation products from tyramine in sensitive tissues suggested that the toxicity might be caused by the oxidation of tyramine by phenol oxidases present in the tissues or released into the medium after subculture. This was confirmed through many indirect procedures (effect of exogenously added tyrosinase, induction of polyphenol oxidase [PPO] activity by auxin, etc.). The study of tyramine structure-activity relationships further suggested that the toxicity of tyramine might be due to the formation of indolequinones after oxidation by PPO. Subculture of calli grown on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in a medium containing benzyladenine triggered a slow decrease in PPO activity and dramatic increases in peroxidase and tyramine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) activities. THT was undetectable in calli grown on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid but very active in tyramine-resistant crown gall cultures. Moreover, when [3H]tyramine was fed in vivo to tyramine-resistant tissues, it was rapidly integrated into cell walls in the wound periderm formed at the periphery of the calli. Both the conjugation of tyramine and its integration into cell walls could compete with the formation of toxic quinones and therefore play a part in the resistance. Thus, it seems likely that the control of the toxicity of hydroxyphenylethylamines by cytokinins results primarily from changes in the metabolism and the

  2. 3-D nasal cultures: Systems toxicological assessment of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Anita R; Mathis, Carole; Martin, Florian; Leroy, Patrice; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Trivedi, Keyur; Grandolfo, Davide; Cabanski, Maciej; Guedj, Emmanuel; Merg, Celine; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In vitro toxicology approaches have evolved from a focus on molecular changes within a cell to understanding of toxicity-related mechanisms in systems that can mimic the in vivo environment. The recent development of three dimensional (3-D) organotypic nasal epithelial culture models offers a physiologically robust system for studying the effects of exposure through inhalation. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with nasal inflammation; thus, the nasal epithelium is relevant for evaluating the pathophysiological impact of CS exposure. The present study investigated further the application of in vitro human 3-D nasal epithelial culture models for toxicological assessment of inhalation exposure. Aligned with 3Rs strategy, this study aimed to explore the relevance of a human 3-D nasal culture model to assess the toxicological impact of aerosols generated from a candidate modified risk tobacco product (cMRTP), the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, as compared with smoke generated from reference cigarette 3R4F. A series of experimental repetitions, where multiple concentrations of THS2.2 aerosol and 3R4F smoke were applied, were conducted to obtain reproducible measurements to understand the cellular/molecular changes that occur following exposure. In agreement with "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century - a Vision and a Strategy", this study implemented a systems toxicology approach and found that for all tested concentrations the impact of 3R4F smoke was substantially greater than that of THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity levels, alterations in tissue morphology, secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, impaired ciliary function, and increased perturbed transcriptomes and miRNA expression profiles.

  3. Assessment of Cultivation Factors that Affect Biomass and Geraniol Production in Transgenic Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

  4. Calcium- and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Nuclear Accumulation of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Response to Long Chain Bases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Testard, Ambroise; Da Silva, Daniel; Ormancey, Mélanie; Pichereaux, Carole; Pouzet, Cécile; Jauneau, Alain; Grat, Sabine; Robe, Eugénie; Brière, Christian; Cotelle, Valérie; Mazars, Christian; Thuleau, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0, DHS), one of the most abundant free sphingoid long chain bases (LCBs) in plants, is known to induce a calcium-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In addition, in tobacco BY-2 cells, it has been shown that DHS triggers a rapid production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). Recently, in analogy to what is known in the animal field, plant cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis, has been suggested to fulfill other functions associated with its oxidative post-translational modifications such as S-nitrosylation on cysteine residues. In particular, in mammals, stress signals inducing NO production promote S-nitrosylation of GAPC and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus where the protein participates in the establishment of apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the behavior of GAPC in tobacco BY-2 cells treated with DHS. We found that upon DHS treatment, an S-nitrosylated form of GAPC accumulated in the nucleus. This accumulation was dependent on NO production. Two genes encoding GAPCs, namely Nt(BY-2)GAPC1 and Nt(BY-2)GAPC2, were cloned. Transient overexpression of Nt(BY-2)GAPC-green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric constructs indicated that both proteins localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. Mutating into serine the two cysteine residues thought to be S-nitrosylated in response to DHS did not modify the localization of the proteins, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of GAPCs was probably not necessary for their nuclear relocalization. Interestingly, using Förster resonance energy transfer experiments, we showed that Nt(BY-2)GAPCs interact with nucleic acids in the nucleus. When GAPCs were mutated on their cysteine residues, their interaction with nucleic acids was abolished, suggesting a role for GAPCs in the protection of nucleic acids against oxidative stress.

  5. Bioconversion of the antihistaminc drug loratadine by tobacco cell suspension cultures expressing human cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Heribert; Ferme, Daniela; Peer, Markus; Frank, Andreas; Unger, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    In this study we have expanded the metabolic potential of plant cell suspension cultures by introducing active human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 3A4 into tobacco cells. Exogenously supplied loratadine was metabolized in a 3A4-specific manner, showing the capacity of this system for the generation of metabolites.

  6. Response of tobacco tissue cultures growing in contact with lunar fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    During the quarantine periods following each Apollo mission to the moon, various biological systems were placed in the presence of lunar material to determine if pathogenic agents were present. Although no detrimental effects resulted, various responses by the several plant systems tested were noted. One such response was the increased pigmentation observed in the callus tissue cultures of tobacco. Further investigations revealed that these tissues grown in the presence of lunar material resulted in as much as a 35% increase in total pigments while differences in fatty acid and sterol concentrations were also noted when compared to the controls. It is believed that these changes brought about by the lunar material can be attributed to a change in the nutritional environment caused by its dissolution.

  7. Evaluation of Parameters in the Isolation of Viable Protoplasts from Cultured Tobacco Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Murashige, Toshio

    1974-01-01

    A systematic evaluation disclosed the following conditions to be optimum for the isolation of viable protoplasts from cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum L. `Bright Yellow' grown in liquid suspensions: (a) the cell culture in the early phase of cell number increase, (b) an enzyme mixture of 1% cellulase “Onozuka” and 0.2% Macerozyme, (c) an enzyme solution pH of 4.7 or 5.7, (d) a 2- to 3-hr incubation period, (e) 5 ml of enzyme solution per 500 mg cells and contained in a 50-ml Delong flask, (f) agitation on a gyrotory shaker at 50 rpm, and (g) 0.3 to 0.8 m mannitol as osmoticum in the cell enzyme mixture. The incubation temperature may be varied from 22 to 37 C. The procedure enabled 30% of the tobacco cells to form protoplasts, 80% of which regenerated cell walls in 4 days and 40% resumed cell division activity when returned to cell culture medium. Images PMID:16659004

  8. Salicylic Acid induces cyanide-resistant respiration in tobacco cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kapulnik, Y; Yalpani, N; Raskin, I

    1992-12-01

    Cyanide-resistant, alternative respiration in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc was analyzed in liquid suspension cultures using O(2) uptake and calorimetric measurements. In young cultures (4-8 d after transfer), cyanide inhibited O(2) uptake by up to 40% as compared to controls. Application of 20 mum salicylic acid (SA) to young cells increased cyanide-resistant O(2) uptake within 2 h. Development of KCN resistance did not affect total O(2) uptake, but was accompanied by a 60% increase in the rate of heat evolution from cells as measured by calorimetry. This stimulation of heat evolution by SA was not significantly affected by 1 mm cyanide, but was reduced by 10 mm salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of cyanide-resistant respiration. Treatment of SA-induced or uninduced cells with a combination of cyanide and SHAM blocked most of the O(2) consumption and heat evolution. Fifty percent of the applied SA was taken up within 10 min, with most of the intracellular SA metabolized in 2 h. 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids also induced cyanide-resistant respiration. These data indicate that in tobacco cell-suspension culture, SA induces the activity and the capacity of cyanide-resistant respiration without affecting the capacity of the cytochrome c respiration pathway.

  9. Cell cycle stage-specific differential expression of topoisomerase I in tobacco BY-2 cells and its ectopic overexpression and knockdown unravels its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Badri Nath; Mudgil, Yashwanti; John, Riffat; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Tripathy, Manas Kumar; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K; Kaul, Tanushri

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerases catalyze the inter-conversion of different topological forms of DNA. Cell cycle coupled differential accumulation of topoisomerase I (Topo I) revealed biphasic expression maximum at S-phase and M/G1-phase of cultured synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. This suggested its active role in resolving topological constrains during DNA replication (S-phase) and chromosome decondensation (M/G1 phase). Immuno-localization revealed high concentrations of Topo I in nucleolus. Propidium iodide staining and Br-UTP incorporation patterns revealed direct correlation between immunofluorescence intensity and rRNA transcription activity within nucleolus. Immuno-stained chromosomes during metaphase and anaphase suggested possible role of Topo I in resolving topological constrains during mitotic chromosome condensation. Inhibitor studies showed that in comparison to Topo I, Topo II was essential in resolving topological constrains during chromosome condensation. Probably, Topo II substituted Topo I functioning to certain extent during chromosome condensation, but not vice-versa. Transgenic Topo I tobacco lines revealed morphological abnormalities and highlighted its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

  10. High-yield production of apoplast-directed human adenosine deaminase in transgenic tobacco BY-2 cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Singhabahu, Sanjeewa; George, John; Bringloe, David

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, where a deleterious mutation in the ADA gene of patients results in a dysfunctional immune system, is ultimately caused by an absence of ADA. Over the last 25 years the disease has been treated with PEG-ADA, made from purified bovine ADA coupled with polyethylene glycol (PEG). However, it is thought that an enzyme replacement therapy protocol based on recombinant human ADA would probably be a more effective treatment. With this end in mind, a human ADA cDNA was inserted into plant expression vectors used to transform tobacco plant cell suspensions. Transgenic calli expressing constructs containing apoplast-directing signals showed significantly higher levels of recombinant ADA expression than calli transformed with cytosolic constructs. The most significant ADA activities, however, were measured in the media of transgenic cell suspensions prepared from high expressing transformed calli: where incorporation of a signal for arabinogalactan addition to ADA led to a recombinant protein yield of approximately 16 mg L(-1) , a 336-fold increase over ADA produced by cell suspensions transformed with a cytosolic construct.

  11. Copper elicits an increase in cytosolic free calcium in cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroki; Kudo, Tomoko; Kamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Hamamoto, Hiroshi

    2005-12-01

    At concentrations greater than 0.1 mM, CuSO(4) provoked a rapid and sustained increase in the cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)), in tobacco suspension culture cells expressing apoaequorin, a Ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein. The increase was suppressed by treatment with LaCl(3), indicating that the increase is due to an influx of Ca(2+) from the apoplast through plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels. Although stimulation of H(2)O(2) production upon the CuSO(4) treatment (0.1 mM) was observed, treatment with catalase did not inhibit the increase in [Ca(2+)](cyt), and treatment with H(2)O(2) dose-dependently suppressed or delayed the increase. These results suggested that active oxygen species generated through copper-mediated reactions, or copper-mediated oxidative damages to plasma membrane, are not responsible for the increase. Treatment with sulfhydryl reagents, which alkylate or oxidize thiol groups, or acidification of the culture medium suppressed the increase in [Ca(2+)](cyt). These results demonstrated that copper causes an influx of Ca(2+) through plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels, and that plasma membrane thiol groups play an important role in activating the Ca(2+) channels.

  12. Tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries: the need for social and cultural research.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Mimi; Greaves, Lorraine; Bloch, Michele; Paglia, Michael; Scarinci, Isabel; Tolosa, Jorge E; Novotny, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of death and of poor pregnancy outcome in many countries. While tobacco use is decreasing in many high-income countries, it is increasing in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where by the year 2030, 80% of deaths caused by tobacco use are expected to occur. In many LMICs, few women smoke tobacco, but strong evidence indicates this is changing; increased tobacco smoking by pregnant women will worsen pregnancy outcomes, especially in resource-poor settings, and threatens to undermine or reverse hard-won gains in maternal and child health. To date, little research has focused on preventing pregnant women's tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in LMICs. Research on social and cultural influences on pregnant women's tobacco use will greatly facilitate the design and implementation of effective prevention programs and policies, including the adaptation of successful strategies used in high-income countries. This paper describes pregnant women's tobacco use and SHS exposure and the social and cultural influences on pregnant women's tobacco exposure; it also presents a research agenda put forward by an international workgroup convened to make recommendations in this area.

  13. Culture change in addictions treatment: a targeted training and technical assistance initiative affects tobacco-related attitudes and beliefs in addiction treatment settings.

    PubMed

    Perka, Edward J

    2011-11-01

    Targeted training and technical assistance can have a major impact on the attitudes and beliefs of addiction service providers with respect to the treatment of tobacco dependency. Major gains have been made with the general public since the mid-1960s with respect to the reduction of tobacco use behavior and tobacco-related diseases. Tobacco use continues to be a major public health problem, and tobacco control initiatives are significantly affecting public attitudes and norms regarding tobacco use. There is, however, a specific population that has not benefited from these gains and, in fact, has been encouraged to continue smoking rather than make an attempt to quit. Individuals with a substance use disorder and/or mental health disorder have a much higher percentage of tobacco use than the general population, resulting in major health disparities. The addiction treatment and recovery community has lagged behind the general public in addressing tobacco use. New York State's project, "Integrating Tobacco Use Interventions Into Chemical Dependence Services," is a model that demonstrates how innovative regulations, and training and technical assistance developed specifically for addiction service providers, can initiate culture change with respect to tobacco use within addiction treatment settings, resulting in improved treatment outcomes and longer term stable recovery.

  14. Osmotic Adjustment of Cultured Tobacco Cells (Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsum) Grown on Sodium Chloride 1

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, James W.; Nabors, Murray W.

    1981-01-01

    Tobacco cell cultures (var. Samsum) were grown on increasing levels of NaCl to select variants for increased salt tolerance. The osmotic adjustment of NaCl-adapted and nonadapted cell lines was studied. Both cell lines were grown on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium with or without NaCl. Few differences were found in the response of adapted and nonadapted lines to NaCl. The concentrations of sugars, Na+, Cl−, and NO3− were identical in the cells and medium. Potassium and amino acids were accumulated by the cells. All of the above solutes accounted for 80 to 90% of the osmotic potential for both cell lines when grown on basal medium with or without NaCl. The osmotic potential of growing cells was always 1 to 3 bars more negative than that of the medium. During the first 10 days culture, the cells hydrolyzed the 117 millimolar sucrose present in the fresh media, and the media became more negative by 3 bars. Growing cells absorbed and metabolized the sugars, NH4+, and NO3− during the next 25 days, and the osmotic potential of the media and cells became less negative. The addition of 130 millimolar NaCl made the media and cells osmotically more negative by 6 bars throughout the growth cycle, as compared with cells growing on basal medium. The efflux of cellular solutes during distilled H2O washes was resolved into two components. The fast component (0.6 to 1.7 minutes half-time) included solutes of the free space and cytoplasm, whereas the slow component (1.6 to 4.9 hours half-time) represented the vacuolar solutes. Sodium and Cl− were present in the vacuole. No differences were observed in the solute efflux between the adapted and nonadapted cell lines. PMID:16661743

  15. Hodgkin-Huxley analysis of whole-cell outward rectifying K(+)-currents in protoplasts from tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Van Duijn, B

    1993-02-01

    The voltage and time dependence of outward-rectifying K+ currents (IK,out) measured in protoplasts from tobacco cell suspension cultures in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique are quantitatively analyzed. The voltage and time dependence was described according to the Hodgkin and Huxley model for IK,out currents in the squid giant axon, and to allow comparison, in analogy with the quantitative analysis of IK,out currents in Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts as described by Schroeder (J. Membrane Biol., 107:229-235, 1989). The IK,out from tobacco could be described by a similar model as the IK,out from guard cell protoplasts (i.e., sigmoid activation time course, activation variable raised to second power, single exponential deactivating tail currents, absence of inactivation). However, in contrast to guard cells, both the activation and deactivation time constants were strongly voltage dependent in tobacco protoplasts. The voltage dependence of the transition rates for channel opening and channel closing was slightly asymmetrical and inverse to the asymmetry found in guard cells. The data presented show that the voltage-dependent kinetic properties of the IK,out conductance of tobacco protoplasts are different from these properties in guard cell protoplasts. This analysis provides a basis for the study of IK,out conductance function and modulation.

  16. Dental hygiene students' perceptions of a cultural competence component in a tobacco dependence education curriculum: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Heather J; Maillet, Peggy J; Brillant, Martha G; Tax, Cara L

    2015-06-01

    First Nations and Inuit peoples have tobacco use rates three times that of the Canadian national average. Providing tobacco dependence education (TDE) requires an understanding of the factors surrounding tobacco use that are culturally specific to this population. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new cultural competence component for Canadian First Nations and Inuit peoples in a TDE curriculum at Dalhousie University School of Dental Hygiene, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. In 2011, the TDE curriculum was revised to include a First Nations and Inuit people's cultural component. A 32-question survey was developed for the study, with questions divided into four subscales regarding students' perceived knowledge, skills, comfort level, and attitudes about working with this population. Responses from students in two succeeding years were compared: the first cohort had not participated in the revised curriculum (56% response rate), and the second cohort had (63% response rate). The results showed an overall improvement in the subscales evaluated and a significant (p=0.002) improvement in the knowledge subscale of the students who received the new TDE curriculum, specifically regarding knowledge about sociocultural characteristics, health risks, and cultural healing traditions of First Nations and Inuit people. Although the results indicated an increase in the knowledge of the culture of First Nations and Inuit peoples, it is unclear whether the students felt better prepared to provide TDE to this population. For future research, the investigators would examine what learning experiences and further changes to the curriculum could be provided to facilitate the level of preparedness to successfully deliver TDE.

  17. Intracellular concentrations and metabolism of carbon compounds in tobacco callus cultures: Effects of light and auxin

    SciTech Connect

    Lawyer, A.L.; Grady, K.L.; Bassham, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    Callus cultures derived from pith tissue of Nicotiana tobacum were grown on two media either under continuous illumination or in complete darkness. The first medium limited greening ability of callus grown in the light (3 milligrams per liter naphthalene acetic acid, 0.3 milligram per liter 2-isopentenylaminopurine, Murashige and Skoog salts, and 2% sucrose). The second medium encouraged chlorophyll synthesis (greening) though not shoot formation (0.3 milligram per liter naphthalene acetic acid; 0.3 milligrams per liter 2-isopentylaminopurine). To measure intracellular concentrations, calli were grown for 15 days on these standard media containing (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose. The dry weight proportions of the calli (as a fraction of fresh weight) and many metabolite concentrations nearly doubled in light-grown cells compared to dark-grown cells and increase 30 to 40% on low-auxin media relative to high-auxin media. Glutamine concentrations (from 4 to 26 millimolar) were very high, probably due to the NH/sub 3/ content of the media. Proline concentrations were 20-fold higher in calli grown on low-auxin media in the light (green cells), possibly a stress response to high osmotic potentials in these cells. To analyze sucrose metabolism, callus cells were allowed to take up 0.2% (weight per volume) (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for up to 90 minutes. In callus tissues and in pith sections from stems of tobacco plants, sucrose was primarily metabolized through invertase activity, producing equal amounts of labeling glucose and fructose. Respiration of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ followed the labeling patterns of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Photorespiration activity was low.

  18. Optimization of BY-2 cell suspension culture medium for the production of a human antibody using a combination of fractional factorial designs and the response surface method.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Grömping, Ulrike; Lipperts, Anja; Raven, Nicole; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a strategy for the optimization of plant cell suspension culture media using a combination of fractional factorial designs (FFDs) and response surface methodology (RSM). This sequential approach was applied to transformed tobacco BY-2 cells secreting a human antibody (M12) into the culture medium, in an effort to maximize yields. We found that the nutrients KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂ and the hormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) had the most significant impact on antibody accumulation. The factorial screening revealed strong interactions within the nutrients group (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂) and also individually between 2,4-D and three other components (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and BAP). The RSM design resulted in a fivefold increase in the antibody concentration after 5 days and a twofold reduction in the packed cell volume (PCV). Longer cultivation in the optimized medium led to the further accumulation of antibody M12 in the culture medium (up to 107 μg/mL, day 10). Because the packed cell volume was reduced in the optimized medium, this enhanced the overall yield by 20-fold (day 7) and 31-fold (day 10) compared to the conventional MS medium.

  19. A review of tobacco BY-2 cells as an excellent system to study the synthesis and function of sterols and other isoprenoids.

    PubMed

    Hemmerlin, Andréa; Gerber, Esther; Feldtrauer, Jean-François; Wentzinger, Laurent; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Tritsch, Denis; Hoeffler, Jean-François; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J

    2004-08-01

    In plants, two pathways are utilized for the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), the universal precursor for isoprenoid biosynthesis. In this paper we review findings and observations made primarily with tobacco BY-2 cells (TBY-2), which have proven to be an excellent system in which to study the two biosynthetic pathways. A major advantage of these cells as an experimental system is their ability to readily take up specific inhibitors and stably- and/or radiolabeled precursors. This permits the functional elucidation of the role of isoprenoid end products and intermediates. Because TBY-2 cells undergo rapid cell division and can be synchronized within the cell cycle, they constitute a highly suitable test system for determination of those isoprenoids and intermediates that act as cell cycle inhibitors, thus giving an indication of which branches of the isoprenoid pathway are essential. Through chemical complementation; and use of precursors, intracellular compartmentation can be elucidated, as well as the extent to which the plastidial and cytosolic pathways contribute to the syntheses of specific groups of isoprenoids (e.g., sterols) via exchange of intermediates across membranes. These topics are discussed in the context of the pertinent literature.

  20. cis-Golgi proteins accumulate near the ER exit sites and act as the scaffold for Golgi regeneration after brefeldin A treatment in tobacco BY-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Shoda, Keiko; Fujimoto, Masaru; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus forms stacks of cisternae in many eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about how such a stacked structure is formed and maintained. To address this question, plant cells provide a system suitable for live-imaging approaches because individual Golgi stacks are well separated in the cytoplasm. We established tobacco BY-2 cell lines expressing multiple Golgi markers tagged by different fluorescent proteins and observed their responses to brefeldin A (BFA) treatment and BFA removal. BFA treatment disrupted cis, medial, and trans cisternae but caused distinct relocalization patterns depending on the proteins examined. Medial- and trans-Golgi proteins, as well as one cis-Golgi protein, were absorbed into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but two other cis-Golgi proteins formed small punctate structures. After BFA removal, these puncta coalesced first, and then the Golgi stacks regenerated from them in the cis-to-trans order. We suggest that these structures have a property similar to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and function as the scaffold of Golgi regeneration. PMID:22740633

  1. Evaluation of an air-liquid interface cell culture model for studies on the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses to tobacco smoke aerosols.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, David; Haswell, Linsey E; Foss-Smith, Geoff; Hewitt, Katherine; Asquith, Nathan; Corke, Sarah; Phillips, Gary

    2015-10-01

    In vitro toxicological studies for tobacco product assessment have traditionally been undertaken using the particulate phase of tobacco smoke. However, this does not truly reflect exposure conditions that occur in smokers. Thus in vitro cell culture systems are required in which cells are exposed to tobacco whole smoke (WS) at the air-liquid interface (ALI). In this study bronchial epithelial cells were cultured on semi-permeable membranes, transitioned to the ALI and the robustness and sensitivity of the cells to tobacco WS and vapour phase (VP) assessed. Although no effect of air exposure was observed on cell viability, IL-6 and IL-8 release was increased. Exposure to WS resulted in a significant dose dependent decrease in cell viability and a significant non-dose dependent increase in inflammatory mediator secretion. The VP was found to contribute approximately 90% of the total cytotoxicity derived from WS. The cell culture system was also able to differentiate between two smoking regimens and was sensitive to passage number with increased inflammatory mediator secretion and lower cell viability observed in cell cultures of low passage number following WS exposure. This simple cell culture system may facilitate studies on the toxicological impact of future tobacco products and nicotine delivery devices.

  2. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  3. Tissue culture specificity of the tobacco ASA2 promoter driving hpt as a selectable marker for soybean transformation selection.

    PubMed

    Zernova, Olga; Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Widholm, Jack

    2008-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the tobacco anthranilate synthase ASA2 2.3 kb promoter drives tissue culture specific expression and if it is strong enough to drive hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene expression at a level sufficient to allow selection of transformed soybean embryogenic culture lines. A number of transformed cell lines were selected showing that the promoter was strong enough. Northern blot analysis of plant tissues did not detect hpt mRNA in the untransformed control or in the ASA2-hpt plants except in developing seeds while hpt mRNA was detected in all tissues of the CaMV35S-hpt positive control line plants. However, when the more sensitive RT-PCR assay was used all tissues of the ASA2-hpt plants except roots and mature seeds were found to contain detectable hpt mRNA. Embryogenic tissue cultures initiated from the ASA2-hpt plants contained hpt mRNA detectable by both northern and RT-PCR analysis and the cultures were hygromycin resistant. Friable callus initiated from leaves of ASA2-hpt plants did in some cases contain hpt mRNA that was only barely detectable by northern hybridization even though the callus was very hygromycin resistant. Thus the ASA2 promoter is strong enough to drive sufficient hpt expression in soybean embryogenic cultures for hygromycin selection and only very low levels of expression were found in most plant tissues with none in mature seeds.

  4. Bioconversion of lutein using a microbial mixture--maximizing the production of tobacco aroma compounds by manipulation of culture medium.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Maldonado-Robledo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Marco Antonio; Díaz-Avalos, Carlos; Sanchez, Sergio

    2005-08-01

    The generation of aroma compounds by carotenoid cleavage in the 9-10 position was studied, due to the importance of these compounds in the flavor and fragrance industry. The bioconversion of the carotenoid lutein to C(13) norisoprenoids utilizing a microbial mixture composed of Trichosporon asahii and Paenibacillus amylolyticus was carried out by a fermentation process. Applying an experimental design methodology, the effects of nutritional factors on the production of aroma compounds present in the tobacco profile were studied. After an assessment of the significance of each nutritional factor, the levels of the variables yielding the maximum response were calculated. Glucose, tryptone, and yeast extract exerted a strong negative effect over the objective function, with glucose being the strongest. Lutein possessed a positive effect over the tobacco aroma production, while sodium chloride and trace elements showed no influence over the process. The yield attained after culture medium manipulation was almost ten-fold higher, compared with the base medium; and the aroma mixture was characterized as: 7,8-dihydro-beta-ionol (95.2%), 7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone (3.7%), and beta-ionone (1.1%).

  5. Ties That Work: The Interaction between Group Assignment Method and a Culturally-Relevant Curriculum in the Context of Middle School Anti-Tobacco Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Johnson, C. Anderson; Valente, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Peer-led programs that employ classroom-based group exercises have been shown to be the most effective in preventing adolescent tobacco use. In addition, health promotion programs that include cultural referents have also been shown to be advantageous. The purpose of this study was to test the interaction between the method by which leaders and…

  6. Fusion of mitochondria in tobacco suspension cultured cells is dependent on the cellular ATP level but not on actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Kairo; Fujimoto, Masaru; Nakazono, Mikio; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondria in plant cells undergo fusion and fission frequently. Although the mechanisms and proteins of mitochondrial fusion are well known in yeast and mammalian cells, they remain poorly understood in plant cells. To clarify the physiological requirements for plant mitochondrial fusion, we investigated the fusion frequency of mitochondria in tobacco cultured cells using the photoconvertible fluorescent protein Kaede and some physiological inhibitors. The latter included two uncouplers, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, oligomycin, and an actin polymerization inhibitor, latrunculin B (Lat B). The frequency of mitochondrial fusion was clearly reduced by DNP, CCCP and oligomycin, but not by Lat B, although Lat B severely inhibited mitochondrial movement. Moreover, DNP, CCCP and oligomycin evidently lowered the cellular ATP levels. These results indicate that plant mitochondrial fusion depends on the cellular ATP level, but not on actin polymerization.

  7. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 microM) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death.

  8. Prevention of copper-induced calcium influx and cell death by prion-derived peptide in suspension-cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Kuse, Masaki; Isobe, Minoru; Bouteau, François; Kawano, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    Impact of copper on the oxidative and calcium signal transductions leading to cell death in plant cells and the effects of the copper-binding peptide derived from the human prion protein (PrP) as a novel plant-protecting agent were assessed using a cell suspension culture of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cell line BY-2) expressing the aequorin gene. Copper induces a series of biological and chemical reactions in plant cells including the oxidative burst reflecting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radicals, and stimulation of calcium channel opening, allowing a transient increase in cytosolic calcium concentrations. The former was proven by the action of specific ROS scavengers blocking the calcium responses and the latter was proven by an increase in aequorin luminescence and its inhibition by specific channel blockers. Following these early events completed within 10 min, the development of copper-induced cell death was observed during additional 1 h in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of a synthetic peptide (KTNMKHMA) corresponding to the neurotoxic sequence in human PrP, prior to the addition of copper, effectively blocked both calcium influx and cell death induced by copper. Lastly, a possible mechanism of peptide action and future applications of this peptide in the protection of plant roots from metal toxicity or in favour of phytoremediation processes are discussed.

  9. Comparison between Biosynthesis of ent-Kaurene in Germinating Tomato Seeds and Cell Suspension Cultures of Tomato and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yafin, Yitshak; Shechter, Ishaiahu

    1975-01-01

    Biosynthesis of ent-kaurene was investigated in extracts of cell suspension cultures derived from tobacco callus (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato callus (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and in germinating tomato seeds. Incubation of extracts derived from the two cell cultures with either isopentenyl pyrophosphate-14C or with 14C-labeled mevalonate, followed by alkaline phosphatase hydrolysis, resulted in the formation of trans-geranylgeraniol-14C and trans-farnesol-14C. The corresponding pyrophosphates of trans-geranyl-geraniol-14C and trans-farnesol-14C were also detected. No detectable amount of ent-kaurene-14C was produced by these enzymatic preparations when trans-geranylgeranyl-14C pyrophosphate served as substrate. However, copalyl-14C pyrophosphate served as a substrate for the production of ent-kaurene. Cell-free extracts derived from germinating tomato seeds catalyzed the formation of ent-kaurene-14C from mevalonate-14C, isopentenyl-14C pyrophosphate, trans-geranylgeranyl-14C pyrophosphate, and copalyl-14C pyrophosphate. PMID:16659368

  10. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... stillbirth when used during pregnancy Smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine poisoning and even death in children who mistake it for candy. Smokeless tobacco causes nicotine addiction. This can lead to smoking and using other forms of tobacco. ...

  11. Thioredoxin (Trxo1) interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its overexpression affects the growth of tobacco cell culture.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Aingeru; Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Carbonero, Pilar; Pallardó, Federico Vicente; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs), key components of cellular redox regulation, act by controlling the redox status of many target proteins, and have been shown to play an essential role in cell survival and growth. The presence of a Trx system in the nucleus has received little attention in plants, and the nuclear targets of plant Trxs have not been conclusively identified. Thus, very little is known about the function of Trxs in this cellular compartment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of PsTrxo1 and confirmed its presence in mitochondria and, interestingly, in the nucleus under standard growth conditions. In investigating the nuclear function of PsTrxo1 we identified proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a PsTrxo1 target by means of affinity chromatography techniques using purified nuclei from pea leaves. Such protein-protein interaction was corroborated by dot-blot and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, which showed that both proteins interact in the nucleus. Moreover, PsTrxo1 showed disulfide reductase activity on previously oxidized recombinant PCNA protein. In parallel, we studied the effects of PsTrxo1 overexpression on Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures. Microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis showed that PsTrxo1 overexpression increases the rate of cell proliferation in the transformed lines, with a higher percentage of the S phase of the cell cycle at the beginning of the cell culture (days 1 and 3) and at the G2/M phase after longer times of culture (day 9), coinciding with an upregulation of PCNA protein. Furthermore, in PsTrxo1 overexpressed cells there is a decrease in the total cellular glutathione content but maintained nuclear GSH accumulation, especially at the end of the culture, which is accompanied by a higher mitotic index, unlike non-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that Trxo1 is involved in the cell cycle progression of TBY-2 cultures, possibly through its link with cellular PCNA

  12. Evidence that proliferation of golgi apparatus depends on both de novo generation from the endoplasmic reticulum and formation from pre-existing stacks during the growth of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Moses Olabiyi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-04-01

    In higher plants, the numbers of cytoplasmic-distributed Golgi stacks differ based on function, age and cell type. It has not been clarified how the numbers are controlled, whether all the Golgi apparatus in a cell function equally and whether the increase in Golgi number is a result of the de novo formation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or fission of pre-existing stacks. A tobacco prolyl 4-hydroxylase (NtP4H1.1), which is a cis-Golgi-localizing type II membrane protein, was tagged with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein, mKikGR (monomeric Kikume green red), and expressed in tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells. Transformed cells were exposed to purple light to convert the fluorescence from green to red. A time-course analysis after the conversion revealed a progressive increase in green puncta and a decrease in the red puncta. From 3 to 6 h, we observed red, yellow and green fluorescent puncta corresponding to pre-existing Golgi; Golgi containing both pre-existing and newly synthesized protein; and newly synthesized Golgi. Analysis of the number and fluorescence of Golgi at different phases of the cell cycle suggested that an increase in Golgi number with both division and de novo synthesis occurred concomitantly with DNA replication. Investigation with different inhibitors suggested that the formation of new Golgi and the generation of Golgi containing both pre-existing and newly synthesized protein are mediated by different machineries. These results and modeling based on quantified results indicate that the Golgi apparatuses in tobacco BY-2 cells are not uniform and suggest that both de novo synthesis from the ER and Golgi division contribute almost equally to the increase in proliferating cells.

  13. Protection of Hamster Lung Cultures by L-Cysteine or Vitamin C Against Carcinogenic Effects of Fresh Smoke from Tobacco or Marihuana Cigarettes*

    PubMed Central

    Leuchtenberger, C.; Leuchtenberger, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sequential morphological and cytochemical effects of L-cysteine and vitamin C were assessed on hamster lung cultures exposed to smoke from either tobacco or marihuana cigarettes. Hamster lung cultures, when grown in normal media (Eagle-Dulbecco) without L-cysteine (NM), and exposed to fresh smoke from either tobacco or marihuana cigarettes for 1-8 weeks, displayed cytotoxic alterations, loss of lysosomes, and marked abnormalities of cell division and of DNA content of chromosomes, while cultures exposed in the same manner and grown in the same NM, but to which L-cysteine was added, showed increase of lysosomes and significantly less abnormalities in cell division and DNA content of chromosomes (P<0·005). Cultures grown in NM and exposed for 9-24 weeks to smoke (whole smoke or gas vapour phase) disclosed more and more rapid irregular growth of fibroblasts and/or malignant transformation, while cultures grown in NM with L-cysteine and exposed in the same manner to smoke resembled closely those of non-exposed controls. Non-exposed control cultures grown in NM did not show significant differences from those grown in NM+L-cysteine, except that controls with L-cysteine also showed increase of lysosomes, accompanied by a reduced growth rate. Addition of vitamin C to NM had a similar effect on growth of control and smoke exposed cultures as L-cysteine, but the cultures were less regular and grew more rapidly than with L-cystene. There was also occurrence of multinucleated giant cells. Cultures grown in NM which had undergone malignant transformation continued their abnormal growth during the examined period (over 2 years). However, when such transformed cultures were grown for 3 months or longer in NM with L-cysteine or vitamin C, the growth became more and more normal, and the cultures resembled closely those of non-exposed controls. These results suggest that, in hamster lung cultures, addition of L-cysteine or vitamin C to media protects against or reverses abnormal

  14. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; ...

    2014-12-23

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increasedmore » wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. In conclusion, these data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.« less

  15. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2014-12-23

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. In conclusion, these data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.

  16. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. These data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production. PMID:25536327

  17. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

  18. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  19. Dehydroascorbate uptake activity correlates with cell growth and cell division of tobacco bright yellow-2 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Horemans, Nele; Potters, Geert; De Wilde, Leen; Caubergs, Roland J

    2003-09-01

    Recently, ascorbate (ASC) concentration and the activity of a number of enzymes from the ASC metabolism have been proven to correlate with differences in growth or cell cycle progression. Here, a possible correlation between growth and the activity of a plasma membrane dehydroascorbate (DHA) transporter was investigated. Protoplasts were isolated from a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cell culture at different intervals after inoculation and the activity of DHA transport was tested with (14)C-labeled ASC. Ferricyanide (1 mM) or dithiothreitol (1 mM) was included in the test to keep the external (14)C-ASC in its oxidized respectively reduced form. Differential uptake activity was observed, correlating with growth phases of the cell culture. Uptake of DHA in cells showed a peak in exponential growth phase, whereas uptake in the presence of dithiothreitol did not. The enhanced DHA uptake was not due to higher endogenous ASC levels that are normally present in exponential phase because preloading of protoplasts of different ages did not affect DHA uptake. Preloading was achieved by incubating cells before protoplastation for 4 h in a medium supplemented with 1 mM DHA. In addition to testing cells at different growth phases, uptake of DHA into the cells was also followed during the cell cycle. An increase in uptake activity was observed during M phase and the M/G1 transition. These experiments are the first to show that DHA transport activity into plant cells differs with cell growth. The relevance of the data to the action of DHA and ASC in cell growth will be discussed.

  20. Cryptogein, a fungal elicitor, remodels the phenylpropanoid metabolism of tobacco cell suspension cultures in a calcium-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Amelot, Nicolas; Carrouche, Audrey; Danoun, Saïda; Bourque, Stéphane; Haiech, Jacques; Pugin, Alain; Ranjeva, Raoul; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Mazars, Christian; Briere, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells use calcium-based signalling pathways to transduce biotic and/or abiotic stimuli into adaptive responses. However, little is known about the coupling between calcium signalling, transcriptional regulation and the downstream biochemical processes. To understand these relationships better, we challenged tobacco BY-2 cells with cryptogein and evaluated how calcium transients (monitored through the calcium sensor aequorin) impact (1) transcript levels of phenylpropanoid genes (assessed by RT-qPCR); and (2) derived-phenolic compounds (analysed by mass spectrometry). Most genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated by cryptogein and cell wall-bound phenolic compounds accumulated (mainly 5-hydroxyferulic acid). The accumulation of both transcripts and phenolics was calcium-dependent. The transcriptional regulation of phenylpropanoid genes was correlated in a non-linear manner with stimulus intensity and with components of the cryptogein-induced calcium signature. In addition, calmodulin inhibitors increased the sensitivity of cells to low concentrations of cryptogein. These results led us to propose a model of coupling between the cryptogein signal, calcium signalling and the transcriptional response, exerting control of transcription through the coordinated action of two decoding modules exerting opposite effects.

  1. Initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA Fragmentation patterns depend on linear energy transfer in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yuichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Hase, Yoshihiro; Shikazono, Naoya; Narumi, Issay; Tanaka, Atsushi; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    The ability of ion beams to kill or mutate plant cells is known to depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the ions, although the mechanism of damage is poorly understood. In this study, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by a DNA fragment-size analysis in tobacco protoplasts irradiated with high-LET ions. Tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, as a model of single plant cells, were irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions having different LETs and with gamma rays. After irradiation, DNA fragments were separated into sizes between 1600 and 6.6 kbp by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Information on DNA fragmentation was obtained by staining the gels with SYBR Green I. Initial DSB yields were found to depend on LET, and the highest relative biological effectiveness (about 1.6) was obtained at 124 and 241 keV/microm carbon ions. High-LET carbon and neon ions induced short DNA fragments more efficiently than gamma rays. These results partially explain the large biological effects caused by high-LET ions in plants.

  2. Growth, Water Content, and Solute Accumulation of Two Tobacco Cell Lines Cultured on Sodium Chloride, Dextran, and Polyethylene Glycol 1

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, James W.; Nabors, Murray W.

    1981-01-01

    Simulated drought tolerance was compared for an NaCl-adapted and a nonadapted cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsum) to determine the relationship of salt and drought tolerances. The osmotic adjustment and growth of these two lines was followed when cultured on solid media which contained isosmotic concentrations of NaCl, KCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or dextran. One line was adapted to growth on 130 millimolar NaCl, but the other was not. The growth of NaCl-adapted and nonadapted cell lines was equally inhibited (61 per cent of control) by 130 millimolar NaCl. Growth inhibition was greater on PEG or dextran than on NaCl. Growth ceased on the second passage of dextran for the nonadapted cells, while the NaCl-adapted cells grew slowly for four passages on dextran. Water contents for both cell lines were 95 per cent on NaCl or KCl and 70 to 88 per cent on PEG 1540 or 4000 or dextran after the second passage on these media. On dextran or PEG 4000, 46 to 89 per cent of the cellular osmotic potential was produced by the solutes initially present in the medium. Similarly, on NaCl, almost 100 per cent was attributable to solutes in the medium. It was concluded that cells grown on the nonpenetrating solutes had a more negative osmotic potential than those grown in the absence of added solute due to partial dehydration, greater uptake of external ions, and possibly the production of unidentified osmotica. Adjustment to growth on penetrating solutes may have enabled the adapted line to overcome the osmotic stress produced by nonpenetrating dextran. PMID:16662125

  3. Establishment of a tobacco BY2 cell line devoid of plant-specific xylose and fucose as a platform for the production of biotherapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Hanania, Uri; Ariel, Tami; Tekoah, Yoram; Fux, Liat; Sheva, Maor; Gubbay, Yehuda; Weiss, Mara; Oz, Dina; Azulay, Yaniv; Turbovski, Albina; Forster, Yehava; Shaaltiel, Yoseph

    2017-02-03

    Plant-produced glycoproteins contain N-linked glycans with plant-specific residues of β(1,2)-xylose and core α(1,3)-fucose, which do not exist in mammalian-derived proteins. Although our experience with two enzymes that are used for enzyme replacement therapy does not indicate that the plant sugar residues have deleterious effects, we made a conscious decision to eliminate these moieties from plant-expressed proteins. We knocked out the β(1,2)-xylosyltranferase (XylT) and the α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase (FucT) genes, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) cell suspension. In total, we knocked out 14 loci. The knocked-out lines were stable, viable and exhibited a typical BY2 growing rate. Glycan analysis of the endogenous proteins of these lines exhibited N-linked glycans lacking β(1,2)-xylose and/or α(1,3)-fucose. The knocked-out lines were further transformed successfully with recombinant DNaseI. The expression level and the activity of the recombinant protein were similar to that of the protein produced in the wild-type BY2 cells. The recombinant DNaseI was shown to be totally free from any xylose and/or fucose residues. The glyco-engineered BY2 lines provide a valuable platform for producing potent biopharmaceutical products. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the power of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for multiplex gene editing in BY2 cells.

  4. Heat suppresses activation of an auxin-responsive promoter in cultured guard cell protoplasts of tree tobacco.

    PubMed

    Dong, Malia A; Bufford, Jennifer L; Oono, Yutaka; Church, Kacy; Dau, Minh Q; Michels, Kara; Haughton, Michael; Tallman, Gary

    2007-10-01

    Cultured guard cell protoplasts (GCP) of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) comprise a novel system for investigating the cell signaling mechanisms that lead to acquired thermotolerance and thermoinhibition. At 32 degrees C in a medium containing an auxin (1-naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA]) and a cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine), GCP expand, regenerate cell walls, dedifferentiate, and divide. At 38 degrees C, GCP acquire thermotolerance within 24 h, but their expansion is limited and they neither regenerate walls nor reenter the cell cycle. These putative indicators of auxin insensitivity led us to hypothesize that heat suppresses induction of auxin-regulated genes in GCP. Protoplasts were transformed with BA-mgfp5-ER, in which the BA auxin-responsive promoter regulates transcription of mgfp5-ER encoding thermostable green fluorescent protein (GFP) or with a similar 35S-cauliflower mosaic virus constitutive promoter construct. Heat suppressed NAA-mediated activation of BA. After 21 h at 32 degrees C in media with NAA, 49.0% +/- 3.9% of BA-mgfp5-ER transformants strongly expressed GFP; expression percentages were similar to those of 35S-mgfp5-ER transformants at 32 degrees C or 38 degrees C. After 21 h at 38 degrees C in media with NAA, 7.9% +/- 1.6% of BA-mgfp5-ER transformants weakly expressed GFP, similar to GCP cultured at 32 degrees C in media lacking NAA. Expression at 38 degrees C was not increased by incubating for 48 h or increasing NAA concentrations 20-fold. After 9 to 12 h at 38 degrees C, BA was no longer activated when cells were transferred to 32 degrees C. Heat-stressed cells accumulate reactive oxygen species, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) suppresses auxin-responsive promoter activation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll protoplasts. H(2)O(2) did not suppress BA activation at 32 degrees C, nor did superoxide and H(2)O(2) scavengers prevent BA suppression at 38 degrees C.

  5. Heat Suppresses Activation of an Auxin-Responsive Promoter in Cultured Guard Cell Protoplasts of Tree Tobacco1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Malia A.; Bufford, Jennifer L.; Oono, Yutaka; Church, Kacy; Dau, Minh Q.; Michels, Kara; Haughton, Michael; Tallman, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Cultured guard cell protoplasts (GCP) of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) comprise a novel system for investigating the cell signaling mechanisms that lead to acquired thermotolerance and thermoinhibition. At 32°C in a medium containing an auxin (1-naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA]) and a cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine), GCP expand, regenerate cell walls, dedifferentiate, and divide. At 38°C, GCP acquire thermotolerance within 24 h, but their expansion is limited and they neither regenerate walls nor reenter the cell cycle. These putative indicators of auxin insensitivity led us to hypothesize that heat suppresses induction of auxin-regulated genes in GCP. Protoplasts were transformed with BA-mgfp5-ER, in which the BA auxin-responsive promoter regulates transcription of mgfp5-ER encoding thermostable green fluorescent protein (GFP) or with a similar 35S-cauliflower mosaic virus constitutive promoter construct. Heat suppressed NAA-mediated activation of BA. After 21 h at 32°C in media with NAA, 49.0% ± 3.9% of BA-mgfp5-ER transformants strongly expressed GFP; expression percentages were similar to those of 35S-mgfp5-ER transformants at 32°C or 38°C. After 21 h at 38°C in media with NAA, 7.9% ± 1.6% of BA-mgfp5-ER transformants weakly expressed GFP, similar to GCP cultured at 32°C in media lacking NAA. Expression at 38°C was not increased by incubating for 48 h or increasing NAA concentrations 20-fold. After 9 to 12 h at 38°C, BA was no longer activated when cells were transferred to 32°C. Heat-stressed cells accumulate reactive oxygen species, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) suppresses auxin-responsive promoter activation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll protoplasts. H2O2 did not suppress BA activation at 32°C, nor did superoxide and H2O2 scavengers prevent BA suppression at 38°C. PMID:17704234

  6. Specificity of expression of the GUS reporter gene (uidA) driven by the tobacco ASA2 promoter in soybean plants and tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yoshimi; Zhong, Wei Qun; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Widholm, Jack M

    2007-07-01

    Twelve independent lines were transformed by particle bombardment of soybean embryogenic suspension cultures with the tobacco anthranilate synthase (ASA2) promoter driving the uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) reporter gene. ASA2 appears to be expressed in a tissue culture specific manner in tobacco (Song H-S, Brotherton JE, Gonzales RA, Widholm JM. Tissue culture specific expression of a naturally occurring tobacco feedback-insensitive anthranilate synthase. Plant Physiol 1998;117:533-43). The transgenic lines also contained the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene and were selected using hygromycin. All the selected cultures or the embryos that were induced from these cultures expressed GUS measured histochemically. However, no histochemical GUS expression could be found in leaves, stems, roots, pods and root nodules of the plants formed from the embryos and their progeny. Pollen from some of the plants and immature and mature seeds and embryogenic cultures initiated from immature cotyledons did show GUS activity. Quantitative 4-methylumbelliferyl-glucuronide (MUG) assays of the GUS activity in various tissues showed that all with observable histochemical GUS activity contained easily measurable activities and leaves and stems that showed no observable histochemical GUS staining did contain very low but measurable MUG activity above that of the untransformed control but orders of magnitude lower than the constitutive 35S-uidA controls used. Low but clearly above background levels of boiling sensitive GUS activity could be observed in the untransformed control immature seeds and embryogenic cultures using the MUG assay. Thus in soybean the ASA2 promoter drives readily observable GUS expression in tissue cultures, pollen and seeds, with only extremely low levels seen in vegetative tissues of the plants. The ASA2 driven expression seen in mature seed was, however, much lower than that seen with the constitutive 35S promoter; less than 2% in seed coats and less than

  7. The Plastidial 2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway Provides the Isoprenyl Moiety for Protein Geranylgeranylation in Tobacco BY-2 Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Esther; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Hartmann, Michael; Heintz, Dimitri; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Mutterer, Jérôme; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Boronat, Albert; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rohmer, Michel; Crowell, Dring N.; Bach, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation are important posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. We visualized in transformed Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells the geranylgeranylation and plasma membrane localization of GFP-BD-CVIL, which consists of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the C-terminal polybasic domain (BD) and CVIL isoprenylation motif from the Oryza sativa calmodulin, CaM61. Treatment with fosmidomycin (Fos) or oxoclomazone (OC), inhibitors of the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, caused mislocalization of the protein to the nucleus, whereas treatment with mevinolin, an inhibitor of the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, did not. The nuclear localization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of MEP pathway inhibitors was completely reversed by all-trans-geranylgeraniol (GGol). Furthermore, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose (DX) reversed the effects of OC, but not Fos, consistent with the hypothesis that OC blocks 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthesis, whereas Fos inhibits its conversion to 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate. By contrast, GGol and DX did not rescue the nuclear mislocalization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of a protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 inhibitor. Thus, the MEP pathway has an essential role in geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis and protein geranylgeranylation in BY-2 cells. GFP-BD-CVIL is a versatile tool for identifying pharmaceuticals and herbicides that interfere either with GGPP biosynthesis or with protein geranylgeranylation. PMID:19136647

  8. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... divisions about tobacco (including smokeless tobacco), its health effects, and quitting. Related Oral Health Topics Oral Cancer ​ ​​​ Share This Page Facebook External link – please review our disclaimer Twitter External ...

  9. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste.

  10. Nicotine and tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  11. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: A 3-day repeated exposure study.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Filippo; Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Scotti, Elena; Schlage, Walter K; Mathis, Carole; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Torres, Laura Ortega; Keppler, Brian R; Elamin, Ashraf; Trivedi, Keyur; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2.2 aerosol. Results showed only minor histopathological alterations and minimal cytotoxicity upon THS2.2 aerosol exposure compared to CS (1% for THS2.2 aerosol vs. 30% for CS, at the high concentration). Among the 14 proinflammatory mediators analyzed, only 5 exhibited significant alterations with THS2.2 exposure compared with 11 upon CS exposure. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis indicated a general reduction of the impact in THS2.2 aerosol-exposed samples with respect to CS (∼79% lower biological impact for the high THS2.2 aerosol concentration compared to CS, and 13 metabolites significantly perturbed for THS2.2 vs. 181 for CS). This study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol had a lower impact on the pathophysiology of human gingival organotypic cultures than CS.

  12. Using Internet to recruit immigrants with language and culture barriers for tobacco and alcohol use screening: a study among Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay

    2015-04-01

    Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing applications for monitoring and stress detection in cultural plants: viral infections in tobacco plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Petrov, Nikolai; Maneva, Svetla

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal the presence of viral infections in two varieties of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) as well as to discriminate the levels of the disease using hyperspectral leaf reflectance. Data sets were collected from two tobacco cultivars, Xanthi and Rustica, known as most widespread in Bulgaria. Experimental plants were grown in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf plants of cultivar Xanthi were inoculated with Potato virus Y (PVY) while the Rustica plants were inoculated with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). These two viruses are worldwide distributed and cause significant yield losses in many economically important crops. In the course of time after inoculation the concentration of the viruses in plant leaves was assessed by erological analysis via DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR techniques. Hyperspectral reflectance data were collected by a portable fibreoptics spectrometer in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm). As control plants healthy untreated tobacco plants were used. The significance of the differences between reflectance spectra of control and infected leaves was analyzed by means of Student's t-criterion at p<0.05. The analyses were performed at ten wavebands selected to cover the green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm) spectral ranges. Changes in SRC were found for both viral treatments and comparative analysis showed that the influence of PVY was stronger. The discrimination of disease intensity was achieved by derivative analysis of the red edge position.

  14. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  15. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, chewing tobacco has long been associated with baseball. Players chewed it to keep their mouths moist, ... in most of America and not too many baseball players were spitting big brown gobs all over ...

  16. Tobacco control: present and future.

    PubMed

    West, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The history of tobacco control in the twentieth century can be summed up by the phrase 'too little, too late'. The century saw the proliferation of the most deadly form of tobacco use: cigarette smoking. Until the 1970s, no government took serious action to protect its citizens. In fact, probably the most effective global tobacco control 'strategies' to date have not been motivated by health concerns: they have been inaccessible or uneconomic markets for tobacco companies and a cultural taboo on women smoking. Economic development has led to massive increases in male cigarette smoking in developing countries but even now <10% of women in non-Western countries such as China, Russia and India smoke. With 'westernization', this picture is changing. Without drastic action to get current smokers to stop, the annual rate of tobacco-related deaths will grow from 5 million in 2006 to 10 million in 2025. Without further action to prevent take up of smoking, the subsequent death toll will be even higher. The recently enacted World Health Organization (WHO)-initiated Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) can mitigate this impending disaster but only if it is implemented according to the spirit and not just the letter of the articles contained therein. Specific tobacco levies in every country should be the primary means of kick-starting the process, with the proceeds being used exclusively to fund other tobacco control initiatives, including product regulation.

  17. Phenotypic modification of human airway epithelial cells in air-liquid interface culture induced by exposure to the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    PubMed

    Carson, Johnny L; Brighton, Luisa E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent tobacco-specific carcinogen. We used an air-liquid interface epithelial cell culture system to model changes associated with NNK exposure relative to pathologies documented in human tobacco-related illnesses. Although in vitro systems exhibit certain limitations, they often offer accentuation of subtle pathologies. While the distribution of cell types in control cultures typically favors the ciliated cell phenotype, NNK-exposed cultures transitioned to non-ciliated cell phenotypes as well as reflecting features consistent with squamous metaplasia. We conclude that NNK impacts normal growth and differentiation of human airway epithelium in a short interval of time in vitro.

  18. Phenotypic and physiologic variability in nasal epithelium cultured from smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergence of air-liquid interface (ALI) culturing of mammalian airway epithelium is a recent innovation for experimental modeling of airway epithelial development, function, and pathogenic mechanisms associated with infectious agent and irritant exposure. This construct provi...

  19. Smokeless tobacco in Canada: deterring market development

    PubMed Central

    Wyckham, R.

    1999-01-01

    DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented.
METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the past 30 years are examined. Canadian tobacco regulations are described. Strategies by which the increased exploitation of the Canadian smokeless tobacco market can be deterred are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS—A long-term, independently financed strategy built around a national smokeless tobacco de-marketing organisation with a constellation of private local institutions is suggested as a means of combating smokeless tobacco marketing efforts.


Keywords: smokeless tobacco; marketing; Canada PMID:10629248

  20. The behaviour of tomato golden mosaic virus DNA in cultured cells isolated from systemically infected tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Slomka, M J; Buck, K W; Coutts, R H

    1989-03-01

    When callus tissue was cultured from leaf pieces taken from a Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc. plant systemically infected with tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), TGMV-specific DNA persisted for up to 6 months in culture. Analysis of TGMV-specific intracellular DNA forms indicated a decrease in double-stranded relative to single-stranded forms and an increase in sub-genomic relative to genomic single-stranded DNA species in the callus tissue compared to those in the original leaf explant. The implications of the results with regard to TGMV replication are discussed.

  1. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... which is a cancerous tumor in the back part of the throat. In 2014, Hall of Famer ... first). Use substitutes such as tobacco-free, mint-leaf snuff; sugarless gum; hard candy; beef jerky; sunflower seeds; shredded coconut; raisins; or dried fruit. Distract yourself ...

  2. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, N N; Sein, T; Sein, A A; Than Htike, M M; Tun, A; Shein, N N N

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in various forms is highly prevalent in Myanmar. The aim of this paper is to study the socio-cultural background of SLT use and products of SLT in Myanmar and the prevalence of SLT based on surveys and from other published data bases. Information was obtained from the literature review and through search on PubMed and Google. The use of SLT is deep rooted in Myanmar culture, and there is also wide-spread belief that it is not as dangerous as smoking. SLT use is growing in Myanmar. About 9.8% of the 13-15-year-old school children and 20.8% adults use SLT; it is many-fold higher among men. The use of SLT is prevalent using many different types of tobacco and forms of its use in Myanmar. The socio-cultural acceptance and the myths were compounded by the lack of specific SLT control component in the National Tobacco Control Legislation adopted needs to be addressed as a priority through intensified community awareness programs, public education programs, and advocacy campaigns. Effective enforcement of the law and amendment to include specific components of SLT in the provisions of the law is highly recommended. The prevalence of SLT is high among school children and adults (especially in men) in Myanmar. Betel quid and tobacco is a common form of SLT use. Although control of smoking and consumption of tobacco product law exists, its implementation is weak.

  3. Military Tobacco Policies: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Haddock, C. Keith; Long, Mark A. D.; Williams, CAPT Larry N.; Lando, Harry A.; Carlos Poston, W. S.

    2012-01-01

    The United States military has the legacy of a pro-tobacco culture and still has prevalence rates of tobacco use that are higher than their civilian counterparts. One tactic for decreasing use and the subsequent health problems is through effective tobacco control policies. We collected available tobacco control policies from all four branches of the military and, through qualitative analysis, identified policies that were unique either as providing more or less detail and restriction than peer group policies. Best and worst practice policies in the areas of enforcement, smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use, environmental tobacco smoke, framing tobacco as non-normative, designated tobacco use areas, and monitoring of tobacco use are presented. Because policy making can be an effective tool for improving the health of military members, understanding what policy components are comparatively positive or negative is an important tool for health advocates both in the military and civilian settings. PMID:22338352

  4. Military tobacco policies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara A; Hoffman, Kevin M; Haddock, C Keith; Long, Mark A D; Williams, Larry N; Lando, Harry A; Poston, W S Carlos

    2011-12-01

    The United States military has the legacy of a pro-tobacco culture and still has prevalence rates of tobacco use that are higher than their civilian counterparts. One tactic for decreasing use and the subsequent health problems is through effective tobacco control policies. We collected available tobacco control policies from all four branches of the military and, through qualitative analysis, identified policies that were unique either as providing more or less detail and restriction than peer group policies. Best and worst practice policies in the areas of enforcement, smoking cessation, smokeless tobacco use, environmental tobacco smoke, framing tobacco as non-normative, designated tobacco use areas, and monitoring of tobacco use are presented. Because policy making can be an effective tool for improving the health of military members, understanding what policy components are comparatively positive or negative is an important tool for health advocates both in the military and civilian settings.

  5. High-yield production of a human monoclonal IgG by rhizosecretion in hydroponic tobacco cultures.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Luisa M; Szeto, Tim H; Henquet, Maurice; Raven, Nicole; Runions, John; Huddleston, Jon; Garrard, Ian; Drake, Pascal M W; Ma, Julian K-C

    2016-02-01

    Rhizosecretion of recombinant pharmaceuticals from in vitro hydroponic transgenic plant cultures is a simple, low cost, reproducible and controllable production method. Here, we demonstrate the application and adaptation of this manufacturing platform to a human antivitronectin IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) called M12. The rationale for specific growth medium additives was established by phenotypic analysis of root structure and by LC-ESI-MS/MS profiling of the total protein content profile of the hydroponic medium. Through a combination of optimization approaches, mAb yields in hydroponic medium reached 46 μg/mL in 1 week, the highest figure reported for a recombinant mAb in a plant secretion-based system to date. The rhizosecretome was determined to contain 104 proteins, with the mAb heavy and light chains the most abundant. This enabled evaluation of a simple, scalable extraction and purification protocol and demonstration that only minimal processing was necessary prior to protein A affinity chromatography. MALDI-TOF MS revealed that purified mAb contained predominantly complex-type plant N-glycans, in three major glycoforms. The binding of M12 purified from hydroponic medium to vitronectin was comparable to its Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived counterpart. This study demonstrates that in vitro hydroponic cultivation coupled with recombinant protein rhizosecretion can be a practical, low-cost production platform for monoclonal antibodies.

  6. You and Me Tobacco Free: Children's Activities in Tobacco Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Judith K.

    This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. The booklet presents seven activities to teach young children in kindergarten through third grade to remain tobacco free.…

  7. Production of an active recombinant thrombomodulin derivative in transgenic tobacco plants and suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Helga; Schiermeyer, Andreas; Soeur, Raphael; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    Thrombomodulin is a membrane-bound protein that plays an active role in the blood coagulation system by binding thrombin and initiating the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Solulin is a recombinant soluble derivative of human thrombomodulin. It is used for the treatment of thrombotic disorders. To evaluate the production of this pharmaceutical protein in plants, expression vectors were generated using four different N-terminal signal peptides. Immunoblot analysis of transiently transformed tobacco leaves showed that intact Solulin could be detected using three of these signal peptides. Furthermore transgenic tobacco plants and BY2 cells producing Solulin were generated. Immunoblot experiments showed that Solulin accumulated to maximum levels of 115 and 27 microg g(-1) plant material in tobacco plants and BY2 cells, respectively. Activity tests performed on the culture supernatant of transformed BY2 cells showed that the secreted Solulin was functional. In contrast, thrombomodulin activity was not detected in total soluble protein extracts from BY2 cells, probably due to inhibitory effects of substances in the cell extract. N-terminal sequencing was carried out on partially purified Solulin from the BY2 culture supernatant. The sequence was identical to that of Solulin produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, confirming correct processing of the N-terminal signal peptide. We have demonstrated that plants and plant cell cultures can be used as alternative systems for the production of an active recombinant thrombomodulin derivative.

  8. Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Tobacco and Cancer Get information on cigarette, cigar, and ... affects different groups of people. Read more How Tobacco and Smoking Affects Your Health Carcinogens in Tobacco ...

  9. Thermotolerant Guard Cell Protoplasts of Tree Tobacco Do Not Require Exogenous Hormones to Survive in Culture and Are Blocked from Reentering the Cell Cycle at the G1-to-S Transition1

    PubMed Central

    Gushwa, Nathan N.; Hayashi, Derek; Kemper, Andrea; Abram, Beverly; Taylor, Jane E.; Upton, Jason; Tay, Chloe F.; Fiedler, Sarah; Pullen, Sam; Miller, Linnsey P.; Tallman, Gary

    2003-01-01

    When guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) of tree tobacco [Nicotiana glauca (Graham)] are cultured at 32°C with an auxin (1-napthaleneacetic acid) and a cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine), they reenter the cell cycle, dedifferentiate, and divide. GCPs cultured similarly but at 38°C and with 0.1 μm ± -cis,trans-abscisic acid (ABA) remain differentiated. GCPs cultured at 38°C without ABA dedifferentiate partially but do not divide. Cell survival after 1 week is 70% to 80% under all of these conditions. In this study, we show that GCPs cultured for 12 to 24 h at 38°C accumulate heat shock protein 70 and develop a thermotolerance that, upon transfer of cells to 32°C, enhances cell survival but inhibits cell cycle reentry, dedifferentiation, and division. GCPs dedifferentiating at 32°C require both 1-napthaleneacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine to survive, but thermotolerant GCPs cultured at 38°C ± ABA do not require either hormone for survival. Pulse-labeling experiments using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine indicate that culture at 38°C ± ABA prevents dedifferentiation of GCPs by blocking cell cycle reentry at G1/S. Cell cycle reentry at 32°C is accompanied by loss of a 41-kD polypeptide that cross-reacts with antibodies to rat (Rattus norvegicus) extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1; thermotolerant GCPs retain this polypeptide. A number of polypeptides unique to thermotolerant cells have been uncovered by Boolean analysis of two-dimensional gels and are targets for further analysis. GCPs of tree tobacco can be isolated in sufficient numbers and with the purity required to study plant cell thermotolerance and its relationship to plant cell survival, growth, dedifferentiation, and division in vitro. PMID:12913149

  10. Thermotolerant guard cell protoplasts of tree tobacco do not require exogenous hormones to survive in culture and are blocked from reentering the cell cycle at the G1-to-S transition.

    PubMed

    Gushwa, Nathan N; Hayashi, Derek; Kemper, Andrea; Abram, Beverly; Taylor, Jane E; Upton, Jason; Tay, Chloe F; Fiedler, Sarah; Pullen, Sam; Miller, Linnsey P; Tallman, Gary

    2003-08-01

    When guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) of tree tobacco [Nicotiana glauca (Graham)] are cultured at 32 degrees C with an auxin (1-napthaleneacetic acid) and a cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine), they reenter the cell cycle, dedifferentiate, and divide. GCPs cultured similarly but at 38 degrees C and with 0.1 micro M +/- -cis,trans-abscisic acid (ABA) remain differentiated. GCPs cultured at 38 degrees C without ABA dedifferentiate partially but do not divide. Cell survival after 1 week is 70% to 80% under all of these conditions. In this study, we show that GCPs cultured for 12 to 24 h at 38 degrees C accumulate heat shock protein 70 and develop a thermotolerance that, upon transfer of cells to 32 degrees C, enhances cell survival but inhibits cell cycle reentry, dedifferentiation, and division. GCPs dedifferentiating at 32 degrees C require both 1-napthaleneacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine to survive, but thermotolerant GCPs cultured at 38 degrees C +/- ABA do not require either hormone for survival. Pulse-labeling experiments using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine indicate that culture at 38 degrees C +/- ABA prevents dedifferentiation of GCPs by blocking cell cycle reentry at G1/S. Cell cycle reentry at 32 degrees C is accompanied by loss of a 41-kD polypeptide that cross-reacts with antibodies to rat (Rattus norvegicus) extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1; thermotolerant GCPs retain this polypeptide. A number of polypeptides unique to thermotolerant cells have been uncovered by Boolean analysis of two-dimensional gels and are targets for further analysis. GCPs of tree tobacco can be isolated in sufficient numbers and with the purity required to study plant cell thermotolerance and its relationship to plant cell survival, growth, dedifferentiation, and division in vitro.

  11. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure.

  12. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    PubMed

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  13. Chinese Tobacco Industry Promotional Activity on the Microblog Weibo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Methods Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Results Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by ‘advertisement’ and ‘tobacco culture’ (both at 12%), ‘traditional culture’ and ‘public relations’ (both at 11%), and finally ‘social and business affairs’ (5%). 33% of posts included the words ‘cigarette’ or ‘smoking’ and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Conclusions Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban. PMID:24914739

  14. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents.

  15. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers.

  16. Project Quit Tobacco International: laying the groundwork for tobacco cessation in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The 3 aims of Project Quit Tobacco International are to design a tobacco curriculum for medical colleges, develop culturally appropriate approaches to clinic and community-based tobacco cessation, and to build tobacco research and training networks within India and Indonesia as a prototype for other countries. This article describes pilot interventions being launched in 10 medical colleges in these 2 countries to (a) integrate tobacco into their 4-year training programs, ( b) establish illness-specific cessation clinics, and (c) involve colleges in community outreach efforts to promote smoke-free households. This article reports on lessons learned, challenges faced, and successes realized to date.

  17. Toxicity assessment of tobacco products in vitro.

    PubMed

    Manuppello, Joseph R; Sullivan, Kristie M

    2015-03-01

    Driven by new regulatory demands to demonstrate risk reduction, the toxicity assessment of tobacco products increasingly employs innovative in vitro methods, including biphasic cell and tissue cultures exposed to whole cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface, cell transformation assays, and genomic analyses. At the same time, novel tobacco products are increasingly compared to traditional cigarettes. This overview of in vitro toxicology studies of tobacco products reported in the last five years provides evidence to support the prioritisation of in vitro over in vivo methods by industry and their recommendation by regulatory authorities.

  18. Tobacco control in India: present scenario and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Jandoo, Tarveen; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco imposes a colossal burden of disease and death leading to catastrophic health, social, economic and environmental effects. Prevalence and practices of tobacco use in India are varied and disparate. Tobacco consumption continues to grow at 2-3% per annum, and by 2020 it is predicted that it will account for 13% of all deaths in the country. India is now demonstrating a steely resolve to contain the menace of tobacco through a comprehensive control strategy that combines several demand and supply reduction measures. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be inefficient. The 'Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Bill, 2003' represented an advance in tobacco control. It included demand reduction measures like outlawing smoking in public places, forbidding sale of tobacco to minors, requiring more prominent health warning labels, and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. India, as a signatory to FCTC, is actively involved in combating the menace of tobacco with renewed fervor. There is a need to devise innovative methods of mobilizing financial and human resources for tobacco control, establish efficient national coordinating mechanisms, integrate tobacco control into health and development programs and periodically evaluate these activities. The Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

  19. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  20. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing. The Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids was a ... gives the FDA authority to regulate the manufacturing, marketing and sale of tobacco products National Tobacco Control ...

  1. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Pregnancy Text Size: A A A Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Can smokeless tobacco affect my ... tobacco use cause other health problems? Can smokeless tobacco affect my oral health? It may cause tooth ...

  2. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio-cultural

  3. Youth and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2,10 Community programs that reduce tobacco advertising, promotions, and availability of tobacco products 2,10 Some ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2016 ...

  4. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  5. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  6. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events - United States, 1992-2013.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2016-08-19

    Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship of sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events using the tobacco brand name or anything identifiable with any brand of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco).(§) However, corporate-name tobacco sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship using the name of the corporation that manufactures regulated tobacco products) is still permitted under certain conditions.(¶) To monitor tobacco advertising and promotional activities in sports in the United States, CDC analyzed trends in sports-related marketing expenditures for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during 1992-2013 using data from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). During 1992-2013, sports-related marketing expenditures, adjusted by the consumer price index to constant 2013 dollars, decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to $0 in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). During 2010-2013, after the prohibition of tobacco-brand sponsorship in sports under the FSPTCA, cigarette manufacturers reported no spending (i.e., $0) on sports-related advertising and promotional activities; in contrast, smokeless tobacco manufacturers reported expenditures of $16.3 million on advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco in sports during 2010-2013. These findings indicate that despite prohibitions

  7. Involvement of the putative Ca²⁺-permeable mechanosensitive channels, NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, in Ca²⁺ uptake, Ca²⁺-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Yamanaka, Takuya; Nakano, Masataka; Takiguchi, Akiko; Ogasawara, Yoko; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Iida, Kazuko; Hanamata, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Iida, Hidetoshi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    To gain insight into the cellular functions of the mid1-complementing activity (MCA) family proteins, encoding putative Ca²⁺-permeable mechanosensitive channels, we isolated two MCA homologs of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, named NtMCA1 and NtMCA2. NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 partially complemented the lethality and Ca²⁺ uptake defects of yeast mutants lacking mechanosensitive Ca²⁺ channel components. Furthermore, in yeast cells overexpressing NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, the hypo-osmotic shock-induced Ca²⁺ influx was enhanced. Overexpression of NtMCA1 or NtMCA2 in BY-2 cells enhanced Ca²⁺ uptake, and significantly alleviated growth inhibition under Ca²⁺ limitation. NtMCA1-overexpressing BY-2 cells showed higher sensitivity to hypo-osmotic shock than control cells, and induced the expression of the touch-inducible gene, NtERF4. We found that both NtMCA1-GFP and NtMCA2-GFP were localized at the plasma membrane and its interface with the cell wall, Hechtian strands, and at the cell plate and perinuclear vesicles of dividing cells. NtMCA2 transcript levels fluctuated during the cell cycle and were highest at the G1 phase. These results suggest that NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 play roles in Ca²⁺-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in BY-2 cells, by regulating the Ca²⁺ influx through the plasma membrane.

  8. Use of Native American imagery to sell tobacco.

    PubMed

    BlueEye, LaDonna

    2004-05-01

    The tobacco plant has been used in Native American communities in sacred, traditional and cultural ways prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Early immigrants to North America were introduced to tobacco use by Native Americans and the plant was quickly turned into a commercial success in Europe. Native American images have been used for centuries to commercialize a product that once held only spiritual significance to American Indian tribes. This article provides a history of tobacco, from the sacred use by Native Americans, to the commercialism of tobacco in North America. Included is a review of early to current advertisements using Native American images.

  9. State Tobacco Control Highlights--1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Perry; Alexander, Vickie L.; Allison, Harmony; Coole, David F.; Fishman, Julie A.; Knox, Steven R.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Schooley, Michael W.; Shelton, Dana M.; Woollery, Trevor A.

    This document provides a compilation of tobacco information for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, covering topics such as the prevalence of tobacco use, the health impact and costs associated with tobacco use, tobacco control laws, and tobacco agriculture and manufacturing. Recommended practices for school-based programs are included.…

  10. Women and tobacco in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To present a broad exploration of the relationship of women and tobacco in Indonesia and to describe action on tobacco and health specific to women taken by government and non-government agencies.
DATA SOURCES—Published and unpublished prevalence surveys, official documents, vernacular newspapers, secondary sources, unstructured interviews, and personal observations.
STUDY SELECTION—Data on smoking prevalence among women was primarily sought from official household surveys but several smaller scale local surveys were also examined. The only representative national household data on smoking prevalence from 1995 suggested a national prevalence for occasional and regular smoking of 2.6% for women aged 20 years or older. Smaller, local level surveys had reported rates varying from 4% for junior high school girls, and 2.9% for women undergraduates at a provincial university, to 6.4% of women in a representative sample in Jakarta. Claims that the incidence of female smoking is increasing cannot be confirmed due to an absence of comparable national longitudinal data.
CONCLUSION—Although Indonesian women are conspicuous in growing and processing tobacco, their rates of smoking are low in comparison with their male compatriots and internationally. Anecdotal evidence suggests that their disinclination to smoke is commonly attributed to cultural values, which stigmatise women smokers as morally flawed, while at the same time sanctioning smoking by men. Although there is little evidence of tobacco advertising directly targeting women, Indonesian health activists interviewed by the author felt that women are increasingly taking up smoking due to a weakening of stigma and to Western cultural influences. Cultural factors in the low rates of smoking among Indonesian women deserve closer investigation as they have proved to be a major source of health protection, albeit within a stigmatising context. More also needs to be known about the dynamics of

  11. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  12. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  13. Readiness for smoke-free policy and overall strength of tobacco control in rural tobacco-growing communities.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy

    2013-03-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak policies. The study determined whether overall strength of Resources, Capacity, and Efforts in tobacco control predicts readiness for smoke-free policy in rural communities, controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. This was a correlational, cross-sectional analysis of data from key informants (n = 148) and elected officials (n = 83) from 30 rural counties who participated in telephone interviews examining smoke-free policy. Six dimensions of community readiness (knowledge, leadership, resources, community climate, existing smoke-free policies, and political climate) were identified and summed to assess overall readiness for smoke-free policy. General strength of overall Resources, Capacity and Efforts in tobacco control at the county level was measured. Readiness for smoke-free policy was lower in communities with higher smoking rates, higher tobacco production, and smaller population. Efforts related to general tobacco control (i.e., media advocacy, training, and technical assistance) predicted readiness for local smoke-free policy development (standardized β = .35, p = .05), controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. Given that small, rural tobacco-growing communities are least ready for smoke-free policy change, tailoring and testing culturally sensitive approaches that account for this tobacco-growing heritage are warranted.

  14. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    PubMed Central

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  15. Superoxide-mediated inactivation of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite formation by tobacco smoke in vascular endothelium: studies in cultured cells and smokers

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, Gonzalo; Calcerrada, Pablo; Piacenza, Lucia; Pizzano, Nelson; Radi, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is known to cause nitric oxide (·NO) inactivation and endothelial dysfunction. In this work we evaluated the interplay between ·NO and superoxide (O2·−) radicals and the consequent impact on ·NO bioavailability and nitroxidative stress in bovine aortic endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and in smokers. Bovine aortic endothelial cells in the presence of CSE triggered O2·− production as indicated by spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance experiments. O2·− was produced both extracellulary (3.4 vs. 1.0 nmol·h−1·mg−1; CSE vs. control; cytochrome c3+ reduction assay) and intracellularly (40% inhibition of cytosolic aconitase). CSE also led to the production of peroxynitrite as evaluated by dihydrorhodamine oxidation and protein tyrosine nitration on cells. O2·− and peroxynitrite formation were decreased by ascorbate and α-tocopherol. Additionally, CSE led to the oxidation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase increasing the monomeric inactive form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Smokers and age-matched healthy volunteers were supplemented orally with 500 mg ascorbate plus 400 IU all-rac-α-tocopherol every 12 h for 165 days. Smokers had endothelial dysfunction compared with control subjects (95% confidence interval: 2.5, 8.3 vs. 10.6, 14.2; P < 0.05) as assessed by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and plasma levels of protein 3-nitrotyrosine were 1.4-fold higher. The loss of flow-mediated dilation in smokers reverted after a long-term antioxidant supplementation (95% confidence interval: 13.9, 19.9; P < 0.05), reaching values comparable with the control population. Our data indicate that elements on tobacco smoke, most likely through redox cycling, divert ·NO toward peroxynitrite by inducing O2·− production in vascular endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19363134

  16. Receptor-Mediated Tobacco Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Juan; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Marubio, Lisa M.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Jolkovsky, David L.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is a known cause of oral disease but the mechanism remains elusive. Nicotine (Nic) is a likely culprit of pathobiological effects because it displaces the local cytotransmitter acetylcholine from the nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) expressed by oral keratinocytes (KCs). To gain a mechanistic insight into tobacco-induced morbidity in the oral cavity, we studied effects of exposures to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus equivalent concentration of pure Nic on human and murine KCs. Both ETS and Nic up-regulated expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, differentiation marker filaggrin, and signal transduction factors at both the mRNA and protein levels. These changes could be abolished in cultured human oral KCs transfected with anti-α3 small interfering RNA or treated with the α3β2-preferring antagonist α-conotoxin MII. Functional inactivation of α3-mediated signaling in α3−/− mutant KCs prevented most of the ETS/Nic-dependent changes in gene expression. To determine relevance of the in vitro findings to the in vivo situation, we studied gene expression in oral mucosa of neonatal α3+/+ and α3−/− littermates delivered by heterozygous mice soon after their exposures to ETS or equivalent concentration of pure Nic in drinking water. In addition to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, the ETS/Nic-dependent alterations in gene expression were also detected by semiquantitative immunofluorescence assay directly in KCs comprising murine oral mucosa. Only wild-type mice consistently developed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the gene expression. These results identified α3β2 nAChR as a major receptor mediating effects of tobacco products on KC gene expression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that in all three model systems the common genes targeted by α3β2-mediated ETS/Nic toxicity were p21, Bcl-2, NF-κB, and STAT-1. The expression of the nAChR subunits α5 and β2 and the muscarinic

  17. Tobacco denormalisation and representations of different tobacco users in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saebø, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    This study asks whether representations of different typical tobacco users vary in line with established stereotypes and by social group membership (especially tobacco user status). Social identity theory posits that representations differ due to varying identification with product users on the basis of personal use, while distinction theory suggests representations will be structured by proximity and distance to user groups. Using principal component analysis to identify representations and regression analysis to determine variances in representations, we find that four of five groups of typical tobacco users (snus users, pipe, cigarette, and cigar smokers) can be classified according to three similar representations: socially secure, culturally marginal and unappealing. Respondents who themselves use a certain tobacco product are more likely to consider a 'typical' user from their own group as more 'socially secure' and less 'culturally marginal' and 'unappealing' than non-users. Former smokers tend to side with non-smokers, which suggests their 'smoker identity' is on the wane. At the representational level, then, socio-historical distinctions between different tobacco products seem to have diminished in favour of a largely dual classification, with users expressing positive and non-users negative representations, of any typical user. This is a likely consequence of persistent tobacco denormalisation policies.

  18. Proline and glycinebetaine ameliorated NaCl stress via scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and methylglyoxal but not superoxide or nitric oxide in tobacco cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Banu, Mst Nasrin Akhter; Hoque, Md Anamul; Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi; Islam, Mohammad Muzahidul; Uraji, Misugi; Matsuoka, Ken; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Efficient detoxification of the reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO) and methylglyoxal (MG), provides protection against NaCl-induced damage in plants. To elucidate the protective mechanisms of proline and glycinebetaine (betaine) against NaCl stress, intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide (O(2)(-)), NO, and MG were investigated in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells. The Levels of H(2)O(2), O(2)(-), NO and MG were higher in the short-term and long-term NaCl-stressed cells than in the non-stressed cells, whereas the O(2)(-) level was higher in the long-term stressed cells. Exogenous proline and betaine decreased the H(2)O(2) level in both the short-term and the long-term NaCl-stressed cells and the MG level in the long-term NaCl-stressed cells, but did not change the O(2)(-) or NO levels. Under salt stress, both proline and betaine increased the transcription levels of glutathione peroxidase, which can contribute to the reduction of H(2)O(2). In conclusion, proline and betaine mitigated salt stress via reduction of H(2)O(2) accumulation during short-term incubation and via reduction of the accumulation of H(2)O(2) and MG during long-term incubation.

  19. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192

  20. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  1. Sensitivity of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) hepatocyte cultures to induction of cytochrome P4501A by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sean W; Jones, Stephanie P; Elliott, John E

    2003-01-01

    Graded doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were added to primary hepatocyte cultures of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) embryos to determine their sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and porphyrin accumulation. No porphyrin accumulation was observed, but both CYP1A catalytic activity (using the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay) and immunodetectable CYP1A were induced by relatively high concentrations of TCDD. Bald eagle hepatocytes were less sensitive to CYP1A induction than hepatocytes from any other avian species that we have studied to date. These in vitro results are in general agreement with recent assessments of field data, which indicate that bald eagles are relatively insensitive to some of the effects of TCDD and related compounds. Preparation of bald eagle hepatocytes was challenging because existing methods did not yield monolayers of cells. Here we describe details of a new method that was successful for bald eagle hepatocytes. This new method is used routinely in our laboratory to prepare hepatocyte cultures from birds for examination of various biochemical responses to environmental contaminants.

  2. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-04-24

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed.

  3. Tobacco. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, causing more than 400,000 deaths each year and resulting in an annual cost of more than $50 billion in direct medical costs. This paper provides tips and resources to help communities undertake the necessary steps to reduce tobacco use. It includes a list of national…

  4. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  5. Tobacco documents research methodology

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933

  6. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide: Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This guide was designed to aid prevention specialists, educators, parents, and others in addressing tobacco problems among youth. Listed here are numerous publications--each one summarized--on tobacco use. The guide is divided into two sections: (1) Prevention Material for Tobacco; and (2) Studies, Articles, and Reports on Tobacco. Section one…

  7. Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

    1983-02-01

    The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

  8. [Biodegradation of nicotine in tobacco extracts for making reconstituted tobacco by strain DN2].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongjun; Lu, Zhaoxin; Qi, Xiangyang

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to use O. intermedium DN2 to degrade nicotine in tobacco extracts for making reconstituted tobacco. Firstly, we studied the effects of various factors on degradation of nicotine in the extracts by strain DN2. When we added 0.1% yeast extract into the extracts, adjusted its pH value to 7.0 by ammonia solution, inoculated 15% cultures and maintained fermentation temperature of 30 degrees C, the degradation rate of nicotine by strain DN2 was the fastest. Furthmore, under these conditions, we studied the degradation rates of nicotine in three fed batches culture which carried out in a 30-L reactor, the result showed that the average degradation rate of nicotine by strain DN2 was 140.55 mg/L/h, which was much higher than that reported in other studies. These results indicated that strain DN2 may be useful for reducing nicotine content of reconstituted tobacco.

  9. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  10. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  11. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the…

  12. Interference by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with cultured mouse submandibular gland branching morphogenesis involves reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukkonen, Anu . E-mail: anummela@mappi.helsinki.fi; Sahlberg, Carin; Partanen, Anna-Maija; Alaluusua, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Tuomisto, Jouko; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa

    2006-05-01

    Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to mouse embryonic teeth, sharing features of early development with salivary glands in common, involves enhanced apoptosis and depends on the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF receptor signaling, on the other hand, is essential for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. To see if TCDD impairs salivary gland morphogenesis and if the impairment is associated with EGF receptor signaling, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E13 submandibular glands with TCDD or TCDD in combination with EGF or fibronectin (FN), both previously found to enhance branching morphogenesis. Explants were examined stereomicroscopically and processed to paraffin sections. TCDD exposure impaired epithelial branching and cleft formation, resulting in enlarged buds. The glands were smaller than normal. EGF and FN alone concentration-dependently stimulated or inhibited branching morphogenesis but when co-administered with TCDD, failed to compensate for its effect. TCDD induced cytochrome P4501A1 expression in the glandular epithelium, indicating activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. TCDD somewhat increased epithelial apoptosis as observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method but the increase could not be correlated with morphological changes. The frequency of proliferating cells was not altered. Corresponding to the reduced cleft sites in TCDD-exposed explants, FN immunoreactivity in the epithelium was reduced. The results show that TCDD, comparably with EGF and FN at morphogenesis-inhibiting concentrations, impaired salivary gland branching morphogenesis in vitro. Together with the failure of EGF and FN at morphogenesis-stimulating concentrations to compensate for the effect of TCDD this implies that TCDD toxicity to developing salivary gland involves reduced EGF receptor signaling.

  13. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... People in many regions and countries, including North America, northern Europe, India and other Asian countries, and parts of Africa, have a long history of using smokeless tobacco products. There are two ...

  14. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002032.htm Risks of tobacco To use the sharing features on ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  15. You(th) & Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... the tobacco use on TV and in movies, music videos, billboards and magazines–most teens, adults, and ... Early and Often Despite the impact of movies, music, and TV, parents can be the GREATEST INFLUENCE ...

  16. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing or sniffing tobacco include aniline, naphthalene, phenol, pyrene, tar, and 2- ...

  17. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  18. [Evaluating tobacco dependance].

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-11-29

    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  19. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  20. Tobacco NUP1 transports both tobacco alkaloids and vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    Kato, Keita; Shitan, Nobukazu; Shoji, Tsubasa; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The purine permeases (PUPs) constitute a large plasma membrane-localized transporter family in plants that mediates the proton-coupled uptake of nucleotide bases and their derivatives, such as adenine, cytokinins, and caffeine. A Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) PUP-family transporter, nicotine uptake permease 1 (NtNUP1), was previously shown to transport tobacco alkaloids and to affect both nicotine biosynthesis and root growth in tobacco plants. Since Arabidopsis PUP1, which belongs to the same subclade as NtNUP1, was recently reported to transport pyridoxine and its derivatives (vitamin B6), it was of interest to examine whether NtNUP1 could also transport these substrates. Direct uptake measurements in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that NtNUP1 efficiently promoted the uptake of pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, anatabine, and nicotine. The naturally occurring (S)-isomer of nicotine was preferentially transported over the (R)-isomer. Transport studies using tobacco BY-2 cell lines overexpressing NtNUP1 or PUP1 showed that NtNUP1, similar to PUP1, transported various compounds containing a pyridine ring, but that the two transporters had distinct substrate preferences. Therefore, the previously reported effects of NtNUP1 on tobacco physiology might involve bioactive metabolites other than tobacco alkaloids.

  1. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training... ``Tobacco Retailer Training Programs.'' The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) does not require retailers to implement retailer training programs. However, the...

  2. Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Caitlin R.; Chu, Alexandria; Collin, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tobacco companies target young adults through marketing strategies that use bars and nightclubs to promote smoking. As restrictions increasingly limit promotions, music marketing has become an important vehicle for tobacco companies to shape brand image, generate brand recognition and promote tobacco. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents from British American Tobacco, available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu. Results: In 1995, British American Tobacco (BAT) initiated a partnership with London’s Ministry of Sound (MOS) nightclub to promote Lucky Strike cigarettes to establish relevance and credibility among young adults in the UK. In 1997, BAT extended their MOS partnership to China and Taiwan to promote State Express 555. BAT sought to transfer values associated with the MOS lifestyle brand to its cigarettes. The BAT/MOS partnership illustrates the broad appeal of international brands across different regions of the world. Conclusion: Transnational tobacco companies like BAT are not only striving to stay contemporary with young adults through culturally relevant activities such as those provided by MOS but they are also looking to export their strategies to regions across the world. Partnerships like this BAT/MOS one skirt marketing restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The global scope and success of the MOS program emphasizes the challenge for national regulations to restrict such promotions. PMID:20159772

  3. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. Methods: Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA, were analysed. Documents were sought by Finland and by names of organisations and tobacco control activists. Documents were accessed and assessed between September 2000 and November 2002. Tactics of the tobacco industry activities were categorised as presented by Saloojee and Dagli. Results: The international tobacco companies utilised similar strategies in Finland as in other industrial markets to fight tobacco control and legislation, the health advocacy movement, and litigation. These activities slowed down the development and implementation of the Tobacco Act in Finland. However, despite the extensive pressure, the industry was not able to prevent the most progressive tobacco legislation in Europe from being passed and coming into force in Finland in 1977 and in 1995. Conclusion: Denying the health hazards caused by tobacco—despite indisputable scientific evidence—decreased the credibility of the tobacco industry. Strategy of denial was falsely chosen, as health advocacy groups were active both in society and the parliamentary system. The strong influence of the tobacco industry may have in fact increased the visibility of tobacco control in Finland as the litigation process was also drawing attention to negative health effects of tobacco. Therefore the tobacco industry did not manage to convince public opinion. However, the tobacco industry did obtain experience in Finland in how to object to tobacco control measures. PMID:14660780

  4. Smokeless tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Hecht, Stephen; Gray, Nigel; Gupta, Prakash; Straif, Kurt

    2008-07-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco products is common worldwide, with increasing consumption in many countries. Although epidemiological data from the USA and Asia show a raised risk of oral cancer (overall relative risk 2.6 [95% CI 1.3-5.2]), these are not confirmed in northern European studies (1.0 [0.7-1.3]). Risks of oesophageal cancer (1.6 [1.1-2.3]) and pancreatic cancer (1.6 [1.1-2.2]) have also increased, as shown in northern European studies. Results on lung cancer have been inconsistent, with northern European studies suggesting no excess risk. In India and Sudan, more than 50% of oral cancers are attributable to smokeless tobacco products used in those countries, as are about 4% of oral cancers in US men and 20% of oesophageal and pancreatic cancers in Swedish men. Smokeless tobacco products are a major source of carcinogenic nitrosamines; biomarkers of exposure have been developed to quantify exposure as a framework for a carcinogenesis model in people. Animal carcinogenicity studies strongly support clinical results. Cancer risk of smokeless tobacco users is probably lower than that of smokers, but higher than that of non-tobacco users.

  5. School tobacco policies in a tobacco-growing state.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Riker, Carol A

    2005-08-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health department staff contacted 1028 schools; 691 (67%) participated in a phone survey, which lasted an average of 19 minutes. Variables of interest were indoor and outdoor smoking policies, fund-raising in Bingo halls, provision of cessation and prevention programs, owning or leasing a tobacco base, if the school received money from tobacco companies, type of school (public vs private), and school setting (urban vs rural). Only 20% of Kentucky schools reported comprehensive tobacco-free policies. Urban area schools were nearly twice as likely to have a tobacco-free campus than rural schools. Schools that did fund-raising in smoky Bingo halls were 30% less likely to have tobacco-free school policies. While few schools had a tobacco affiliation, those that received money from tobacco companies or grew tobacco were nearly 3 times as likely to provide cessation resources, compared to schools without tobacco affiliation. Rural schools were less likely to be tobacco free and provide cessation services. School-related, off-campus, extracurricular events might be considered as an element of tobacco-free school policy. Schools with tobacco affiliation may provide more cessation resources due to the increased prevalence of tobacco use in these areas.

  6. Prevalence of and Factors Related to Tobacco Ban Implementation in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Laschober, Tanja C.; Eby, Lillian T.; Moore, Nancy D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and factors (psychological climate for change and staff attributes) related to indoor and outdoor tobacco bans for patients, employees, and visitors in U.S. substance use disorder treatment programs. Data were collected from a random sample of 1,026 program administrators. Almost all programs banned tobacco use indoors and around one third banned tobacco use outdoors. When there was no tobacco ban, the majority of programs restricted smoking to designated indoor and/or outdoor areas. Further, all psychological climate for change factors (perceived program support, perceived tobacco culture, and tobacco ban beliefs) but none of the staff attributes (percentage licensed/certified clinicians, percentage clinicians with master’s degrees, total staff with education in health-related field) were significantly related to the implementation of comprehensive tobacco bans (both indoors and outdoors). PMID:25677250

  7. Prevalence of and Factors Related to Tobacco Ban Implementation in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T; Moore, Nancy D

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and factors (psychological climate for change and staff attributes) related to indoor and outdoor tobacco bans for patients, employees, and visitors in U.S. substance use disorder treatment programs. Data were collected from a random sample of 1,026 program administrators. Almost all programs banned tobacco use indoors and around one third banned tobacco use outdoors. When there was no tobacco ban, the majority of programs restricted smoking to designated indoor and/or outdoor areas. Further, all psychological climate for change factors (perceived program support, perceived tobacco culture, and tobacco ban beliefs) but none of the staff attributes (percentage licensed/certified clinicians, percentage clinicians with master's degrees, total staff with education in health-related field) were significantly related to the implementation of comprehensive tobacco bans (both indoors and outdoors).

  8. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  9. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  10. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  11. School Tobacco Policies in a Tobacco-Growing State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T.C.; Riker, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health…

  12. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  13. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  14. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  15. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  16. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  17. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  18. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p < 0.05). The median of prevalence of support for different tobacco control policies among all countries was as follows: complete ban on tobacco advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products.

  19. Comparative analysis of the plant mRNA-destabilizing element, DST, in mammalian and tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Feldbrügge, M; Arizti, P; Sullivan, M L; Zamore, P D; Belasco, J G; Green, P J

    2002-05-01

    The labile SAUR transcripts from higher plants contain a conserved DST sequence in their 3'-untranslated regions. Two copies of a DST sequence from soybean are sufficient to destabilize reporter transcripts in cultured tobacco cells whereas variants bearing mutations in the conserved ATAGAT or GTA regions are inactive. To investigate the potential for conserved recognition components in mammalian and plant cells, we examined the function of this instability determinant in mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts and tobacco BY2 cells. In fibroblasts, a tetrameric DST element from soybean accelerated deadenylation and decay of a reporter transcript. However, a version mutated in the ATAGAT region was equally effective in this regard, and a tetrameric DST element from Arabidopsis was inactive. In contrast, the soybean DST element was more active as an mRNA instability element than the mutant version and the Arabidopsis element, when tested as tetramers in tobacco cells. Hence, the plant DST element is not recognized in animal cells with the same sequence requirements as in plant cells. Therefore, its mode of recognition appears to be plant-specific.

  20. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  1. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  2. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  3. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  4. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  5. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  6. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  7. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  8. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California.

    PubMed Central

    Begay, M E; Traynor, M; Glantz, S A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposition 99 added 25 cents to the California state cigarette tax and mandated that 20% of the new revenues be spent on tobacco education and prevention programs. This paper examines the implementation of these programs and the tobacco industry's response to Proposition 99. METHODS. Political expenditure data for twelve tobacco firms and associations were gathered from California's Fair Political Practices Commission and secretary of state's Political Reform Division. Tobacco education expenditure data were collected from Governor's Budgets and the Department of Finance. RESULTS. Since Proposition 99 passed, tobacco industry political expenditures in California have risen 10-fold, from $790,050 in the 1985-1986 election to $7,615,091 in the 1991-1992 election. The tobacco industry is contributing more heavily to the California legislature than to Congress. A statistical analysis of data on campaign contributions indicates that California legislators' policy-making is influenced by campaign contributions from the tobacco industry. Since fiscal year 1989-1990, the state has ignored the voters' mandate and spent only 14.7% of the new revenues to tobacco education. Medical care programs received more money than permitted by the voters. CONCLUSIONS. The tobacco industry has become politically active in California following the passage of Proposition 99. One result may be that the state has underfunded tobacco education by $174.7 million through the 1993-1994 fiscal year. The estimated redirection of funds to medical care would essentially eliminate the tobacco education campaign by the year 2000. PMID:8362994

  9. Tobacco point‐of‐purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-01-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point‐of‐purchase promotion (also called point‐of‐sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point‐of‐purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well‐trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point‐of‐sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space. PMID:16998172

  10. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    PubMed

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  11. Tobacco 101 | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about the chemicals in your cigarette, and the harms caused by other forms of tobacco. What is nicotine? Nicotine is an addictive, fast-acting drug found in cigarettes. It affects your heart rate, blood pressure, brain chemistry, and mood. When you stop smoking, you experience cravings because your body is used to having a certain amount of nicotine each day.

  12. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  13. Tobacco and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Gerard; Porter, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco is both dangerous and addictive. Its production and use thus raise ethical questions which involve the smoker, parents, teachers, producers, distributors and the State. The moral responsibilities of the various parties are examined critically and legal restrictions are considered to be justified. PMID:3735230

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  16. Smoking and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Employment Smoking & Tobacco Use Related Topics on AIDS.gov Cardiovascular Health Frequently Asked Questions I’m ... HIV and Smoking Last revised: 08/12/2014 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  17. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  18. Collective Actors and Corporate Targets in Tobacco Control: A Cross-National Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Constance A.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-national comparative analysis of tobacco control strategies can alert health advocates to how opportunities for public health action, types of action, and probabilities for success are shaped by political systems and cultures. This article is based on case studies of tobacco control in the United States, Canada, Britain, and France. Two…

  19. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  20. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  1. [Nitrogen uptake and allocation characteristics of flue-cured tobacco in Nanxiong tobacco-planting area of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Xiao; Liu, Hua-Bing; Ke, You-Song; Wu, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Quan; Qiu, Miao-Wen; Zhao, Wei-Cai; Yang, Tie-Zhao

    2011-06-01

    By the method of field in situ culture and 15N isotopic tracer technique, and taking flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) cultivar K326 as test material, a field experiment was conducted in the Nanxiong tobacco-planting area of Guangdong Province to study the characteristics of soil nitrogen (N) mineralization, the patterns of N accumulation and allocation in tobacco plants, and the allocation of plant-absorbed fertilizer N applied in current growth season. In the study area, the amount of soil mineralized N increased with tobacco growth, peaked at 75 days after transplanting, and decreased thereafter. The soil mineralized N at each tobacco growth stage was significantly higher in the control than in the N fertilization treatment. The N accumulation in tobacco plant organs was in the order of leaf > stalk > root. Tobacco plants mainly absorbed fertilizer N at rosette stage and topping stage, and mainly absorbed soil N at mature stage. The absorbed N in tobacco whole growth period was mainly derived from soil N, and the absorbed soil N and its proportion to the total absorbed N increased evidently with extending growth stage and ascending leaf position. The fertilizer N use efficiency per plant and the residual rate and loss rate of applied fertilizer N were 30. 8%, 32. 3% , and 36. 9% , respectively. In the study area, soil N mineralization rate was relatively high, and soil N had greater effects on the quality of upper tobacco leaves. Under the application rate of 150 kg N x hm(-2), the residual amount and loss amount of applied fertilizer N were relatively high.

  2. Implications for Tobacco Control of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Daynard, Richard A.; Parmet, Wendy; Kelder, Graham; Davidson, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 master settlement agreement between major tobacco manufacturers and the US states will have a profound effect on many tobacco industry practices and will significantly influence future settlements with the tobacco industry. This article analyzes the settlement's key provisions pertaining to youth sales, advertising, marketing, and lobbying. It also examines the ways in which the settlement restricts industry practices as well as the many industry practices that remain unregulated. PMID:11726376

  3. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  4. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  8. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2006-04-01

    New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.

  9. “Fighting a Hurricane”: Tobacco Industry Efforts to Counter the Perceived Threat of Islam

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry’s response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25880961

  10. "Fighting a hurricane": tobacco industry efforts to counter the perceived threat of Islam.

    PubMed

    Petticrew, Mark; Lee, Kelley; Ali, Haider; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Islamic countries are of key importance to transnational tobacco companies as growing markets with increasing smoking rates. We analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to assess the industry's response to rising concerns about tobacco use within Islamic countries. The tobacco industry perceived Islam as a significant threat to its expansion into these emerging markets. To counter these concerns, the industry framed antismoking views in Islamic countries as fundamentalist and fanatical and attempted to recruit Islamic consultants to portray smoking as acceptable. Tobacco industry lawyers also helped develop theological arguments in favor of smoking. These findings are valuable to researchers and policymakers seeking to implement culturally appropriate measures in Islamic countries under the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  11. Youth-Led Tobacco Prevention: Lessons Learned for Engaging Southeast Asian American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Saephan, Sang; Kirkpatrick, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Background Southeast Asian Americans are highly at risk for tobacco use. Youth-led, environmentally focused tobacco prevention programs have been identified as highly effective in engaging youth in tobacco research and prevention, but may be challenging for the most at-risk youths. Objectives We report on lessons learned in a pilot tobacco prevention program with Southeast Asian youth in Northern California. Methods We reviewed meeting notes, participatory research products, and a transcribed focus group with tobacco prevention project participants. Lessons Learned Challenges to the youths’ participation related to structural issues (limited time, scheduling conflicts, financial difficulties, aging out of programs) and personal issues (school and work pressure, family stressors). Coordinating with ongoing program activities and the county coalition enabled some supports as well as challenges. Conclusions Key supports for youth were youth leaders, social and financial rewards, and the ability to interpret tobacco prevention information in culturally and age-relevant media. PMID:22820228

  12. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  13. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  14. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  15. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  16. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  17. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  18. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  19. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  20. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  1. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  2. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  3. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  4. Contesting modernity: Tobacco use and romanticism among older Dai farmers in Xishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Davey, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research about tobacco use in China focuses on Han Chinese, the main ethnic group comprising over 90 per cent of the population, and a paucity of research exists on ethnic minorities. The present study elucidates tobacco use among the Dai people, an ethnic group in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The study design consisted of interviews and grounded theory methodology in a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework. The categories of the grounded theory revealed tobacco consumption was weaved in a complex web of meanings: social practices, perceptions of health, and work lives as agriculturalists, situated in Dai cultural and social milieu. An important finding was the stage-managing of tobacco as a symbol of 'tradition' versus 'modernity': Through a process of contested modernity, the older men championed long-standing tobacco customs as representative of Dai heritage and thus their own tobacco use as upholding traditions amid encroaching cultural and societal change in China. These findings are important because little is known about Dai people's tobacco use and how they are responding to social change. There are also implications for the development of culturally-appropriate tobacco control strategies.

  5. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  6. “It's Just a Way of Fitting In:” Tobacco Use and the Lived Experience of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Appalachians

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Keisa; Ricks, JaNelle M.; Howell, Britteny M.

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people are affected by multiple health disparities and risk factors, including tobacco use. Few studies to date have examined tobacco use specifically in rural LGB populations, and none has investigated the intersections of identity, rural LGB culture, and tobacco. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspective of Appalachian LGB people regarding tobacco use. Methods Nineteen LGB-identified Appalachian residents participated in audiotaped, semi-structured interviews. Two authors analyzed and coded transcripts through constant comparison, and determined themes through consensus. Results Five themes emerged: the convergence of Appalachian and LGB identities, tacit awareness of LGB identity by others, culture and tobacco use, perceived associations with tobacco use, and health beliefs and health care. Conclusions LGB Appalachians connect stress and culture to tobacco, but seem less aware that partial concealment of their identity might be a source of the stress that could influence their smoking. PMID:25418233

  7. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mattes, William; Yang, Xi; Orr, Michael S; Richter, Patricia; Mendrick, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and death caused by exposure to tobacco smoke have become the single most serious preventable public health concern. Thus, biomarkers that can monitor tobacco exposure and health effects can play a critical role in tobacco product regulation and public health policy. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco toxicants are well established and have been used in population studies to establish public policy regarding exposure to second-hand smoke, an example being the nicotine metabolite cotinine, which can be measured in urine. Biomarkers of biological response to tobacco smoking range from those indicative of inflammation to mRNA and microRNA patterns related to tobacco use and/or disease state. Biomarkers identifying individuals with an increased risk for a pathological response to tobacco have also been described. The challenge for any novel technology or biomarker is its translation to clinical and/or regulatory application, a process that requires first technical validation of the assay and then careful consideration of the context the biomarker assay may be used in the regulatory setting. Nonetheless, the current efforts to investigate new biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure promise to offer powerful new tools in addressing the health hazards of tobacco product use. This review will examine such biomarkers, albeit with a focus on those related to cigarette smoking.

  8. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  9. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  10. Tobacco in the Arab world: old and new epidemics amidst policy paralysis.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Nakkash, Rima; Bahelah, Raed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Fanous, Nadia; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The Arab world is comprised of 22 countries with a combined population of ∼360 million. The region is still at the initial stages of the tobacco epidemic, where it is expected to witness an increase in smoking levels and mounting tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the future. Still, the bleak outlook of the tobacco epidemic in the Arab world continues to be faced with complacency in the form of underutilization of surveillance systems to monitor the tobacco epidemic and prioritize action, and failure to implement and enforce effective policies to curb the tobacco epidemic. Understandably, the focus on the Arab world carries the risk of trying to generalize to such a diverse group of countries at different level of economic and political development. Yet, tobacco control in the Arab world faces some shared patterns and common challenges that need to be addressed to advance its cause in this region. In addition, forces that promote tobacco use, such as the tobacco industry, and trends in tobacco use, such as the emerging waterpipe epidemic tend to coalesce around some shared cultural and socio-political features of this region. Generally, available data from Arab countries point at three major trends in the tobacco epidemic: (1) high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Arab men compared with women; (2) the re-emergence of waterpipe (also known as hookah, narghile, shisha, arghile) smoking as a major tobacco use method, especially among youth and (3) the failure of policy to provide an adequate response to the tobacco epidemic. In this review, we will discuss these trends, factors contributing to them, and the way forward for tobacco control in this unstable region.

  11. Tobacco in the Arab world: old and new epidemics amidst policy paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Nakkash, Rima; Bahelah, Raed; Husseini, Abdullatif; Fanous, Nadia; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Arab world is comprised of 22 countries with a combined population of ∼360 million. The region is still at the initial stages of the tobacco epidemic, where it is expected to witness an increase in smoking levels and mounting tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the future. Still, the bleak outlook of the tobacco epidemic in the Arab world continues to be faced with complacency in the form of underutilization of surveillance systems to monitor the tobacco epidemic and prioritize action, and failure to implement and enforce effective policies to curb the tobacco epidemic. Understandably, the focus on the Arab world carries the risk of trying to generalize to such a diverse group of countries at different level of economic and political development. Yet, tobacco control in the Arab world faces some shared patterns and common challenges that need to be addressed to advance its cause in this region. In addition, forces that promote tobacco use, such as the tobacco industry, and trends in tobacco use, such as the emerging waterpipe epidemic tend to coalesce around some shared cultural and socio-political features of this region. Generally, available data from Arab countries point at three major trends in the tobacco epidemic: (1) high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Arab men compared with women; (2) the re-emergence of waterpipe (also known as hookah, narghile, shisha, arghile) smoking as a major tobacco use method, especially among youth and (3) the failure of policy to provide an adequate response to the tobacco epidemic. In this review, we will discuss these trends, factors contributing to them, and the way forward for tobacco control in this unstable region. PMID:23958628

  12. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... allocated among six statutorily-specified classes of tobacco products: Cigarettes, cigars, snuff, roll-your... cigarettes and cigars, pounds for the other classes) from the published TTB data and multiplied those numbers.... The initial percentage assigned to cigarette tobacco in FETRA was 96.331 percent, as specified in 7...

  13. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  14. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. PMID:26931480

  15. Assessing Support for Campus Tobacco Policy in Tobacco Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Kerry; Simmons, Susan J.; Caldwell, Rebecca; Dowd, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of comprehensive tobacco policies has shown positive results regarding limiting exposure to secondhand smoke. While many states were moving forward with respect to implementation of tobacco policies, North Carolina has lagged behind in this regard. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess support for a…

  16. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    PubMed Central

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  17. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  18. Bacterial Populations Associated with Smokeless Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Sanad, Yasser M.; Deck, Joanna; Sutherland, John B.; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J.; Duran, Norma; Holman, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are an estimated 8 million users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) in the United States, and yet limited data on microbial populations within these products exist. To better understand the potential microbiological risks associated with STP use, a study was conducted to provide a baseline microbiological profile of STPs. A total of 90 samples, representing 15 common STPs, were purchased in metropolitan areas in Little Rock, AR, and Washington, DC, in November 2012, March 2013, and July 2013. Bacterial populations were evaluated using culture, pyrosequencing, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Moist-snuff products exhibited higher levels of bacteria (average of 1.05 × 106 CFU/g STP) and diversity of bacterial populations than snus (average of 8.33 × 101 CFU/g STP) and some chewing tobacco products (average of 2.54 × 105 CFU/g STP). The most common species identified by culturing were Bacillus pumilus, B. licheniformis, B. safensis, and B. subtilis, followed by members of the genera Oceanobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Tetragenococcus. Pyrosequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes identified the genera Tetragenococcus, Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, Geobacillus, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus as the predominant taxa. Several species identified are of possible concern due to their potential to cause opportunistic infections and reported abilities to reduce nitrates to nitrites, which may be an important step in the formation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific N′-nitrosamines. This report provides a microbiological baseline to help fill knowledge gaps associated with microbiological risks of STPs and to inform potential regulations regarding manufacture and testing of STPs. IMPORTANCE It is estimated that there 8 million users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) in the United States; however, there are limited data on microbial populations that exist within these products. The current study was undertaken to better understand the

  19. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  20. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  1. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  2. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  3. WHEN TOBACCO TARGETS DIRECT DEMOCRACY

    PubMed Central

    Laposata, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Allison P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control advocates began to use ballot initiatives to enact tobacco control policies in the late 1970s. In response, the tobacco industry worked for over two decades to change laws governing initiative and referendum processes to prevent passage of tobacco control measures. In 1981, the tobacco industry’s political lobbying arm, the Tobacco Institute, created a front group that presented itself as a neutral initiative research clearinghouse to affect changes in state initiative and referenda laws. In 1990, the Tobacco Institute began creating an in-house team, and worked with third party groups to try to change state initiative laws. While the industry ultimately abandoned both efforts when neither achieved immediate success, over time, the industry’s goals have penetrated legitimate discourse on the I&R process in the United States and many specific ideas it advocated have garnered mainstream support. Direct democracy advocates, as well as public health advocates and policymakers, need to understand the tobacco industry’s goals (which other industries adopted) of limiting the direct democracy process in order to ensure that any changes do not inadvertently increase the power of the special interests that direct democracy was developed to counterbalance. PMID:24603083

  4. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  5. [Damage from passive tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Z

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the biological casualties and consequences of tobacco-smoking. Smoking is the most dangerous addiction in the scale of the world and in Poland. It causes numerous premature decrease and tobacco-dependent sickness. The author characterises the spread of this addiction in Poland concentrating on the problem of the passive smoking harmfulness. Non-smokers, children and youth, embryo and foetus during the pregnancy are exposed to the passive smoking. The experimental examinations of animals and the analysis of the lateral stream of the tobacco smoke confirm not the least, but rather the greater damage of the passive smoking than the active one. The mechanisms of acting of the tobacco smoke on the passive smokers' body and the health consequences are discussed. The manners, means and activities that are useful for the health protection of non-smokers against the tobacco smoke and the ways of the smoking prevention are described.

  6. Junking Science to Promote Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yach, Derek; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2001-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's claims that it has changed its practices, the toll of tobacco-related disease and death continues to grow worldwide, and the industry continues to use a vast array of strategies to promote its products and increase profits. This commentary discusses the ways the tobacco industry has created controversy about risk assessment and about the scientific evidence of the health hazards of secondhand smoke. The authors recommend that policymakers be more vigilant and that they demand transparency about affiliations and linkages between allegedly independent scientists and tobacco companies. They also urge policymakers to be prepared for new and continuing challenges posed by the tobacco industry, because, despite the industry's claims, there is little evidence of fundamental change in its objectives. PMID:11684592

  7. Attempts to Undermine Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses “youth smoking prevention” programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called “social reports,” media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted “youth smoking prevention” programs as part of their “Corporate Social Responsibility” campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry’s goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  8. Smokeless tobacco use among rural women in NE Alabama.

    PubMed

    Talley, Brenda; Rushing, Alison; Gee, Rose Mary

    2014-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco use among women living in rural areas is poorly understood and largely ignored. This qualitative study explored the use of smokeless tobacco with 10 participants living in rural areas in Alabama, with the women telling their own stories of use. Themes emerging from interviews included the initiation of use, secrecy, health-risk beliefs, daily-use patterns, and thoughts about quitting. The study results could assist community health nurses in awareness of risks, case finding, and development of community-based prevention strategies. Additional research would help better understanding of the epidemiology of the problem, cultural implications, and practice interventions.

  9. The Public Health Implications of the Use and Misuse of Tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers. PMID:23283033

  10. The public health implications of the use and misuse of tobacco among the Aboriginals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Orisatoki, Rotimi

    2012-10-28

    Tobacco smoking among the Aboriginal populations is a major public health issue in Canada. It remains a major contributory risk factor to the poor health status as well as years of potential life lost seen among the indigenous people. The use of tobacco has a spiritual importance to the people as a means of making connection to the Creator, but unfortunately tobacco smoking has taken a recreational aspect which has little or no connection with Aboriginal spirituality. The non-traditional use of tobacco is believed by the Elders to be disrespectful to the Aboriginal culture and traditional way of life. There is an increase in rate of use of smokeless tobacco as well as smoking of tobacco among the youth with increase in percentage among females. There are socioeconomic implications as well as adverse health effects of the misuse of tobacco on the Aboriginal people that need to be addressed. The healthcare professionals have a unique role in helping patients to reduce tobacco use within the community through programs that are culturally sensitive and relevant. Successful strategies requires general support from the community and it is very important that some of that support comes from community leaders, including spiritual, professional, administrative and elected policy makers.

  11. A qualitative study of tobacco use in eight economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities.

    PubMed

    Chin, Nancy; Dozier, Ann; Quinones, Zahira; Diaz, Sergio; Weber, Emily; Almonte, Hector; Bautista, Arisleyda; Raman, Kiran; McIntosh, Scott; Ossip, Deborah

    2016-06-28

    Understanding social conditions prior to intervention design can enhance tobacco control interventions. This paper describes formative research conducted in 2010 about tobacco use in eight economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities, four of which participated in a previous intervention study (2003-2008). A combined US-Dominican team used a rapid assessment process to collect qualitative social and cultural data on tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes; plus observations about social and policy factors, such as exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), tobacco regulations, pregnancy, health care provider (HCP) practices and sustainability of the 2003-2008 intervention. This assessment found that tobacco use varied by age. While all ages typically used cigarettes, older adults used relatively more unprocessed tobacco, which is seen as less harmful and less addictive. Middle-aged smokers typically used commercial cigarettes, which are viewed as dangerous, addictive, expensive and offensive. Young adults reported avoiding smoking, but using relatively more smokeless tobacco. Smoking during pregnancy has reportedly decreased. SHS was viewed as harmful, although smoke-free homes were uncommon. HCPs discussed tobacco issues mostly for patients with tobacco-related conditions. Sustainability of the 2003-2008 intervention appeared to be linked to active Community Technology Centers with strong leadership, and community social capital. This information could be used to design better targeted interventions in these communities.

  12. Tobacco retail regulation: the next frontier in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Colleen; Freeman, Becky; Maag, Audrey

    2015-07-09

    Australia has experienced significant reductions in smoking rates in recent decades, and public health scrutiny is turning to how further gains will be made. Regulatory controls, such as licensing to reduce retailer density or limit tobacco proximity to schools or licensed premises, have been suggested by some public health advocates as appropriate next steps. This paper summarises best-practice evidence in relation to tobacco retailer regulation, noting measures undertaken in New South Wales (NSW). Research on controlling the display of tobacco products and supply of tobacco to minors is well established. The evidence shows that a combination of licensing, enforcement, education, promotion restrictions at the point of sale and a well-funded compliance program to prevent sales to minors is a best-practice approach to tobacco retail regulation. The evidence for other measures - such as restricting the number of retail outlets, and restricting how and where tobacco is sold - is far less developed. There is insufficient evidence to determine if a positive licensing system and controls on the density and location of tobacco outlets would be effective in the Australian context. More evidence is required from jurisdictions that have implemented a positive licensing scheme to evaluate the effect of such schemes on smoking rates, the potential cost benefits and any unintended consequences.

  13. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    PubMed Central

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  14. Roadmap to a Tobacco Epidemic: Transnational Tobacco Companies Invade Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indonesia is the world’s fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. Objective To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. Methods We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and “The Roadmap.” Results Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernized versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI maintained the basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and Westernization of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. Conclusion PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians. PMID:21852413

  15. Tobacco Road Finland - how did an accepted pleasure turn into an avoidable risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Pekka

    2013-12-01

    Smoking was once defined as an appropriate recreational substance or life comfort, but is now understood as a serious health risk and a public health problem important enough to be controlled by society. In this article the changed social position and development of tobacco regulations in Finland are studied from a perspective of social constructionism. The emergence of recent tobacco controls can be seen as a process whereby tobacco came to be defined as a social problem. I will argue that there were three primary definitions which played a decisive role in this process. Put in historical order, these three definitions contained (1) claims about harms to smokers, (2) claims about harms to others, and (3) claims about tobacco as a highly addictive drug. These conceptions together drove a complementary and mutually reinforcing re-conception of tobacco harms. Consequently, the emergence of these definitions led to the founding of new institutions, practices, and treatments. The leading value in the claim-making process was public health, which transferred the state's interest away from fiscal revenues towards lowering the costs caused by tobacco diseases. Correspondingly, medical science and medical doctors gained a position as the leading authority in the defining the tobacco issue. The latest conceptual innovation is the idea of a tobacco-free Finland by 2040, representing a strategy of 'de-normalising' tobacco use. The reversal in the social and cultural position of tobacco, which in Finland went from one extreme to another, was not based on pressure created by any wider social movements or organised tobacco-specific citizens groups, as in some other countries, but rather by a state health administration supported by a relatively small network of tobacco control advocates.

  16. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes: “not medicine but less harmful”?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes. Methods Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Results Twenty‐three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb‐only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb‐only product. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal‐tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal‐tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal‐tobacco brands as key for development. Conclusion Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting. PMID:17400933

  17. Tobacco socialization and anti-tobacco ad effectiveness among children.

    PubMed

    Khalbous, Slim; Bouslama, Heifa

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent smoking onset among children, it is essential to know the process of smoking socialization and its various dimensions before being able to design any effective anti-tobacco advertisements. This research aims to conceptualize this process and to test the effectiveness of certain styles of anti-tobacco advertising addressed to children. The results show that both attitudinal and behavioral smoking socialization influence anti-tobacco advertisements effectiveness and that the least offensive and humoristic are most effective in Tunisia.

  18. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2003-10-01

    The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?

  19. Youth Advocacy: The Florida Tobacco Prevention Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulk, David F.; Rollin, Stephen A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Florida Tobacco Pilot Program, a focused anti-tobacco initiative that uses youth advocacy training to accomplish its goals. The paper examines several of the Florida Tobacco Pilot Program's youth-related activities, which are designed to empower participating teens to be successful in resisting tobacco products. (SM)

  20. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  2. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  3. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  4. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  5. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  6. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  9. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  10. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  15. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  20. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  1. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.6044 Section 29.6044 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2561 Section 29.2561 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2561 Tobacco products. Manufactured...

  3. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  5. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Stanton Glantz

    2005-09-19

    The principal aim of this roadmap is to place the US and Fermilab in the best position to host the International Linear Collider (ILC). The strategy must be resilient against the many vicissitudes that will attend the development of such a large project. Pier Oddone will explore the tension between the needed concentration of effort to move a project as large as the ILC forward and the need to maintain the breadth of our field. America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the #1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  6. [Tobacco--a highly efficient producer of vaccines].

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Along with the depreciation of tobacco as a source of nicotine-containing commercial products, the increase of its appreciation as a potential producer of recombinant therapeutical proteins can be observed. Two species of tobacco--Nicotiana tabacum L. and N. benthamiana are easily grown by well established methods of field or green-house cultivation or cell culture, yield high biomass and soluble protein content, can be easily transformed by several methods and are not food for humans or feed for animals. Expression of foreign proteins, including vaccines, can be achieved in those plants either through stable transformation of nuclear or plastid (chloroplast) genomes or by transient transformation using infection with plant virus or bacteria--Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration). The most advanced mode of agrofiltration termed magnifection, which combines benefits of virus and Agrobacterium and depends on using Agrobacterium with viral pro-vectors, enables high-yield and rapid expression of therapeutical proteins, even in a few days, and can be employed on an industrial scale. Expression of many antigenic proteins, which may serve as antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoan and anticancer vaccines, and additionally a few autoantigens designed for the treatment of autoimunogenic diseases, like diabetes, have been achieved in tobacco. To date, a vaccine against Newcastle virus disease in poultry produced by tobacco cell culture has been approved for commercial application and several other vaccines are in advanced stage of development. The possibility of a high-level production of vaccines in tobacco against pandemic influenza or anthrax and plague due to a bioterroristic attack, as well as of individualised anticancer vaccines against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a much shorter period of time than by traditional methods became realistic and hence caused increased interest in tobacco as a high-efficient producer of vaccines not only of specialistic

  7. [The exposure to tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Groszek, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The exposition to tobacco smoke is overall: in home, work and public places. For the examination of the presence and concentration of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in indoor environments the nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) are determined. A variety of biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, protein and DNA adducts) are propose for measurement of exposure to tobacco smoke. The most popular is measurement of cotinine concentration in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva). Plasma cotinine concentration correlated to numbers of cigarettes smoked and to various biological effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS. Other biomarkers as carboxyhemoglobin, thiocyanate, and amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adduct can be also use.

  8. Installation Tobacco Control Programs in the U.S. Military.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use prevalence is unacceptably high in the U.S. military, and the Department of Defense and service branches have implemented tobacco control policies and cessation programs. To explore aspects of programs regarded as exemplary by their services, we visited four installations, nominated by their service's health promotion leaders, and conducted interviews, observations, and focus groups. Installations included Naval Hospital Guam, Tripler Army Medical Center, MacDill Air Force Base, and the Naval Hospital at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms. The tobacco control managers (TCMs) at the programs studied were all civilian employees, highly motivated and enthusiastic, and had remained in their positions for approximately a decade. Other commonalities included support from command, a "culture" of health, and location in warm climates. Programs varied in their involvement in establishing designated tobacco use areas, and length and requirement of attending cessation classes; however, no evaluation of cessation programs is currently underway. TCMs should be more engaged in policy discussions for the larger installations they serve. A strong policy framework and command support for TCMs will be necessary to achieve the goal of a tobacco-free military.

  9. Preventing tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, Gary; Carol, Helen

    2005-04-01

    A paucity of information regarding tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths impedes prevention programs. The aim of the present study was to conduct formative qualitative research regarding subpopulations at risk for tobacco use, protective factors, patterns of use, and approaches to prevention. This report focuses on participants' recommendations for the development of preventive intervention. Purposive sampling and maximum variation sampling were used to select 30 LGBT youths and 30 interactors for face-to-face interviews. NUD*IST6 text software was used for the indexing and thematic analysis of qualitative data, based on a grounded theory approach. All participants offered suggestions for tobacco prevention pertaining to the optimal process of prevention and cessation programs, specific strategies to promote tobacco prevention and cessation, and general strategies to foster nonsmoking. Several key themes regarding prevention emerged: LGBT youth should be involved in the design and implementation of interventions; prevention programs should support positive identity formation as well as nonsmoking; the general approach to prevention should be entertaining, supportive, and interactive; and the public might not distinguish primary prevention from cessation activities. All but one young smoker had attempted to quit at least once; but only one individual had succeeded. By way of implications, prevention programs should involve young people in enjoyable and engaging activities, address the psychosocial and cultural underpinnings of tobacco use, support healthy psychosocial development, and consider offering pharmacological smoking cessation aids.

  10. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  11. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  12. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  13. Prevalence of tobacco use among adult and adolescent females in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Awa, F; Fouad, H; El Naga, R A; Emam, A H; Labib, S

    2013-08-01

    Egypt assessed tobacco use among young people and adults through implementation in 2009 of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) among school students aged 13-15 years and the nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) among adults aged 15+ years. Both surveys employed cluster sampling to produce nationally representative samples and used standard core questionnaires with optional, country-specific questions. The results indicated that a higher percentage of adolescent girls in Egypt used tobacco than did adult females. Overall, 3.8% of girls aged 13-15 years used some form of tobacco compared with 0.6% of women aged 15+ years. Adolescents were over 14 times more likely than adult women to currently smoke cigarettes and 11 times more likely to smoke waterpipes. Moreover, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent girls had increased from 1.4% in the 2005 GYTS to 2.8% in 2009, indicating that social and cultural norms may be changing.

  14. Tobacco Promotion to Military Personnel: “The Plums Are Here to Be Plucked”

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking rates among military personnel are high, damaging health, decreasing short- and long-term troop readiness, and costing the Department of Defense (DOD). The military is an important market for the tobacco industry, which long targeted the military with cigarette promotions. Internal tobacco industry documents were examined to explore tobacco sponsorship of events targeted to military personnel. Evidence was found of more than 1,400 events held between 1980 and 1997. In 1986, the DOD issued a directive forbidding such special promotions; however, with the frequently eager cooperation of military personnel, they continued for more than a decade, apparently ceasing only because of the restrictions of the Master Settlement Agreement. The U.S. military collaborated with the tobacco industry for decades, creating a military culture of smoking. Reversing that process will require strong policy establishing tobacco use as unmilitary. PMID:19743733

  15. Building Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Lessons Learned by the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies

    PubMed Central

    Asfar, Taghrid; Ward, Kenneth D.; Al-Ali, Radwan; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic in Syria is characterized by high rates of cigarettes smoking in men and dramatic reemergence of waterpipe smoking, especially among youths and women. The Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS), an NIH-funded pioneer research and capacity building institution, has developed a research infrastructure and conducted three randomized clinical trials to develop and rigorously test culturally-appropriate tobacco treatment programs integrated into primary healthcare (PHC) centers. This review aimed to discuss challenges and lessons learned from the Syrian experience. Addressing these challenges may inform future cessation research activities in Syria and other developing countries. To develop a research infrastructure, the SCTS has established Syria’s first IRB and trained physicians/medical students in both tobacco treatment and research methods. Main challenges to conduct the cessation trials were difficulties of coordination between the local and international collaborators; high Smoking Rates among PHC providers; lack of pharmacological agents used in tobacco treatment; and difficulties of conducting research in a politically volatile region. Strategies to overcome these challenges were ensuring an active and regular involvement of all investigator; and advocating for a national smoking-cessation plan that involves training health care providers in smoking cessation treatment and make pharmacological agents used in smoking cessation available. PMID:27563356

  16. The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy Initiative: Findings From a Collaborative, Participatory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sheryl; D'Silva, Joanne; Hernandez, Carol; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Martinez, Jaime; Matter, Chris

    2016-10-14

    While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine." The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy initiative works to address this complex and challenging context. This article describes results of a participatory evaluation from 2010 to 2013 in four Minnesota Tribal Nations-three Ojibwe and one Dakota. Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy coordinators used their cultural knowledge to develop community-level strategies, identifying appropriate strategies from best practices on tobacco advocacy, while drawing on the strengths of their own sovereignty and sacred tobacco traditions. Tribal coordinators generated support for policy change by conducting culturally relevant education, engaging tribal members, and nurturing relationships. This approach resulted in norm changes, practices toward restoring traditional tobacco, informal policies, and tribal resolutions to advance smoke-free policies.

  17. Trace elements in Jamaican tobacco.

    PubMed

    Grant, C N; Lalor, G C; Vutchkov, M K

    2004-03-01

    The concentrations of 28 elements, in hand-made cigars, "rope" tobacco and freshly picked tobacco leaves from the parish of Manchester in central Jamaica, were compared with locally packaged and imported cigarettes and cigars. Except for chromium and vanadium, which are lower in the imported products, the elemental concentrations of all the brands sold in Jamaica are rather similar. The means for aluminium, cadmium, caesium, cerium, chromium, iron, thorium, uranium, vanadium and zinc for the Manchester material exceed the maximum values of the other tobaccos. The significant concentrations of heavy metals, and especially cadmium, which is about 50 times that of commercial cigarettes, reflect the known high concentrations in the soils in the region. This tobacco is not filtered and the smoke contains 50% of the cadmium. This, and the concentrations of radioactive elements, may indicate an additional health risk compared with commercial cigarettes. A study of three samples of marijuana indicates a similar level of risk from heavy metals.

  18. Settling for less? Tobacco industry.

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, R C

    1999-01-01

    In November 1998, a coalition of state negotiators and five tobacco companies reached an agreement in which the cigarette makers would pay out the biggest financial settlement in history, $206 billion over the next 25 years to 46 states, to compensate for the medical treatment of patients suffering from tobacco-related health problems. Critics of the settlement say the tobacco companies are getting off the hook too easily, and that the deal's public health provisions are unacceptably riddled with loopholes. But the attorneys general who negotiated the settlement defended it as a good deal-but clearly not as a panacea. Ultimately, they feel, Congress should pass legislation to provide essential reforms, including full Food and Drug Administration authority over tobacco. PMID:10090716

  19. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  20. Tobacco and vascular disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tobacco use and exposure may cause an acceleration of coronary artery disease and peptic ulcer disease. It is also linked to reproductive disturbances, esophageal reflux, hypertension, fetal illness and death, and ...

  1. Tobacco Addiction: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Stead, Lindsay F.; Gupta, Prakash C.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per year worldwide and is considered as one of the leading causes of premature death. Comprehensive tobacco control programs can significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco use. An important component of a comprehensive program is the provision of treatment for tobacco addiction. Treatment involves targeting multiple aspects of addiction including the underlying neurobiology and behavioral processes. Furthermore, building an infrastructure in health systems that encourage and facilitate cessation and expanding the accessibility of treatments are necessary. While current pharmacological and behavioral treatments are effective in improving cessation success, the rate of relapse to smoking remains high, demonstrating the strong addictive nature of nicotine. The future of treatment resides in better patient matching to treatment, combination or novel medications, and conceptualizing nicotine addiction as a chronic disorder which may require long-term treatment. PMID:18555914

  2. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... pneumonia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Light" Tobacco = Heavy Health Risks Federal law restricts the ...

  3. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  4. Tobacco and the movie industry.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's voluntary restrictions and its agreement with the state attorneys general prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. Extensive research provides strong and consistent evidence that smoking in the movies promotes smoking. This article summarizes the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others) and proposes several solutions to reduce adolescent exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking.

  5. Tobacco Companies’ Use of Developing Countries’ Economic Reliance on Tobacco to Lobby Against Global Tobacco Control: The Case of Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Martin G.; Mamudu, Hadii M.

    2009-01-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC. PMID:19696392

  6. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  7. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  8. Awareness to action through multi-channel advocacy for effective tobacco control in India: a case study from Bihar.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amit; Kumar, Sanjay; Chaterjee, Manjusha; Sharma, Nikunj; Shrivastav, Radhika; Bassi, Abhinav; Mishra, Deepak; Arora, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Developing a synergistic relationship between the government machinery and civil society is crucial for advancing the tobacco control movement in India. With diverse patterns of tobacco use and far reach of the tobacco industry, stringent enforcement mechanisms along with innovative and culturally appropriate advocacy efforts are imperative. In this paper, we evaluate multi- level tobacco control interventions undertaken in the Indian state of Bihar and the subsequent success achieved in strengthening government-non-government partnerships and commitment towards tobacco control in the state. Our experience shows that sustained advocacy at the policy and grassroots levels, along with willingness of the administrative machinery, can present result- oriented tobacco control initiatives at the state and grassroots levels.

  9. Lakota elders' views on traditional versus commercial/addictive tobacco use; oral history depicting a fundamental distinction.

    PubMed

    Margalit, R; Watanabe-Galloway, S; Kennedy, F; Lacy, N; Red Shirt, K; Vinson, L; Kills Small, J

    2013-06-01

    This qualitative study is intended to elucidate Lakota elders' views on traditional tobacco and commercial/addictive tobacco use, capturing the oral history that depict the cultural protocol regarding traditional tobacco, called Cansasa. Commercial tobacco use has significantly impacted the Northern Plains Indians. National surveillance systems report that tobacco use is more prevalent among American Indian/Alaska Natives than any other population, and is notably higher than the national average. Lung cancer among Native Americans is highest in the Northern Plains and Alaska, where smoking prevalence is also the highest, and smoking is responsible for nearly 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Yet, the use of traditional tobacco is largely ignored by surveillance and seems to have a distinct, positive role. Using a community-based participatory research approach, semi-structured interviews, and qualitative analysis tools, the research team, including 2 Lakota tribe elders, Lakota speaking tribal college students, and university faculty, sought to discern tribal elders' distinctions between traditional and the addictive commercial tobacco. The team interviewed thirty Lakota elders, transcribed the interviews and field notes, and analyzed them using immersion/crystallization organizing framework. The research design engaged the Lakota tribal community in all stages, from planning to publication. Analysis revealed a clear distinction between traditional and commercial tobacco: tribal elders conveyed strong positive messages connected to traditional tobacco use (i.e., spirituality, respect, health and wellness, humility, and thoughtfulness) versus strong negative messages linked to addictive tobacco (i.e., crime, loss of control and self-esteem, lack of respect to self and others, sickness and death). These messages, along with stories in the Lakota language that were told and recorded during the interviews, can guide new ways to address addictive tobacco prevention in this

  10. [Epidemiology of tobacco use in health-science students].

    PubMed

    Prat-Marin, A; Fuentes-Almendras, M M; Sanz-Gallen, P; Canela-Argues, R; Canela-Soler, J; Pardell-Alenta, H; Salleras-Sanmarti, L L

    1994-04-01

    The characteristics of tobacco use by students of the Division of Health Sciences of the University of Barcelona have been studied. During the 1988-1989 school year, 382 students were individually interviewed about their use of tobacco by means of a questionnaire routinely used by the Department of Health and Social Security of the Generalitat of Catolonia (Spain), with pertinent modifications for this specific group. These interviews were performed by appropriately trained personnel. Information was also gathered on the influence of university-level studies on smoking habits, the effect of advertising and the efficacy of antitobacco programs and campaigns carried out by the government. The study sample was drawn from lists supplied by the registrars' offices, by means of a random sampling by school (Medicine, Pharmacy, Psychology, Odontology and Nursing). The prevalence of tobacco use was 40.8% (29.8% daily smokers and 11% occasional smokers). These results are similar to those described in the literature, although these values are somewhat higher than those in more developed countries with a longer tradition of resistance to the use of tobacco. It is important to note that studying health sciences does not appear to be a major influence on the student's habits, but that the social and cultural environment is the factor which weighs the most in this respect. In conclusion, to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in this important group, educational programs must be begun at the pre-university level (secondary school) and changes should be made in the curricula of the health professional so that areas related to tobacco use are more motivational for students.

  11. What Do Veterans Service Organizations’ Websites Say About Tobacco Control?

    PubMed Central

    Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about Veterans Service Organizations (VSOs) and their perspectives on veterans smoking or military tobacco control. Veterans have high smoking rates and many started smoking in the military, where a culture promoting use exists. Design We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative content analysis of VSO websites to classify health topics and identify tobacco-related information. Setting Websites were coded by trained raters from January-June of 2011. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed from July 2011-January 2012. Participants 24 active VSO websites meeting inclusion criteria were rated independently. Method A comprehensive form was used to code 15 veteran-relevant health topics across multiple content areas/domains within the websites. Raters achieved 94.5% inter-rater agreement over nearly 5,000 data-points. Results A total of 277 health topics were addressed with the top five being Insurance/Tricare/VA issues (28.2%), PTSD (15.5%), disability/amputation/wounds (13.4%), Agent Orange (10.5%), and traumatic brain injury (TBI; 9.0%). Tobacco was mentioned four times (1.4%) across all 24 VSO websites and smoking cessation was never addressed. Conclusions VSO websites provide little information on tobacco-related topics and none offered information about smoking cessation. Given the high rates of tobacco use among veterans and active duty service members, and the interaction between smoking and PTSD symptoms and treatment outcomes, VSOs should consider making tobacco control and smoking cessation higher priority health issues on their websites. PMID:23631454

  12. The tobacco Ntann12 gene, encoding an annexin, is induced upon Rhodoccocus fascians infection and during leafy gall development.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Olivier; Lowe, Yves Oukouomi; Burssens, Sylvia; VAN Raemdonck, Damien; Hutin, David; Boniver, Delphine; Geelen, Danny; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2007-03-01

    SUMMARY Annexins are calcium-binding proteins that have been associated in plants with different biological processes such as responses to abiotic stress and early nodulation stages. Until now, the implication of annexins during plant-pathogen interactions has not been reported. Here, a novel plant annexin gene induced in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures infected with the phytopathogenic bacterium Rhodococcus fascians (strain D188) has been identified. Expression of this gene, called Ntann12, is also induced, but to a lower extent, by a strain (D188-5) that is unable to induce leafy gall formation. This gene was also induced in BY-2 cells infected with Pseudomonas syringae but not in cells infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Escherichia coli. Ntann12 expression was also found to be stimulated by abiotic stress, including NaCl and abscissic acid, confirming a putative role in stress signal transduction pathways. In addition, promoter-GUS analyses using homozygous transgenic tobacco seedlings showed that the developmentally controlled expression of Ntann12 is altered upon R. fascians infection. Finally, up-regulation of Ntann12 during leafy gall ontogenesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Discussion is focused on the potential role of Ntann12 in biotic and abiotic stress responses and in plant development, both processes that may involve Ca(2+)-dependent signalling.

  13. 78 FR 46905 - Tobacco Transition Program; Final Assessment Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Tobacco Transition Program; Final Assessment... information about the final quarterly assessments for the Tobacco Transition Program (TTP). Through the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP), which is part of the TTP, eligible former tobacco quota...

  14. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

    1992-01-01

    While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern. PMID:1600587

  15. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  16. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer – either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents. PMID:25520574

  17. Tobacco Control and Children: An International Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hipple, Bethany J.; Muramoto, Myra; Klein, Jonathan D.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use currently claims >5 million deaths per year worldwide and this number is projected to increase dramatically by 2030. The burden of death and disease is shifting to low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco control initiatives face numerous challenges including not being a high priority in many countries, government dependence upon immediate revenue from tobacco sales and production, and opposition of the tobacco industry. Tobacco leads to environmental harms, exploitation of workers in tobacco farming, and increased poverty. Children are especially vulnerable. Not only do they initiate tobacco use themselves, but also they are victimized by exposure to highly toxic secondhand smoke. Awareness of tobacco adverse health effects is often superficial even among health professionals. The tobacco industry continues to aggressively promote its products and recognizes that children are its future. The tools and knowledge exist, however, to dramatically reduce the global burden of tobacco. In 2003 the World Health Organization adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Aggressive tobacco control initiatives have been undertaken not only in high-income countries but also in less-wealthy countries such as Uruguay and Thailand. Stakeholders must come together in coordinated efforts and there must be a broad and sustained investment in global tobacco control. PMID:22375275

  18. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  19. [New role for tobacco--production of biopharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2009-01-01

    Over one hundred of biopharmaceuticals present on the pharmaceutical market--among them mainly therapeutically peptides and proteins such as hormones, enzymes, interferons, blood factors, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, growth factors and fusion proteins, are manufactured through recombinant DNA technology in cultures of transgenic bacterial (Escherichia coli), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammalian cells (CHO, BHK) and rarely insect cells or insects (Bombyx mori). High costs of their manufacturing with simultaneous increased demand for existing and new biopharmaceuticals prompt for the search of cheaper methods of production by using transgenic domestic animals and, in particular, in transgenic crop plants. Among many plant species investigated for ability to produce biopharmaceuticals, such like cereals, legumes, oil plants, vegetables and fruit plants, aquatic plants and mosses, the outstanding features posses two tobacco species--Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana benthamiana. Foreign proteins can be expressed in those plants not only in nuclear genome, but also easily in chloroplast genome, through transient transformation and propagation of transgenic plant virus--e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Tobacco was shown to be useful to produce various therapeutical proteins, even such complex ones as antibodies including secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), with partial humanization of N-glycans. Especially important is possibility of rapid preparation, even within a week, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies for clinical tests or personalized anticancer therapy through transient transformation or infection with transgenic virus. Tobacco with foreign gene may be employed for manufacture in two ways--either in field or green-house cultivation or in the form of in vitro suspension cell culture. Among many biopharmaceuticals expressed in tobacco, several vaccines and antibodies are in advanced stages of development, in clinical evaluations and probably close to

  20. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  1. Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Smokeless Tobacco URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  3. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  4. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  5. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  8. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  9. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  10. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  11. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  12. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  13. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  14. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  15. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  18. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  19. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  5. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  6. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  7. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  8. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  9. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  10. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  11. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  12. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  13. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  14. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  15. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  16. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  18. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  19. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  1. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  3. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  4. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  5. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  7. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  8. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  9. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  10. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  11. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  12. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  13. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  14. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  15. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  16. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  17. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  18. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  2. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  3. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  4. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information will assist the Agency in establishing a list...

  5. Addressing Tobacco Dependence Through a Nurse-driven Tobacco Intervention Protocol.

    PubMed

    Ceass, Tasha; Parsons, Lynn C

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use contributes to the largest proportion of preventable disease, disability, and death. Use of tobacco products is at epidemic proportions in the United States. Estimates retrieved between 2012 and 2013 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 1 in 5 adults used tobacco products. Tobacco use was greatest among men, young adults, those living in the Midwest and south, and those with less education. Cigarette smoking resulting in inhalation of tobacco and its by-products is the most common form of tobacco use. Tobacco use results in multiple diseases, including numerous cancers and chronic diseases.

  6. Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Farber, Harold J; Nelson, Kevin E; Groner, Judith A; Walley, Susan C

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure are among the most important health threats to children, adolescents, and adults. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. The developing brains of children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the development of tobacco and nicotine dependence. Tobacco is unique among consumer products in that it causes disease and death when used exactly as intended. Tobacco continues to be heavily promoted to children and young adults. Flavored and alternative tobacco products, including little cigars, chewing tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are gaining popularity among youth. This statement describes important evidence-based public policy actions that, when implemented, will reduce tobacco product use and tobacco smoke exposure among youth and, by doing so, improve the health of children and young adults.

  7. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  8. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  9. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  10. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  11. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  12. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  13. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  17. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  3. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  11. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  17. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1068 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.1068 Section 29.1068 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3070 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3070 Section 29.3070 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  5. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  6. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.2309 Section 29.2309 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3556 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco products. 29.3556 Section 29.3556 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  11. Smokeless Tobacco Education for College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burak, Lydia J.

    2001-01-01

    Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…

  12. Tobacco Use Among Southwestern Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, and exposure to tobacco products in a cohort of rural dwelling Alaska Native (AN) people. Methods: We conducted a study of 400 of AN adult tobacco users and nonusers living in Southwestern Alaska. Questionnaires covered variables such as demographics, tobacco-use history, current tobacco use and dependence scales, general health status, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco, and quitting history. Results: The study population smoked 7.8 cigarettes per day compared with 16.8 on average for the U.S. population: a significant proportion of the population engaged in dual use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products. Over one third (40.9%), first tried tobacco at age 11 or younger. The mean measures of tobacco addiction (e.g., Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, Severson Scale of Smokeless Tobacco Dependence) scores were lower compared with other U.S. populations. Conclusions: Very high tobacco-use prevalence, dual product use, and early tobacco use are observed in Southwestern AN people. Unexpectedly these did not appear to be correlated with heavier individual tobacco use or higher levels of addiction in this population. PMID:22949573

  13. Tobacco control policies of oncology nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2004-05-01

    Nurses, the largest group of health care professionals, and the policies of nursing organizations, have tremendous potential to promote health and tobacco control. Policies addressing tobacco use have been implemented by a variety of national and international nursing organizations. This article reviews existing tobacco control policies in oncology nursing organizations.

  14. Tobacco If You Use...You Lose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Health, Austin.

    This teacher's guide was developed to provide essential information that will enable students to make independent and healthy decisions regarding tobacco use. Each lesson in the guide covers both smoking and smokeless tobacco in an effort to add to the realization that all tobacco products have health risks associated with their use and to dispel…

  15. Magazine hyped: Trends in tobacco advertising and readership characteristics, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    El-Toukhy, Sherine M; Choi, Kelvin

    2016-10-01

    We tracked magazine advertisements for seven tobacco products in U.S. magazines from 2010 to 2014 and examined magazine readership characteristics that are associated with advertising placement in 2014. Advertising data came from Kantar Media's Intelligence and readership data came from a 2014 Experian's nationally representative survey of 4667 adult tobacco users. At magazine level, we aggregated total and product-specific number of advertisements and expenditures by year and calculated readership demographics. We used linear and poisson regression models to examine trends in number of tobacco advertisements and expenditures and readership characteristics associated with number of tobacco advertisements in 2014. Analyses were conducted in 2015. There were 5317 tobacco advertisements with expenditures of $796 million that appeared in 322 magazines during 2010-2014. Cigarette advertisements accounted for 2928 (55%), followed by e-cigarettes (n=862, 16%), and snus (n=534, 10%). Advertisements increased by 2.79ad/year for cigarettes, 1.94ad/year for e-cigarettes, and 0.78ad/year for chewing tobacco (p<0.05). In 2014, number of advertisements was associated with select readership characteristics (p<0.05). For every 10% increase in 18-39year-old readers, advertisement rate increased by 1.48 times for cigarettes, 3.44 times for e-cigarettes, and 2.15 times for chewing tobacco. For every 10% increase in readers who earn ≤$24,999, advertisement rate increased by 1.37 times for cigarettes and 1.70 times for e-cigarettes. Magazine tobacco advertising has increased especially for cigarettes and is targeted toward certain demographic subgroups. Regulating tobacco magazine advertising should be integral to tobacco control policies.

  16. Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Richard L; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    In the 1980s, the tobacco industry started a campaign to divert attention away from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) as a major source of indoor air pollution in workplaces by highlighting the roles of other indoor air pollutants. The industry, working through "third parties," highlighted endotoxins, naturally occurring substances that cause numerous inflammatory reactions in humans, as an alternative explanation to SHS as causing indoor air problems. In 1995, Hasday and colleagues were the first to present findings that cigarette smoke contains significant quantities of endotoxins. This discovery surprised tobacco industry scientists. The 1999 publication of the full Hasday et al. findings received only limited media attention but got the full attention of Philip Morris scientists concerned about a new public health issue and a new basis for regulation of workplace smoking by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which already regulated workplace endotoxin exposures from other sources. Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin-free cigarettes were possible. Although experiments were conducted to remove endotoxin from the tobacco, there is no evidence that they were successful. Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor air pollutant for the tobacco industry softened his position on the role of endotoxins as indoor pollutants. The presence of endotoxins in SHS provides an additional mechanism for the adverse effects of SHS that should be researched further, and the risk of exposure should be assessed.

  17. Process evaluation of a tobacco prevention program in Indian schools—methods, results and lessons learnt

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Shifalika; Tewari, Abha; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Arnold, J. P. Saulina; Kulathinal, Sangita; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    In India, 57% of men between 15 and 54 years and 10.8% of women between 15 and 49 years use tobacco. A wide variety of tobacco gets used and the poor and the underprivileged are the dominant victims of tobacco and its adverse consequences. Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco-Related Initiatives in India) was a tobacco prevention intervention program, a cluster-randomized trial in 32 Indian schools which aimed to decrease susceptibility to tobacco use among sixth- to ninth-grade students in urban settings in India. This culture-specific intervention, which addressed both smokeless and smoked forms of tobacco, was Indian in content and communication. We qualitatively developed indicators which would help accurately measure the dose of the intervention given, received and reached. A multi-staged process evaluation was done through both subjective and objective measures. Training the teachers critically contributed toward a rigorous implementation and also correlated with the outcomes, as did a higher proportion of students participating in the classroom discussions and better peer–leader–student communication. A sizeable proportion of subjective responses were ‘socially desirable’, making objective assessment a preferred methodology even for ‘dose received’. The peer-led health activism was successful. Teachers' manuals need to be concise. PMID:20884731

  18. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  19. Banishing Tobacco. Worldwatch Paper 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    This report focuses on topics and issues related to the global use of tobacco. It consists of an introduction and six major sections. These sections deal with: (1) the epidemic rate at which smoking is spreading, indicating that the global rate has grown nearly 75 percent over the past two decades and is growing at 2.1 percent per year, faster…

  20. First Amendment Protects Tobacco Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the U.S. government suppression of tobacco advertising is inconsistent with the First Amendment. Cites court decisions declaring that truthful commercial speech concerning lawful activity can be suppressed only if restraint directly advances a substantial government interest. Concludes that Congress should repeal prohibition on…

  1. Tobacco Industry Seeks New Recruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents four cartoons that take aim at the claims that the tobacco industry makes in its advertising. Focus is on smoking industry advertisements aimed at getting children and youth to buy and smoke cigarettes. They are intended to be shared with students to heighten their awareness of advertising ploys. (SLD)

  2. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    PubMed Central

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  3. Characteristics of tobacco retailers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Louise; Doscher, Crile; Robertson, Lindsay A

    2013-09-01

    Using data on known tobacco outlets throughout NZ, GIS was used to map outlets, deprivation and secondary schools. A total of 5008 tobacco outlets were identified, giving a density of one outlet per 617 people or one outlet per 129 smokers. One-half of secondary schools had an outlet within 500 m. Tobacco outlets were more densely located in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. One third of all tobacco outlets had a licence to sell alcohol. This study indicates the widespread retail availability of tobacco and the need for a mandatory system of registration for better enforcement of smokefree legislation.

  4. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  5. The Canadian cigar and tobacco journal in the forties: a remembrance.

    PubMed

    Warsh, Cheryl Krasnick

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a period snapshot of the life and times of Canadian smoking culture, filtered through "The Canadian Cigar and Tobacco Journal" (the industry's trade paper) from 1943-1949. "The Journal" provided a vivid portrait of neighbourhood tobacconists, travelling salesman, wholesalers and factory workers, homemakers and entrepreneurs. I discuss the role of Jews in the industry, as manufacturers and retailers. "The Journal" evokes the dangers of the retail trade, such as armed robberies, as well as the dangers of wartime. There is also the parallel danger of tobacco smoking, which, although not explicitly defined as risky behaviour by physicians, nonetheless is apparent to consumers. World War II is a dominant feature of "The Journal," and the celebration of wartime tobacco consumption is epitomized by Winston Churchill and other heroic smokers. Women's increased economic participation during the war years, and postwar demobilization, is reflected in "The Journal." Finally I discuss the growing targeting of children as potential consumers of tobacco.

  6. Politics, Profit, and Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Case Study of Tobacco Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The idea of tobacco or nicotine dependence as a specific psychiatric diagnosis appeared in 1980 and has evolved through successive editions of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Not surprisingly, the tobacco industry attempted to challenge this diagnosis through behind-the-scenes influence. But another entity put corporate muscle into supporting the diagnosis—the pharmaceutical industry. Psychiatry’s ongoing professional challenges have left it vulnerable to multiple professional, social, and commercial forces. The example of tobacco use disorder illustrates that mental health concepts used to develop public health goals and policy need to be critically assessed. I review the conflicting commercial, professional, and political aims that helped to construct psychiatric diagnoses relating to smoking. This history suggests that a diagnosis regarding tobacco has as much to do with social and cultural circumstances as it does with science. PMID:25211741

  7. Opportunities for nursing research in tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Sarna, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Nurse scientists have made important contributions to evidence-based practice in tobacco control. This chapter will discuss recent tobacco control developments in the United States and globally, such as legislation giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory authority over tobacco products manufacturing, marketing and sales, the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and a brief review of research that has guided policy advances and nursing research in tobacco control. Suggestions for future research based on the update of the U.S. Public Health Services Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence clinical practice guideline will be explored. These developments offer nursing researchers a wealth of opportunities and challenges to advance nursing and tobacco control knowledge, address research gaps, and bring a unique nursing perspective to tobacco use prevention, reduction of exposure to secondhand smoke, tobacco dependence treatment, and tobacco control policies. Additionally, we will address how nursing scholarship can and should be supported by academic and organizational leadership to support nurses in realizing their full potential in mitigating the global epidemic of tobacco-caused death and disease.

  8. Treating Tobacco Dependence in a Medical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Hays, J. Taylor; McFadden, David D.

    2014-01-01

    The US Public Health Service Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence 2008 Update emphasizes tobacco use as a chronic medical disorder; highlights both behavioral counseling and the use of 1 or more of the 7 approved medications; and points out the utility, efficacy, and reach of telephone quitlines. The treatment of users of smokeless tobacco continues to be less than optimal. Although providing evidence-based treatment for tobacco-dependent patients is a challenge for busy physicians, a team approach including trained and certified tobacco treatment specialists (TTS) provides an efficient treatment model. TTS represent a new and growing part of the health care team and hold great potential for expanding the collective tobacco treatment expertise in the medical setting. The effective treatment of tobacco dependence frequently requires tailoring, and often intensifying, interventions (both counseling and pharmacotherapy) to meet the needs of the individual patient. PMID:19706827

  9. Electrical disturbance in heart by smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Puri, Aniket; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rohit; Tiwari, Sunita

    2013-05-01

    Smokeless tobacco use in the form of chewed tobacco or snuff is common in various parts of the world, including India. It is well known that smokeless tobacco consumption is responsible for cancer but less is known about its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nicotine, the main constituent of tobacco smoke is responsible for the elevated risk of the cardiovascular disease and sudden coronary death associated with smoking, presumably by provoking cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses some of the acute and chronic cardiac effects of smokeless tobacco on cardiovascular disease with special reference to the electrical disturbance as well as comparing nicotine kinetics between smoking and smokeless tobacco. It would further enhance the clamor to urge people to quit all forms of tobacco consumption.

  10. Treating tobacco dependence in a medical setting.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Hays, J Taylor; McFadden, David D

    2009-01-01

    The US Public Health Service Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence 2008 Update emphasizes tobacco use as a chronic medical disorder; highlights both behavioral counseling and the use of 1 or more of the 7 approved medications; and points out the utility, efficacy, and reach of telephone quitlines. The treatment of users of smokeless tobacco continues to be less than optimal. Although providing evidence-based treatment for tobacco- dependent patients is a challenge for busy physicians, a team approach including trained and certified tobacco treatment specialists (TTS) provides an efficient treatment model. TTS represent a new and growing part of the health care team and hold great potential for expanding the collective tobacco treatment expertise in the medical setting. The effective treatment of tobacco dependence frequently requires tailoring, and often intensifying, interventions (both counseling and pharmacotherapy) to meet the needs of the individual patient.

  11. Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Morton, Jeremy; Hsia, Jason; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira; Talley, Brandon; Caixeta, Roberta D; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-06-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.

  12. Ethical dilemmas in providing tobacco to developing countries: the case of China.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1997-09-01

    We should recognize that we have a responsibility to people who live outside our own borders, and view ourselves as part of the global community. Looking at China we are faced with ethical dilemmas which require consideration. First, there is the ethical dilemma of business versus health. The opening and development of the tobacco business in China, which includes vigorous marketing, is considered against the health consequences of tobacco use which is estimated to cost 600,000 lives annually in China, rising to 2 million by 2,025 without effective tobacco control programmes. A second ethical dilemma is employment versus impoverishment, in which the opportunities for work in the tobacco industry are considered against a background of malnutrition caused in part by a proportion of household budgets used to buy tobacco, and the erosion of the land, as trees are used to produce tobacco. Gains have already been made in tobacco control in China, with the way open for much development in the future.

  13. Tobacco use in Tunisia: behaviour and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhfakh, Radhouane; Hsairi, Mohamed; Maalej, Mohsen; Achour, Nourredinne; Nacef, Taoufik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess tobacco use and the awareness of and attitudes towards tobacco and its control in the adult population of Tunisia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1996 of a representative national sample of 5696 subjects aged 25 and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. FINDINGS: Tobacco use was reported by 30.4% of the respondents, of whom 24.6% smoked cigarettes and 5.8% consumed traditional tobacco, i.e. snuff, chewing tobacco and/or water pipe tobacco. Whereas 55.6% of men used tobacco, only 5.2% of women did so. Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. Among women, smoking peaked in the 35-54 age group. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2.4% in the 25-34 age group to 20.4% in the 55+ age group; the corresponding values for women were 0.1% and 14.3%. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by 98.6% of the respondents. Over 90% of the interviewees were aware that tobacco played a part in the development of heart disease. However, there were some gaps in awareness. A fear of cancer was expressed by 85% of the respondents, whereas only 5.6% were fearful of accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Informational and educational campaigns relating to tobacco control should be directed at individuals and communities, taking into account the gaps in awareness of the effects of tobacco on health. PMID:12077609

  14. The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-01-01

    South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  15. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  16. Population Health Trial for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation With Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    attention within the military, the use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff ) has not been a focus of medical services or research...INTRODUCTION While smoking cessation has received considerable attention within the military, the use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco and snuff ) has...tobacco juice while using snuff or chew. Table 3. Current Tobacco Use of DoD Smokeless Tobacco Participants – Indicators of Dependence Current

  17. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds’ Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds’ marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February–July 2011 and April–August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  18. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  19. Lupine leghemoglobin I: expression in transgenic Lotus and tobacco tissues.

    PubMed

    Strózycki, P M; Karłowski, W M; Dessaux, Y; Petit, A; Legocki, A B

    2000-03-01

    The proximal parts of the promoters of the genes for symbiotic-type hemoglobins are generally conserved, but the promoter of the lbI gene of lupine (LulbI) shows some unusual structural features. It lacks typical organ-specific elements characteristic of all the leghemoglobin gene promoters described thus far. We have analysed its functional activity in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. A fusion construct between the lbI promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed mainly in the central zone of the root nodule, but the product was also detected in the non-nodule root zone and in roots in tissue culture. In roots of transgenic tobacco, the activity of the promoter was only 24% lower than in Lotus nodules. LulbI promoter activity was also detected in tobacco leaves. Lupine hemoglobin I has a higher sequence identity to symbiotic-type hemoglobins and thus it groups within the "Class II" hemoglobins.

  20. Effect of abscissic acid on tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M D; Ghosh, A; Verma, V S; Dattagupta, M

    1983-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) did not affect the infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in vitro. The same dilutions of ABA when applied on the leaves of Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn. at different intervals before inoculation affected development of local lesions variably at different dilutions. The inhibition of local lesion formation was reduced at other intervals leading to stimulation at thirty minutes and six hours intervals. Post-inoculation treatments with 2 mg/l of ABA gave stimulation of local lesion formation, though other dilutions gave inhibition. Viral concentration was stimulated in the tomato seedlings root dipped in 0.2 mg/l of ABA for 6 hours and inoculated 24 hours after transplantation. Incorporation of different concentrations of ABA into tissue culture medium reduced the growth of the TMV infected tobacco callus tissue and stimulated the infectivity of the tissue grown over it assayed after three weeks.

  1. Peroxidation of tobacco membrane lipids by the photosensitizing toxin, cercosporin.

    PubMed

    Daub, M E

    1982-06-01

    Cercosporin, a nonspecific toxin from Cercospora species, is a photosensitizing compound which rapidly kills plant cells in the light. Cell death appears to be due to a cercosporin-mediated peroxidation of membrane lipids. Tobacco leaf discs treated with cercosporin showed a large increase in electrolyte leakage 1 to 2 minutes after irradiation with light. All tobacco protoplasts exposed to cercosporin in the light were damaged within 45 minutes. Chloroform:methanol extracts of toxin-treated suspension cultures gave positive reactions for lipid hydroperoxides in the thiobarbituric acid test. Cercosporin-treated leaf discs emitted high concentrations of ethane 12 to 24 hours after incubation in the light. Cercosporin also oxidized solutions of methyl linolenate as determined by the thiobarbituric acid assay and the emission of ethane. alpha-Tocopherol had an inhibitory effect on the cercosporin-mediated lipid peroxidation.

  2. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  3. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-05-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  4. Tobacco control in Europe: a policy review.

    PubMed

    Bertollini, Roberto; Ribeiro, Sofia; Mauer-Stender, Kristina; Galea, Gauden

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco is responsible for the death of 6 million people every year globally, of whom 700 000 are in Europe. Effective policies for tobacco control exist; however, the status of their implementation varies across the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. In order to tackle the tobacco epidemic, action has been taken though the implementation of both legally binding and non-legally binding measures. This article aims to present the achievements and challenges of tobacco control in Europe, focussing on the available legally binding instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revision of the Tobacco Products Directive at the European Union level. Tobacco still faces heavy lobbying of the tobacco industry, which has systematically contrasted policies to achieve public health objectives. The legal instruments for tobacco control in Europe presented here are not always adequately enforced in all the countries and there is certainly room for improving their implementation. Finally, the need for a strong political commitment towards the end-game of the tobacco epidemic is emphasised.

  5. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  6. [Tobacco farming in Italy receives more funds in comparison to tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Aquilini, Ferruccio; Miligi, Lucia; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union almost 300,000 tons of raw tobacco are produced every year, contributing for 4% of the world production. In Italy, tobacco crop produces around 90,000 tons/year and is concentrated in Veneto, Tuscany, Umbria and Campania Regions. In 1970, Common Market Organisation provided a virtually unlimited support for European tobacco production. After 2004, funds progressively has been cut by half, even though the other half has been given for restructuring or reconversion of tobacco farms through the Rural Development Plan. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends conversion of tobacco crops, although there are no effective measures. Tobacco production requires large quantities of chemicals (pesticides, growth regulators, fertilisers), with significant workers' exposure if applied without personal protective equipments. Pesticides may have genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, hormonal, and carcinogenic effects. Tobacco itself may cause also a disease called "Green tobacco sickness" syndrome, as a consequence of nicotine dermal absorption due to skin exposure to tobacco leaves. In Italy, financial resources for tobacco production and restructuring/conversion to other crops of previously tobacco planted fields are available. On the contrary, anti-smoking media interventions do not receive funds comparatively relevant as those for tobacco production.

  7. Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, J

    1999-01-01

    One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios. PMID:10090715

  8. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  9. Exploring How the Tobacco Industry Presents and Promotes Itself in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Background The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. Objective The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. Methods The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their retail prices: group H (brands with high retail prices) and group L (brands with low retail prices). Three comprehensive searches were conducted on Facebook, Wikipedia, and YouTube respectively using the top 70 popular cigarette brands as keywords. We identified tobacco-related content including history and culture, product features, health warnings, home page of cigarette brands, and Web-based tobacco shops. Furthermore, we examined the promotional strategies utilized in social media. Results According to the data collected from March 3, 2014 to March 10, 2014, 43 of the 70 representative cigarette brands had created 238 Facebook fan pages, 46 cigarette brands were identified in Wikipedia, and there were over 120,000 pro-tobacco videos on YouTube, associated with 61 cigarette brands. The main content presented on the three social media websites differs significantly. Wikipedia focuses on history and culture (67%, 32/48; P<.001). Facebook mainly covers history and culture (37%, 16/43; P<.001) and major products (35%, 15/43), while YouTube focuses on the features of major tobacco products (79%, 48/61; P=.04) and information about Web-based shops (49%, 30/61; P=.004). Concerning the content presented by groups H and L, there is no significant difference between the two groups. With regard to the promotional strategies used, sales promotions exist extensively in social media. Sales promotion is more prevalent on YouTube than on the other two sites (64%, 39/61 vs 35%, 15/43; P=.004

  10. Nuclear analysis of Jordanian tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, K. A.; Saleh, N. S.

    The concentration of trace and minor elements in six different Jordanian and two foreign brands of cigarette tobacco and wrapping paper were determined using combined X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Rutherford backscatteing (RBS) analysis techniques. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the trapped elements on the filter and their transference with smoke. The toxic effects of some elements have been briefly discussed.

  11. Lung cancer and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P; Maisonneuve, P

    1995-06-01

    The dominant role of tobacco smoking in the causation of lung cancer has been repeatedly demonstrated over the past 50 years. Current lung cancer rates reflect cigarette smoking habits of men and women in the past decades, but not necessarily current smoking patterns, since there is an interval of several decades between the change in smoking habits in a population and its consequences on lung cancer rates. Over 90% of lung cancer may be avoidable simply through avoidance of cigarette smoking. There is at present a huge premature loss of life world-wide caused by smoking. Rates of lung cancer present in central and eastern Europe at the present time are higher than those ever before recorded elsewhere; lung cancer has increased 10-fold in men and eightfold in women in Japan since 1950. There is a world-wide epidemic of smoking among young women which will be translated into increasing rates of tobacco-related disease, including cancer, in the coming decades. There is another epidemic of lung cancer and tobacco-related deaths building up in China as the cohorts of men in whom tobacco smoking became popular reach ages where cancer is an important hazard. Many solutions have been attempted to reduce cigarette smoking and increasingly many countries are enacting legislation to curb this habit. Cigarette smoking remains the number one target for Public Health action aimed at reducing cancer risk in the general population. General practitioners, hospital physicians and everyone working in oncology have a particularly important exemplary role to play in this process.

  12. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  13. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  14. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  15. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  16. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  17. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  18. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  19. 18 CFR 1303.3 - Prohibition on tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibition on tobacco... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Tobacco Products § 1303.3 Prohibition on tobacco products. (a) Sale of tobacco products by vending machine on TVA property is prohibited. Tobacco product vending machines already in...

  20. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...