Science.gov

Sample records for cummings complex abitibi

  1. Petrogenetic and geodynamic origin of the Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi subprovince, Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Ali; Frei, Robert; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Woods, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    The Neoarchean (ca. 2728 Ma) anorthosite-bearing Doré Lake Complex in the northeastern Abitibi subprovince, Quebec, was emplaced into an association of intra-oceanic tholeiitic basalts and gabbros known as the Obatogamau Formation. The Obatogamau Formation constitutes the lower part of the Roy Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation to assess their petrogenetic origin and geodynamic setting. Field and petrographic observations indicate that the Doré Lake Complex and associated volcanic rocks underwent extensive metamorphic alteration under greenschist facies conditions, resulting in widespread epidotization (20-40%) and chloritization (10-40%) of many rock types. Plagioclase recrystallized mainly to anorthite and albite endmembers, erasing intermediate compositions. Metamorphic alteration also led to the mobilization of many elements (e.g., LILE and transition metals) and to significant disturbance of the Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotope systems, resulting in 1935 ± 150 and 3326 ± 270 Ma errorchron ages, respectively. The Sm-Nd isotope system was less disturbed, yielding an errorchron age of 2624 ± 160 Ma. On many binary major and trace element diagrams, the least altered anorthosites and leucogabbros, and the gabbros and mafic dykes of the Doré Lake Complex plot in separate fields, signifying the presence of two distinct magma types in the complex. The gabbros and mafic dykes in the Doré Lake Complex share the geochemical characteristics of tholeiitic basalts and gabbros in the Obatogamau Formation, suggesting a possible genetic link between the two rock associations. Initial

  2. Pyrazolylborate-zinc-nucleobase-complexes, 2:(1) preparations and structures of Tp(Cum,Me)Zn and Tp(Ph,Me)Zn complexes.

    PubMed

    Badura, Dirk; Vahrenkamp, Heinrich

    2002-11-18

    The interactions of the nine most significant nucleobases (thymine, uracil, dihydrouracil, cytosine, adenine, guanine, diaminopurine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, in their deprotonated forms) with zinc and with themselves in pyrazolylborate zinc complexes Tp(Cum,Me)Zn-base and Tp(Ph,Me)Zn-base are described. Except for guanine, the complexes Tp*Zn-base could be isolated in all cases. Structure determinations could be performed for seven of the eight product types. Except for dihydrouracil and xanthine, the zinc ion is attached to that nitrogen of the base which in nucleosides bears the sugar moiety. In the solid state, all zinc-bound nucleobases are involved in hydrogen bonding interactions. Except for xanthine, this includes homo base pairing across a crystallographic inversion center.

  3. WRR editor Ronald Cummings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-04-01

    It has been nearly a year since Ronald Cummings took over as policy sciences editor of Water Resources Research (WRR), and in that time he has worked to make the journal live up to its role as “an interdisciplinary journal integrating research in the social and natural sciences of water.” Cummings takes the “interdisciplinary” part seriously. “I'd like to see a much broader range of policy issues presented to readers,” he says. “I would hope it would then stimulate interchange between our colleagues concerning evolving issues of the '80s and '90s.”Cummings brings a solid background as a resource economist to his 4-year term as editor, which began last January and runs until December 1987. Cummings succeeds Jared Cohon as policy sciences editor. Stephen J. Burges is the WRR editor for hydrological, physical, chemical, and biological sciences. Now a Professor of Economics and Director of the Program in Natural Resources Economics at the University of New Mexico, Cummings is a past president of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. He has been a consultant in matters of water resources management, forestry management, and energy policy for more than a decade, working on projects in both the United States and Latin America. Since joining the faculty at New Mexico in 1975, he has, among other things, worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation'management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems.

  4. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    This special issue commemorates the 50th anniversary of the seminal paper published by E T Jaynes and F W Cummings [1], the fundamental model which they introduced and now carries their names, and celebrates the remarkable host of exciting research on Jaynes-Cummings physics throughout the last five decades. The Jaynes-Cummings model has been taking the prominent stance as the 'hydrogen atom of quantum optics' [2]. Generally speaking, it provides a fundamental quantum description of the simplest form of coherent radiation-matter interaction. The Jaynes-Cummings model describes the interaction between a single electromagnetic mode confined to a cavity, and a two-level atom. Energy is exchanged between the field and the atom, which leads directly to coherent population oscillations (Rabi oscillations) and superposition states (dressed states). Being exactly solvable, the Jaynes-Cummings model serves as a most useful toy model, and as such it is a textbook example of the physicists' popular strategy of simplifying a complex problem to its most elementary constituents. Thanks to the simplicity of the Jaynes-Cummings model, this caricature of coherent light-matter interactions has never lost its appeal. The Jaynes-Cummings model is essential when discussing experiments in quantum electrodynamics (indeed the experimental motivation of the Jaynes-Cummings model was evident already in the original paper, dealing as it does with the development of the maser), and it has formed the starting point for much fruitful research ranging from ultra-cold atoms to cavity quantum electrodynamics. In fact, Jaynes-Cummings physics is at the very heart of the beautiful experiments by S Haroche and D Wineland, which recently earned them the 2012 Nobel Prize in physics. Indeed, as with most significant models in physics, the model is invoked in settings that go far beyond its initial framework. For example, recent investigations involving multi-level atoms, multiple atoms [3, 4], multiple

  5. Aesthetic Retainer cum Trainer.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Tulika; Kalra, Shilpa; Rai, Priyank

    2017-01-01

    Tongue thrust habit is one of the contributing factors in the relapse of orthodontic treatment results. Compliance with removable habit breaking appliance is a major issue to the dental practitioners treating patients of any age group. Through this case we introduce a more aesthetic and comfortable option to the patients requiring habit control for tongue thrusting and retention of treatment results. Hence, this appliance acts as a retainer cum trainer in such patients.

  6. Aesthetic Retainer cum Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Shilpa; Rai, Priyank

    2017-01-01

    Tongue thrust habit is one of the contributing factors in the relapse of orthodontic treatment results. Compliance with removable habit breaking appliance is a major issue to the dental practitioners treating patients of any age group. Through this case we introduce a more aesthetic and comfortable option to the patients requiring habit control for tongue thrusting and retention of treatment results. Hence, this appliance acts as a retainer cum trainer in such patients. PMID:28274080

  7. "Cum play" among gay men.

    PubMed

    Prestage, Garrett; Hurley, Michael; Brown, Graham

    2013-10-01

    The exchange of semen, often referred to as "cum play," has featured in gay literature and may be a unique aspect of many gay men's sexual behavior. We investigated the prevalence of "cum play" and its context among 1153 HIV-negative and 147 HIV-positive Australian gay men in an online survey. Receptive cum play (partner ejaculating or rubbing his semen over participant's anus, or participant using partner's semen as lubricant) was reported by one in six HIV-negative and one quarter of HIV-positive men on the same occasion of protected anal intercourse with a casual partner (PAIC). HIV-negative men who engaged in receptive cum play during PAIC often believed that their partner was HIV seroconcordant and tended to trust that partner. They were also generally more optimistic about the likelihood of HIV transmission, and they often only used condoms at their partners' instigation. Cum play was not uncommon and highlights the narrowness (or danger) of focusing on condom use without considering the implications of broader sexual practices and their meaning for sexual health promotion. "Safe sex" for some gay and bisexual men does not necessarily mean consistent commitment to condom use or to avoiding semen exchange. Many feel confident in their knowledge of their partner's HIV serostatus and only use condoms with these partners at their partner's request. Their commitment to safe sex may not necessarily be compromised by their practice of cum play, but the extent to which this could represent a risk for HIV transmission depends on the reliability of their assessment of their partners' HIV serostatus.

  8. Archaean wrench-fault tectonics in the Abitibi greenstone belt of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubert, C.

    1986-01-01

    A tectonic model is proposed in which the southern Abitibi belt formed in a series of rift basins which dissected an earlier formed volcanic arc. Comparisons can be made with Phanerozoic areas such as, the Hokuroko basin of Japan, the Taupo volcanic zone of new Zealand and the Sumatra and Nicaragua volcanic arcs. In addition the identification of the major E - W thrust shears make it possible to speculate that the southern Abitibi belt comprises a collage of blocks of terrane which have been accreted against a more stable continental margin or microcontinent. If this interpretation is correct analogies can be made with the SW margin of the U.S.A. in which recently formed blocks of volcanic terrane are being accreted against its western margin.

  9. Some Speculations Concerning The Abitibi Greenstone Belt As A Possible Analog To The Early Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M.; Allwood, A.; Anderson, R. B.; Atkinson, B.; Beaty, D.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hand, K. P.; Halevy, I.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Knoll, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Milliken, R.; Stolper, D. A.; Stolper, E. M.; Tosca, N. J.; Agouron Mars Simulation Field Team

    2011-12-01

    The Noachian crust of Mars comprises basaltic and, potentially, komatiitic lavas derived from a hot mantle slightly more reducing and sulfur-rich than that of the Earth. Ultramafic volcanic sequences of the ~2.7Ga Tisdale Group of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Ontario, provide a potential analog to these early martian lavas. The Abitibi rocks are a possible source of quartz veins carrying, in places, pyrite, carbonate and gold. These were hydrothermally introduced into volcanic and sedimentary rocks during greenschist metamorphism. Kilometer-scale talc-magnesite zones, resulting from the carbonation of serpentinized ultramafics, may have been the source and seawater, with some magmatic addition, was probably responsible for the pervasive alteration, although the chemical nature of hydrothermal fluids circulating in such piles depends upon the temperature of wall-rock interactions and is largely independent of fluid origin. Any sulfides and gold in unaltered ultramafic putative source rocks may have been lost to the invasive convective fluids. Given high heat flow and the presence of a hydrosphere, hydrothermal convection cells were probably the main mechanism of heat transfer through the crust on both planets. Exploration of the Abitibi belt provides a template for possible martian exploration strategies. Orbital remote sensing indicates that some ultramafic rocks on Mars have also been serpentinized and isolated areas of magnesite have been recently discovered, overlying altered mafic crust, with characteristic ridges at scales of a few hundred meters. While cogent arguments have been made favoring sedimentary exhalative accumulations of hydrothermal silica of the kind that are known to harbor bacteria on our own planet, no in situ siliceous sinters or even quartz veins have been identified with certainty on Mars. Here, we report on the mineralogic and visible to infrared spectral characteristics of mafic and ultramafic lithologies at Abitibi for comparison to

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Mathematical Routines on the Development of Skills in Mathematical Problem Solving and School Motivation of Primary School Students in Abitibi-Témiscamingue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajotte, Thomas; Marcotte, Christine; Bureau-Levasseur, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the dropout rate in Abitibi-Témiscamingue is a worrying phenomenon. An analysis of ministerial examination results identifies that students in Abitibi-Témiscamingue have specific difficulties with mathematical problem solving tasks. Among the activities that develop those skills, the daily routines in mathematics seem to be a…

  11. Single zircon age constraints on the tectonic juxtaposition of the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt and Pontiac subprovince, Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R.; Kerrich, R. )

    1991-11-01

    Zircons from metasediments and granitoids in the high-grade Lacorne block within the low-grade Archean Abitibi greenstone belt have been dated by single zircon Pb-evaporation technique, yielding {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb minimum ages. Detrital zircons in the mature clastic metasediments of the Lacorne block display a range of ages from 2,691 {plus minus} 8 Ma to 3,042 {plus minus} 6 Ma. The younger zircon ages thus impose an upper limit for deposition and indicate that the high-grade Lacorne block is not basement to the Abitibi supracrustal sequence (2,747-2,680 Ma). Existence of abundant (69%) older detrital zircons (> 2,750 Ma) suggest in turn that the Abitibi supracrustal rocks are not the source of the Lacorne sediments. Two generations of granitoids occur in the Lacorne block, an early monosodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-syenite series and a younger S-type garnet-muscovite granite series. This contrasts with granitoid magmatism in the Abitibi greenstone belt which ended at {approximately}2675 Ma. The Pontiac subprovince to the south of the Abitibi greenstone belt shares all of the above features of the Lacorne block, including detrital zircon ages as well as the composition and timing of granitoid magmatism. This is interpreted detrital zircon ages as well as the composition and timing of granitoid magmatism. This is interpreted to indicate that the Lacorne block was originally part of the same tectonic terrane as the Pontiac subprovince. After development of the MMGS magmatism (21,670-2,680 Ma), the Pontiac subprovince locally underthrust the Abitibi greenstone belt, and crustal thickening promoted partial melting of underthrust Pontiac metasediments to form the {approximately}2,644 {plus minus} 13 Ma S-type granites.

  12. Volcanic environments of ore formation in the late Archaean Abitibi greenstone belt of Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The tectonic and petrological evolution of the late Archaean Abitibi greenstone belt indicate both emergent and submergent volcanism played a role in its metallogenesis. At approximately 2700 m.y. the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Abitibi belt was dominated by a rift-related tectonic and volcanic evolution in a transcurrent (wrench) fault regime. The tholeiitic and komatiitic magmas and associated differentiated volcanic rocks had access to shallow crustal levels allowing the development of submarine hydrothermal systems and syngenetic Cu-Zn (Noranda type) massive sulfide ore bodies. These deposits formed along a 300 km. axis in submerging, fault bounded, basins. In contrast, the northern volcanic zone (the Chibougamau-Chapais area) formed at 2720 m.y and was characterized by emergent volcanoes emplaced on a continental crust and cored by coeval diorite-tonalite plutons. Mafic magma was inhibited from the crust by fractionated and contaminated magmas. This resulted in the emplacement of hydrous calc-alkaline magmas and associated porphyry-type epigenetic Cu(Au) massive sulfides. Au-lode deposits are predominantly located near major shear-zones in the SVZ. The are forming solutions were released as a result of burial due to wrench faulting. The dynamic regime of the rifted SVZ may have resulted in the syngenetic massive sulfides, the Au-lode deposits, metamorphism and sedimentation being synchronous on a regional scale, whilst on a local scale, Au-lodes superimpose and replace massive sulfides, iron formation and metamorphic isograds.

  13. Composition of komatiite melts from Abitibi and Belingwe inferred from melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asafov, Evgeny; Sobolev, Alexander; Arndt, Nicholas; Batanova, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Komatiites are the products of extreme amounts of partial melting and hence are best indicators of the composition of their mantle sources. However, the most known komatiites are highly altered, and this prevents the use of their compositions to estimate the volatile and mobile element contents of the mantle. To estimate the concentrations of these elements, we analyzed melt inclusions in high-Mg olivine phenocrysts from two 2.7 Ga sample suites, one from Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada and the other from the Belingwe greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Fresh olivine grains 0.2-0.5 mm across were heated for 5 minutes and quenched at 1350°C in a C-O-H atmosphere with oxygen fugacity corresponding to quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. Homogenized melt inclusions were exposed at the surface of grains and analyzed by electron probe micro-analyzer for concentrations of Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, Cr, P, K, Cl and S. The size of melt inclusions ranges from 20 to 80 µm. The measured compositions were adjusted to equilibrium with host olivine with iron loss correction using Petrolog3 software (Danyushevsky & Plechov, G-cubed 12, 2011). Cracked inclusions were filtered out using their low S contents. Data on the volatile components Cl and S were thus obtained for the first time for the melt inclusions in Abitibi komatiites. Calculated melt compositions range from 19.5 to 27.1 wt.% MgO in Abitibi samples and from 18.9 to 22 wt.% in Belingwe samples. Other elements, except Cl and K, show strong negative correlation with MgO and follow an olivine fractionation trend. Concentrations of Si, Ti, Al, and Ca are consistent with the corresponding compositions of whole rocks. Variations of Cl and K cannot be explained by fractionation of olivine and are attributed to the variations in parental melt. The melt inclusion compositions from Abitibi and Belingwe komatiites have similar Ca, Na, K and S concentrations at the same concentration of Mg but Al and Ti are lower in Belingwe samples

  14. The Geology, Geochemistry and Alteration of the Westwood Au-Zn-Cu Deposit, Abitibi Subprovince, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright-Holfeld, A.; Mercier-Langevin, P.; Dubé, B.

    2009-05-01

    The Westwood Au-Zn-Cu deposit, one of the latest major discoveries made in the Abitibi Subprovince, is hosted by the Bousquet Formation of the Archean Blake River Group, Abitibi Subprovince. The Bousquet Formation forms a south-facing, steeply dipping homoclinal volcanic sequence. Three mineralized corridors from the north to the south have been defined to date: 1) the Zone 2 Extension Corridor, 2) the North Corridor, and 3) the Westwood-Warrenmac Corridor. The Zone 2 Extension consists of auriferous quartz and sulphide veins. The North Corridor mineralization consists of various amounts of auriferous disseminated pyrite and sulphide veins. The Westwood-Warrenmac Corridor comprises semi-massive to massive sulphide lenses on a specific stratigraphic horizon. The Westwood deposit is interpreted, on a preliminary basis, to represent the transition between syngenetic vein systems (Zone 2 Extension) and subseafloor (North Corridor) and seafloor volcanogenic massive sulphide-style gold-rich mineralization (Westwood-Warrenmac). Careful inspection of drill core cross-cutting the mineralized sequence, and detailed geochemical analysis show that deposit-scale geology is dominated by coherent to volcaniclastic mafic to intermediate and tholeiitic to transitional flows towards the north (Bousquet Formation lower member), and by coherent and volcaniclastic intermediate to felsic, and transitional to calc-alkaline flows in the southern portion (Bousquet Formation upper member). The Zone 2 Extension ore zones occur in the lower Bousquet Formation and are hosted by mafic to intermediate units. The North Corridor ore zones are hosted by basalt and andesite. The Westwood-Warrenmac ore zone occurs most often in rhyodacitic to rhyolitic rocks of the upper Bousquet Formation. Depletion in Na, Ca, Mg, and Mn occur approaching peak metal and gold concentration, whereas enrichment in Fe is observed. This correlates to the increased concentration of sulphide minerals associated with the

  15. Cummings/Ju - Harvard; Emory | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Principal Investigator: Richard D Cummings, PhDInstitution: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Principal Investigator: Tongzhong Ju, MD, PhDInstitution: Emory University, Atlanta, GA |

  16. A new pregnane steroid from Poria cum radix pini.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Jin-Lei; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2010-05-01

    A new pregnane steroid and eight known compounds were isolated from Poria cum radix pini. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data. All the known compounds were isolated from this species for the first time.

  17. Thermomechanical erosion at the Alexo Mine, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario: implications for the genesis of komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-(PGE) mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlé, Michel G.; Lesher, C. Michael; Davis, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The archetypical komatiite-hosted Alexo Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit occurs in the 2,720-2,710-Ma Kidd-Munro Assemblage of the western Abitibi greenstone belt in Dundonald Township, Ontario. Detailed mapping of a 200-m long glacially polished outcrop provides unequivocal evidence that the host komatiite flow thermomechanically eroded footwall andesites: (1) the contact between komatiite and andesite is very sharp but delicately scalloped, marked by a <1-cm-thick selvedge of black aphanitic komatiite and clearly transgresses pillow structures and interpillow breccias in the andesite without any evidence of a regolith, shearing, or folding, producing multiple nested embayments on scales from hundreds of meters to a few centimeters; (2) the andesites have been contact metamorphosed and altered along the entire length of the outcrop and the degree of metamorphism/alteration is thicker and more intense around embayments; (3) xenoliths of andesite in komatiite are more common within embayments; (4) komatiitic dikes penetrate downward into underlying andesites, primarily along the lateral margins of embayments; and (5) many of the dikes and marginal rocks exhibit geochemical evidence of contamination. This physical and geochemical evidence for thermomechanical erosion, combined with S isotopic evidence for a major component of non-magmatic country-rock S in the ores, provides additional support for the roles of thermomechanical erosion and incorporation of country-rock S in the genesis of komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits. The detailed mapping also reveals that the stratigraphy of the ore zone is considerably more complex than previously reported, indicating that the sulfides were emplaced in several stages, confirming the dynamic nature of the ore emplacement process in komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits.

  18. The Charcoal Component of Soil Organic Matter in the Boreal Forest of Western Quebec (Abitibi Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, C. M.; Simard, M.; Kurz, W. A.; Rampley, G.; Wasylishen, R. E.; Bernard, G. M.; Bergeron, Y.; Lecomte, N.

    2009-05-01

    Despite high interest in pyrogenic carbon (PyC) as a stable and possibly major component of soil organic matter (SOM), there is surprisingly little information on production, stocks, longevity, chemical properties or ecological role of PyC in boreal forests. We define the whole range of fire-transformed biomass and SOM as pyrogenic C (PyC), black carbon (BC) as the fraction resistant to laboratory oxidation, and charcoal as that determined visually. Fire is the major disturbance in boreal forests, with panboreal production estimated at 12.7 Tg/y as solid PyC and 0.38 Tg/y as atmospheric soot (estimated as 5% and 0.15% of emissions, respectively). PyC is considered a highly-stable component of SOM, and thus should contribute to long-term C sequestration by partially offsetting C losses due to fire. Forest floor charcoal is considered to enhance N availability after fire, partly by sorbing phenolics and providing microsites for microbial activity, while other studies have indicated that BC enhances mineral soil fertility, mainly by enhancing cation exchange capacity as it oxidizes. However, studies of its ecological role in boreal forests have not sufficiently isolated charcoal effects per se from direct effects of fire. Without fire disturbance many boreal forests undergo gradual paludification, with increasing thickness of organic horizons and dominance of sphagnum moss and ericaceous shrubs. As part of extensive studies of fire history and paludification in the Abitibi region of Quebec, charcoal fragments (>2mm) were separated at 1 cm depth increments (organic horizons plus varying depths of mineral soil, 2-3 monoliths per plot) in 31 plots of black spruce (Picea mariana) and 19 of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Plots included stands originating after high- and low-severity fires, the former defined as leaving <5 cm of organic horizon. Plots from low-severity fires (mainly black spruce, up to 229 y) generally had multiple layers of charcoal in the organic horizons

  19. [Pediamécum: one year of experience].

    PubMed

    Piñeiro Pérez, R; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, C; Calvo Rey, C; Piñeiro Pérez, A P; Criado Vega, E A; Bravo Acuña, J; Cabrera García, L; Mellado Peña, M J

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, the Spanish Association of Pediatrics decided to support the most ambitious project of its newly created Committee for Medicinal Products: Pediamécum. This is the first free on-line database with information on medicinal products for pediatric use in Spain. The web page http://pediamecum.es/ started on December 17 December 2012. One year later, Pediamécum includes 580 registered drugs. The website achieved more than one million page views by the end of 2013. Because of the first anniversary of Pediamécum, a survey was performed to request the feeling of users. Four hundred eighty-three responses were obtained. Ninety-five percent believed that it is easy to navigate through the web, and 74% said that their doubts about the use of medicines in children were always resolved. The overall rating of Pediamécum is 7.5/10. The aims of Pediamécum are being accomplished; which is reflected essentially due to it becoming a useful tool for all professionals who care for children in their daily clinical practice.

  20. Effects of spin-orbit coupling on Jaynes-Cummings and Tavis-Cummings models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chuanzhou; Dong, Lin; Pu, Han

    2016-11-01

    We consider ultracold atoms inside a ring optical cavity that supports a single plane-wave mode. The cavity field, together with an external coherent laser field, drives a two-photon Raman transition between two internal pseudospin states of the atom. This gives rise to an effective coupling between atom's pseudospin and external center-of-mass (COM) motion. For the case of a single atom inside the cavity, We show how the spin-orbit coupling modifies the static and dynamic properties of the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model. In the case of many atoms in thermodynamic limit, we show that the spin-orbit coupling modifies the Dicke superradiance phase transition boundary and the non-superradiant normal phase may become reentrant in some regimes.

  1. Generalized Jaynes-Cummings model as a quantum search algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, A.

    2009-07-15

    We propose a continuous time quantum search algorithm using a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model. In this model the states of the atom are the elements among which the algorithm realizes the search, exciting resonances between the initial and the searched states. This algorithm behaves like Grover's algorithm; the optimal search time is proportional to the square root of the size of the search set and the probability to find the searched state oscillates periodically in time. In this frame, it is possible to reinterpret the usual Jaynes-Cummings model as a trivial case of the quantum search algorithm.

  2. [HPLC fingerprint of glycyrrhizea radix et rhizoma praeparata cum melle].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Jin, Yong; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Qiao, Shan-Yi; Gao, Song; Che, Yan-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    The chromatographic fingerprint was established by eluting with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid water on an Agilent TC-C18 (2) column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). Six chromatographic peaks were identified by HPLC-MS/MS method. Ten batches of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle were determined, and the similarity was arranged from 0.72 to 0.99. Good precision, stability and repeatability were obtained, and this study provides a reference for the quality control of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle.

  3. Exact non-Markovian master equation for the spin-boson and Jaynes-Cummings models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferialdi, L.

    2017-02-01

    We provide the exact non-Markovian master equation for a two-level system interacting with a thermal bosonic bath, and we write the solution of such a master equation in terms of the Bloch vector. We show that previous approximated results are particular limits of our exact master equation. We generalize these results to more complex systems involving an arbitrary number of two-level systems coupled to different thermal baths, providing the exact master equations also for these systems. As an example of this general case we derive the master equation for the Jaynes-Cummings model.

  4. Archean geodynamics and the Abitibi-Pontiac collision: implications for advection of fluids at transpressive collisional boundaries and the origin of giant quartz vein systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrich, R.; Feng, R.

    1992-01-01

    Giant quartz vein systems of all ages, from the Archean to Cenozoic, are characterised by similarities of geodynamic setting, local structure, paragenesis, metal budget, P-T-t paths, and chemical, fluid dynamic and isotopic properties that collectively imply a singular hydrothermal process. Such quartz vein provinces form in regional brittle-ductile shear zones that define terrane boundaries, including closure of back-arc basins, and arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. Examples include the SVZ of the Archean Abitibi belt; the Norseman Wiluna belt, Yilgarn block; Kolar schist belt, India; Foothills Metamorphic Belt, California, and Coast Ranges Megalineament, in the Cordillera; and the Cenozoic Monte Rosa district, Insubric line. Evidence for an Archean collisional environment comes from the Abitibi and Pontiac Subprovince tectonic boundary, which hosts giant quartz vein systems. In this region, the amphibolite facies Lacorne tectonic block in the Archean Abitibi greenstone belt is anomalous with respect to the prevalent low-grade supracrustal sequences in neighbouring blocks. The Lacorne block has mature clastic sediments with a zircon provenance age spectrum from 3040-2691 Ma, and two granitic magma series; a late syntectonic monzodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-syenite series formed over 2685-2670 Ma, similar to Phanerozoic volcanic arc granites, and post-tectonic garnet-muscovite granites emplaced at 2650-2630 Ma, which compositionally resemble Phanerozic collisional S-type granites. The Pontiac subprovince to the south of the Abitibi greenstone belt shares all the above features with the Lacorne block, and collided with and was locally thrust under the Abitibi belt, with differential uplift of the Lacorne block following collision to generate a tectonic window. Following collision of allochthonous terranes, the conjuction of large volumes of subcreted oceanic crust and sediments between accreted terranes, displaced isotherms rise, and metamorphic

  5. Soma as energizer-cum-euphoriant, versus sura, an intoxicant.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1984-01-01

    Specific features of Soma plant are implict from various references in Rigveda enabling its identity as ephedra. Its juice is an energizer - cum - euphoriant contrary to the intoxicant sura. Sura is beer prepared from barely malt. Soma is the juice of ephedra rich in ephedrine which is antisomnalent. At least one use of soma has never been substituted, as the drink of longevity for a newly born child.

  6. SOMA AS ENERGIZER-CUM-EUPHORIANT, VERSUS SURA, AN INTOXICANT

    PubMed Central

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Specific features of Soma plant are implict from various references in Rigveda enabling its identity as ephedra. Its juice is an energizer – cum – euphoriant contrary to the intoxicant sura. Sura is beer prepared from barely malt. Soma is the juice of ephedra rich in ephedrine which is antisomnalent. At least one use of soma has never been substituted, as the drink of longevity for a newly born child. PMID:22557400

  7. Geochemical, oxygen, and neodymium isotope compositions of metasediments from the Abitibi greenstone belt and Pontiac Subprovince, Canada: Evidence for ancient crust and Archean terrane juxtaposition

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R.; Kerrich, R. ); Maas, R. )

    1993-02-01

    The Abitibi greenstone belt (AGB) and Pontiac Subprovince (PS) in the southwestern Superior Province are adjacent greenstone-plutonic and metasedimentary-dominated terranes, respectively, separated by a major fault zone. Metasediments from these two contrasting terranes are compared in terms of major- and trace-element and O- and Nd-isotope compositions, and detrital zircon ages. The following two compositional populations of metasediments are present in the low-grade, Abitibi southern volcanic zone: (1) a mafic-element-enriched population (MEP) characterized by flat, depleted REE patterns; enhanced Mg, Cr, Co, Ni, and Sc; low-incompatible-element contents; and minor or absent normalized negative troughs at Nb, Ta, and Ti; and (2) a low-mafic-element population (LMEP) featuring LREE-enriched patterns; enhanced Rb, Cs, Ba, Th, and U contents; and pronounced normalized negative troughs at Nb, Ta, and Ti. These geochemical features are interpreted to indicate that the MEP sediments were derived from an ultramafic- and mafic-dominated oceanic provenance, whereas the LMEP sediments represent mixtures of mafic and felsic are source rocks. The PS metasediments are essentially indistinguishable from Abitibi LMEP on the basis of major-element and transition metal abundances, suggesting comparable types of source rocks and degrees of maturity, but are distinct in terms of some trace elements and O-isotope compositions. The Pontiac metasediments are depleted in [sup 18]O and enriched in Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, U, Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr, and total REE and also have higher ratios of Rb/K, Cs/Rb, Ba/Rb, Ta/Nb, Th/La, and Ba/La relative to the Abitibi LMEP. Two subtypes of REE patterns have been identified in PS metasediments. The first subtype is interpreted to be derived from provenances of mixed mafic and felsic volcanic rocks, whereas the Eu-depleted type has features that are typical of post-Archean sediments or Archean K-rich granites and volcanic equivalents. 100 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. [Advance in studies on neuroprotective mechanism of Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis].

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fang; Zeng, Chang-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Hong; Liu, Lin

    2014-07-01

    The Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, many studies have revealed its prominent neuroprotection function. The active ingredients in Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis could protect the nervous system in a multi-path and multi-target manner. Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis shows the neuroprotective effect by resisting oxidation, scavenging free radicals, modulating neurotransmitters and their related receptors, regulating the inflammatory factors and their related pathways, attenuating neuron apoptosis, reducing intracellular Ca2+ overloads and mitigating neurodegeneration. In this paper, the authors summarized the advance in studies on neuroprotective mechanisms of Uncariae Ramulus Cum Uncis.

  9. Quantum revivals of a non-Rabi type in a Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhigov, Yu. I.; Skovoroda, N. A.; Victorova, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    We study full revivals (e.g., the reappearance in the unitary evolution) of quantum states in the Jaynes-Cummings model with the rotating wave approximation. We prove that in the case of a zero detuning in subspaces generated by two adjacent pairs of energy levels, full revival does not exist for any values of the parameters. In contrast, the set of parameters that allows full revival is everywhere dense in the set of all parameters in the case of a nonzero detuning. The nature of these revivals differs from Rabi oscillations for a single pair of energy levels. In more complex subspaces, the presence of full revival reduces to particular cases of the tenth Hilbert problem for rational solutions of systems of nonlinear algebraic equations, which has no algorithmic solution in the general case. Non-Rabi revivals become partial revivals in the case where the rotating wave approximation is rejected.

  10. A quantum heat engine based on Tavis-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai-Wei; Li, Ran; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2017-09-01

    This paper will investigate a four-stroke quantum heat engine based on the Tavis-Cummings model. The cycle of the heat engine is similar to the Otto cycle in classical thermodynamics. The relationship between output power as well as cycle efficiency and external physical system parameters are given. Under this condition, the entanglement behavior of the system will be studied. The system can show considerable entanglement by strictly controlling relevant parameters. Unlike common two-level quantum heat engines, efficiency is a function of temperature, showing interesting and unexpected phenomena. Several ways to adjust engine properties by external parameters are proposed, with which the output power and efficiency can be optimized. The heat engine model exhibits high efficiency and output power with the participation of a small number of photons, and decay rapidly as the number of photons increases in entangled area but shows interesting behaviors in non-entangled area of photon numbers.

  11. [General observations on the treatise Modus curandi cum balsamo].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Thereza Basílio; Cairus, Henrique

    2005-01-01

    Modus curandi cum balsamo is a short text, printed circa 1530 and written by an unknown author in Vulgar Latin from the Iberian peninsula. Its value stems first from the fact that it was one of the first medical texts printed in Portugal. But other aspects definitely reinforce this importance. As the title indicates, the text describes a balm that can cure very deep wounds. The prescription is strange, and even stranger is the propagandizing tone of this brief treatise. The prescription comes with recommendations on how to apply the remedy, especially to the cranium. Reference is made to a wound that goes from the dura mater to the "substance" of the head; according to the treatise, this wound should first be drained before applying the balm.

  12. Quantum phase diagrams of the Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard models in non-rectangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate systematically the quantum phase transition between the Mott-insulator and superfluid states of the Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard model in triangular, square, honeycomb and kagomé lattices. With the help of Green’s function method, by treating the hopping term in the Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard model as perturbation, we calculate the phase boundaries of Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard models on different geometrical lattices analytically up to second order for both detuning Δ =0 and Δ \

  13. Oscillator-like coherent states for the Jaynes-Cummings Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berubelauziere, Y.; Hussin, V.; Nieto, Michael M.

    1995-01-01

    A new way of diagonalizing the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is proposed, which allows the definition of annihilation operators and coherent states for this model. Mean values and dispersions over these states are computed and interpreted.

  14. From the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard to the Dicke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Blatter, G.; Keeling, J.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model describing the superfluid-Mott insulator transition of polaritons (i.e., dressed photon-qubit states) in coupled qubit-cavity arrays in the crossover from strong to weak correlations. In the strongly correlated regime the phase diagram and the elementary excitations of lattice polaritons near the Mott lobes are calculated analytically using a slave-boson theory (SBT). The opposite regime of weakly interacting polariton superfluids is described by a weak-coupling mean-field theory for a generalized multi-mode Dicke model. We show that a remarkable relation between the two theories exists in the limit of large photon bandwidth and large negative detuning, i.e., when the nature of polariton quasiparticles becomes qubit-like. In this regime, the weak-coupling theory predicts the existence of a single Mott lobe with a change of the universality class of the phase transition at the tip of the lobe, in perfect agreement with the SBT. Moreover, the spectra of low energy excitations, i.e., the sound velocity of the Goldstone mode and the gap of the amplitude mode match exactly as calculated from both theories.

  15. Quantum Diagonalization Method in the TAVIS-CUMMINGS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kazuyuki; Higashida, Kyoko; Kato, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Wada, Yukako

    2005-06-01

    To obtain the explicit form of evolution operator in the Tavis-Cummings model we must calculate the term ${e}^{-itg(S_{+}\\otimes a+S_{-}\\otimes a^{\\dagger})}$ explicitly which is very hard. In this paper we try to make the quantum matrix $A\\equiv S_{+}\\otimes a+S_{-}\\otimes a^{\\dagger}$ diagonal to calculate ${e}^{-itgA}$ and, moreover, to know a deep structure of the model. For the case of one, two and three atoms we give such a diagonalization which is first nontrivial examples as far as we know, and reproduce the calculations of ${e}^{-itgA}$ given in quant-ph/0404034. We also give a hint to an application to a noncommutative differential geometry. However, a quantum diagonalization is not unique and is affected by some ambiguity arising from the noncommutativity of operators in quantum physics. Our method may open a new point of view in Mathematical Physics or Quantum Physics.

  16. Grassmann phase space theory and the Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, B. J.; Garraway, B. M.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.

    2013-07-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model of a two-level atom in a single mode cavity is of fundamental importance both in quantum optics and in quantum physics generally, involving the interaction of two simple quantum systems—one fermionic system (the TLA), the other bosonic (the cavity mode). Depending on the initial conditions a variety of interesting effects occur, ranging from ongoing oscillations of the atomic population difference at the Rabi frequency when the atom is excited and the cavity is in an n-photon Fock state, to collapses and revivals of these oscillations starting with the atom unexcited and the cavity mode in a coherent state. The observation of revivals for Rydberg atoms in a high-Q microwave cavity is key experimental evidence for quantisation of the EM field. Theoretical treatments of the Jaynes-Cummings model based on expanding the state vector in terms of products of atomic and n-photon states and deriving coupled equations for the amplitudes are a well-known and simple method for determining the effects. In quantum optics however, the behaviour of the bosonic quantum EM field is often treated using phase space methods, where the bosonic mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator represented by a distribution function of these variables. Fokker-Planck equations for the distribution function are obtained, and either used directly to determine quantities of experimental interest or used to develop c-number Langevin equations for stochastic versions of the phase space variables from which experimental quantities are obtained as stochastic averages. Phase space methods have also been developed to include atomic systems, with the atomic spin operators being represented by c-number phase space variables, and distribution functions involving these variables and those for any bosonic modes being shown to satisfy Fokker-Planck equations from which c-number Langevin equations are often

  17. Strong coupling expansion for the Bose-Hubbard and Jaynes-Cummings lattice models.

    PubMed

    Heil, Christoph; von der Linden, Wolfgang

    2012-07-25

    A strong coupling expansion based on the Kato-Bloch perturbation theory, which has recently been proposed by Eckardt et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 195131) and Teichmann et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 224515), is implemented in order to study various aspects of the Bose-Hubbard and Jaynes-Cummings lattice models. The approach, which allows us to generate numerically all diagrams up to a desired order in the interaction strength, is generalized for disordered systems and for the Jaynes-Cummings lattice model. Results for the Bose-Hubbard and Jaynes-Cummings lattice models will be presented and compared with results from the variational cluster approach and density matrix renormalization group. Our focus will be on the Mott insulator to superfluid transition.

  18. Geochemical characteristics of aluminum depleted and undepleted komatiites and HREE-enriched low-Ti tholeiites, western Abitibi greenstone belt: A heterogeneous mantle plume-convergent margin environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Kerrich, R.

    1997-11-01

    A compositionally diverse suite of komatiites, komatiitic basalts, and basalts coexist in the Tisdale volcanic assemblage of the late-Archean (˜2.7 Ga) Abitibi greenstone belt. The komatiites are characterized by a spectrum of REE patterns, from low total REE contents (9 ppm) and pronounced convex-up patterns to greater total REE (18 ppm) and approximately flat-distributions. Thorium and niobium are codepleted with LREE. Komatiites with the most convex-up patterns have low Al 2O 3 (4.7 wt%) contents and Al 2O 3/TiO 2(12) ratios; they are interpreted to be the Al-depleted variety of komatiite derived from a depleted mantle source. Those komatiites and komatiitic basalts with flatter REE patterns are characterized by greater Al 2O 3 (7.0 wt%) and near chondritic Al 2O 3/TiO 2 (20) ratios; they are interpreted to be Al-undepleted komatiites generated from trace element undepleted mantle. For the komatiites and komatiitic basalts collectively, Gd/Ybn ratios are negatively correlated with La/Smn, but positively with MgO and Ni. The spectrum of patterns is interpreted as mixing between Al, HREE, Y-depleted, and Sc-depleted komatiites and Al-undepleted komatiites in a heterogeneous mantle plume. Auminum-depleted komatiites are characterized by negative Zr and Hf anomalies, consistent with majorite garnet-liquid D's for HFSE and REEs, signifying melt segregation at depths of >400 km. Tisdale Al-undepleted komatiites and komatiitic basalts have small negative to zero Zr(Hf)/MREE fractionation, signifying melt segregation in or above the garnet stability field. Collectively, the komatiites have correlations of Zr/Zr∗ and Hf/Hf ∗ with Gd/Ybn, and hence the Zr(Hf)/MREE fractionations are unlikely to have stemmed from alteration or crustal contamination. Two types of basalts are present. Type I basalts are Mg-tholeiites with near flat REE and primitive mantle normalized patterns, compositionally similar to abundant Mg-tholeiites associated with both Al-undepleted and Al

  19. Quantum and classical chaos in kicked coupled Jaynes-Cummings cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, A. L. C.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2010-06-15

    We consider two Jaynes-Cummings cavities coupled periodically with a photon hopping term. The semiclassical phase space is chaotic, with regions of stability over some ranges of the parameters. The quantum case exhibits dynamic localization and dynamic tunneling between classically forbidden regions. We explore the correspondence between the classical and quantum phase space and propose an implementation in a circuit QED system.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of hoveniae semen cum fructus extracts in ethanol intoxicated mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ilje; Kim, Joowan; Jung, Jaijun; Sung, Soohyun; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Ku, Saekwang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract in ethanol induced hepatic damages. [Methods] Hepatic damages were induced by oral administration of ethanol and then Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract was administered. [Results] Following Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract administration, body and liver weights were increased, while aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, γ-glutamyl transferase, and triglyceride levels in the serum, triglyceride contents, tumor necrosis factor -α level, cytochrome (CY) P450 2E1 activity in the liver and mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes, and Nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE-immunolabelled hepatocytes were decreased. However, mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation was increased. Also, as a protective mechanism for hepatic antioxidant defense systems, decreased liver MDA contents, increased glutathione contents, increased dismutase and catalase activities were observed when compared to the ethanol control. [Conclusion] Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract favorably protected against liver damages, mediated by its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-steatosis properties through the augmentation of the hepatic antioxidant defense system by NF-E2-related factor-2 activation, and down-regulation of the mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes or up-regulation of the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. PMID:27298813

  1. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that... limit for two consecutive tests. Where applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that result from each FEL and corresponding CumSum analysis for the...

  2. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that... limit for two consecutive tests. Where applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that result from each FEL and corresponding CumSum analysis for the...

  3. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that... limit for two consecutive tests. Where applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that result from each FEL and corresponding CumSum analysis for the...

  4. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that... limit for two consecutive tests. Where applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that result from each FEL and corresponding CumSum analysis for the...

  5. 40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that... limit for two consecutive tests. Where applicable, the manufacturer's final credit report as required by § 90.210 must break out the credits that result from each FEL and corresponding CumSum analysis for the...

  6. A Stylistic Study on the Linguistic Deviations in E. E. Cummings' Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin; Shi, Mengchen

    2015-01-01

    Regarded as the pioneer of experimental poetry, E. E. Cummings' unconventional treatment of poetic language has reached an unprecedented acme, which has intrigued and baffled numerous scholars, researchers and readers alike. Nevertheless, the very existence of poetry, like other types of literary texts, demonstrates the significance and value of…

  7. 40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section. (c)(1) If, at any time during the model year, a manufacturer amends the... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic calculations for the model year will remain unchanged. (2) If, at any time during the model year, a...

  8. Tavis-Cummings model and collective multiqubit entanglement in trapped ions

    SciTech Connect

    Retzker, A.; Solano, E.; Reznik, B.

    2007-02-15

    We present a method of generating collective multiqubit entanglement via global addressing of an ion chain performing blue and red Tavis-Cummings interactions, where several qubits are coupled to a collective motional mode. We show that a wide family of Dicke states and irradiant states can be generated by single global laser pulses, unitarily or helped with suitable postselection techniques.

  9. Edward and Cummings'"Fuzzy Truncation Model" Is a Step in the Right Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Wainer, Howard

    1990-01-01

    The attempt by D.Edwards and C. B. Cummings to adjust state mean Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores for differential participation rates with a "fuzzy truncation model" satisfies three criteria the authors previously defined but falls short for two. Omission of sensitivity studies mars the otherwise exemplary study. (SLD)

  10. Antidepressant-like effect of n-3 PUFAs in CUMS rats: role of tPA/PAI-1 system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi; Jiang, Pei; Li, Huande; Cai, Hualin; Liu, Yiping; Gong, Hui; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-02-01

    BDNF is strongly implicated in the development of depression. Recent evidence has indicated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are related to the cleavage of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into its mature form. Chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) is widely used to induce depressive behaviors in rodents. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PUFAs and sertraline on tPA/PAI-1 system in CUMS rats. After 5 weeks of CUMS procedures, the rats were induced to a depressive-like state. The expressions of PAI-1 and proBDNF were increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of CUMS rats. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or sertraline administration reversed the changes in behavioral test and induced the expression of tPA in certain brain areas, but failed to restore the CUMS-induced PAI-1 expression. Meanwhile, the antidepressant treatment also accelerated the extracellular conversion of proBDNF into mature BDNF in CUMS rats. Our results firstly showed the synchronously altered balance of tPA/PAI-1 system in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of CUMS rats, which was partly ameliorated by PUFAs and sertraline medication, providing new evidence for the involvement of tPA/PAI-1 system in the progression and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 222Rn behavior in waters from peatlands and eskers of the Amos region, Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthot, Laureline; Boucher, Christine; Pinti, Daniele Luigi; Larocque, Marie; Ferlatte, Miryane; Gagné, Sylvain

    2013-04-01

    222Rn is a short decay product of U. Being a noble gas not affected by chemical reactions 222Rn can be a suitable tracer in subsurface hydrology, particularly for stream-groundwater interactions. We recently carried out a Quebec government-funded project for characterizing the hydrological cycle in peatlands located around fluvioglacial moraines and eskers in the Abitibi-Temiscamingue region of Québec, eastern Canada. The goal of this project was to trace water exchanges between the eskers and the surrounding peatlands using stable isotopes, major chemistry and noble gases (including 222Rn). Samples were taken in summer 2012 from 46 wells tapping the Saint-Mathieu-de-Berry and Barraute eskers and the Harricana moraine. Sixteen samples were taken from deeper wells tapping the Archean fractured bedrock in the clay plain separating these eskers. And 40 samples were collected from piezometers installed at different depths from 0.70m to 4.8 m in four peatlands located along the flanks of the Saint-Mathieu-de-Berry esker and the Harricana moraine. 222Rn activity was measured at UQAM using a liquid scintillation counter (SL-300 from HIDEX®). 222Rn activities in peatland water range from 0.02 to 16.6 Bq/L. 222Rn activities measured in groundwater flowing through the esker and moraine aquifers range from 2.8 to 34.9 Bq/L. These values are relatively low taking into account that the rock matrix derives from old Archean granitoids and volcanic rock likely rich in U and Th. However, 234U/238U analyses in the same waters showed that these hydrologic systems are extremely depleted in U-derived radionuclides. Interestingly, several peatlands show a good correlation between the Total Dissolved Salinity (TDS) and the 222Rn activity and with HCO3-, SO42-, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Salinity in the eskers derives from the deeper fractured basement aquifer as indicated by a clear correlation between helium isotopes, TDS and the well depths. A similar relation is observed for the 222Rn. This

  12. Tracing sources of crustal contamination using multiple S and Fe isotopes in the Hart komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Houlé, M. G.; Wing, B. A.; Rouxel, O. J.

    2016-10-01

    Assimilation by mafic to ultramafic magmas of sulfur-bearing country rocks is considered an important contributing factor to reach sulfide saturation and form magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide deposits. Sulfur-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Archean are generally characterized by mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that is a result of atmospheric photochemical reactions, which produces isotopically distinct pools of sulfur. Likewise, low-temperature processing of iron, through biological and abiotic redox cycling, produces a range of Fe isotope values in Archean sedimentary rocks that is distinct from the range of the mantle and magmatic Fe isotope values. Both of these signals can be used to identify potential country rock assimilants and their contribution to magmatic sulfide deposits. We use multiple S and Fe isotopes to characterize the composition of the potential iron and sulfur sources for the sulfide liquids that formed the Hart deposit in the Shaw Dome area within the Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario (Canada). The Hart deposit is composed of two zones with komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization; the main zone consists of a massive sulfide deposit at the base of the basal flow in the komatiite sequence, whereas the eastern extension consists of a semi-massive sulfide zone located 12 to 25 m above the base of the second flow in the komatiite sequence. Low δ56Fe values and non-zero δ34S and Δ33S values of the komatiitic rocks and associated mineralization at the Hart deposit is best explained by mixing and isotope exchange with crustal materials, such as exhalite and graphitic argillite, rather than intrinsic fractionation within the komatiite. This approach allows tracing the extent of crustal contamination away from the deposit and the degree of mixing between the sulfide and komatiite melts. The exhalite and graphitic argillite were the dominant contaminants for the main zone of mineralization and the eastern

  13. Berry phase in a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Shen-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Liu, Jia; Chen, Zi-Yu

    2008-12-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is an very important model for describing interaction between quantized electromagnetic fields and atoms in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This model is generalized in many different directions since it predicts many novel quantum effects that can be verified by modern physics experimental technologies. In this paper, the Berry phase and entropy of the ground state for arbitrary photon number n of a two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model with Kerr-like medium are investigated. It is found that there is some correspondence between their images, especially the existence of a curve in the Δ-ɛ plane along which the energy, Berry phase and entropy all reach their special values. So it is available for detecting entanglement by applying Berry phase.

  14. Nursing's new paradigm is transcultural nursing: an interview with Madeleine Leininger. Interview by Susan Cummings.

    PubMed

    Leininger, M

    1996-01-01

    Around the world, transcultural nursing is being developed to provide culturally competent, congruent, humanistic health care. In this article, Susan Cummings, Associate Editor of Advanced Practice Nursing Quarterly, interviews Madeleine Leininger, founder of transcultural nursing and leader in human care nursing research. For the past 40 years Dr. Leininger has been instrumental in developing concepts, definitions, and a theoretical and research base for the development of transcultural nursing with a human care focus.

  15. Inhibition of atomic dipole collapses by squeezed light: a Jaynes-Cummings model treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Aryeh, Y.; Miller, C. A.; Risken, H.; Schleich, W.

    1992-06-01

    We investigate the collapse of the atomic dipole caused by a squeezed vacuum in an ideal one-mode cavity. The difference between the collapse times of the two quadrature components of the dipole moments is increasing with increasing squeezing parameter. This phenomenon predicted by a hamiltonian Jaynes-Cummings model is similar to the inhibition and enhancement of atomic phase decay predicted by Gardiner for a markovian system.

  16. A generalized Jaynes-Cummings model: The relativistic parametric amplifier and a single trapped ion

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R. D.; Granados, V. D.

    2016-06-15

    We introduce a generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings model and study some of its properties. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this model by using the tilting transformation and the squeezed number states of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. As physical applications, we connect this new model to two important and novelty problems: the relativistic parametric amplifier and the quantum simulation of a single trapped ion.

  17. Metabolic factors-triggered inflammatory response drives antidepressant effects of exercise in CUMS rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weina; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yangkai; Li, Haipeng; Ji, Liu

    2015-08-30

    Chronic stress is a potential contributing factor for depression, accompanying with metabolic and inflammatory response. Exercise is considered as a treatment for depression, but mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects still remain unknown. The objectives of present study were to confirm that metabolic factors-triggered inflammatory response mediates the antidepressant actions of exercise in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats. It has been found that CUMS stimulated expression of ghrelin and its receptor Ghsr, but inhibited expression of leptin and its receptor LepRb. Ghrelin, via binding to Ghsr, induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β on Tyr216 and decreased phosphorylation on Ser9, thus increasing GSK-3β activity. Conversely, ghrelin binding to Ghsr decreased STAT3 activity, through decreasing phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 and increasing Ser727 phosphorylation. Negatively correlated with ghrelin, leptin binding to LepRb had opposite effects on the activity of GSK-3β and STAT3 via phosphorylation. In addition, decreased leptin level initiated NLRP3 activity via LepRb. Furthermore, GSK-3β inhibited STAT3 activation, thus promoting the expression of NLRP3. Meanwhile, swim improved metabolic and inflammatory response both in CUMS and control rats. Our findings suggest that exercise not only ameliorates metabolic disturbance and inflammatory response in depression, but also contributes to metabolic and inflammatory function in normal conditions.

  18. Chronic antidepressant administration alleviates frontal and hippocampal BDNF deficits in CUMS rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Gu, Fenghua; Chen, Jia; Dong, Wenxin

    2010-12-17

    Stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain, and mediates mood. Antidepressants alleviate stress and up-regulate BDNF gene expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and the different kinds of antidepressant treatments on the HPA axis and the BDNF expression in the rat brain. Adult Wistar male rats were exposed to a six-week CUMS procedure and received different antidepressant treatments including venlafaxine, mirtazapine, and fluoxetine. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to measure BDNF expression levels in the rat brain, and ELISAs were used to investigate the plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. CUMS significantly decreased the BDNF protein level in the DG, CA1, and CA3 of the hippocampus and increased plasma CORT level. Chronic antidepressant treatments all significantly increased BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and the pre-frontal cortex. In addition, venlafaxine and mirtazapine inhibited the increase of plasma CORT level. These results suggested that an increase in the BDNF level in the brain could be a pivotal mechanism of various antidepressants to exert their therapeutic effects.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of the oriental herb medicine, Arisaema cum Bile, in LPS-induced PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Bum; Je, Jae-Young

    2012-06-01

    Arisaema cum Bile is widely used as a folk medicine in Korea. However, the systematic biological properties of Arisaema cum Bile have seldom been addressed. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of Arisaema cum Bile extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages. The Arisaema cum Bile extract markedly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and also suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of these cytokines. Furthermore, the Arisaema cum Bile extract also inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and gene expressions in PMA-differentiaed THP-1 macrophages. These results suggest that Arisaema cum Bile extract may have potential for development into an effective anti-inflammatory agent, and/or as an ingredient of functional foods.

  20. Pt-Re-Os and Sm-Nd isotope and HSE and REE systematics of the 2.7 Ga Belingwe and Abitibi komatiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2009-10-01

    High-precision Pt-Re-Os and Sm-Nd isotope and highly siderophile element (HSE) and rare earth element (REE) abundance data are reported for two 2.7 b.y. old komatiite lava flows, Tony's flow (TN) from the Belingwe greenstone belt, Zimbabwe, and the PH-II flow (PH) from Munro Township in the Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada. The emplaced lavas are calculated to have contained ˜25% (TN) and ˜28% (PH) MgO. These lavas were derived from mantle sources characterized by strong depletions in highly incompatible lithophile trace elements, such as light REE (Ce/Sm N = 0.64 ± 0.02 (TN) and 0.52 ± 0.01 (PH), ɛ 143Nd(T) = +2.9 ± 0.2 in both sources). 190Pt- 186Os and 187Re- 187Os isochrons generated for each flow yield ages consistent with respective emplacement ages obtained using other chronometers. The calculated precise initial 186Os/ 188Os = 0.1198318 ± 3 (TN) and 0.1198316 ± 5 (PH) and 187Os/ 188Os = 0.10875 ± 17 (TN) and 0.10873 ± 15 (PH) require time-integrated 190Pt/ 188Os and 187Re/ 188Os of 0.00178 ± 11 and 0.407 ± 8 (TN) and 0.00174 ± 18 and 0.415 ± 5 (PH). These parameters, which by far represent the most precise and accurate estimates of time-integrated Pt/Os and Re/Os of the Archean mantle, are best matched by those of enstatite chondrites. The data also provide evidence for a remarkable similarity in the composition of the sources of these komatiites with respect to both REE and HSE. The calculated absolute HSE abundances in the TN and PH komatiite sources are within or slightly below the range of estimates for the terrestrial Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM). Assuming a chondritic composition of the bulk silicate Earth, the strong depletions in LREE, yet chondritic Re/Os in the komatiite sources are apparently problematic because early Earth processes capable of fractionating the LREE might also be expected to fractionate Re/Os. This apparent discrepancy could be reconciled via a two-stage model, whereby the moderate LREE depletion in the sources of

  1. Cavity losses for the dissipative Jaynes Cummings Hamiltonian beyond rotating wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, M.; Militello, B.; Messina, A.; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Suominen, K.-A.

    2007-11-01

    A microscopic derivation of the master equation for the Jaynes-Cummings model with cavity losses is given, taking into account the terms in the dissipator which vary with frequencies of the order of the vacuum Rabi frequency. Our approach allows us to single out physical contexts wherein the usual phenomenological dissipator turns out to be fully justified and constitutes an extension of our previous analysis (Scala et al 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 013811), where a microscopic derivation was given in the framework of the rotating wave approximation.

  2. High-fidelity readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; DiCarlo, L; Johnson, B R; Sun, L; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate a qubit readout scheme that exploits the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity of a superconducting cavity coupled to transmon qubits. We find that, in the strongly driven dispersive regime of this system, there is the unexpected onset of a high-transmission "bright" state at a critical power which depends sensitively on the initial qubit state. A simple and robust measurement protocol exploiting this effect achieves a single-shot fidelity of 87% using a conventional sample design and experimental setup, and at least 61% fidelity to joint correlations of three qubits.

  3. Landau-Zener extension of the Tavis-Cummings model: Structure of the solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2016-09-07

    We explore the recently discovered solution of the driven Tavis-Cummings model (DTCM). It describes interaction of an arbitrary number of two-level systems with a bosonic mode that has linearly time-dependent frequency. We derive compact and tractable expressions for transition probabilities in terms of the well-known special functions. In this form, our formulas are suitable for fast numerical calculations and analytical approximations. As an application, we obtain the semiclassical limit of the exact solution and compare it to prior approximations. Furthermore, we also reveal connection between DTCM and q-deformed binomial statistics.

  4. Landau-Zener extension of the Tavis-Cummings model: Structure of the solution

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2016-09-07

    We explore the recently discovered solution of the driven Tavis-Cummings model (DTCM). It describes interaction of an arbitrary number of two-level systems with a bosonic mode that has linearly time-dependent frequency. We derive compact and tractable expressions for transition probabilities in terms of the well-known special functions. In this form, our formulas are suitable for fast numerical calculations and analytical approximations. As an application, we obtain the semiclassical limit of the exact solution and compare it to prior approximations. Furthermore, we also reveal connection between DTCM and q-deformed binomial statistics.

  5. Improved exponential product cum dual to product type estimator of population mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. K.; Choudhury, Sanjib; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-09-01

    In the present paper, an efficient exponential product cum dual to product type estimator has been proposed to estimate the population mean of the study variable by using simple random sampling scheme. The bias and mean squared error of the proposed estimator have been obtained up to the first order of approximation. A comparison has been made with existing similar estimators. The estimator has shown its efficiency over other estimators in terms of mean squared error (MSE). The numerical demonstrations have been made to show the gain in the estimator under study.

  6. Computer simulation of quantum effects in Tavis-Cummings model and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhigov, Yuri I.; Skovoroda, Nikita A.; Ladunov, Vitalii Y.

    2016-12-01

    We describe computer methods of simulation of Tavis-Cummings based quantum models, and apply those methods to specific tasks, conductivity measurements of atomic excitations in short chains of optical cavities with two-level atoms, C-Sign optical model, and dark states. For the conductivity measurements, we reproduce the dephasing assisted transport and quantum bottleneck effects and show their relation, and study the "which way?" problem. For the C-Sign optical model, we use the model to find optimal parameters of the system to minimize the error. For dark states, we study their collapse due to dephasing noise.

  7. Demonstration of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder with Rydberg-dressed atoms

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jongmin; Martin, Michael J.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; ...

    2017-04-06

    Here, we observe the nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) ladder in the Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the hyperfine ground states for a Rydberg-dressed two-atom system. The role of the two-level system in the JC model is played by the presence or absence of a collective Rydberg excitation, and the bosonic mode manifests as the number n of single-atom spin flips, symmetrically distributed between the atoms. We also measure the normal-mode splitting and √ n nonlinearity as a function of detuning and Rabi frequency, thereby experimentally establishing the isomorphism with the JC model.

  8. Landau-Zener extension of the Tavis-Cummings model: Structure of the solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2016-09-07

    We explore the recently discovered solution of the driven Tavis-Cummings model (DTCM). It describes interaction of an arbitrary number of two-level systems with a bosonic mode that has linearly time-dependent frequency. We derive compact and tractable expressions for transition probabilities in terms of the well-known special functions. In this form, our formulas are suitable for fast numerical calculations and analytical approximations. As an application, we obtain the semiclassical limit of the exact solution and compare it to prior approximations. Furthermore, we also reveal connection between DTCM and q-deformed binomial statistics.

  9. Mean-field and quantum-fluctuation dynamics in the driven dispersive Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogordatos, Th.; Szafulski, P.; Ginossar, E.; Szymańska, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we investigate the regime of amplitude bistability in the driven dissipative Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model. We study the semiclassical equation dynamics in contrast to entangled cavity-photon and qubit quantum trajectories, discussing our results in the context of an out-of-equilibrium first order quantum dissipative phase transition for a single JC resonator. Finally, we compare the switching process between metastable states for the two system degrees of freedom by examining a single realization of the random qubit vector in the Bloch sphere next to the intracavity amplitude quasi distributions at given time instants.

  10. Landau-Zener extension of the Tavis-Cummings model: Structure of the solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2016-09-01

    We explore the recently discovered solution of the driven Tavis-Cummings model (DTCM). It describes interaction of an arbitrary number of two-level systems with a bosonic mode that has linearly time-dependent frequency. We derive compact and tractable expressions for transition probabilities in terms of the well-known special functions. In this form, our formulas are suitable for fast numerical calculations and analytical approximations. As an application, we obtain the semiclassical limit of the exact solution and compare it to prior approximations. We also reveal connection between DTCM and q -deformed binomial statistics.

  11. Integrability and superintegrability of the generalized n-level many-mode Jaynes-Cummings and Dicke models

    SciTech Connect

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2009-10-15

    We analyze symmetries of the integrable generalizations of Jaynes-Cummings and Dicke models associated with simple Lie algebras g and their reductive subalgebras g{sub K}[T. Skrypnyk, 'Generalized n-level Jaynes-Cummings and Dicke models, classical rational r-matrices and nested Bethe ansatz', J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 475202 (2008)]. We show that their symmetry algebras contain commutative subalgebras isomorphic to the Cartan subalgebras of g, which can be added to the commutative algebras of quantum integrals generated with the help of the quantum Lax operators. We diagonalize additional commuting integrals and constructed with their help the most general integrable quantum Hamiltonian of the generalized n-level many-mode Jaynes-Cummings and Dicke-type models using nested algebraic Bethe ansatz.

  12. From closed ranks to open doors: Elaine and John Cummings' mental health education experiment in 1950s Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    During late 1951 and early 1952, married couple, social biologist Elaine Cumming and psychiatrist John Cumming, led a mental health education experiment in Indian Head, Saskatchewan. The study, which was intended to inform strategies toward deinstitutionalization, sought to determine if attitudes regarding mental illness could be changed through commonly used educational practices. It was shaped by the shared interests of powerful philanthropic, charitable, psychiatric, academic and governmental bodies to create healthier citizens and a stronger democratic nation through expert knowledge. However, in addition to the disappointing findings indicating that attitudes remained unchanged, the town appeared to close ranks against the research team. Nonetheless, the Cummings' later association with sociologists at Harvard University enabled them to interpret the results in a way that lent the study credibility and themselves legitimacy, thus opening the door to their careers as very successful researchers and policy-makers.

  13. Disturbance of hippocampal H2S generation contributes to CUMS-induced depression-like behavior: involvement in endoplasmic reticulum stress of hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huiying; Zou, Wei; Jiang, Jiamei; Tian, Ying; Xiao, Zhifang; Bi, Lili; Zeng, Haiying; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2015-04-01

    The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model is a widely used experimental model of depression. Exogenous stress-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus is closely associated with the pathogenesis of depression. Excessive and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers cell death. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, plays an important role in brain functions as a neuromodulator and a neuroprotectant. We hypothesized that the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and ER stress in the hippocampus might be involved in CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors. Thus, the present study focused on whether CUMS disturbs the generation of endogenous H2S and up-regulates ER stress in the hippocampus and whether exogenous H2S prevents CUMS-induced depressive-like behaviors. Results showed that CUMS-treated rats exhibit depression-like behavior and hippocampal ER stress responses including up-regulated levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 expression, while the endogenous generation of H2S in the hippocampus is suppressed in CUMS-treated rats. Furthermore, exogenous H2S prevents CUMS-induced depression-like behavior. These data indicated that CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors are related to the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and ER stress in the hippocampus and suggested that endogenous H2S and ER stress are novel treatment targets of depression.

  14. A classical simulation of nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models in photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lara, B M; Soto-Eguibar, Francisco; Cárdenas, Alejandro Zárate; Moya-Cessa, H M

    2013-05-20

    The interaction of a two-level atom with a single-mode quantized field is one of the simplest models in quantum optics. Under the rotating wave approximation, it is known as the Jaynes-Cummings model and without it as the Rabi model. Real-world realizations of the Jaynes-Cummings model include cavity, ion trap and circuit quantum electrodynamics. The Rabi model can be realized in circuit quantum electrodynamics. As soon as nonlinear couplings are introduced, feasible experimental realizations in quantum systems are drastically reduced. We propose a set of two photonic lattices that classically simulates the interaction of a single two-level system with a quantized field under field nonlinearities and nonlinear couplings as long as the quantum optics model conserves parity. We describe how to reconstruct the mean value of quantum optics measurements, such as photon number and atomic energy excitation, from the intensity and from the field, such as von Neumann entropy and fidelity, at the output of the photonic lattices. We discuss how typical initial states involving coherent or displaced Fock fields can be engineered from recently discussed Glauber-Fock lattices. As an example, the Buck-Sukumar model, where the coupling depends on the intensity of the field, is classically simulated for separable and entangled initial states.

  15. Entanglement and the Jaynes-Cummings model with Rydberg-dressed atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Grant

    2016-05-01

    Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, high-precision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate for the first time a strong and tunable Rydberg-dressed interaction between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz in units of Planck's constant. We spectroscopically demonstrate that this system is isomorphic to a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian, and observe the √{ N} nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder with a single symmetric Rydberg excitation. This interaction enables a ground-state spin-flip blockade, whereby simultaneous hyperfine spin flips of two atoms are blockaded due to their mutual interaction. We employ this spin-flip blockade to rapidly produce single-step Bell-state entanglement between atoms. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories and through the National Science Foundation's Center for Quantum Information and Control NSF-1212445.

  16. Copper coordinated ligand thioether-S and NO2(-) oxidation: relevance to the CuM site of hydroxylases.

    PubMed

    Maji, Ram Chandra; Bhandari, Anirban; Singh, Ravindra; Roy, Suprakash; Chatterjee, Sudip K; Bowles, Faye L; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Maji, Milan; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Patra, Apurba K

    2015-10-28

    In order to gain insight into the coordination site and oxidative activity of the CuM site of hydroxylases such as peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM), dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM), and tyramine β-monooxygenase (TβM), we have synthesized, characterized and studied the oxidation chemistry of copper complexes chelated by tridentate N2Sthioether, N2Osulfoxide or N2Osulfone donor sets. The ligands are those of N-2-methylthiophenyl-2'-pyridinecarboxamide (HL1), and the oxidized variants, N-2-methylsulfenatophenyl-2'-pyridinecarboxamide (HL1(SO)), and N-2-methylsulfinatophenyl-2'-pyridinecarboxamide (HL1(SO2)). Our studies afforded the complexes [(L1)Cu(II)(H2O)](ClO4)·H2O (1·H2O), {[(L1(SO))Cu(II)(CH3CN)](ClO4)}n (2), [(L1)Cu(II)(ONO)] (3), [(L1(SO))Cu(II)(ONO)]n (4), [(L1)Cu(II)(NO3)]n (5), [(L1(SO))Cu(II)(NO3)]n (6) and [(L1(SO2))Cu(II)(NO3)] (7). Complexes 1 and 3 were described in a previous publication (Inorg. Chem., 2013, 52, 11084). The X-ray crystal structures revealed either distorted octahedral (in 2, 4-6) or square-pyramidal (in 1, 3) coordination geometry around Cu(II) ions of the complexes. In the presence of H2O2, conversion of 1→2, 3-5→6 and 6→7 occurs quantitatively via oxidation of thioether-S and/or Cu(ii) coordinated NO2(-) ions. Thioether-S oxidation of L1 also occurs when [L1](-) is reacted with [Cu(I)(CH3CN)4](ClO4) in DMF under O2, albeit low in yield (20%). Oxidations of thioether-S and NO2(-) were monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Recovery of the sulfur oxidized ligands from their metal complexes allowed for their characterization by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, FTIR and mass spectrometry.

  17. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanorods and Optimization of Its Therapeutic Cum Toxic Dose.

    PubMed

    Suganya, T R; Devasena, T

    2015-12-01

    Germinated Fenugreek seeds are relatively rich in flavonoids and polyphenols than dry seeds. Therefore, germinated fenugreek seeds possess better pharmacological activities. We have used an aqueous extract of germinated fenugreek seeds to reduce silver nitrate into nanoscale silver rods. The silver nanorods showed Surface Plasmon peak at 450 nm as revealed from UV visible spectrum. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy images revealed the monodispersity and rod morphology. X ray diffraction spectrum revealed the FCC crystal structure of nanorods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy peaks revealed the interaction between the phytochemicals of germinated fenugreek seeds and the silver nanorods. Characterization studies reveal the validation of the proposed green synthesis protocol to produce monodispersed silver nanorods with phytochemical capping. The phytosynthesized silver nanorods exhibited anticancer activity in skin cancer cell line, which may be due to its nanoscale dimension and the surface functionalization. For the first time, we have optimized the therapeutic cum toxic dose of phytostabilized silver nanorods using skin cancer cell model.

  18. Quantum Entanglement in Double Quantum Systems and Jaynes-Cummings Model.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Paweł; Majchrowski, Klaudiusz; Tralle, Igor

    2017-12-01

    In the paper, we proposed a new approach to producing the qubits in electron transport in low-dimensional structures such as double quantum wells or double quantum wires (DQW). The qubit could arise as a result of quantum entanglement of two specific states of electrons in DQW structure. These two specific states are the symmetric and antisymmetric (with respect to inversion symmetry) states arising due to tunneling across the structure, while entanglement could be produced and controlled by means of the source of nonclassical light. We examined the possibility to produce quantum entanglement in the framework of Jaynes-Cummings model and have shown that at least in principle, the entanglement can be achieved due to series of "revivals" and "collapses" in the population inversion due to the interaction of a quantized single-mode EM field with a two-level system.

  19. Quantum phase transition in a multiconnected superconducting Jaynes-Cummings lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kangjun; Tian, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The connectivity and tunability of superconducting qubits and resonators provide us with an appealing platform to study the many-body physics of microwave excitations. Here we present a multiconnected Jaynes-Cummings lattice model which is symmetric with respect to the nonlocal qubit-resonator couplings. Our calculation shows that this model exhibits a Mott insulator-superfluid-Mott insulator phase transition at commensurate fillings, featured by symmetric quantum critical points. Phase diagrams in the grand canonical ensemble are also derived, which confirm the incompressibility of the Mott insulator phase. Different from a general-purposed quantum computer, it only requires two operations to demonstrate this phase transition: the preparation and the detection of commensurate many-body ground state. We discuss the realization of these operations in a superconducting circuit.

  20. Equivalent spin-orbit interaction in the two-polariton Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model

    PubMed Central

    Li, C.; Zhang, X. Z.; Song, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED) system combines two or more distinct quantum components, exhibiting features not seen in the individual systems. In this work, we study the one-dimensional Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model in the two-excitation (two-polariton) subspace. We find that the centre momentum of two-excitation induces a magnetic flux piercing the equivalent Hamiltonian Hk in the invariant subspace with momentum k, which can be described as a 4-leg ladder in the auxiliary space. Furthermore, it is shown that the system in π-centre-momentum subspace is equivalent to a lattice system for spin-1 particle with spin-orbit coupling. On the basis of this concise description, a series of bound-pair eigenstates which display long-range polaritonic entanglement is presented as a simple application. PMID:26159665

  1. Sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge among Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic attendees, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Choon, S E; Sapiah, W; Ismail, Z; Balan, V

    1997-12-01

    A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.

  2. Measurement-induced chaos and quantum state discrimination in an iterated Tavis-Cummings scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Juan Mauricio; Bernád, József Zsolt; Alber, Gernot; Kálmán, Orsolya; Kiss, Tamás

    2017-02-01

    A cavity quantum electrodynamical scenario is proposed for implementing a Schrödinger microscope capable of amplifying differences between nonorthogonal atomic quantum states. The scheme involves an ensemble of identically prepared two-level atoms interacting pairwise with a single mode of the radiation field as described by the Tavis-Cummings model. By repeated measurements of the cavity field and of one atom within each pair a measurement-induced nonlinear quantum transformation of the relevant atomic states can be realized. The intricate dynamical properties of this nonlinear quantum transformation, which exhibits measurement-induced chaos, allow approximate orthogonalization of atomic states by purification after a few iterations of the protocol and thus the application of the scheme for quantum state discrimination.

  3. Fock-space localization of polaritons in the Jaynes-Cummings dimer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Sadri, Darius

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to study the semiclassical dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings dimer model, describing two coupled cavities, each containing a two-level system (qubit). We develop a Fock-space WKB approach in the polariton basis where each site is treated exactly while the intersite polariton hopping is treated semiclassically. We show that the self-trapped states can be viewed as Fock-space localized states. We find that this picture yields the correct critical value of interaction strength at which the delocalization-localization transition occurs. Moreover, the validity of our WKB approach is supported by showing that the quantum spectrum can be derived from a set of Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions and by confirming that the quantum eigenstates are consistent with the classical orbital motion in the polariton band picture. The underlying idea of our method is quite general and can be applied to other interacting spin-boson models.

  4. Thermal analysis and neutron production characteristics of a low power copper beam dump-cum-target for LEHIPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Y. S.; Thomas, R. G.; Verma, V.; Agarwal, A.; Prasad, N. K.; Bhagwat, P. V.; Saxena, A.; Singh, P.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of heat deposition and neutron production have been carried out for the low power beam dump-cum-target for the 20 MeV Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) facility at BARC using GEANT4 and FLUKA. Thermal analysis and heat transfer calculations have also been carried out using the computational fluid dynamics code CFD ACE+. In this work we present the details of the analysis of the low power beam dump-cum-target designed for conditioning of the accelerator upto a maximum power of 600 kW with a duty cycle of 2% which corresponds to an average power of 12 kW in the first phase.

  5. A note on approximate teleportation of an unknown atomic state in the two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dSouza, A. D.; Cardoso, W. B.; Avelar, A. T.; Baseia, B.

    2009-04-01

    We consider recent schemes [J.M. Liu, B. Weng, Physica A 367 (2006) 215] to teleport unknown atomic states and superposition of zero- and two-photon states using the two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model. Here we do the same using the “full two-photon Jaynes-Cumming”, valid for arbitrary average number of photons. The success probability and fidelity of this teleportation are also considered.

  6. Transition from Jaynes-Cummings to Autler-Townes ladder in a quantum dot-microcavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfmann, Caspar; Carmele, Alexander; Musiał, Anna; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Knorr, Andreas; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically a coherently driven strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity system. Our focus is on physics of the unexplored intermediate excitation regime where the resonant laser field dresses a strongly coupled single exciton-photon (polariton) system resulting in a ladder of laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings states. In that case, both the coupling of the emitter to the confined light field of the microcavity and to the light field of the external laser are equally important, as proved by observation of injection pulling of the polariton branches by an external laser. This intermediate interaction regime is of particular interest since it connects the purely quantum mechanical Jaynes-Cummings ladder and the semiclassical Autler-Townes ladder. Exploring the driving strength dependence of the mutually coupled system we establish the maximum in the resonance fluorescence signal to be a robust fingerprint of the intermediate regime and observe signatures indicating the laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings ladder. In order to address the underlying physics we excite the coupled system via the matter component of fermionic nature undergoing saturation—in contrast to commonly used cavity-mediated excitation.

  7. Structures and electronic properties of CumCon-CO-H2O (m + n = 2 -7) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Peiying; Zhang, Xiurong; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Kun; Yu, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    The structures and electronic properties of CumCon-CO-H2O( m+n=2 -7) clusters have been systematically investigated using density functional theory. The results indicate that the ground-state structures of CumCon-CO-H2O clusters are obtained by adsorbing C atoms of CO and O atoms of H2O on different top sites of stable CumCon clusters. Cu2-CO-H2O, Cu4-CO-H2O, Cu3Co-CO-H2O, Cu4Co-CO-H2O and CuCo4-CO-H2O clusters have relatively stronger thermodynamic stabilities, while Cu2-CO-H2O, Cu4-CO-H2O and Cu6-CO-H2O clusters show stronger chemical stability. H2O molecule doping improves the activation of CO molecules. Mulliken charge and PDOS are also discussed to study the interaction of CO and Cu-Co clusters.

  8. STRUCTURE STABILITY AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF CumConCO (m+n=2-7) CLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Huo, Pei-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Cheng

    The structure stability and electronic properties of CumConCO (m+n=2-7) clusters have been systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results indicate that the ground state structures of CumConCO clusters obtained by adsorbing CO molecules on the top sites of stable CumCon clusters with C atoms and CO molecules have been activated during adsorption process. Cu2CO, CuCoCO, Cu3CoCO, Co4CO, Cu4CoCO and Cu3Co3CO clusters are stronger than other ground state clusters in thermodynamic stability. Cu2CO, Cu4CO and Cu6CO clusters show stronger chemical stability; Co2CO, Co4CO, Cu5CoCO, Cu3Co3CO, Cu2Co5CO and Co7CO clusters show better propensity to adsorb CO for these clusters have larger adsorption energies; Electronic states of Cu2Co3CO, CuCo4CO, Co5CO, Cu4Co3CO, Cu3Co4CO, CuCo6CO and Co7CO clusters are mainly influenced by those of 3d orbitals in Co and Cu atoms, the contribution to total magnetic moments of these clusters comes mainly from Co atoms and these clusters have high magnetism.

  9. In search of ancient biomarkers: Using femtosecond - Laser Desorption Post Ionization - Mass Spectrometry (fs-LDPI-MS) to map organic compounds within ca. 2.7 Ga samples from the Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasterski, M. J.; Barry, G.; Hanley, L.; Kenig, F. P. H.

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges within the field of organic geochemistry is to determine whether an observed biomarker signature was emplaced during sedimentation (indigenous), after sedimentation via the post-depositional migration of fluids (non-indigenous), or during sampling, storage, or analysis (contaminant). Current geochemical techniques (e.g. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS) can effectively determine the composition and structure of the organic constituents of a sample. However, because of the multiple preparatory steps necessary prior to GC-MS analysis (sample crushing, solvent extraction, organic fraction separation) it is impossible to precisely determine the spatial relationship between the host sample and the organic molecules within. We used an MS imaging method developed by Prof. Luke Hanley at the University of Illinois at Chicago, femtosecond-laser desorption post ionization-MS (fs-LDPI-MS), to map the organics within previously characterized ca.2.7 billion year old (Ga) metasediments from the Abitibi greenstone belt near Timmins, ON, Canada. We then compared the MS images to petrographic observations that displayed the distribution of mineral species with well constrained mineralization ages as well as fluid inclusions within the samples. Fluid inclusions are formed during mineralization and have the ability to remain intact over long timescales (up to billions of years), protecting the fluids inside from the introduction of non-indigenous and contaminant biomarkers. Although migrating post-depositional fluids can remineralize sediments, fluid inclusions associated with secondary additions are focused along grain boundaries and microfractures (secondary inclusions), thus, inclusions which are located within grain boundaries can be considered primary and the age of their formation can be determined relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate that previously observed biomarkers may be linked to a series of

  10. Prevalence and determinants of cannabinoid prescription for the management of chronic noncancer pain: a postal survey of physicians in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec

    PubMed Central

    St-Amant, Huguette; Ware, Mark A.; Julien, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have been conducted to explore physicians’ prescription practices and attitudes toward the use of cannabinoids in Canada.We measured the prevalence and identified determinants of cannabinoid prescription for the management of chronic noncancer pain among physicians in southwestern Quebec. Methods In February 2013, we conducted a postal survey using a modified Dillman method that involved physicians practising in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify determinants of cannabinoid prescription. Results A total of 166 physicians of 318 practising in the region participated in the survey (response rate 52.2%). The prevalence of cannabinoid prescription was 27.3% (45/165) for any indication and 23.0% (38/165) for the management of chronic noncancer pain; 91.1% (41/45) of the physicians prescribed cannabinoids to 5 or fewer patients. Of the 38 physicians who prescribed cannabinoids for chronic noncancer pain, 35 (92.1%) prescribed nabilone, 7 (18.4%) medical marijuana and 2 (5.3%) nabiximols. The principal determinant of cannabinoid prescription was the physician’s level of comfort with prescribing cannabinoids (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.55, per 1-point increase in comfort level measured on 10-point scale). Respondents reported that continuing medical education (CME) activities could increase their comfort level. They also indicated a need for guidelines or algorithms that included cannabinoid use as well as more studies about the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids for the management of chronic noncancer pain. Interpretation We found that cannabinoids were not often prescribed for the management of chronic noncancer pain and that survey respondents were not comfortable with prescribing this drug class. This degree of discomfort could be addressed by CME activities, more effective dissemination of guidelines and more evidence regarding cannabinoid

  11. A semi-classical study of the Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babelon, O.; Cantini, L.; Douçot, B.

    2009-07-01

    We consider the Jaynes-Cummings model of a single quantum spin s coupled to a harmonic oscillator in a parameter regime where the underlying classical dynamics exhibits an unstable equilibrium point. This state of the model is relevant to the physics of cold atom systems, in non-equilibrium situations obtained by fast sweeping through a Feshbach resonance. We show that in this integrable system with two degrees of freedom, for any initial condition close to the unstable point, the classical dynamics is controlled by a singularity of the focus-focus type. In particular, it displays the expected monodromy, which forbids the existence of global action-angle coordinates. Explicit calculations of the joint spectrum of conserved quantities reveal the monodromy at the quantum level, as a dislocation in the lattice of eigenvalues. We perform a detailed semi-classical analysis of the associated eigenstates. Whereas most of the levels are well described by the usual Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules, properly adapted to polar coordinates, we show how these rules are modified in the vicinity of the critical level. The spectral decomposition of the classically unstable state is computed, and is found to be dominated by the critical WKB states. This provides a useful tool with which to analyze the quantum dynamics starting from this particular state, which exhibits an aperiodic sequence of solitonic pulses with a rather well defined characteristic frequency.

  12. Exploring the quantum critical behaviour in a driven Tavis-Cummings circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, M.; Zhong, Y. P.; Liu, T.; Yan, L. L.; Yang, W. L.; Twamley, J.; Wang, H.

    2015-05-01

    Quantum phase transitions play an important role in many-body systems and have been a research focus in conventional condensed-matter physics over the past few decades. Artificial atoms, such as superconducting qubits that can be individually manipulated, provide a new paradigm of realising and exploring quantum phase transitions by engineering an on-chip quantum simulator. Here we demonstrate experimentally the quantum critical behaviour in a highly controllable superconducting circuit, consisting of four qubits coupled to a common resonator mode. By off-resonantly driving the system to renormalize the critical spin-field coupling strength, we have observed a four-qubit nonequilibrium quantum phase transition in a dynamical manner; that is, we sweep the critical coupling strength over time and monitor the four-qubit scaled moments for a signature of a structural change of the system's eigenstates. Our observation of the nonequilibrium quantum phase transition, which is in good agreement with the driven Tavis-Cummings theory under decoherence, offers new experimental approaches towards exploring quantum phase transition-related science, such as scaling behaviours, parity breaking and long-range quantum correlations.

  13. BreCAN-DB: a repository cum browser of personalized DNA breakpoint profiles of cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Pankaj; Dhapola, Parashar; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    BreCAN-DB (http://brecandb.igib.res.in) is a repository cum browser of whole genome somatic DNA breakpoint profiles of cancer genomes, mapped at single nucleotide resolution using deep sequencing data. These breakpoints are associated with deletions, insertions, inversions, tandem duplications, translocations and a combination of these structural genomic alterations. The current release of BreCAN-DB features breakpoint profiles from 99 cancer-normal pairs, comprising five cancer types. We identified DNA breakpoints across genomes using high-coverage next-generation sequencing data obtained from TCGA and dbGaP. Further, in these cancer genomes, we methodically identified breakpoint hotspots which were significantly enriched with somatic structural alterations. To visualize the breakpoint profiles, a next-generation genome browser was integrated with BreCAN-DB. Moreover, we also included previously reported breakpoint profiles from 138 cancer-normal pairs, spanning 10 cancer types into the browser. Additionally, BreCAN-DB allows one to identify breakpoint hotspots in user uploaded data set. We have also included a functionality to query overlap of any breakpoint profile with regions of user's interest. Users can download breakpoint profiles from the database or may submit their data to be integrated in BreCAN-DB. We believe that BreCAN-DB will be useful resource for genomics scientific community and is a step towards personalized cancer genomics. PMID:26586806

  14. Development of the Sulphidogenesis Cum Ammonia Removal Process for treatment of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Sabumon, P C

    2008-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of Sulphidogenesis Cum Ammonia Removal Process (SCARP) with a simple sulphide inhibition control. The process was developed using synthetic effluent and its application for treatment of primary treated tannery effluent was demonstrated. This paper also discusses the effects of HRT and loading rates. The developed SCARP could treat efficiently the primary treated tannery effluent with influent concentrations of COD, SO4(2-) and NH4+ equal to 3,900 mg/L, 3,000 mg/L and 300 mg/L, respectively. An HRT of 10.5 hours was found to be adequate for COD, NH4-N and SO4(2-) loading rates of 8.9 kg COD/m3/d, 0.68 kg NH4+/m3/d, 6.84 kg SO4(2-)/m3/d, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH4-N and SO4(2-) for the above loading rates were in the ranges of 90.8-91.8%, 84-88.3% and 64.2-70.2%, respectively. The system performance was satisfactory for different loading rates and low COD/SO4(2-) ratios. The developed SCARP has good potential as a cost effective alternative treatment process to existing extended aeration process with nitrification-denitrification for the secondary treatment of tannery effluent.

  15. BreCAN-DB: a repository cum browser of personalized DNA breakpoint profiles of cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Narang, Pankaj; Dhapola, Parashar; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2016-01-04

    BreCAN-DB (http://brecandb.igib.res.in) is a repository cum browser of whole genome somatic DNA breakpoint profiles of cancer genomes, mapped at single nucleotide resolution using deep sequencing data. These breakpoints are associated with deletions, insertions, inversions, tandem duplications, translocations and a combination of these structural genomic alterations. The current release of BreCAN-DB features breakpoint profiles from 99 cancer-normal pairs, comprising five cancer types. We identified DNA breakpoints across genomes using high-coverage next-generation sequencing data obtained from TCGA and dbGaP. Further, in these cancer genomes, we methodically identified breakpoint hotspots which were significantly enriched with somatic structural alterations. To visualize the breakpoint profiles, a next-generation genome browser was integrated with BreCAN-DB. Moreover, we also included previously reported breakpoint profiles from 138 cancer-normal pairs, spanning 10 cancer types into the browser. Additionally, BreCAN-DB allows one to identify breakpoint hotspots in user uploaded data set. We have also included a functionality to query overlap of any breakpoint profile with regions of user's interest. Users can download breakpoint profiles from the database or may submit their data to be integrated in BreCAN-DB. We believe that BreCAN-DB will be useful resource for genomics scientific community and is a step towards personalized cancer genomics.

  16. Exploring the quantum critical behaviour in a driven Tavis-Cummings circuit.

    PubMed

    Feng, M; Zhong, Y P; Liu, T; Yan, L L; Yang, W L; Twamley, J; Wang, H

    2015-05-14

    Quantum phase transitions play an important role in many-body systems and have been a research focus in conventional condensed-matter physics over the past few decades. Artificial atoms, such as superconducting qubits that can be individually manipulated, provide a new paradigm of realising and exploring quantum phase transitions by engineering an on-chip quantum simulator. Here we demonstrate experimentally the quantum critical behaviour in a highly controllable superconducting circuit, consisting of four qubits coupled to a common resonator mode. By off-resonantly driving the system to renormalize the critical spin-field coupling strength, we have observed a four-qubit nonequilibrium quantum phase transition in a dynamical manner; that is, we sweep the critical coupling strength over time and monitor the four-qubit scaled moments for a signature of a structural change of the system's eigenstates. Our observation of the nonequilibrium quantum phase transition, which is in good agreement with the driven Tavis-Cummings theory under decoherence, offers new experimental approaches towards exploring quantum phase transition-related science, such as scaling behaviours, parity breaking and long-range quantum correlations.

  17. Parity Deformed Jaynes-Cummings Model: “Robust Maximally Entangled States”

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, A.; Mojaveri, B.; Shirin, S.; Faseghandis, S. Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The parity-deformations of the quantum harmonic oscillator are used to describe the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model based on the λ-analog of the Heisenberg algebra. The behavior is interestingly that of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and a cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field. The dynamical characters of the system is explored under the influence of the external field. In particular, we analytically study the generation of robust and maximally entangled states formed by a two-level atom trapped in a lossy cavity interacting with an external centrifugal field. We investigate the influence of deformation and detuning parameters on the degree of the quantum entanglement and the atomic population inversion. Under the condition of a linear interaction controlled by an external field, the maximally entangled states may emerge periodically along with time evolution. In the dissipation regime, the entanglement of the parity deformed JCM are preserved more with the increase of the deformation parameter, i.e. the stronger external field induces better degree of entanglement. PMID:27917882

  18. Exploring the quantum critical behaviour in a driven Tavis–Cummings circuit

    PubMed Central

    Feng, M.; Zhong, Y.P.; Liu, T.; Yan, L.L.; Yang, W.L.; Twamley, J.; Wang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions play an important role in many-body systems and have been a research focus in conventional condensed-matter physics over the past few decades. Artificial atoms, such as superconducting qubits that can be individually manipulated, provide a new paradigm of realising and exploring quantum phase transitions by engineering an on-chip quantum simulator. Here we demonstrate experimentally the quantum critical behaviour in a highly controllable superconducting circuit, consisting of four qubits coupled to a common resonator mode. By off-resonantly driving the system to renormalize the critical spin-field coupling strength, we have observed a four-qubit nonequilibrium quantum phase transition in a dynamical manner; that is, we sweep the critical coupling strength over time and monitor the four-qubit scaled moments for a signature of a structural change of the system's eigenstates. Our observation of the nonequilibrium quantum phase transition, which is in good agreement with the driven Tavis–Cummings theory under decoherence, offers new experimental approaches towards exploring quantum phase transition-related science, such as scaling behaviours, parity breaking and long-range quantum correlations. PMID:25971985

  19. Parity Deformed Jaynes-Cummings Model: “Robust Maximally Entangled States”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.; Mojaveri, B.; Shirin, S.; Faseghandis, S. Amiri

    2016-12-01

    The parity-deformations of the quantum harmonic oscillator are used to describe the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model based on the λ-analog of the Heisenberg algebra. The behavior is interestingly that of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and a cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field. The dynamical characters of the system is explored under the influence of the external field. In particular, we analytically study the generation of robust and maximally entangled states formed by a two-level atom trapped in a lossy cavity interacting with an external centrifugal field. We investigate the influence of deformation and detuning parameters on the degree of the quantum entanglement and the atomic population inversion. Under the condition of a linear interaction controlled by an external field, the maximally entangled states may emerge periodically along with time evolution. In the dissipation regime, the entanglement of the parity deformed JCM are preserved more with the increase of the deformation parameter, i.e. the stronger external field induces better degree of entanglement.

  20. Quantum Phase Transition in the Finite Jaynes-Cummings Lattice Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-09-01

    Phase transitions are commonly held to occur only in the thermodynamical limit of a large number of system components. Here, we exemplify at the hand of the exactly solvable Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model and its generalization to finite JC lattices that finite component systems of coupled spins and bosons may exhibit quantum phase transitions (QPTs). For the JC model we find a continuous symmetry-breaking QPT, a photonic condensate with a macroscopic occupation as the ground state, and a Goldstone mode as a low-energy excitation. For the two site JC lattice we show analytically that it undergoes a Mott-insulator to superfluid QPT. We identify as the underlying principle of the emergence of finite system QPTs the combination of increasing atomic energy and increasing interaction strength between the atom and the bosonic mode, which allows for the exploration of an increasingly large portion of the infinite dimensional Hilbert space of the bosonic mode. This suggests that finite system phase transitions will be present in a broad range of physical systems.

  1. Dark-polariton bound pairs in the modified Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggitti, A.; Radonjić, M.; Jelenković, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a one-dimensional modified Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard chain of N identical QED cavities with nearest-neighbor photon tunneling and periodic boundary conditions. Each cavity contains an embedded three-level atom which is coupled to a cavity mode and an external classical control field. In the case of two excitations and common large detuning of two Raman-resonant fields, we show the emergence of two different species of dark-polariton bound pairs (DPBPs) that are mutually localized in their relative spatial coordinates. Due to the high degree of controllability, we show the appearance of either one or two DPBPs, having the energies within the energy gaps between three bands of mutually delocalized eigenstates. Interestingly, in a different parameter regime with negatively detuned Raman fields, we find that the ground state of the system is a DPBP which can be utilized for the photon storage, retrieval, and controllable state preparation. Moreover, we propose an experimental realization of our model system.

  2. Climbing the Jaynes-Cummings ladder and observing its nonlinearity in a cavity QED system.

    PubMed

    Fink, J M; Göppl, M; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Leek, P J; Blais, A; Wallraff, A

    2008-07-17

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), traditionally studied in atomic systems, has gained new momentum by recent reports of quantum optical experiments with solid-state semiconducting and superconducting systems. In cavity QED, the observation of the vacuum Rabi mode splitting is used to investigate the nature of matter-light interaction at a quantum-mechanical level. However, this effect can, at least in principle, be explained classically as the normal mode splitting of two coupled linear oscillators. It has been suggested that an observation of the scaling of the resonant atom-photon coupling strength in the Jaynes-Cummings energy ladder with the square root of photon number n is sufficient to prove that the system is quantum mechanical in nature. Here we report a direct spectroscopic observation of this characteristic quantum nonlinearity. Measuring the photonic degree of freedom of the coupled system, our measurements provide unambiguous spectroscopic evidence for the quantum nature of the resonant atom-field interaction in cavity QED. We explore atom-photon superposition states involving up to two photons, using a spectroscopic pump and probe technique. The experiments have been performed in a circuit QED set-up, in which very strong coupling is realized by the large dipole coupling strength and the long coherence time of a superconducting qubit embedded in a high-quality on-chip microwave cavity. Circuit QED systems also provide a natural quantum interface between flying qubits (photons) and stationary qubits for applications in quantum information processing and communication.

  3. Exact treatment of the Jaynes-Cummings model under the action of an external classical field

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Khalil, E.M.; Obada, A.S.-F.

    2011-09-15

    We consider the usual Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), in the presence of an external classical field. Under a certain canonical transformation for the Pauli operators, the system is transformed into the usual JCM. Using the equations of motion in the Heisenberg picture, exact solutions for the time-dependent dynamical operators are obtained. In order to calculate the expectation values of these operators, the wave function has been constructed. It has been shown that the classical field augments the atomic frequency {omega}{sub 0} and mixes the original atomic states. Changes of squeezing from one quadrature to another is also observed for a strong value of the coupling parameter of the classical field. Furthermore, the system in this case displays partial entanglement and the state of the field losses its purity. - Highlights: > The time-dependent JCM, in the presence of the classical field, is still one of the essential problems in the quantum optics. > A new approach is applied through a certain canonical transformation. > The classical field augments the atomic frequency {omega}{sub 0} and mixes the original atomic states.

  4. Development and evaluation of low cost honey heating-cum-filtration system.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Shafiq; Sharma, D K; Sehgal, V K; Arora, M; Bhatia, S

    2014-11-01

    A fully mechanized honey heating-cum-filtration system was designed, developed, fabricated and evaluated for its performance. The system comprised of two sections; the top heating section and the lower filtering section. The developed system was evaluated for its performance at different process conditions (25 kg and 50 kg capacity using processing condition: 50 °C heating temperature and 60 °C heating temperature with 20 and 40 min holding time, respectively) and it was found that the total time required for heating, holding and filtration of honey was 108 and 142 min for 25 kg and 50 kg capacity of machine, respectively, irrespective of the processing conditions. The optimum capacity of the system was found to be 50 kg and it involved an investment of Rs 40,000 for its fabrication. The honey filtered through the developed filtration system was compared with the honey filtered in a high cost honey processing plant and raw honey for its microbial and biochemical (reducing sugars (%), moisture, acidity and pH) quality attributes. It was observed that the process of filtering through the developed unit resulted in reduction of microbes. The microbiological quality of honey filtered through the developed filtration system was better than that of raw honey and commercially processed honey. The treatment conditions found best in context of microbiological counts were 60 °C temperature for 20 min. There was 1.97 fold reductions in the plate count and 2.14 reductions in the fungal count of honey processed through the developed filtration system as compared to the raw honey. No coliforms were found in the processed honey. Honey processed through developed unit witnessed less moisture content, acidity and more reducing sugars as compared to raw honey, whereas its quality was comparable to the commercially processed honey.

  5. Covalent cum noncovalent functionalizations of carbon nanotubes for effective reinforcement of a solution cast composite film.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2012-04-01

    Although carbon nanotubes have impressive tensile properties, exploiting these properties in composites, especially those made by the common solution casting technique, seems to be elusive thus far. The reasons could be partly due to the poor nanotube dispersion and the weak nanotube/matrix interface. To solve this dual pronged problem, we combine noncovalent and covalent functionalizations of nanotubes in a single system by the design and application of a novel dispersant, hydroxyl polyimide-graft-bisphenol A diglyceryl acrylate (PI(OH)-BDA), and use them with epoxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (O-SWNTs). Our novel PI(OH)-BDA dispersant functionalizes the nanotubes noncovalently to achieve good dispersion of the nanotubes because of the strong π-π interaction due to main chain and steric hindrance of the BDA side chain. PI(OH)-BDA also functionalizes O-SWNTs covalently because it reacts with epoxide groups on the nanotubes, as well as the cyanate ester (CE) matrix used. The resulting solution-cast CE composites show 57%, 71%, and 124% increases in Young's modulus, tensile strength, and toughness over neat CE. These values are higher than those of composites reinforced with pristine SWNTs, epoxidized SWNTs, and pristine SWNTs dispersed with PI(OH)-BDA. The modulus and strength increase per unit nanotube weight fraction, i.e., dE/dW(NT) and dσ/dW(NT), are 175 GPa and 7220 MPa, respectively, which are significantly higher than those of other nanotube/thermosetting composites (22-70 GPa and 140-3540 MPa, respectively). Our study indicates that covalent cum noncovalent functionalization of nanotubes is an effective tool for improving both the nanotube dispersion and nanotube/matrix interfacial interaction, resulting in significantly improved mechanical reinforcement of the solution-cast composites.

  6. Design, development and performance evaluation of chapati press cum vermicelli extruder.

    PubMed

    Gurushree, M N; Nandini, C R; Pratheeksha, K; Prabhasankar, P; Hosamane, Gangadharappa Gundabhakthara

    2011-04-01

    Portable and manually operated chapati press cum vermicelli extruder device was designed and fabricated for the preparation of chapatis and vermicelli. Sensory evaluation overall quality scores of 50.15 and 48.4 for pressed chapatis and rolled chapatis respectively showed that quality of chapatis was not adversely affected as a result of mechanical pressing. The difference in chapati making time by manual rolling and machine pressing was 17 s per chapati and was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Combined machine produced more numbers of chapatis as machine press time per chapati was 12 s compared to 29 s of manual sheeting time. The observed variation in 1.5 mm thickness and 173.8 mm diameter from chapati to chapati was of the order of ± 0.1 mm and 1.93 mm respectively. Pressed chapati repeatability results indicated that there was no significant difference in diameters of the samples. Appearance quality characteristics scores of 8 and 7 for 2 mm and 3 mm diameter vermicelli respectively indicated smooth and uniform surface characteristics. Sensory evaluation of the cooked vermicelli indicated no significant difference (p > 0.05) between 2 mm and 3 mm diameter vermicelli. Cooked weight (72.8 g) and water absorption (191.2%) of 2 mm diameter vermicelli was more compared to 3 mm diameter vermicelli (51.75 g, 107%). This machine can also be used as a laboratory model as products of consistent thickness and diameter were obtained.

  7. A comparative study of Chinese cosmology cum-humorology with eight elements.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1990-01-01

    As agriculturist, man recognized Earth, Heat and Water as essential to plant life and projected them as cosmic elements. Pastoral man observed animals multiply due to reproduction. He realized that reproduction resulted from the union of opposites as male and female. Projecting reproduction, he conceived creation, which then resulted as the union of the cosmic pair of opposites. Heaven and Earth. The Chinese conceived of creation as starting with creative energy in its latent form, as Thai-Chi, meaning the absolute existence. Later, it assumed its dynamic form called Chhi. It was dual-natured with the opposites called Yang (light) and Yin (darkness). The reproductive power was projected as creative energy called Chhi and male and female opposites were projected as the universal pair of opposites as Yang and Yin. Creative energy produced the cosmic elements which in turn produced all creation. The cosmic elements of Chinese cosmology were Wood, Fire, Water, Earth and Metal. They also included the factors of humorology when the following elements had, as contents, items belonging to humorology, Wood-contained Air, Earth.....Moisture; Metal.......Dryness. By assigning dual-sense to three cosmic elements, Chinese humorology came into existence but has incorporated it in its cosmology. It is easy to equate Air = Vayu of Tridosha doctrine of India, Moisture = Kapha, Dryness = Pitta. Then with five elements of cosmology including three with dual-sense, as belonging to humorology, we have eight elements in all as cosmology-cum-humorology. It is obvious that Air, so important in the cosmologies of India and Greece, is no where explicit in Chinese cosmology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Reconstruction of the Jaynes-Cummings field state of ionic motion in a harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Dingshun; An, Shuoming; Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Kim, M. S.; Kim, Kihwan

    2017-04-01

    A quantum state is fully characterized by its density matrix or equivalently by its quasiprobabilities in phase space. A scheme to identify the quasiprobabilities of a quantum state is an important tool in the recent development of quantum technologies. One of the most fundamental interaction models in quantum optics is the so-called Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), which has been massively studied theoretically and experimentally. However, the expected essential dynamics of the field states under the resonant JCM has not been observed experimentally due to the lack of a proper reconstruction scheme. In this paper, we further develop a highly efficient vacuum measurement scheme and study the JCM dynamics in a trapped ion system with the capability of the vacuum measurement to reconstruct its quasiprobability Q function, which is a preferred choice to study the core of the dynamics of a quantum state in phase space. During the JCM dynamics, the Gaussian peak of the initial coherent state bifurcates and rotates around the origin of phase space. They merge at the so-called revival time at the other side of phase space. The measured Q function agrees with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, we reconstruct the Wigner function by deconvoluting the Q function and observe the quantum interference in the Wigner function at half of the revival time, where the vibrational state becomes nearly disentangled from the internal energy states and forms a superposition of two composite states. The scheme can be applied to other physical setups including cavity or circuit-QED and optomechanical systems.

  9. G-CSF improves CUMS-induced depressive behaviors through downregulating Ras/ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Linjuan-Li; Wang, Yaping

    2016-10-28

    Neuronal plasticity in hippocampal neurons is closely related to memory, mood and behavior as well as in the development of depression. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can promote neuronal plasticity and enhance motor skills. However, the function of G-CSF in depression remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored the biological role and potential molecular mechanism of G-CSF on depression-like behaviors. Our results showed that G-CSF was significantly downregulated in the hippocampus of chronic unexpected mild stress (CUMS) rats. Administration of G-CSF significantly reversed CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in the open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, G-CSF upregulated the expression of synaptic-associated proteins including polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), synaptophysin (SYN), and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus and G-CSF significantly increased cell viability rate of hippocampal neurons in vitro. Further studies indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (Ras)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways was involved in the regulation of G-CSF on depressive-like behaviors and neuronal plasticity in CUMS rats. Taken together, our results showed that G-CSF improves depression-like behaviors via inhibiting Ras/ERK/MAPK signaling pathways. Our study suggests that G-CSF may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of depression.

  10. Exact mapping of the 2+1 Dirac oscillator onto the Jaynes-Cummings model: Ion-trap experimental proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-10-15

    We study the dynamics of the 2+1 Dirac oscillator exactly and find spin oscillations due to a Zitterbewegung of purely relativistic origin. We find an exact mapping of this quantum-relativistic system onto a Jaynes-Cummings model, describing the interaction of a two-level atom with a quantized single-mode field. This equivalence allows us to map a series of quantum optical phenomena onto the relativistic oscillator and vice versa. We make a realistic experimental proposal, in reach with current technology, for studying the equivalence of both models using a single trapped ion.

  11. Standardization of the manufacturing procedure for Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Li, Ting; Guo, Hui; Li, Ya-Xi; Zhu, Pei-Li; Cao, Hui; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-12-04

    Pinelliae Rhizoma (PR), the dried tuber of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit., is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. It is commonly used for treating cancer, cough and phlegm. To treat cancer, Chinese medicine practitioners often use raw PR; while to treat cough and phlegm, they usually use Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine (PRZA, raw PR processed with ginger juice and alumen as adjuvant materials). Currently, the producing protocol of PRZA varies greatly among different places in China. This study aims to standardize the manufacturing procedure for PRZA. We also evaluated the impact of processing on the bioactivities and chemical profile of raw PR. We used the orthogonal design to optimize the manufacturing procedure of PRZA at bench scale, and validated the optimized procedure in pilot-scale production. The MTT assay was used to compare the cytotoxicities of raw PR and PRZA in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Animal models (ammonia liquor-induced cough model and phenol red secretion model) were used to compare the antitussive and expectorant effects of raw PR and PRZA, respectively. The chemical profiles of raw PR and PRZA samples were compared using a newly developed ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method. The standardized manufacturing procedure for PRZA is as follows: soak raw PR in water until the center of the cut surface is devoid of a dry core, after that, boil the herb in water (for each 100kg raw PR, 12.5kg alumen and 25L freshly squeezed ginger juice are added) for 6h, and then take out and dry them. The cytotoxicity of PRZA was less potent than that of raw PR. Intragastric administration of raw PR or PRZA demonstrated antitussive and expectorant effects in mice. These effects of PRZA were more potent than that of raw PR at the dose of 3g/kg. By comparing the chemical profiles, we found that six peaks were lower, while nine other peaks were higher in PRZA than

  12. Investigations on juvenile fish excluder cum shrimp sorting device (JFE-SSD).

    PubMed

    Boopendranath, Menothuparambil Ravunny; Pravin, Puthra; Gibinkumar, Therodath Rajan; Sabu, Sarasan; Madhu, Vettiyattil Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Penaeid shrimp is a major resource in India contributing about 7.4% of the total marine fish landings. They are mostly landed by small mechanized trawlers. Shrimp trawling generates large quantities of bycatch mostly consisting of juvenile fishes, due to use of small mesh size in codends of trawl nets. Juvenile Fish Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device (JFE-SSD) is a bycatch reduction device with an in situ sorting mechanism, which replaces the conventional codend in a trawl. The device was designed to catch shrimps and commercially important fish species using a specially designed oval sorting grid with appropriate bar spacing and dual codends. Shrimp sorting efficiency and bycatch exclusion characteristics of JFE-SSD attached to a 29.6 m shrimp trawl, was tested by experimental fishing along the coastal waters off Cochin, India. Out of a total of 317.07 kg of catch encountered in the JFE-SSD installed trawl, 58.22% was retained in lower codend, 17.53% in upper codend and 24.25%, mostly consisting of juveniles and sub-adults of finfishes and shellfishes, was excluded from upper codend. The mean CPUE registered for upper and lower codend were 7.23±1.04 SE and 5.84±0.96 SE kg h(-1) respectively. The CPUE of shrimps retained in upper and lower codends were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test (1,62), P<0.001), but the mean CPUE for fishes did not vary significantly. The average escapement of shrimps and juvenile fishes from upper codend were 0.06±0.02 SE kg h(-1) and 2.40±0.44 SE kg h(-1) respectively. Significant differences in the length composition between upper and lower codends were noticed for Megalaspis cordyla, Stolephorus waitei, Metapenaeus dobsoni and Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The experiments demonstrated in situ sorting ability of the device and its potential to reduce the bycatch of juveniles and sub-adults in shrimp trawls.

  13. Phenolic composition and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile, the Oriental Herb Medicine, in human fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Bum; Shin, Tai-Sun; Seo, Hye Kyoung; Je, Jae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile, which is widely used as a folk medicine in Korea, were determined. Phenolic composition profile revealed that the aqueous extract is rich in sinapic acid (13.14 mg/100 g extract), catechin (9.88 mg/100 g extract), neohesperidin (7.38 mg/100 g extract), and chlorogenic acid (3.64 mg/100 g extract). The aqueous extract effectively scavenged toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (90.63%), hydrogen peroxide (98.13%), and hydroxyl radical (59.62%) at 2.0 mg/mL, and also showed high reducing power. In cytotoxic evaluation, the aqueous extract exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in human fibroblast, and it also exhibited appreciable suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. In addition, the aqueous extract upregulated the level of glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the aqueous extract of Arisaema cum Bile could be considered as a potential natural source that may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  14. Fluid chemistry and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in an Archaean transcrustal fault zone network: The case of the Cadillac Tectonic Zone, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neumayr, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Banks, D.A.; Yardley, B.W.D.; Couture, J.-F.; Landis, G.P.; Rye, R.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed fluid geochemistry studies on hydrothermal quartz veins from the Rouyn-Noranda and Val-d'Or areas along the transcrustal Cadillac Tectonic Zone (CTZ) indicate that unmineralized (with respect to gold) sections of the CTZ contained a distinct CO2-dominated, H2S-poor hydrothermal fluid. In contrast, both gold mineralized sections of the CTZ (e.g., at Orenada #2) and associated higher order shear zones have a H2O-CO2 ?? CH4-NaCl hydrothermal fluid. Their CO2/H2S ratios indicate H2S-rich compositions. The Br/Cl compositions in fluid inclusions trapped in these veins indicate that hydrothermal fluids have been equilibrated with the crust. Oxygen isotope ratios from hydrothermal quartz veins in the CTZ are consistently 2??? more enriched than those of associated higher order shear zones, which are interpreted to be a function of greater fluid/rock ratios in the CTZ and lower fluid/rock ratios, and more efficient equilibration of the hydrothermal fluid with the wall rock, in higher order shear zones. An implication from this study is that the lower metal endowment of the transcrustal CTZ, when compared with the higher metal endowment in higher order shear zones (ratio of about 1 : 1000), may be the result of the lack of significant amounts of H2O-H2S rich fluids in most of the CTZ. In contrast, gold mineralization in the higher order shear zones appear to be controlled by the high H2S activity of the aqueous fluids, because gold was likely transported in a bisulfide complex and was deposited during sulfidation reactions in the wall rock and phase separation in the quartz veins. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  15. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  16. Protracted tectono-metamorphic history of the SE Superior Province : contribution of 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology in the Abitibi-Opatica contact zone, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoudene, Yannick; Tremblay, Alain; Ruffet, Gilles; Leclerc, François; Goutier, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Archean orogens mainly consist of greenstone belts juxtaposing deeper crustal domains of TTG-type plutonic rocks. The greenstone belts show regional folds, penetrative steeply-dipping fabrics, and localised shear zones, whereas the plutonic belts predominantly display dome structures. Concurrently, rocks in Archean orogens undergone MT/HT-LP/MP metamorphic conditions that vary, from upper to lower crustal domains, between greenschist- and granulite-facies, respectively. These structural and metamorphic variations are well-documented, but modes of deformation related to such orogens is still debated. Some studies suggest that the Archean tectonic processes were comparable to present-day plate tectonics and the Archean greenstone belts were interpreted as tectonic collages commonly documented in Phanerozoic subduction/collision zones. Alternative models propose that the Archean tectonics were different from those predicted by the plate tectonics paradigm, mainly due to the existence of a hotter mantle and a mechanically weak crust. In such models, the burying and exhumation of crustal rocks are attributed to the vertical transfer of material, resulting in the development of pop-down and domes structures. As a contribution of the study of mechanisms that might have operated during the Archean, we present a structural and metamorphic study of the contact zone between the Abitibi subprovince (ASP), which contains greenstone belts, and the Opatica subprovince (OSP), which is dominated by plutonic rocks, of the Superior Province. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of amphiboles and micas is used to constrain the age and duration of regional metamorphism and associated deformations. On the basis of seismic profiling, showing a north-dipping lithospheric-scale reflector, the ASP-OSP contact has been interpreted as the surficial trace of an Archean subduction zone. However, our structural analysis suggest that the ASP overlies the OSP and that the ASP-OSP contact does not show evidences

  17. Enhanced spin squeezing and quantum entanglement near the critical point of the Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.; Sharma, Deepti

    2017-04-01

    We investigate spin squeezing (SS) and the quantum Fisher information (QFI) for the Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke (JCD) model in a two-component atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) inside an optical cavity. Analytical expressions for spin squeezing and the reciprocal of the quantum Fisher information per particle (RMQFI) are derived using the frozen spin approximation. It is shown that in the superradiant phase near the critical point, maximum squeezing and maximum quantum entanglement occur and thus the critical point emerges as a useful resource for precision measurements. In the presence of decoherence and particle loss, we show that gradually with time, even though the ability of squeezing and entanglement generation are weakened, yet significant amounts are still present which can be relevant to quantum information processing and precision spectroscopy.

  18. On the relationship between the classical Dicke-Jaynes-Cummings-Gaudin model and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dianlou; Geng, Xue

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, the relationship between the classical Dicke-Jaynes-Cummings-Gaudin (DJCG) model and the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation is studied. It is shown that the classical DJCG model is equivalent to a stationary NLS equation. Moreover, the standard NLS equation can be solved by the classical DJCG model and a suitably chosen higher order flow. Further, it is also shown that classical DJCG model can be transformed into the classical Gaudin spin model in an external magnetic field through a deformation of Lax matrix. Finally, the separated variables are constructed on the common level sets of Casimir functions and the generalized action-angle coordinates are introduced via the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

  19. Note: Compact, reusable inductive-storage-cum-opening-switch based 1.5 GW single-shot pulsed power generator.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2014-03-01

    The results of a very-compact (Marx generator-cum-inductor confined into 0.20 m cylindrical diameter and 0.75 m length) and light-weight (<15 kg) pulsed-power generator are being presented in the paper. The load voltage at 10.5 Ω is measured 125 kV (150 ns full width at half maximum FWHM) with 1.5 GW peak-power. The use of single-optimized-exploding-copper-wire along with the use of air for all the switches of the generator (closing switches of Marx generator used as primary energy source and opening switch of exploding wire) make device very attractive. Marx generator shape itself provides the desired inductance for the inductive storage.

  20. Note: Compact, reusable inductive-storage-cum-opening-switch based 1.5 GW single-shot pulsed power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2014-03-01

    The results of a very-compact (Marx generator-cum-inductor confined into 0.20 m cylindrical diameter and 0.75 m length) and light-weight (<15 kg) pulsed-power generator are being presented in the paper. The load voltage at 10.5 Ω is measured 125 kV (150 ns full width at half maximum FWHM) with 1.5 GW peak-power. The use of single-optimized-exploding-copper-wire along with the use of air for all the switches of the generator (closing switches of Marx generator used as primary energy source and opening switch of exploding wire) make device very attractive. Marx generator shape itself provides the desired inductance for the inductive storage.

  1. Isolation and identification of flavonoids, including flavone rotamers, from the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn).

    PubMed

    Rayyan, S; Fossen, T; Solheim Nateland, H; Andersen, O M

    2005-01-01

    Twelve flavonoids, including seven flavones, four flavonols and one flavanone, were isolated from methanolic extract of the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn leaves and flowers) by a combination of CC (over Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20) and preparative HPLC. Their structures, including that of the novel flavonol 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(6"-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), were elucidated by homo- and heteronuclear NMR and electrospray/MS. The 1H- and 13C-NMR of all compounds, including rotameric pairs of five flavone C-glycosides, were assigned. The presence and relative proportion of each rotamer was shown by various NMR experiments, including two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, to depend on solvent, linkage position and structure of the C-glycosyl substituent.

  2. Amplitude-Squared Squeezing in the m-PHOTON Jaynes-Cummings Model with Squeezed Field Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mubeen A.; Razmi, M. S. K.

    Amplitude-squared (AS) squeezing has been investigated for the m-photon Jaynes-Cummings model assuming the field to be initially in the squeezed states. The role played by intensity-dependent coupling has also been discussed. It has been shown that for the large initial average photon number (bar {n}) with odd values of m, AS squeezing revokes permanently whereas with even values it recurs periodically. As m increases the revocation is hastened and the duration of occurrence decreases. Higher values of m for the initial field in a squeezed vacuum state can make one of the quadrature permanently squeezed. The AS squeezing behavior for two initial states of the atom, i.e., ground state versus excited state is also compared.

  3. Dynamics of single photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuwen; Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Zou, Bingsuo; Schwingenschlogl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. PMID:27653770

  4. General integrable n-level, many-mode Janes-Cummings-Dicke models and classical r-matrices with spectral parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Skrypnyk, T. E-mail: tskrypnyk@imath.kiev.ua

    2015-02-15

    Using the technique of classical r-matrices and quantum Lax operators, we construct the most general form of the quantum integrable “n-level, many-mode” spin-boson Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke-type hamiltonians describing an interaction of a molecule of N n-level atoms with many modes of electromagnetic field and containing, in general, additional non-linear interaction terms. We explicitly obtain the corresponding quantum Lax operators and spin-boson analogs of the generalized Gaudin hamiltonians and prove their quantum commutativity. We investigate symmetries of the obtained models that are associated with the geometric symmetries of the classical r-matrices and construct the corresponding algebra of quantum integrals. We consider in detail three classes of non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices with spectral parameters and explicitly obtain the corresponding quantum Lax operators and Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke-type hamiltonians depending on the considered r-matrix.

  5. "Twisted" rational r-matrices and the algebraic Bethe ansatz: Applications to generalized Gaudin models, Bose-Hubbard dimers, and Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke-type models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnyk, T. V.

    2016-10-01

    We construct quantum integrable systems associated with the Lie algebra gl( n) and non-skew-symmetric "shifted and twisted" rational r-matrices. The obtained models include Gaudin-type models with and without an external magnetic field, n-level ( n-1)-mode Jaynes-Cummings-Dicke-type models in the Λ-configuration, a vector generalization of Bose-Hubbard dimers, etc. We diagonalize quantum Hamiltonians of the constructed integrable models using a nested Bethe ansatz.

  6. A simple LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of underivatized neurotransmitters in rats urine: assay development, validation and application in the CUMS rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xue-jia; Chen, Fen; Zhu, Chao-ran; Lu, Yong-ning

    2015-11-01

    Many amino acid neurotransmitters in urine are associated with chronic stress as well as major depressive disorders. To better understand depression, an analytical LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 underivatized neurotransmitters (4-aminohippurate, 5-HIAA, glutamate, glutamine, hippurate, pimelate, proline, tryptophan, tyramine, tyrosine and valine) in a single analytical run was developed. The advantage of this method is the simple preparation in that there is no need to deconjugate the urine samples. The quantification range was 25-12,800 ng mL(-1) with >85.8% recovery for all analytes. The nocturnal urine concentrations of the 11 neurotransmitters in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model rats and control group (n = 12) were analyzed. A series of significant changes in urinary excretion of neurotransmitters could be detected: the urinary glutamate, glutamine, hippurate and tyramine concentrations were significantly lower in the CUMS group. In addition, the urinary concentrations of tryptophan as well as tyrosine were significantly higher in chronically stressed rats. This method allows the assessment of the neurotransmitters associated with CUMS in rat urine in a single analytical run, making it suitable for implementation as a routine technique in depression research.

  7. A transparent mechanism of Q function splitting in a Jaynes-Cummings model with intensity-dependent level shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the tripartite relationship between the collapse and revival, the Q function splitting and the energy level structure in the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model with an intensity-dependent level shift whose magnitude is tuned to give rise to periodic collapse and revivals. We show that this constitutes a clearer demonstration of the mechanism of Q function splitting and its relation with the collapse and revival than the standard JC model itself. The eigenstates form two groups, both of which form equidistant ladders with differing energy intervals. This structure gives rise to the periodic splitting and reunion of the Q function. Only when the reunion happens, a non-vanishing mutual interference between the two groups is possible and gives rise to observable Rabi oscillations. The possibility of observing the phenomena using a Rubidium atom in a cavity is also discussed. We believe the present work could contribute to the understanding of the collapse and revival and the Q function-splitting phenomena.

  8. What can we learn from the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord in the Tavis-Cummings model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juliana; Rodriguez, Boris A.

    We revisit the problem of the dynamics of quantum correlations in the exact Tavis-Cummings model. We show that many of the dynamical features of quantum discord attributed to dissipation are already present in the exact framework and are due to the well known non-linearities in the model and to the choice of initial conditions. Through a comprehensive analysis, supported by explicit analytical calculations, we find that the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord are far from being trivial or intuitive. In this context, we find states that are indistinguishable from the point of view of entanglement and distinguishable from the point of view of quantum discord, states where the two quantifiers give opposite information and states where they give roughly the same information about correlations at a certain time. Depending on the initial conditions, this model exhibits a fascinating range of phenomena that can be used for experimental purposes such as: Robust states against change of manifold or dissipation, tunable entanglement states and states with a counterintuitive sudden birth as the number of photons increase. We furthermore propose an experiment called quantum discord gates where discord is zero or non-zero depending on the number of photons. This work was supported by the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion of the Universidad Antonio Narino, Colombia under Project Number 20141031 and by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia under Grant Number.

  9. Preparative-cum-quantitative mass-directed analysis of swainsonine and its in situ activity against Sf-21 cell line.

    PubMed

    Singh, Digar; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2013-10-01

    Swainsonine is a polyhydroxy indolizidine alkaloid with various research and potential therapeutic applications. In this work, swainsonine was partially purified (2.5-folds) with acetone-methanol solvent system from Metarhizium anisopliae fermentation broth. The partially purified broth was further subjected to mass-directed preparative-cum-quantitative analysis. Swainsonine was eluted as MS1 fraction [M + H](+) 174.36 ± 0.21 at 4.91 ± 0.04 min with calculated yield of 7.85 ± 1.59 μg mL(-1) corresponding to 3.74 × 10(5) counts. In situ antiproliferative activity of standard and purified swainsonine fractions was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf-21 cell line with IC50 values of 2.96 μM and 3.28 μM, respectively, at 36 h. This analytical procedure for purification and quantitative analysis of swainsonine may ensure its suitability for routine laboratory studies and research.

  10. Experience in running a Diarrhoeal Training cum Treatment Unit (DTTU) in a state teaching hospital in Calcutta.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, B; Dasgupta, S; Saha, I; Mandal, A K; Palodhi, P K

    1998-04-01

    The performance of the Diarrhoeal Training cum Treatment Unit (DTTU) of NRS Medical College and Hospital, Calcutta, in a 2-year period was evaluated by record analysis. The study revealed that 73.6% cases out of a total 4349 could be successfully managed at the oral rehydration therapy (ORT) area and only 16.5% cases required indoor admission. Rest of the cases (9.9%) with "no dehydration" were sent home with advice. There were 84.7% cases out 3919 dehydration cases who could be successfully treated by ORT and only 15.3% required intravenous (i.v.) therapy. A definite decline was also evident in the proportion of diarrhoea cases requiring antibiotic therapy (13.5% in 1991 to 6.8% in 1992). The case fatality rate due to diarrhoea was 1.7% in 1992. Had all cases of diarrhoea with dehydration being admitted and treated with i.v. fluids and antibiotics, the estimated cost would have been Rs 14.2 lakhs, which with ORT, actually cost Rs 2.4 lakhs. Thus estimated total cost reduction was to the extent of Rs 11.8 lakhs in a 2-year period.

  11. a Class of Regression-Cum Estimators in Two-Phase Sampling for Utilizing Information from High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handique, B. K.

    2012-07-01

    Two-phase sampling design offers a variety of possibilities for effective use of auxiliary information such as those from high resolution remote sensing data. Continuous satellite data with large area coverage provide scope for deriving population values of the auxiliary variables, which can effectively be used for estimating the population parameters of the variable of interest. This study has been made to examine the possibilities of different forms of auxiliary information derived from remote sensing data in two-phase sampling design and suggest an appropriate estimator that will be of broad interest and applications. A new class of regression-cum-ratio estimators has been proposed for two-phase sampling using information on two auxiliary variables derived from high resolution satellite data. The bias and the mean square error (MSE) of the proposed estimators have been obtained up to first order approximation. Efficiency comparison of the proposed estimators has been made with some traditional estimators. The proposed estimator is found to be more efficient than the usual regression and ratio estimators. Numerical illustration has been carried out to examine the efficiency of the estimator in case of forest timber volume estimation utilizing tree crown diameter and tree height as auxiliary variables. It is shown that these estimators can be employed in a variety of conditions where there is strong correlation of satellite derived information with sample based ground measurements and when the cost of ground measurements is relatively high.

  12. Source identification of different size fraction of PM10 using factor analysis at residential cum commercial area of Nagpur city.

    PubMed

    Pipalatkar, P P; Gajghate, D G; Khaparde, V V

    2012-02-01

    Particulate size distribution of PM(10) and associated trace metal concentrations has been carried out in residential cum commercial area of Mahal at Nagpur city. Sampling for size fraction of particulate matter was performed during winter season using eight-stage cascade impactor with a pre-separator and toxic metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The average concentration of PM(10) and fine particulate matter (effective cut of aerodynamic diameter ≤2.2 μm) was found to be 300 and 136.7 μg/m(3), respectively which was exceeding limit of Central Pollution Control Board. Maximum mass concentration of 41 μg/m(3) in size range of 9.0-10.0 μm and minimum mass concentration of 19 μg/m(3) in size range 2.2-3.3 μm was observed. Metals (Sr, Ni and Zn) were found to large proportions in below 0.7 μm particle size and could therefore pass directly into the alveoli region of human respiratory system. Factor analysis results indicated combustion and vehicular emission as the dominant source in fine mode and resuspended dust was dominant in medium mode while crustal along with vehicular source was major in coarse mode of particulate matter.

  13. Comment on "Thermal-light-induced dynamics: Coherence and revivals in V -type and molecular Jaynes-Cummings systems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, Amro; Brumer, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Recent numerical and analytical results have been obtained for the dynamics of a V -type system, and of a model molecular system, interacting with the thermal states of a cavity with a single mode or with a few discrete modes [D. Avisar and A. D. Wilson-Gordon, Phys. Rev. A 93, 033843 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.033843]. The authors speculate that these results may be relevant to excitation with natural incoherent radiation, such as sunlight, which has a continuous spectrum. We claim that this is incorrect, as are their comments about prior work on natural incoherent radiation that does properly deal with a continuous spectrum. Specifically, while their results obtained for the Jaynes-Cummings systems may be of interest for excitation by thermal states of cavities with a few modes, the discrete nature of their field modes produces dynamics that are fundamentally different from those induced by natural sunlight. Hence, we show here that the criticisms leveled in their paper regarding prior treatments that dealt with the continuous spectrum of natural incoherent radiation, as well as their speculation that excitation with continuous-mode thermal radiation can induce long-lived molecular coherences, are incorrect.

  14. Novel tetranuclear copper |2 + 4| cubanes resulting from unprecedented C-O bond formation cum dearomatization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Rampal; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mrigendra; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2014-09-21

    Novel tetranuclear copper |2 + 4| cubanes 1 and 2 have been synthesized from the reaction of hydrated copper salts/precursors with N,O chelating β-ketoaminato ligands. Creation of 1 and 2 occurs by in situ generation of the tridentate chelating species HL1O(2-) via copper mediated C-O bond formation and dearomatization of H3L1, while anhydrous salts afforded mononuclear complex 3.

  15. Generalized class of chain ratio cum dual to ratio estimator for the population mean using two auxiliary characters in presence of non-response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. K.; Chanu, W. W.; Tato, Yater

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a generalized class of chain ratio cum dual to ratio estimator has been proposed for estimating the population mean using two auxiliary characters in presence of non-response. The asymptotically optimum estimators (AOEs) in the class are identified in two different cases of non-response with their bias and mean square error. Empirical study is carried out to judge the merits of the suggested estimator over conventional unbiased estimator and other estimators under consideration. The proposed estimator is found to be more efficient than the other existing estimators. Both theoretical and empirical studies show the soundness and usefulness of the suggested estimator in practice.

  16. 'Mr Cummings clearly does not understand the science of genetics and should maybe go back to school on the subject': an exploratory content analysis of the online comments beneath a controversial news story.

    PubMed

    Crosswaite, Madeline; Asbury, Kathryn

    2016-12-01

    An article published in the UK Guardian on 11/10/2013 with the headline 'Genetics outweighs teaching, Gove advisor tells his boss' reported a leaked document written by special advisor Dominic Cummings to the then UK Secretary of State for Education, Michael Gove. The article generated 3008 on-line reader comments from the public. These reader comments offer a naturalistic opportunity to understand public opinion regarding Cummings' controversial suggestions and ideas. We conducted a content analysis of n = 800 reader comments, coding them on the basis of level of agreement with the ideas and opinions expressed in the article. Of all aspects of education mentioned, Cummings' reported views on genetics were commented upon most frequently and were subject to the most opposition from commenters, but also the most support. Findings offer some insight into the challenges involved in conducting public discourse about the relevance of genes in education. We discuss the accuracy with which Cummings' views were presented and the effect this may have had on reader responses to the points being raised.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Entropy and Entanglement in Master Equation of Effective Hamiltonian for Jaynes-Cummings Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessian, H. A.; Mohammed, F. A.; Mohamed, A.-B. A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we analytically solve the master equation for Jaynes-Cummings model in the dispersive regime including phase damping and the field is assumed to be initially in a superposition of coherent states. Using an established entanglement measure based on the negativity of the eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix we find a very strong sensitivity of the maximally generated entanglement to the amount of phase damping. Qualitatively this behavior is also reflected in alternative entanglement measures, but the quantitative agreement between different measures depends on the chosen noise model. The phase decoherence for this model results in monotonic increase in the total entropy while the atomic sub-entropy keeps its periodic behaviour without any effect.

  18. Entanglement transfer from two-mode continuous variable SU(2) cat states to discrete qubits systems in Jaynes-Cummings Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement. PMID:27553881

  19. (p,q) deformations and (p,q)-vector coherent states of the Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating wave approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Geloun, Joseph; Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M. Norbert

    2007-03-15

    Classes of (p,q) deformations of the Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating wave approximation are considered. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is performed exactly, leading to useful spectral decompositions of a series of relevant operators. The latter include ladder operators acting between adjacent energy eigenstates within two separate infinite discrete towers, except for a singleton state. These ladder operators allow for the construction of (p,q)-deformed vector coherent states. Using (p,q) arithmetics, explicit and exact solutions to the associated moment problem are displayed, providing new classes of coherent states for such models. Finally, in the limit of decoupled spin sectors, our analysis translates into (p,q) deformations of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator, such that the two supersymmetric sectors get intertwined through the action of the ladder operators as well as in the associated coherent states.

  20. Improvement of Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, a Combination of Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, Bismuth, and Antimonite: A Pediatric Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Madeleyn, René; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver S.; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma, although well established in adults, is less strong in the pediatric age group. Benefits of proton pump therapy are limited across age ranges. While there is a growing body of literature on the use of complementary treatments for both asthma and GERD, few studies have focused on treatment benefits for the GERD-asthma association. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with asthma and GERD who was not responding to inhaled, low-dose corticosteroids, beta-mimetic therapy, and a 6-week course of proton pump inhibitor treatment. We noted a gradual disappearance of symptoms when he was given an oral preparation of Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite. Matricaria recutita and bismuth have known gastric protective properties, and Atropa belladonna contains anticholinergic agents that have a bronchodilatory effect. These complementary medications appear promising in terms of relieving the symptoms of GERD-associated asthma. PMID:26937321

  1. Quantum Chemical Calculations of the Influence of Anchor-Cum-Spacer Groups on Femtosecond Electron Transfer Times in Dye-Sensitized Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Persson, P; Lundqvist, M J; Ernstorfer, R; Goddard, W A; Willig, F

    2006-03-01

    Electronic properties of dye-sensitized semiconductor nanocrystals, consisting of perylene (Pe) chromophores attached to 2 nm TiO2 nanocrystals via different anchor-cum-spacer groups, have been studied theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) cluster calculations. Approximate effective electronic coupling strengths for the heterogeneous electron-transfer interaction have been extracted from the calculated electronic structures and are used to estimate femtosecond electron-transfer times theoretically. Results are presented for perylenes attached to the TiO2 via formic acid (Pe-COOH), propionic acid (Pe-CH2-CH2-COOH), and acrylic acid (Pe-CH [Formula: see text] CH-COOH). The calculated electron transfer times are between 5 and 10 fs with the formic acid and the conjugated acrylic acid bridges and about 35 fs with the saturated propionic acid bridge. The calculated electron injection times are of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding experimental values and qualitatively follow the experimental trend with respect to the influence of the different substitutions on the injection times.

  2. Demographic characteristics and prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-positive patients seen in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru.

    PubMed

    Choon, S E; Mathew, M; Othman, B S

    2000-06-01

    The demographic characteristics, risk behaviourand prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were determined in 132 HIV-infected individuals seen in a Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru. Sixty-one (46.2%) were Malays, 37.9% Chinese, 10.6% Indians and 5.3% were of other ethnic groups. The male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Most of the patients (82.5%) were between 20 to 40 years-old. Seventy (53.0%) were single, 34.1% were married and 7.5% were divorcees. The majority of them (97.7%) were heterosexual. Fifty seven (53.3%) of our male patients patronised commercial workers. Eighty-one (61.8%) were not intravenous drug users (IVDU). Of the 50 IVDUs, 24 had multiple sexual exposures. Fifty-three (48.2%) of the 109 patients screened for STDs had one or more other STDs. Thirty-four patients (31.9%) reported one STD in the past and 3.6% reported two STDs in the past. Fifty-six patients (42.4%) had developed AIDS. Thirteen had passed away. The main mode of transmission of HIV infection in this population is through heterosexual intercourse and the prevalence of STDs is high. These findings indicate a need to advocate responsible sexual behaviour and to detect as well as treat STDs early to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

  3. Comparative analysis of the constituents in Saposhnikoviae Radix and Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma by monitoring inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Takuya; Shimokura, Toshihiro; Morita, Yusuke; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Mikio; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-04-01

    During the development of natural herbal medicines in Japan, Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma (Hamabofu in Japanese) has been used as a substitute for Saposhnikoviae Radix (Bofu). Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae. For example, Bofu is included in Jumihaidokuto by a manufacturer, whereas Hamabofu is included instead of Bofu in the same formula by other manufacturers. Although both Bofu and Hamabofu are used for their expected anti-inflammatory effects, differences in their medicinal properties are not well characterized. In addition, there have been very few reports comparing the pharmacological activities of the constituents in Bofu and Hamabofu. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts of Bofu and Hamabofu by monitoring levels of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) produced in rat hepatocytes. Moreover, the chemical constituents responsible for the activity were investigated. Our results showed that ethyl acetate fractions of Bofu and Hamabofu extracts contain different compounds, although both fractions suppressed NO production in rat hepatocytes. The linear dihydropyranochromones from the Bofu extract (i.e., 3'-O-angeloylhamaudol, ledebouriellol and hamaudol) suppressed NO production, whereas the coumarins from the Hamabofu extract (i.e., umbelliferone and scopoletin) also suppressed NO production. These results suggest that linear dihydropyranochromones and coumarins are responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of Bofu and Hamabofu. It is plausible that Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae due to many constituents with as yet unidentified pharmacological activity.

  4. Improvement of Asthma and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Oral Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, a Combination of Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, Bismuth, and Antimonite: A Pediatric Case Report.

    PubMed

    von Schoen-Angerer, Tido; Madeleyn, René; Kiene, Helmut; Kienle, Gunver S; Vagedes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma, although well established in adults, is less strong in the pediatric age group. Benefits of proton pump therapy are limited across age ranges. While there is a growing body of literature on the use of complementary treatments for both asthma and GERD, few studies have focused on treatment benefits for the GERD-asthma association. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy with asthma and GERD who was not responding to inhaled, low-dose corticosteroids, beta-mimetic therapy, and a 6-week course of proton pump inhibitor treatment. We noted a gradual disappearance of symptoms when he was given an oral preparation of Pulvis stomachicus cum Belladonna, an anthroposophic medication containing Matricaria recutita, Atropa belladonna, bismuth, and antimonite. Matricaria recutita and bismuth have known gastric protective properties, and Atropa belladonna contains anticholinergic agents that have a bronchodilatory effect. These complementary medications appear promising in terms of relieving the symptoms of GERD-associated asthma.

  5. Reply to "Comment on `Thermal-light-induced dynamics: Coherence and revivals in V -type and molecular Jaynes-Cummings systems' "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avisar, David; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.

    2017-06-01

    We recently presented an extended Jaynes-Cummings model for the interaction of a realistic molecular system of two Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces and a quantized electromagnetic field [Avisar and Wilson-Gordon, Phys. Rev. A 93, 033843 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.033843]. We studied the interaction of this molecular model, and also a prototype V -type system, with single-mode and multimode thermal states of the field, characterized by low and high average photon number n ¯. Among our results, we showed that the three-mode thermal state of the field induces excited-state material coherence and that a thermal state of high n ¯ can induce "coherentlike" collapse and revival patterns. The preceding Comment by Dodin and Brumer [Phys. Rev. A 95, 067801 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.067801] criticizes our work for allegedly drawing conclusions regarding sunlight-induced dynamics from our results, and for unjustified citation of previous work. However, we think the Comment fails to represent the contents of our paper, and we therefore reply to it. We show it is based on misinterpretation of our paper.

  6. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  7. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  8. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  9. Entropy squeezing and atomic inversion in the k-photon Jaynes—Cummings model in the presence of the Stark shift and a Kerr medium: A full nonlinear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, R. Baghshahi; M, K. Tavassoly; A, Behjat

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between a two-level atom and a single-mode field in the k-photon Jaynes—Cummings model (JCM) in the presence of the Stark shift and a Kerr medium is studied. All terms in the Hamiltonian, such as the single-mode field, its interaction with the atom, the contribution of the Stark shift and the Kerr medium effects are considered to be f-deformed. In particular, the effect of the initial state of the radiation field on the dynamical evolution of some physical properties such as atomic inversion and entropy squeezing are investigated by considering different initial field states (coherent, squeezed and thermal states).

  10. Concluding remarks: Cum grano salis.

    PubMed

    Ball, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Hofmeister effects are part of a larger story--one in which the devil is perhaps in the details, but which promises to give us a much deeper understanding of how the solvent is a part of cell and molecular biology.

  11. Hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from tertiary amines by benzyloxyl and cumyloxyl radicals: influence of structure on the rate-determining formation of a hydrogen-bonded prereaction complex.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2011-08-05

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from a series of tertiary amines by the cumyloxyl (CumO(•)) and benzyloxyl (BnO(•)) radicals was carried out. With the sterically hindered triisobutylamine, comparable hydrogen atom abstraction rate constants (k(H)) were measured for the two radicals (k(H)(BnO(•))/k(H)(CumO(•)) = 2.8), and the reactions were described as direct hydrogen atom abstractions. With the other amines, increases in k(H)(BnO(•))/k(H)(CumO(•)) ratios of 13 to 2027 times were observed. k(H) approaches the diffusion limit in the reactions between BnO(•) and unhindered cyclic and bicyiclic amines, whereas a decrease in reactivity is observed with acyclic amines and with the hindered cyclic amine 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine. These results provide additional support to our hypothesis that the reaction proceeds through the rate-determining formation of a C-H/N hydrogen-bonded prereaction complex between the benzyloxyl α-C-H and the nitrogen lone pair wherein hydrogen atom abstraction occurs, and demonstrate the important role of amine structure on the overall reaction mechanism. Additional mechanistic information in support of this picture is obtained from the study of the reactions of the amines with a deuterated benzyloxyl radical (PhCD(2)O(•), BnO(•)-d(2)) and the 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyloxyl radical.

  12. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Properties of Linear Entropy in k-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model with Stark Shift and Kerr-Like Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qing-Hong; Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad; Wang, Yue-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Tian

    2010-05-01

    The time evolution of the linear entropy of an atom in k-photon Jaynes-Cummings model is investigated taking into consideration Stark shift and Kerr-like medium. The effect of both the Stark shift and Kerr-like medium on the linear entropy is analyzed using a numerical technique for the field initially in coherent state and in even coherent state. The results show that the presence of the Kerr-like medium and Stark shift has an important effect on the properties of the entropy and entanglement. It is also shown that the setting of the initial state plays a significant role in the evolution of the linear entropy and entanglement.

  13. Dynamics of and on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halu, Arda

    Complex networks are dynamic, evolving structures that can host a great number of dynamical processes. In this thesis, we address current challenges regarding the dynamics of and dynamical processes on complex networks. First, we study complex network dynamics from the standpoint of network growth. As a quantitative measure of the complexity and information content of networks generated by growing network models, we define and evaluate their entropy rate. We propose stochastic growth models inspired by the duplication-divergence mechanism to generate epistatic interaction networks and find that they exhibit the property of monochromaticity as a result of their dynamical evolution. Second, we explore the dynamics of quantum mechanical processes on complex networks. We investigate the Bose-Hubbard model on annealed and quenched scale-free networks as well as Apollonian networks and show that their phase diagram changes significantly in the presence of complex topologies, depending on the second degree of the degree distribution and the maximal eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. We then study the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model on various complex topologies and demonstrate the importance of the maximal eigenvalue of the hopping matrix in determining the phase diagram of the model. Third, we investigate dynamical processes on interacting and multiplex networks. We study opinion dynamics in a simulated setting of two antagonistically interacting networks and recover the importance of connectivity and committed agents. We propose a multiplex centrality measure that takes into account the connectivity patterns within and across different layers and find that the dynamics of biased random walks on multiplex networks gives rise to a centrality ranking that is different from univariate centrality measures. Finally, we study the statistical mechanics of multilayered spatial networks and demonstrate the emergence of significant link overlap and improved navigability in

  14. Phase transition of light on complex quantum networks.

    PubMed

    Halu, Arda; Garnerone, Silvano; Vezzani, Alessandro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-02-01

    Recent advances in quantum optics and atomic physics allow for an unprecedented level of control over light-matter interactions, which can be exploited to investigate new physical phenomena. In this work we are interested in the role played by the topology of quantum networks describing coupled optical cavities and local atomic degrees of freedom. In particular, using a mean-field approximation, we study the phase diagram of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model on complex networks topologies, and we characterize the transition between a Mott-like phase of localized polaritons and a superfluid phase. We found that, for complex topologies, the phase diagram is nontrivial and well defined in the thermodynamic limit only if the hopping coefficient scales like the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of the network. Furthermore we provide numerical evidences that, for some complex network topologies, this scaling implies an asymptotically vanishing hopping coefficient in the limit of large network sizes. The latter result suggests the interesting possibility of observing quantum phase transitions of light on complex quantum networks even with very small couplings between the optical cavities.

  15. Neuronal functions associated with endo- and exocytotic events-cum-molecular trafficking may be cell maturation-dependent: lessons learned from studies on botulism.

    PubMed

    Ray, Radharaman; Zhang, Peng; Ray, Prabhati

    2011-08-01

    The passion in the scientific endeavors of Marshall Warren Nirenberg had been his quest for knowledge regarding the storage, retrieval, and processing of information in the cell. After deciphering the genetic code for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1968, Nirenberg devoted his attention to unraveling the mysteries in the most complex cellular organization in the body, i.e., the nervous system, especially those governing neuronal development, plasticity, and synaptogenesis. During the tenure of the primary author (RR) as a postdoctoral Staff Fellow in the Nirenberg laboratory in the late seventies to early eighties, he had the opportunity of working on projects related to what Nirenberg used to broadly define as the "synaptic code." The major aspects of these projects dealt with the functional macromolecules relevant to neuronal growth, organization, lineage, selectivity, stabilization, synaptogenesis, and functions such as neuroexocytosis. This author's emphasis was particularly on voltage-gated calcium channels that regulate stimulus-induced neurotransmitter release. One central as well as crucial theme in these studies was the fact that the neurons had to be mature and differentiated in order to study these entities (Science 222: 794-799, 1983; Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 48: 707-715, 1983). In this communication, we illustrate how did this basic knowledge, i.e., cell maturation-dependent properties being essential for neuronal functions, led to a successful experimental design and demonstration of the validity of the targeted neurologic therapeutic delivery approach based on recombinant botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) heavy chain (rHC) serving as a neuron-specific targeting molecule (BMC Pharmacol 9: 12, 2009).

  16. Symmetry-cum-Unification in physical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new kind of duality in physical sciences-involving Symmetry (S)on the one hand and Unification(U) on the other- is proposed, wherein the two partners obey, not the traditional feature of mutual incompatibility of two canonically conjugate variables, but rather are bound by a cause-effect type of relationship, albeit at a probabilistic level. While a precise mathematical formulation of such relationship is still a distant goal, the possible impact of this new kind of duality on the growth of physical theories vis-a-vis experiment is envisaged.

  17. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  18. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  19. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  20. Local Community Perceptions of Mine Site Restoration Using Phytoremediation in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (Quebec).

    PubMed

    Vodouhe, Fifanou G; Khasa, Damase P

    2015-01-01

    This work explores factors supporting people perception about mine site restoration and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is one of the most eco-friendly restoration strategy emerged since the last two decades but studies on local people perception on this restoration strategy are scarce. To fill in this gap, data were collected from mining stakeholders using a structured questionnaire administered through snowball sampling method. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis as implemented in the software XLSTAT to visualize relationship between participants' characteristics, their view on mine site restoration and phytoremediation. Results clearly show out that people perception on mine site restoration is influenced by mining activities effects on health and region attractiveness. Phytoremediation (65.21%) was rated positively with regard to its environment potential, aesthetic and consideration for future generation followed by fillings and excavating. Restoration strategy costs have no effect on people choice and participants prefer use of shrubs as vegetation component of phytoremediation to reach their restoration objective.

  1. A comparative study of olivine and clinopyroxene spinifex flows from Alexo, abitibi greenstone Belt, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Gorton, M. P.; Naldrett, A. J.

    1983-09-01

    A petrological and geochemical study of an olivine and of a clinipyroxene spinifex textured flow, from Alexo, indicates that the initial liquid in both flows probably came from the same mantle melting event and that the source was incompatible element depleted. The starting liquid of the clinopyroxene flow had experienced more olivine fractionation (10%) prior to its emplacement at Alexo, than the initial liquid of the olivine spinifex flow. The development of each of the textural and compositional zones in the flows can be modelled by means of crystal fractionation. In the case of the clinopyroxene flow the B-zone is formed by the fractionation of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene and chromite. An unusual feature of the Alexo clinopyroxene flow is presence of a peridotitic komatiite above the pyroxene cumulate layer, where a basaltic komatiite would usually be present. The presence of the peridotitic komatiite suggests an influx of new magma and hence a dynamic model for the flow. The composition of the clinopyroxene spinifex zone represents a mixture of clinopyroxene plus liquid, rather than simply a frozen liquid. This could happen if the clinopyroxene needles grew stalactitelike from the chilled upper surface of the flow into a flowing basaltic liquid. In the olivine spinifex flow the zones can be modelled as frozen liquids in the A2-zone, as initial liquid which has fractionated 30% olivine in the A3-zone and as liquid plus 50% olivine in the B-zone. But, if the clinopyroxene spinifex developed by stalactite growth of clinopyroxene needles into the a flowing liquid, the possibility that the olivine spinifex represent fractionated liquid plus stalactite olivines arises.

  2. Complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  3. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  4. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  5. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  6. Softball Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  7. Complex chimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  8. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science - which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour - is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  9. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  10. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  11. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  12. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Robert; Asai, M.; Brand, H.; Chiera, N. M.; Di Nitto, A.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Even, J.; Fangli, F.; Goetz, M.; Haba, H.; Hartmann, W.; Jäger, E.; Kaji, D.; Kanaya, J.; Kaneya, Y.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Komori, Y.; Kraus, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kudou, Y.; Kurz, N.; Miyashita, S.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Murakami, M.; Nagame, Y.; Ooe, K.; Piguet, D.; Sato, N.; Sato, T. K.; Steiner, J.; Steinegger, P.; Sumita, T.; Takeyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tomitsuka, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Tsukada, K.; Türler, A.; Usoltsev, I.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wiehl, N.; Wittwer, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaki, S.; Yano, S.; Yamaki, S.; Qin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO)6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  13. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  14. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  15. The Influence of Assessor Training on Rater-as-Interlocutor Behaviour during a Computer-Resourced Oral Proficiency Interview-Cum-Discussion (OPI/D) Known as the "Five Star Test." Paper II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John D. E.

    This paper considers the influence of the values and the discourse behaviors of the native-speaking assessor as interlocutor. These variables in the assessments of oral proficiency interrelate in complex ways with features of test design such as tasks, prompts, topics, guidelines, and assessor training. This paper reviews some previous studies,…

  16. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  17. Complex-plane generalization of scalar Levin transforms: A robust, rapidly convergent method to compute potentials and fields in multi-layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-07-01

    We propose the complex-plane generalization of a powerful algebraic sequence acceleration algorithm, the method of weighted averages (MWA), to guarantee exponential-cum-algebraic convergence of Fourier and Fourier-Hankel (F-H) integral transforms. This “complex-plane” MWA, effected via a linear-path detour in the complex plane, results in rapid, absolute convergence of field and potential solutions in multi-layered environments regardless of the source-observer geometry and anisotropy/loss of the media present. In this work, we first introduce a new integration path used to evaluate the field contribution arising from the radiation spectra. Subsequently, we (1) exhibit the foundational relations behind the complex-plane extension to a general Levin-type sequence convergence accelerator, (2) specialize this analysis to one member of the Levin transform family (the MWA), (3) address and circumvent restrictions, arising for two-dimensional integrals associated with wave dynamics problems, through minimal complex-plane detour restrictions and a novel partition of the integration domain, (4) develop and compare two formulations based on standard/real-axis MWA variants, and (5) present validation results and convergence characteristics for one of these two formulations.

  18. Complex-plane generalization of scalar Levin transforms: A robust, rapidly convergent method to compute potentials and fields in multi-layered media

    SciTech Connect

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Donderici, Burkay

    2014-07-15

    We propose the complex-plane generalization of a powerful algebraic sequence acceleration algorithm, the method of weighted averages (MWA), to guarantee exponential-cum-algebraic convergence of Fourier and Fourier–Hankel (F–H) integral transforms. This “complex-plane” MWA, effected via a linear-path detour in the complex plane, results in rapid, absolute convergence of field and potential solutions in multi-layered environments regardless of the source-observer geometry and anisotropy/loss of the media present. In this work, we first introduce a new integration path used to evaluate the field contribution arising from the radiation spectra. Subsequently, we (1) exhibit the foundational relations behind the complex-plane extension to a general Levin-type sequence convergence accelerator, (2) specialize this analysis to one member of the Levin transform family (the MWA), (3) address and circumvent restrictions, arising for two-dimensional integrals associated with wave dynamics problems, through minimal complex-plane detour restrictions and a novel partition of the integration domain, (4) develop and compare two formulations based on standard/real-axis MWA variants, and (5) present validation results and convergence characteristics for one of these two formulations.

  19. Development of a rapid capture-cum-detection method for Escherichia coli O157 from apple juice comprising nano-immunomagnetic separation in tandem with surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Roya; Mukherjee, Shubhasish; Hudson, Jim; Sharma, Anup; Banerjee, Pratik

    2014-10-17

    A combined capture and detection method comprising of nano-immunomagnetic separation (NIMS) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed to detect Escherichia coli O157 from liquid media including apple juice. The capture antibodies (cAbs) were immobilized on magnetite-gold (Fe3O4/Au) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) which were used for separation and concentration of the E. coli O157 cells from model liquid food matrix. The capture efficiency (CE) for E. coli O157 using MNP was found to be approximately 84-94%. No cross reactivity was observed with background non-target organisms. There was a significant difference in the mean CE of bacteria captured by MNP and commercially sourced immunomagnetic microbeads (p<0.05). For the detection of target pathogen, SERS labels were prepared by conjugating gold nanoparticles with Raman reporter molecules and the detector antibody (dAb). Au-Raman label-dAb was interacted with gold coated MNP-cAb-E. coli O157 complex. The ability of this immunoassay to detect E. coli O157 in apple juice was investigated. We have successfully applied the synthesized Fe3O4/Au nanoclusters to E. coli O157 detection in apple juice using the SERS method. The lowest detectable bacterial cell concentration in apple juice was 10(2)CFU/mL with a total analysis time of less than an hour. This method presents a convenient way of preconcentration, separation, and detection of low levels of target pathogen from liquid food matrix.

  20. Socio-Environmental Resilience and Complex Urban Systems Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, Brian; Petri, Aaron; Pan, Haozhi; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The increasing pressure of climate change has inspired two normative agendas; socio-technical transitions and socio-ecological resilience, both sharing a complex-systems epistemology (Gillard et al. 2016). Socio-technical solutions include a continuous, massive data gathering exercise now underway in urban places under the guise of developing a 'smart'(er) city. This has led to the creation of data-rich environments where large data sets have become central to monitoring and forming a response to anomalies. Some have argued that these kinds of data sets can help in planning for resilient cities (Norberg and Cumming 2008; Batty 2013). In this paper, we focus on a more nuanced, ecologically based, socio-environmental perspective of resilience planning that is often given less consideration. Here, we broadly discuss (and model) the tightly linked, mutually influenced, social and biophysical subsystems that are critical for understanding urban resilience. We argue for the need to incorporate these sub system linkages into the resilience planning lexicon through the integration of systems models and planning support systems. We make our case by first providing a context for urban resilience from a socio-ecological and planning perspective. We highlight the data needs for this type of resilient planning and compare it to currently collected data streams in various smart city efforts. This helps to define an approach for operationalizing socio-environmental resilience planning using robust systems models and planning support systems. For this, we draw from our experiences in coupling a spatio-temporal land use model (the Landuse Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM)) with water quality and quantity models in Stockholm Sweden. We describe the coupling of these systems models using a robust Planning Support System (PSS) structural framework. We use the coupled model simulations and PSS to analyze the connection between urban land use transformation (social) and water

  1. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  2. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  3. Natural complexity, computational complexity and depth.

    PubMed

    Machta, J

    2011-09-01

    Depth is a complexity measure for natural systems of the kind studied in statistical physics and is defined in terms of computational complexity. Depth quantifies the length of the shortest parallel computation required to construct a typical system state or history starting from simple initial conditions. The properties of depth are discussed and it is compared with other complexity measures. Depth can only be large for systems with embedded computation.

  4. Cummings Memorial Lecture - 1975. The market basket: food for thought.

    PubMed

    Deichman, W B

    1975-06-01

    The world food crisis is as critical today as when it was debated at the 1974 World Food Conference in Rome. Since the United States and Canada-and to a lesser extent, Australia and New Zealand-lead in the production of corn, wheat and soybeans, the North American "bread basket" has become the "market basket" of the world. For welfare, economic, and political reasons, our energies, resources, and deliberations must be expanded toward optimum production of wholesome food products. I do not recommend that we permit food additives in "questionably" safe or excessive concentrations in our agricultural products. I do recommend, however, that tolerance limits for food additives be established based on a comprehensive review of all contributing factors-the world food crisis and the rational interpretation of both positive and negative animal data as they relate to man. As Dr. Herbert Stokinger put it so aptly: "Avoid the establishment of unnecessarily severe standards." 2. Funds for research and teaching of food and nutrition should be greatly increased, so that all who can read and write may be made aware of the daily dietary requirements for the maintenance of good health. 3. Unsubstantiated scare tactics in publications of the scientific and lay press can only lead to well-intended but often emotionally-inspired restrictions, ordinances, and laws. Such decisions are likely to either under- or over-define the requirements and standards for food additives and other chemicals which are important to the well-being of the populace.

  5. Colloquamur Latine cum Pueris Puellesque: Latin in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Charles F.; Norton, Harriet S.

    Guidelines for the development of a Latin curriculum for the middle school, with specific suggestions as to content and methodology, are presented in this manual. The material, oriented toward new approaches in the teaching of the Latin and Graeco-Roman cultures, strives to develop proficiency in the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and…

  6. Is "In Consortio Cum Parentibus" the New "In Loco Parentis?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Gavin

    2007-01-01

    "In loco parentis" had been the philosophical foundation of higher education policy and practice since 1913 when it was established as a legal doctrine in Gott v. Berea. The doctrine defined the relationship between colleges, students, and parents. That relationship has changed with the death of "in loco parentis" in Dixon v. Alabama Board of…

  7. [ARS mingendi cum instrumentis, probes: candelette, minugie, catheters].

    PubMed

    Serarcangeli, C; Rispoli, G

    2001-01-01

    The Museum of History of Medicine of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" has a rich collection of probes and metal catheters, some of which in surgical kits. Tracing the history of catheters, the authors follow the technical evolution in the field of urology techniques, also highlighting the intelligent craft of artisans, surgeons, barbers - and the industrial effort to ameliorate techniques. The use and the crafting of these instruments are to be related to new knowledge in the fields of urethral, vesical and prostatic occlusion. Italian contribution of the field is stressed, highlighting the original experience of Michele Troja, who invented and diffused metal catheters covered in caouthouc.

  8. [Erythema annulare centrifugum-like psoriasis cum pustulatione].

    PubMed

    Albert, A; Hein, R; Ring, J; Jakob, T

    2007-09-01

    Erythema annulare centrifugum-type psoriasis with pustules represents a subtype of psoriasis pustulosa generalisata von Zumbusch. It presents with a typical morphology characterized by a lack of classical erythematosquamous skin lesions during its acute eruption phase. Diagnosis is usually established on the basis of clinical presentation and dermatopathology, which often shows a substrate typical for psoriasis, sometimes with spongiform pustules.

  9. Physician, heal thyself: the fate of the professional cum critic.

    PubMed

    Stam, Henderikus J

    2006-05-01

    Reminding us of the crucial tasks that require our urgent ministrations, Hepworth rightly notes that critique has its limits. I agree and note that our fates as critics are bound to a professionalism we may not be able to escape.

  10. Eruption disturbances: an aetiological-cum-management perspective.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, A; Sharma, G; Sarkar, A; Pai, K M

    2005-01-01

    Failure of permanent teeth to erupt without any known cause is a rare incident. We report a case of multiple unerupted permanent teeth and make an effort to predict all possible causes of non-eruption of permanent teeth clinically and radiographically. It is essential to diagnose and treat eruption disturbances as early as possible because treatment at a later stage is usually more complicated due to the tendency of malocclusion to increase with time and reduced ability of remaining dentition to adjust.

  11. Intrinsic-cum-extrinsic normalization of formant data of vowels.

    PubMed

    T V, Ananthapadmanabha; A G, Ramakrishnan

    2016-11-01

    Using a known speaker-intrinsic normalization procedure, formant data are scaled by the reciprocal of the geometric mean of the first three formant frequencies. This reduces the influence of the talker but results in a distorted vowel space. The proposed speaker-extrinsic procedure re-scales the normalized values by the mean formant values of vowels. When tested on the formant data of vowels published by Peterson and Barney, the combined approach leads to well separated clusters by reducing the spread due to talkers. The proposed procedure performs better than two top-ranked normalization procedures based on the accuracy of vowel classification as the objective measure.

  12. Is "In Consortio Cum Parentibus" the New "In Loco Parentis?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Gavin

    2007-01-01

    "In loco parentis" had been the philosophical foundation of higher education policy and practice since 1913 when it was established as a legal doctrine in Gott v. Berea. The doctrine defined the relationship between colleges, students, and parents. That relationship has changed with the death of "in loco parentis" in Dixon v. Alabama Board of…

  13. Environmental Development cum Forest Plantation Planning and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katoch, C. D.

    This textbook covers environmental conservation through forest plantation planning and management for all levels of forestry professionals and non-professionals in India and abroad. The book is divided into six parts and 29 sections in sequential order. Part I contains details on site selection, site preparations, site clearance, layout, and…

  14. Environmental Development cum Forest Plantation Planning and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katoch, C. D.

    This textbook covers environmental conservation through forest plantation planning and management for all levels of forestry professionals and non-professionals in India and abroad. The book is divided into six parts and 29 sections in sequential order. Part I contains details on site selection, site preparations, site clearance, layout, and…

  15. [Complexity of land ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Chen, Meiqiu

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, complexity studies has become a new research region and been widely applied in engineering, biology, economy, management, military, police and sociology. In this paper, from the view of complex science, the main complexity characteristics of land ecosystem were described, furthermore, the application of fractal, chaos, and artificial neural network on the complexity of land ecosystem were also discussed.

  16. Protein Complexes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, J. Harry; Abreu, Marco; Wimble, Christopher; Uetz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale analyses of protein complexes have recently become available for Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, yielding 443 and 116 heteromultimeric soluble protein complexes, respectively. We have coupled the results of these mass spectrometry-characterized protein complexes with the 285 “gold standard” protein complexes identified by EcoCyc. A comparison with databases of gene orthology, conservation, and essentiality identified proteins conserved or lost in complexes of other species. For instance, of 285 “gold standard” protein complexes in E. coli, less than 10% are fully conserved among a set of 7 distantly-related bacterial “model” species. Complex conservation follows one of three models: well-conserved complexes, complexes with a conserved core, and complexes with partial conservation but no conserved core. Expanding the comparison to 894 distinct bacterial genomes illustrates fractional conservation and the limits of co-conservation among components of protein complexes: just 14 out of 285 model protein complexes are perfectly conserved across 95% of the genomes used, yet we predict more than 180 may be partially conserved across at least half of the genomes. No clear relationship between gene essentiality and protein complex conservation is observed, as even poorly conserved complexes contain a significant number of essential proteins. Finally, we identify 183 complexes containing well-conserved components and uncharacterized proteins which will be interesting targets for future experimental studies. PMID:25723151

  17. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Aluisio, Sandra M.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-12-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in the quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus pointing to the usefulness of considering wider contexts around the concepts. Though the accuracy rate in the distinction was not as high as in methods using deep linguistic knowledge, the complex network approach is still useful for a rapid screening of texts whenever assessing complexity is essential to guarantee accessibility to readers with limited reading ability.

  18. Evolution of biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Ofria, C; Collier, T C

    2000-04-25

    To make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexity. We show that, because natural selection forces genomes to behave as a natural "Maxwell Demon," within a fixed environment, genomic complexity is forced to increase.

  19. Evolution of biological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    To make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexity. We show that, because natural selection forces genomes to behave as a natural “Maxwell Demon,” within a fixed environment, genomic complexity is forced to increase. PMID:10781045

  20. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  1. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  2. Adaptive Leadership: Fighting Complexity with Complexity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Leader’s Framework for Decision Making,” 71. 24 Melanie Mitchell, Complexity: A Guided Tour (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009), 12. 25...2011), 377. 29 Mitchell, Complexity: A Guided Tour. 30 Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York: Penguin Books...A Guided Tour, 10. 34 Barabasi, Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else and what it Means, 145. 13

  3. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  4. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  5. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Weighted growing simplicial complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Owen T.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2017-06-01

    Simplicial complexes describe collaboration networks, protein interaction networks, and brain networks and in general network structures in which the interactions can include more than two nodes. In real applications, often simplicial complexes are weighted. Here we propose a nonequilibrium model for weighted growing simplicial complexes. The proposed dynamics is able to generate weighted simplicial complexes with a rich interplay between weights and topology emerging not just at the level of nodes and links, but also at the level of faces of higher dimension.

  8. Human-Automation Collaboration in Complex Multivariate Resource Allocation Decision Support Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the Office of Naval Research (Code 34). We would like to thank Cláudia Ferraz, Andrew Hsiao, Javier Garcia , Andrew Clare, Albert Leung, Anunaya...ASNE Human Systems Integration Symposium, Annapolis, MD, USA, 2007. [6] S. Bruni, J. Marquez , A. Brzezinski, and M.L. Cummings, Visualizing

  9. The nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Stephen A

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes, the conduits for information exchange between the nucleus and cytoplasm, appear broadly similar in eukaryotes from yeast to human. Precisely how nuclear pore complexes regulate macromolecular and ionic traffic remains unknown, but recent advances in the identification and characterization of components of the complex by proteomics and genomics have provided new insights. PMID:11574060

  10. Crystallization of macromolecular complexes: combinatorial complex crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stura, Enrico A.; Graille, Marc; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste

    2001-11-01

    The usefulness of antibody complexation, as a way of increasing the chances of crystallization needs to be re-evaluated after many antibody complexes have been crystallized and their structure determined. It is somewhat striking that among these, only a small number is a complex with a large protein antigen. The problem is that the effort of raising, cleaving and purifying an Fab is rewarded only by an extra chance of getting crystals; depending on the relative likelihood of crystallization of the complexed and uncomplexed protein. The example of the complex between HIV gp120, CD4 and an Fab fragment from a neutralizing antibody suggests that further complexation of an antigen-antibody complex with a third protein could, by increasing the number of possible combinations, improve the likelihood of crystallization. We propose the use of Ig-binding proteins as a way of extending the method from HIV gp120 to all proteins for which there are monoclonal antibodies. We discuss this technique, combinatorial complex crystallization (CCC), as part of a multi-component system for the enhancement of crystallization of macromolecular complexes. The method makes use of single Ig-binding domains from Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA), Peptostreptococcus magnus protein L (PpL) and the streptococcal protein G (SpG). The generality of the method depends on the ability of these domains to interact with a large repertoire of antibodies without affecting antigen binding. There is strong evidence to suggest that these Ig-binding domains bind outside the antigen-combining site of the antibody without perturbing antigen binding. It is clear from the crystal structure of the single SpG domain complexed with an Fab that the interaction involves mainly the immunoglobulin CH1 domain, a region not involved in antigen recognition. We have recently determined the structure of the complex between a human Fab and the domain D from SpA and found that steric hindrance is unlikely even for large

  11. Complex Correspondence Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-02-12

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  12. The Oriented Graph Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willwacher, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The oriented graph complexes are complexes of directed graphs without directed cycles. They govern, for example, the quantization of Lie bialgebras and infinite dimensional deformation quantization. Similar to the ordinary graph complexes GC n introduced by Kontsevich they come in two essentially different versions, depending on the parity of n. It is shown that, surprisingly, the oriented graph complex is quasi-isomorphic to the ordinary commutative graph complex of opposite parity GC n-1, up to some known classes. This yields in particular a combinatorial description of the action of on Lie bialgebras, and shows that a cycle-free formality morphism in the sense of Shoikhet can be constructed rationally without reference to configuration space integrals. Curiously, the obstruction class in the oriented graph complex found by Shoikhet corresponds to the well known theta graph in the ordinary graph complex.

  13. Kinetics of complex plasma with liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides a theoretical basis for the reduction of electron density by spray of water (or other liquids) in hot plasma. This phenomenon has been observed in a hypersonic flight experiment for relief of radio black out, caused by high ionization in the plasma sheath of a hypersonic vehicle, re-entering the atmosphere. The analysis incorporates a rather little known phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of ions from the surface and includes the charge balance on the droplets and number cum energy balance of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules; the energy balance of the evaporating droplets has also been taken into account. The analysis has been applied to a realistic situation and the transient variations of the charge and radius of water droplets, and other plasma parameters have been obtained and discussed. The analysis through made in the context of water droplets is applicable to all liquids.

  14. Kinetics of complex plasma with liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.; Mishra, S. K.

    2013-12-15

    This paper provides a theoretical basis for the reduction of electron density by spray of water (or other liquids) in hot plasma. This phenomenon has been observed in a hypersonic flight experiment for relief of radio black out, caused by high ionization in the plasma sheath of a hypersonic vehicle, re-entering the atmosphere. The analysis incorporates a rather little known phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of ions from the surface and includes the charge balance on the droplets and number cum energy balance of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules; the energy balance of the evaporating droplets has also been taken into account. The analysis has been applied to a realistic situation and the transient variations of the charge and radius of water droplets, and other plasma parameters have been obtained and discussed. The analysis through made in the context of water droplets is applicable to all liquids.

  15. Complex virial theorem and complex scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, B.R.

    1983-06-01

    We present the simple generalization to complex energies of the normal global real scaling used for bound-state calculations to produce a variational energy which satisfies the virial theorem. We show that in two limiting cases, one or the other of which is almost always p satisfied in all calculations, the virially stabilized complex energy is sensitive to only the real part or the imaginary part of the complex virial expression. We then compute the virial expression for a number of wave functions for the 1s2s/sup 2/ /sup 2/S He/sup -/, 1s2s2p /sup 2/P/sup o/ He/sup -/, and 1s/sup 2/2s/sup 2/kp /sup 2/P/sup o/ Be/sup -/ resonances and the corresponding virially stabilized resonance energies. In all calculations one of the limiting cases was applicable.

  16. Selective Production of 2-Methylfuran by Gas-Phase Hydrogenation of Furfural on Copper Incorporated by Complexation in Mesoporous Silica Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Gómez, Carmen Pilar; Cecilia, Juan A; Moreno-Tost, Ramón; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2017-04-10

    Copper species have been incorporated in mesoporous silica (MS) through complexation with the amine groups of dodecylamine, which was used as a structure-directing agent in the synthesis. A series of Cu/SiO2 catalysts (xCu-MS) with copper loadings (x) from 2.5 to 20 wt % was synthesized and evaluated in the gas-phase hydrogenation of furfural (FUR). The most suitable catalytic performance in terms of 2-methylfuran yield was obtained with an intermediate copper content (10 wt %). This 10Cu-MS catalyst exhibits a 2-methylfuran yield higher than 95 mol % after 5 h time-on-stream (TOS) at a reaction temperature of 210 °C with a H2 /FUR molar ratio of 11.5 and a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.5 h(-1) . After 14 h TOS, this catalyst still showed a yield of 80 mol %. In all cases, carbonaceous deposits on the external surface were the cause of the catalyst deactivation, although sintering of the copper particles was observed for higher copper loadings. This intermediate copper loading (10 wt %) offered a suitable balance between resistance to sintering and tendency to form carbonaceous deposits.

  17. Assessing physiological complexity.

    PubMed

    Burggren, W W; Monticino, M G

    2005-09-01

    Physiologists both admire and fear complexity, but we have made relatively few attempts to understand it. Inherently complex systems are more difficult to study and less predictable. However, a deeper understanding of physiological systems can be achieved by modifying experimental design and analysis to account for complexity. We begin this essay with a tour of some mathematical views of complexity. After briefly exploring chaotic systems, information theory and emergent behavior, we reluctantly conclude that, while a mathematical view of complexity provides useful perspectives and some narrowly focused tools, there are too few generally practical take-home messages for physiologists studying complex systems. Consequently, we attempt to provide guidelines as to how complex systems might be best approached by physiologists. After describing complexity based on the sum of a physiological system's structures and processes, we highlight increasingly refined approaches based on the pattern of interactions between structures and processes. We then provide a series of examples illustrating how appreciating physiological complexity can improve physiological research, including choosing experimental models, guiding data collection, improving data interpretations and constructing more rigorous system models. Finally, we conclude with an invitation for physiologists, applied mathematicians and physicists to collaborate on describing, studying and learning from studies of physiological complexity.

  18. Hypergraph coloring complexes.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-08-28

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes-a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen-Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected.

  19. Complexation of Optoelectronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Il‧in, M. Yu.; Konyaev, M. A.; Mikhailenko, A. S.; Morozov, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Problems of increasing the efficiency and the functionality of complex optoelectronic systems for monitoring real atmospheric conditions and of their use are discussed. It is shown by the example of a meteorological complex comprising an infrared wind-sensing lidar and an X-range Doppler radar that the complexation of probing systems working in different electromagnetic-radiation ranges opens up new opportunities for determining the meteorological parameters of a turbulent atmosphere and investigating the interaction of radiation with it.

  20. Visual complexity: a review.

    PubMed

    Donderi, Don C

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from research on single forms, form and texture arrays and visual displays. Form complexity and form probability are shown to be linked through their reciprocal relationship in complexity theory, which is in turn shown to be consistent with recent developments in perceptual learning and neural circuit theory. Directions for further research are suggested.

  1. Complexity and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Alberto; Gómez, Carlos; Hornero, Roberto; López-Ibor, Juan José

    2013-08-01

    Complexity estimators have been broadly utilized in schizophrenia investigation. Early studies reported increased complexity in schizophrenia patients, associated with a higher variability or "irregularity" of their brain signals. However, further investigations showed reduced complexities, thus introducing a clear divergence. Nowadays, both increased and reduced complexity values are reported. The explanation of such divergence is a critical issue to understand the role of complexity measures in schizophrenia research. Considering previous arguments a complementary hypothesis is advanced: if the increased irregularity of schizophrenia patients' neurophysiological activity is assumed, a "natural" tendency to increased complexity in EEG and MEG scans should be expected, probably reflecting an abnormal neuronal firing pattern in some critical regions such as the frontal lobes. This "natural" tendency to increased complexity might be modulated by the interaction of three main factors: medication effects, symptomatology, and age effects. Therefore, young, medication-naïve, and highly symptomatic (positive symptoms) patients are expected to exhibit increased complexities. More importantly, the investigation of these interacting factors by means of complexity estimators might help to elucidate some of the neuropathological processes involved in schizophrenia.

  2. Bacterial formate hydrogenlyase complex

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Haumann, Michael; Palmer, Tracy; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts. PMID:25157147

  3. U1A Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-28

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  4. The Tom Core Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ahting, Uwe; Thun, Clemens; Hegerl, Reiner; Typke, Dieter; Nargang, Frank E.; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    Translocation of nuclear-encoded preproteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the multicomponent transmembrane TOM complex. We have isolated the TOM core complex of Neurospora crassa by removing the receptors Tom70 and Tom20 from the isolated TOM holo complex by treatment with the detergent dodecyl maltoside. It consists of Tom40, Tom22, and the small Tom components, Tom6 and Tom7. This core complex was also purified directly from mitochondria after solubilization with dodecyl maltoside. The TOM core complex has the characteristics of the general insertion pore; it contains high-conductance channels and binds preprotein in a targeting sequence-dependent manner. It forms a double ring structure that, in contrast to the holo complex, lacks the third density seen in the latter particles. Three-dimensional reconstruction by electron tomography exhibits two open pores traversing the complex with a diameter of ∼2.1 nm and a height of ∼7 nm. Tom40 is the key structural element of the TOM core complex. PMID:10579717

  5. COMPLEXITY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...

  6. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  7. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  8. Visual Complexity: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  9. Visual Complexity: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  10. U1A Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  11. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Treesearch

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  12. Complexity and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  13. COMPLEXITY IN ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enormous complexity of ecosystems is generally obvious under even the most cursory examination. In the modern world, this complexity is further augmented by the linkage of ecosystems to economic and social systems through the human use of the environment for technological pu...

  14. Complexity in Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  15. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  16. Complexity and emergent phenomena.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T; Frey, Urs

    2011-04-01

    Complex biological systems operate under non-equilibrium conditions and exhibit emergent properties associated with correlated spatial and temporal structures. These properties may be individually unpredictable, but tend to be governed by power-law probability distributions and/or correlation. This article reviews the concepts that are invoked in the treatment of complex systems through a wide range of respiratory-related examples. Following a brief historical overview, some of the tools to characterize structural variabilities and temporal fluctuations associated with complex systems are introduced. By invoking the concept of percolation, the notion of multiscale behavior and related modeling issues are discussed. Spatial complexity is then examined in the airway and parenchymal structures with implications for gas exchange followed by a short glimpse of complexity at the cellular and subcellular network levels. Variability and complexity in the time domain are then reviewed in relation to temporal fluctuations in airway function. Next, an attempt is given to link spatial and temporal complexities through examples of airway opening and lung tissue viscoelasticity. Specific examples of possible and more direct clinical implications are also offered through examples of optimal future treatment of fibrosis, exacerbation risk prediction in asthma, and a novel method in mechanical ventilation. Finally, the potential role of the science of complexity in the future of physiology, biology, and medicine is discussed.

  17. Complexity: against systems.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    This article assumes a specific intuitive notion of complexity as a difficulty to generate and/or assess the plausibility of models. Based on this intuitive understanding of complexity, it identifies two main causes of complexity, namely, radical openness and contextuality. The former is the idea that there are no natural systems. The modeler always needs to draw artificial boundaries around phenomena to generate feasible models. Contextuality is intimately connected to the requirement to simplify models and to leave out most aspects. Complexity occurs when contextuality and radical openness cannot be contained that is when it is not clear where the boundaries of the system are and which abstractions are the correct ones. This concept of complexity is illustrated using a number of example from evolution.

  18. Hypergraph coloring complexes

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes–a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen–Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  19. Complexity and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Rosser, J Barkley; Rosser, Marina V

    2015-04-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between complexity economics and behavioral economics. A crucial key to this is to understand that Herbert Simon was both the founder of explicitly modern behavioral economics as well as one of the early developers of complexity theory. Bounded rationality was essentially derived from Simon's view of the impossibility of full rationality on the part of economic agents. Modern complexity theory through such approaches as agent-based modeling offers an approach to understanding behavioral economics by allowing for specific behavioral responses to be assigned to agents who interact within this context, even without full rationality. Other parts of modern complexity theory are considered in terms of their relationships with behavioral economics. Fundamentally, complexity provides an ultimate foundation for bounded rationality and hence the need to use behavioral economics in a broader array of contexts than most economists have thought appropriate.

  20. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    White, Carter James

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  1. Complexity and robustness

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, J. M.; Doyle, John

    2002-01-01

    Highly optimized tolerance (HOT) was recently introduced as a conceptual framework to study fundamental aspects of complexity. HOT is motivated primarily by systems from biology and engineering and emphasizes, (i) highly structured, nongeneric, self-dissimilar internal configurations, and (ii) robust yet fragile external behavior. HOT claims these are the most important features of complexity and not accidents of evolution or artifices of engineering design but are inevitably intertwined and mutually reinforcing. In the spirit of this collection, our paper contrasts HOT with alternative perspectives on complexity, drawing on real-world examples and also model systems, particularly those from self-organized criticality. PMID:11875207

  2. Afterglow Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samarian, A. A.; Boufendi, L.; Mikikian, M.

    2008-09-07

    The review of the first detailed experimental and theoretical studies of complex plasma in RF discharge afterglow is presented. The studies have been done in a frame of FAST collaborative research project between Complex Plasma Laboratory of the University of Sydney and the GREMI laboratory of Universite d'Orleans. We examined the existing models of plasma decay, presents experimental observations of dust dynamics under different afterglow complex plasma conditions, presents the experimental data obtained (in particular the presence of positively charged particles in discharge afterglow), discusses the use of dust particles as a probe to study the diffusion losses in afterglow plasmas.

  3. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  4. Complex and unpredictable Cardano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-08-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.

  5. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  6. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  7. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  8. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with another chemotherapy drug to treat multiple myeloma (a type of cancer of the bone marrow) ... When doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat multiple myeloma, it is given on certain days every 3 ...

  9. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  10. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  11. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  12. DNA complexes: Durable binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Adam R.

    2011-11-01

    A tetra-intercalator compound that threads through a DNA double-helix to form a remarkably stable complex exhibits an unusual combination of sequence specificity and rapid association yet slow dissociation.

  13. An erupted complex odontoma.

    PubMed

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  14. Inside the complexity labyrinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    Although the world we live in is complex, complexity as a science does not have a long history. For generations, most physicists tried to understand everything in terms of interactions between pairs of idealized "test particles". Then, about a 100 years ago, Henri Poincaré pointed out that a fully interacting three-body system was not just the sum of its three component pairs. The famous "three-body problem" was born.

  15. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M.; Sindelar, R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  16. Pulling complexes out of complex diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ryan D; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 7 (SCA7) is an incurable disease caused by expansion of CAG trinucleotide sequences within the Ataxin-7 gene. This elongated CAG tract results in an Ataxin-7 protein bearing an expanded polyglutamine (PolyQ) repeat. SCA7 disease is characterized by progressive neural and retinal degeneration leading to ataxia and blindness. Evidence gathered from investigating SCA7 and other PolyQ diseases strongly suggest that misregulation of gene expression contributes to neurodegeneration. In fact, Ataxin-7 is a subunit of the essential Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetltransferase (SAGA) chromatin modifying complex that regulates expression of a large number of genes. Here we discuss recent insights into Ataxin-7 function and, considering these findings, propose a model for how polyglutamine expansion of Ataxin-7 may affect Ataxin-7 function to alter chromatin modifications and gene expression. PMID:25054097

  17. Cell complexes through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard

    2000-10-01

    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  18. Turbulent complex (dusty) plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Sergey; Schwabe, Mierk

    2017-04-01

    As a paradigm of complex system dynamics, solid particles immersed into a weakly ionized plasma, so called complex (dusty) plasmas, were (and continue to be) a subject of many detailed studies. Special types of dynamical activity have been registered, in particular, spontaneous pairing, entanglement and cooperative action of a great number of particles resulting in formation of vortices, self-propelling, tunneling, and turbulent movements. In the size domain of 1-10 mkm normally used in experiments with complex plasmas, the characteristic dynamic time-scale is of the order of 0.01-0.1 s, and these particles can be visualized individually in real time, providing an atomistic (kinetic) level of investigations. The low-R turbulent flow induced either by the instability in a complex plasma cloud or formed behind a projectile passing through the cloud is a typical scenario. Our simulations showed formation of a fully developed system of vortices and demonstrated that the velocity structure functions scale very close to the theoretical predictions. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative and turbulent particle motions are present in many physical, astrophysical, and biological systems. Therefore, experiments with turbulent wakes and turbulent complex plasma oscillations are a promising mean to observe and study in detail the anomalous transport on the level of individual particles.

  19. Complexes and imagination.

    PubMed

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G.; Buchanan, J. Michael; Stryker, Jeffrey M.; Wax, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

  1. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. In fact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) two-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlation that exists in the broad two-dimensional band of graphene.

  2. Quantum Complexity in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, G.

    Carbon has a unique position among elements in the periodic table. It produces an allotrope, graphene, a mechanically robust two dimensional semimetal. The multifarious properties that graphene exhibits has few parallels among elemental metals. From simplicity, namely carbon atoms connected by pure sp2 bonds, a wealth of novel quantum properties emerge. In classical complex systems such as a spin glass or a finance market, several competing agents or elements are responsible for unanticipated and difficult to predict emergent properties. The complex (sic) structure of quantum mechanics is responsbile for an unanticipated set of emergent properties in graphene. We call this quantum complexity. Infact, most quantum systems, phenomena and modern quantum field theory could be viewed as examples of quantum complexity. After giving a brief introduction to the quantum complexity we focus on our own work, which indicates the breadth in the type of quantum phenomena that graphene could support. We review our theoretical suggestions of, (i) spin-1 collective mode in netural graphene, (ii) relativistic type of phenomena in crossed electric and magnetic fields, (iii) room temperature superconductivity in doped graphene and (iv) composite Fermi sea in neutral graphene in uniform magnetic field and (v) 2-channel Kondo effect. Except for the relativistic type of phenomena and Kondo effect, the rest depend in a fundamental way on a weak electron correlations that exist in graphene.

  3. Engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-11-14

    Tissue engineering has emerged at the intersection of numerous disciplines to meet a global clinical need for technologies to promote the regeneration of functional living tissues and organs. The complexity of many tissues and organs, coupled with confounding factors that may be associated with the injury or disease underlying the need for repair, is a challenge to traditional engineering approaches. Biomaterials, cells, and other factors are needed to design these constructs, but not all tissues are created equal. Flat tissues (skin); tubular structures (urethra); hollow, nontubular, viscus organs (vagina); and complex solid organs (liver) all present unique challenges in tissue engineering. This review highlights advances in tissue engineering technologies to enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs and to discuss how such innovative, engineered tissues can affect the clinic.

  4. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.

  5. The complex pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    1998-12-01

    In this talk we propose to broaden the conventional notion of quantum mechanics. In conventional quantum mechanics one imposes the condition H†=H, where † represents complex conjugation and matrix transpose, to ensure that the Hamiltonian has a real spectrum. Replacing this mathematical condition by the weaker and more physical requirement H‡=H, where ‡=PT represents combined parity reflection and time reversal, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex phase space. This talk describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of PT-symmetric quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretic models.

  6. The complex pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    1999-07-01

    This talk proposes a generalization of conventional quantum mechanics. In conventional quantum mechanics one imposes the condition H †=H , where † represents complex conjugation and matrix transpose, to ensure that the Hamiltonian has a real spectrum. By replacing this mathematical condition with the weaker and more physical requirement H ‡=H , where ‡= PT represents combined parity reflection and time reversal, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex-phase space. This talk describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical and quantum-field-theoretic models.

  7. Nonergodic complexity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  8. Alanine water complexes.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  9. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  10. Universality classes of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.

    We give several criteria of complexity and define different universality classes. According to our classification, at the lowest class of complexity are random graph, Markov Models and Hidden Markov Models. At the next level is Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass, connected with neuron-network models. On a higher level are critical theories, spin glass phase of Random Energy Model, percolation, self organized criticality (SOC). The top level class involves HOT design, error threshold in optimal coding, language, and, maybe, financial market. Alive systems are also related with the last class.

  11. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  12. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  13. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N [Berkeley, CA; Corneillie, Todd M [Campbell, CA; Xu, Jide [Berkeley, CA

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  14. Electrostatically driven complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netz, Roland

    2004-03-01

    Many biological and synthetic systems are electrically charged, which makes them soluble in aqueous environments. Often, electrostatic interactions are dominant, and lead to complexation (i.e. tight aggregation) of oppositely charged objects. As an example, charged polymers such as DNA exhibit a number of different complexation modes when mixed with other charged objects such as spheres or cylinders. A simple model for the complexation of semiflexible polyelectrolytes with oppositely charged spheres is considered, which can exhibit tightly wrapped polymer structures. Using the appropriate parameters for DNA-histone complexes, one finds complete wrapping for intermediate salt concentrations only, in agreement with experiments. The forces needed to pull the DNA off from histones show a plateau at 10-40 pN (depending on salt concentration). We also consider the interaction between such complexes, which have been measured using osmometry, and found to be attractive for intermediate salt concentration (suggesting precipitation) and repulsive elsewhere. Chain fluctuations can be treated within a normal-mode analysis and distinguish associated-unwrapped from dissociated structures. Since some time it is known that also similarly charged objects attract each other for sufficiently large surface-charge densities and/or in the presence of multivalent ions, a phenomenon not explicable within standard (Poisson-Boltzmann) approaches. The so-called strong-coupling theory, valid in the limit of large surface charge densities and for multi-valent ions, yields attraction between similarly charged walls, cylinders, and spheres in quantitative agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations. Charged complexes can be destroyed by applying an electric field, which is an important factor in understanding their electrophoresis. By performing dynamic simulations, the relation between the electrophoretic mobility and the non-equilibrium perturbation of the complex structure is investigated. 1

  15. The ESCRT Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, James H.

    2010-01-01

    The ESCRT machinery consists of the peripheral membrane protein complexes, ESCRT-0, -I, -II, -III, and Vps4-Vta1, and the ALIX homodimer. The ESCRT system is required for degradation of unneeded or dangerous plasma membrane proteins; biogenesis of the lysosome and the yeast vacuole; the budding of most membrane enveloped viruses; the membrane abscission step in cytokinesis; macroautophagy; and several other processes. From their initial discovery in 2001-2002, the literature on ESCRTs has grown exponentially. This review will describe the structure and function of the six complexes noted above and summarizes current knowledge of their mechanistic roles in cellular pathways and in disease. PMID:20653365

  16. The Corona Australis Complex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaile, Roberta Anne

    What began as a HI study of the CrA star formation region has grown to incorporate the following: (1) a detailed investigation of the HI content of the CrA dark cloud; (2) an extensive molecular survey of the CrA dark cloud, from which the CrA molecular abundances were determined and compared to those of other Galactic environments; (3) an extensive HI survey of the CrA complex, which was compared to the established Galactic distributions in and near the region; (4) an examination of the extent and nature of the CrA IVCs, components of gas at intermediate, anomalous velocities; (5) an investigation of the correlations which may exist between the features of the CrA region; and (6) an evaluation of where the CrA complex fits within the framework of our understanding of the Galaxy. A review of our perceptions of the Galactic structure is contained in Chapter I. The established state of knowledge of the CrA dark cloud region--chiefly, that of a region of young and on-going star formation--is given in Chapter II. The observational studies of the CrA dark cloud region specifically are presented in Chapter III. The HI survey of the CrA complex is presented in Chapter IV, with the CrA IVCs results presented in Chapter V. A comparison of the CrA HI structure with nearby Galactic features suggests that the CrA complex--exemplified by the T_ {rm A} morphology given as a frontispiece and in Figure 4.1--is a coherently -moving HI structure falling subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, flute and Parker hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities under the Galactic gravitational and differential rotation forces. As the distance to the CrA IVCs still remains speculative, no definitive identity for the CrA IVCs was established. Considering the whole, the CrA complex was interpreted as a feature triggered by the Sco-Cen association, possibly a late-comer to the Lindblad Ring and possibly a result of the Tau-Gem events. The similarities with the Oph northern

  17. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  18. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    DiMario, Francis J; Sahin, Mustafa; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius

    2015-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia and tissue dysplasia. The genetic cause is mutations in the TSC1 gene, found on chromosome 9q34, and TSC2 gene, found on chromosome 16p13. The clinical phenotypes resulting from mutations in either of the 2 genes are variable in each individual. Herein, advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms in tuberous sclerosis complex are reviewed, and current guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and management are summarized. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Humic acid protein complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-04-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  20. Cytoplasmic Viral Replication Complexes

    PubMed Central

    den Boon, Johan A.; Diaz, Arturo; Ahlquist, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm compartmentalize their genome replication and transcription in organelle-like structures that enhance replication efficiency and protection from host defenses. In particular, recent studies with diverse positive-strand RNA viruses have further elucidated the ultrastructure of membrane-bounded RNA replication complexes and their close coordination with virion assembly and budding. The structure, function and assembly of some positive-strand RNA virus replication complexes have parallels and potential evolutionary links with the replicative cores of double-strand RNA virus and retrovirus virions, and more general similarities with the replication factories of cytoplasmic DNA viruses. PMID:20638644

  1. Graphical Representation of Complex Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renka, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods and software for graphing representation of a complex function of a complex variable. Includes an application of a graphical interpretation of the complex zeros of the cubic and their properties. (PK)

  2. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    DOEpatents

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  3. Nature, computation and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Ellis, G. F. R.

    2016-06-01

    The issue of whether the unfolding of events in the world can be considered a computation is explored in this paper. We come to different conclusions for inert and for living systems (‘no’ and ‘qualified yes’, respectively). We suggest that physical computation as we know it exists only as a tool of complex biological systems: us.

  4. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  5. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  6. Complex Planar Splines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer

  7. Accessibility in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  8. Subelliptic Estimates for Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, Victor; Sternberg, Shlomo

    1970-01-01

    New results are announced linking properties of the symbol module and characteristic variety of a differential complex with test estimates near the characteristic variety of the type considered by Hörmander (½-estimate). The first result is the invariance of the test estimates under pseudo-differential change of coordinates, and this leads to the introduction of a normal form for the complex in the neighborhood of a Cohen-MacCauley point of the symbol module. If the characteristic variety V is a manifold near the Cohen-MacCauley point (x0,ζ0) with parametrizing functions p1,...,pq, where q is the codimension of the characteristic variety in the complexified contangent bundle, the matrix [Formula: see text] of Poisson brackets defines invariantly a Hermitian form Q on the normal space to V at (x0,ζ0) when the dpζ(x0,ζ0) are used as basis, and the test estimates are satisfied at the ith stage of the complex if sig. Q (signature of Q) is ≥ n - i + 1 (n the dimension of the base manifold) or rank Q - sig. Q ≥ i + 1. Finally, conditions are given in order that, on a manifold with smooth boundary, the associated boundary complexes satisfy the ½-estimate. PMID:16591855

  9. Complexity in Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

  10. E Complex groundbreaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Representatives from NASA, Orbital Sciences Corp. and Aerojet participate in a ribbon-cutting ceremony for construction of a flame deflector trench at Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. Participants included Orbital CEO J.R. Thompson (center, left) and Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center, right).

  11. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Complexity, Systems, and Software Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8...for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the United States

  12. Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gregory M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

  13. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body.

  14. Restricting Grammatical Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Theories of natural language syntax often characterize grammatical knowledge as a form of abstract computation. This paper argues that such a characterization is correct, and that fundamental properties of grammar can and should be understood in terms of restrictions on the complexity of possible grammatical computation, when defined in terms of…

  15. Analyzing Complex Survey Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers-Farmer, Antoinette Y.; Davis, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from the 1994 AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to illustrate that biased point estimates, inappropriate standard errors, and misleading tests of significance can result from using traditional software packages, such as SPSS or SAS, for complex survey analysis. (BF)

  16. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  17. Coordination Complexes of Cobalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gregory M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment involving the synthesis and spectral studies of cobalt complexes that not only give general chemistry students an introduction to inorganic synthesis but allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra. Background information, procedures, and experimental results are…

  18. Complexity in Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

  19. E Complex groundbreaking

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-14

    Representatives from NASA, Orbital Sciences Corp. and Aerojet participate in a ribbon-cutting ceremony for construction of a flame deflector trench at Stennis Space Center's E Test Complex. Participants included Orbital CEO J.R. Thompson (center, left) and Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center, right).

  20. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, R.G; Buchanan, J.M.; Stryker, J.M.; Wax, M.J.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr(P(R{sub 1}){sub 3})HMe. Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkyl cyclopentadienyl radical; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R{sub 1} represents an alkyl group; and Me represents a methyl group.

  1. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  2. The Complexity of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Steve; Ting, Hermia

    2014-01-01

    The profession of teaching is unique because of the extent to which a teacher becomes involved in the lives of their "clients". The level of care required to support students well can be intense, confusing, and overwhelming. Relationships co-evolve within an ever-changing process and care is considered an essential aspect of complex relationships…

  3. Complex WS 2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Lee, T. H.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    2002-06-01

    A range of elegant tubular and conical nanostructures has been created by template growth of (WS 2) n layers on the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. The structures exhibit remarkably perfect straight segments together with interesting complexities at the intersections, which are discussed here in detail in order to enhance understanding of the structural features governing tube growth.

  4. Complex Characters Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Sidney F. A.

    2009-01-01

    The physical significance of complex characters is explored with particular reference to the C[subscript 4] point group. While a diagrammatic representation of these characters in this group is possible, the extension to higher groups C[subscript n], n greater than 4 is left as a problem for discussion. (Contains 3 tables, 8 figures, and 1 note.)

  5. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  6. Complexity and Safety (FAA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-27

    into “How much can we discount the complexity of a system given that X% has been used before?” can be framed as “ credit for precedence” and ties to...capability component compared to existing? Other areas can contribute: • How organizations today currently allow credit for testing already done - FAA and

  7. Surface complexation modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adsorption-desorption reactions are important processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the environment. Surface complexation models are chemical models that can account for the effects of variable chemical conditions, such as pH, on adsorption reactions. These models define specific ...

  8. Debating complexity in modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    1999-01-01

    As scientists trying to understand the natural world, how should our effort be apportioned? We know that the natural world is characterized by complex and interrelated processes. Yet do we need to explicitly incorporate these intricacies to perform the tasks we are charged with? In this era of expanding computer power and development of sophisticated preprocessors and postprocessors, are bigger machines making better models? Put another way, do we understand the natural world better now with all these advancements in our simulation ability? Today the public's patience for long-term projects producing indeterminate results is wearing thin. This increases pressure on the investigator to use the appropriate technology efficiently. On the other hand, bringing scientific results into the legal arena opens up a new dimension to the issue: to the layperson, a tool that includes more of the complexity known to exist in the real world is expected to provide the more scientifically valid answer.

  9. Compressively sensed complex networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Ray, Jaideep; Pinar, Ali

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop low dimension parametric (deterministic) models of complex networks, to use compressive sensing (CS) and multiscale analysis to do so and to exploit the structure of complex networks (some are self-similar under coarsening). CS provides a new way of sampling and reconstructing networks. The approach is based on multiresolution decomposition of the adjacency matrix and its efficient sampling. It requires preprocessing of the adjacency matrix to make it 'blocky' which is the biggest (combinatorial) algorithm challenge. Current CS reconstruction algorithm makes no use of the structure of a graph, its very general (and so not very efficient/customized). Other model-based CS techniques exist, but not yet adapted to networks. Obvious starting point for future work is to increase the efficiency of reconstruction.

  10. Carney Complex: an update

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ricardo; Salpea, Paraskevi; Stratakis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Carney Complex (CNC) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, characterized by pigmented lesions of the skin and mucosa, cardiac, cutaneous and other myxomas, and multiple endocrine tumors. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations or large deletions of the PRKAR1A gene located at 17q22–24 coding for the regulatory subunit type I alpha of protein kinase A (PKA) gene. Most recently, components of the complex have been associated with defects of other PKA subunits, such as the catalytic subunits PRKACA (adrenal hyperplasia) and PRKACB (pigmented spots, myxomas, pituitary adenomas). In this report, we review CNC, its clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and molecular etiology including PRKAR1A mutations and the newest on PRKACA and PRKACB defects especially as they pertain to adrenal tumors and Cushing’s syndrome. PMID:26130139

  11. Immunization of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2002-03-01

    Complex networks such as the sexual partnership web or the Internet often show a high degree of redundancy and heterogeneity in their connectivity properties. This peculiar connectivity provides an ideal environment for the spreading of infective agents. Here we show that the random uniform immunization of individuals does not lead to the eradication of infections in all complex networks. Namely, networks with scale-free properties do not acquire global immunity from major epidemic outbreaks even in the presence of unrealistically high densities of randomly immunized individuals. The absence of any critical immunization threshold is due to the unbounded connectivity fluctuations of scale-free networks. Successful immunization strategies can be developed only by taking into account the inhomogeneous connectivity properties of scale-free networks. In particular, targeted immunization schemes, based on the nodes' connectivity hierarchy, sharply lower the network's vulnerability to epidemic attacks.

  12. Reducing GWAS Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Conti, David V.; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 20151,2 from our groups. PMID:26771711

  13. Oscillations of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lai, Choy Heng

    2006-12-01

    A complex network processing information or physical flows is usually characterized by a number of macroscopic quantities such as the diameter and the betweenness centrality. An issue of significant theoretical and practical interest is how such quantities respond to sudden changes caused by attacks or disturbances in recoverable networks, i.e., functions of the affected nodes are only temporarily disabled or partially limited. By introducing a model to address this issue, we find that, for a finite-capacity network, perturbations can cause the network to oscillate persistently in the sense that the characterizing quantities vary periodically or randomly with time. We provide a theoretical estimate of the critical capacity-parameter value for the onset of the network oscillation. The finding is expected to have broad implications as it suggests that complex networks may be structurally highly dynamic.

  14. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  15. Feline respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Leah A

    2011-11-01

    Feline respiratory disease complex (FRDC) refers to the characteristic acute presentation of a contagious respiratory or ocular disease caused by one or multiple pathogens. Environmental and host factors impact the transmission, clinical presentation, preventive strategy, and treatment of affected cats. The FRDC is especially problematic in settings where large numbers of cats cohabit, including animal shelters, catteries, and semi-feral colonies. Although elimination of FRDC is an unrealistic goal, improved understanding can lead to strategies to minimize disease impact.

  16. Complex spatiotemporal convection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesch, W.

    1996-09-01

    This paper reviews recent efforts to describe complex patterns in isotropic fluids (Rayleigh-Bénard convection) as well as in anisotropic liquid crystals (electro-hydrodynamic convection) when driven away from equilibrium. A numerical scheme for solving the full hydrodynamic equations is presented that allows surprisingly well for a detailed comparison with experiments. The approach can also be useful for a systematic construction of models (order parameter equations).

  17. The Complex Information Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborsky, Edwina

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems.

  18. Complex Flows by Nanohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, E; Covello, P; Alder, B

    2004-03-01

    The study of complex flows by particle simulations is speeded up over molecular dynamics (MD) by more than two orders of magnitude by employing a stochastic collision dynamics method (DSMC) extended to high density (CBA). As a consequence, a picture generated on a single processor shows the typical features of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and is in quantitative agreement with the experimentally found long time behavior.

  19. [Complex vascular access].

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P

    1998-03-01

    Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features.

  20. Sporadic meteoroid complex: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of the sporadic meteoroids flux density over the celestial sphere is the common form of representation of the meteoroids distribution in the vicinity of the Earth's orbit. The determination of the flux density of sporadic meteor bodies is Q(V,e,f) = Q_0 P_e(V) P(e,f) where V is the meteoroid velocity, e,f are the radiant coordinates, Q_0 is the meteoroid flux over whole celestial sphere, P_e(V) is the conditional velocity distributions and P(e,f) is the radiant distribution over the celestial sphere. The sporadic meteoroid complex model is analytical and based on heliocentric velocities and radiant distributions. The multi-mode character of the heliocentric velocity and radiant distributions follows from the analysis of meteor observational data. This fact points to a complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of the parent bodies and the origin mechanisms of the meteoroids. The meteoroid complex was divided into four groups for that reason and with a goal of more accurate modelling of velocities and radiant distributions. As the classifying parameter to determine the meteoroid membership in any group, we adopt the Tisserand invariant relative to Jupiter T_J = 1/a + 2 A_J^{-3/2} √{a (1 - e^2)} cos i and the meteoroid orbit inclination i. Two meteoroid groups relate to long-period and short-period comets. One meteoroid group is related to asteroids. The relationship to the last, fourth group is a problematic one. Then, we construct models of radiant and velocity distributions for each group. The analytical model for the whole sporadic meteoroid complex is the sum of the ones for each group.

  1. Engineering Complex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  2. Classification of Software Projects' Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitsilis, P.; Kameas, A.; Anthopoulos, L.

    Software project complexity is a subject that has not received detailed attention. The purpose of this chapter is to present a systematic way for studying and modeling software project complexity. The proposed model is based on the widely known and accepted Project Management Body of Knowledge and it uses a typology for modeling complexity based on complexity of faith, fact, and interaction.

  3. Statistical Factors in Complexation Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chung-Sun

    1985-01-01

    Four cases which illustrate statistical factors in complexation reactions (where two of the reactants are monodentate ligands) are presented. Included are tables showing statistical factors for the reactions of: (1) square-planar complexes; (2) tetrahedral complexes; and (3) octahedral complexes. (JN)

  4. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  5. Observability of complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system’s state, in practice experimental access is limited to only a subset of variables, or sensors. A system is called observable if we can reconstruct the system’s complete internal state from its outputs. Here, we adopt a graphical approach derived from the dynamical laws that govern a system to determine the sensors that are necessary to reconstruct the full internal state of a complex system. We apply this approach to biochemical reaction systems, finding that the identified sensors are not only necessary but also sufficient for observability. The developed approach can also identify the optimal sensors for target or partial observability, helping us reconstruct selected state variables from appropriately chosen outputs, a prerequisite for optimal biomarker design. Given the fundamental role observability plays in complex systems, these results offer avenues to systematically explore the dynamics of a wide range of natural, technological and socioeconomic systems. PMID:23359701

  6. Manufacturing complexity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the complexity of a typical system is presented. Starting with the subsystems of an example system, the step-by-step procedure for analysis of the complexity of an overall system is given. The learning curves for the various subsystems are determined as well as the concurrent numbers of relevant design parameters. Then trend curves are plotted for the learning curve slopes versus the various design-oriented parameters, e.g. number of parts versus slope of learning curve, or number of fasteners versus slope of learning curve, etc. Representative cuts are taken from each trend curve, and a figure-of-merit analysis is made for each of the subsystems. Based on these values, a characteristic curve is plotted which is indicative of the complexity of the particular subsystem. Each such characteristic curve is based on a universe of trend curve data taken from data points observed for the subsystem in question. Thus, a characteristic curve is developed for each of the subsystems in the overall system.

  7. Advanced complex trait analysis.

    PubMed

    Gray, A; Stewart, I; Tenesa, A

    2012-12-01

    The Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) software package can quantify the contribution of genetic variation to phenotypic variation for complex traits. However, as those datasets of interest continue to increase in size, GCTA becomes increasingly computationally prohibitive. We present an adapted version, Advanced Complex Trait Analysis (ACTA), demonstrating dramatically improved performance. We restructure the genetic relationship matrix (GRM) estimation phase of the code and introduce the highly optimized parallel Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library combined with manual parallelization and optimization. We introduce the Linear Algebra PACKage (LAPACK) library into the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis stage. For a test case with 8999 individuals and 279,435 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we reduce the total runtime, using a compute node with two multi-core Intel Nehalem CPUs, from ∼17 h to ∼11 min. The source code is fully available under the GNU Public License, along with Linux binaries. For more information see http://www.epcc.ed.ac.uk/software-products/acta. a.gray@ed.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  9. Coherence, Complexity and Creativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, Fortunato Tito

    We review the ideas and experiments that established the onset of laser coherence beyond a suitable threshold. That threshold is the first of a chain of bifurcations in a non linear dynamics, leading eventually to deterministic chaos in lasers. In particular, the so called HC behavior has striking analogies with the electrical activity of neurons. Based on these considerations, we develop a dynamical model of neuron synchronization leading to coherent global perceptions. Synchronization implies a transitory control of neuron chaos. Depending on the time duration of this control, a cognitive agent has different amounts of awareness. Combining this with a stream of external inputs, one can point at an optimal use of internal resources, that is called cognitive creativity. While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. What is the relation among the three concepts in the title? While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. Creativity corresponds to a free selection of a coherence path within a complex nest. As sketched above, it seems dynamically related to chaos control.

  10. The Emparassment of Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotny, Helga

    My vision of complexity sciences targets their potential to extend the range, precision, and depth in making predictions. While this has always been the ambition and yardstick for the physicalmathematical sciences, complexity sciences now allow to include society and social behavior - to some extent. There is agreement that society is a complex adaptive system, CAS, with a few peculiarities. Ignoring, downplaying, or naturalizing them, i.e. to take them as essential and given, carries the risk to end up with abstractions which are cutoff from the dynamics of societal contexts. One of the peculiarities of society as a CAS is that the models with which we try to make sense of the world are invented and constructed by us. It is humans who make observations and provide the assumptions on which models are based. Humans leave traces that are collected and processed to be transformed into data. Humans decide to which purpose they will be put and how they will be repurposed. Humans are object of research and subject. Coping with these peculiarities requires an inbuilt reflexivity. Practioners must perform a double act and do so repeatedly. They must engage in a focused way with their scientific work and equally distance themselves by critically reflecting their often tacit assumptions. A friend of mine, Yehuda Elkana, called this twotier thinking...

  11. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280

  12. Keynes, Hayek and Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul

    In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

  13. The Stigma Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  14. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  15. Proteins : paradigms of complexity /

    SciTech Connect

    Frauenfelder, Hans,

    2001-01-01

    Proteins are the working machines of living systems. Directed by the DNA, of the order of a few hundred building blocks, selected from twenty different amino acids, are covalently linked into a linear polypeptide chain. In the proper environment, the chain folds into the working protein, often a globule of linear dimensions of a few nanometers. The biologist considers proteins units from which living systems are built. Many physical scientists look at them as systems in which the laws of complexity can be studied better than anywhere else. Some of the results of such studies will be sketched.

  16. Drying of Complex Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Bergès, Alexis; Lu, Peter J.; Studart, André R.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Oki, Hidekazu; Davies, Simon; Weitz, David A.

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the 3D structure and drying dynamics of complex mixtures of emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, using confocal microscopy. Air invades and rapidly collapses large emulsion droplets, forcing their contents into the surrounding porous particle pack at a rate proportional to the square of the droplet radius. By contrast, small droplets do not collapse, but remain intact and are merely deformed. A simple model coupling the Laplace pressure to Darcy’s law correctly estimates both the threshold radius separating these two behaviors, and the rate of large-droplet evacuation. Finally, we use these systems to make novel hierarchical structures.

  17. Physics and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Sherrington, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with complex macroscopic behaviour arising in many-body systems through the combinations of competitive interactions and disorder, even with simple ingredients at the microscopic level. It attempts to indicate and illustrate the richness that has arisen, in conceptual understanding, in methodology and in application, across a large range of scientific disciplines, together with a hint of some of the further opportunities that remain to be tapped. In doing so, it takes the perspective of physics and tries to show, albeit rather briefly, how physics has contributed and been stimulated. PMID:20123753

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  19. Organization of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsak, Maksim

    Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how

  20. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    PubMed Central

    Bak, P; Paczuski, M

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpiles and biological evolution. Insights are gained not only from numerical simulations but also from rigorous mathematical analysis. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:11607561

  1. Chalcogenide centred gold complexes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, M Concepción; Laguna, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Chalcogenide-centred gold complexes are an important class of compounds in which a central chalcogen is surrounded by several gold atoms or gold and other metals. They have special characteristics such as unusual geometries, electron deficiency and properties such as luminescence or non-linear optical properties. The best known species are the trinuclear [E(AuPR3)3]+, 'oxonium' type species, that have high synthetic applicability, not only in other chalcogen-centred species, but in many other organometallic derivatives. The aurophilic interactions play an important role in the stability, preference for a particular geometry and luminescence properties in this type of derivatives (critical review, 117 references).

  2. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Pybus, Oliver G

    2009-09-18

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy viruses were infecting mammals more than 100 million years ago and codiverged with their hosts across an entire geological era. Our analysis highlights the role of evolutionary constraint in maintaining viral genome structure and indicates that accessory genes and mammalian mechanisms of innate immunity are the products of macroevolutionary conflict played out over a geological time scale.

  3. Linking social complexity and vocal complexity: a parid perspective

    PubMed Central

    Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana; Freeberg, Todd M.; Kullberg, Cecilia; Lucas, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The Paridae family (chickadees, tits and titmice) is an interesting avian group in that species vary in important aspects of their social structure and many species have large and complex vocal repertoires. For this reason, parids represent an important set of species for testing the social complexity hypothesis for vocal communication—the notion that as groups increase in social complexity, there is a need for increased vocal complexity. Here, we describe the hypothesis and some of the early evidence that supported the hypothesis. Next, we review literature on social complexity and on vocal complexity in parids, and describe some of the studies that have made explicit tests of the social complexity hypothesis in one parid—Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. We conclude with a discussion, primarily from a parid perspective, of the benefits and costs of grouping and of physiological factors that might mediate the relationship between social complexity and changes in signalling behaviour. PMID:22641826

  4. Linking social complexity and vocal complexity: a parid perspective.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana; Freeberg, Todd M; Kullberg, Cecilia; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2012-07-05

    The Paridae family (chickadees, tits and titmice) is an interesting avian group in that species vary in important aspects of their social structure and many species have large and complex vocal repertoires. For this reason, parids represent an important set of species for testing the social complexity hypothesis for vocal communication--the notion that as groups increase in social complexity, there is a need for increased vocal complexity. Here, we describe the hypothesis and some of the early evidence that supported the hypothesis. Next, we review literature on social complexity and on vocal complexity in parids, and describe some of the studies that have made explicit tests of the social complexity hypothesis in one parid--Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. We conclude with a discussion, primarily from a parid perspective, of the benefits and costs of grouping and of physiological factors that might mediate the relationship between social complexity and changes in signalling behaviour.

  5. Method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1989-05-02

    A method for preparing radiopharmaceutical complexes that are substantially free of the reaction materials used to produce the radiopharmaceutical complex is disclosed. The method involves admixing in a suitable first solvent in a container a target seeking ligand or salt or metal adduct thereof, a radionuclide label, and a reducing agent for said radionuclide, thereby forming said radiopharmaceutical complex; coating the interior walls of the container with said pharmaceutical complex; discarding the solvent containing by-products and unreacted starting reaction materials; and removing the radiopharmaceutical complex from said walls by dissolving it in a second solvent, thereby obtaining said radiopharmaceutical complex substantially free of by-products and unreacted starting materials.

  6. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  7. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Henske, Elizabeth P; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Sampson, Julian R; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-26

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2. The disorder can affect both adults and children. First described in depth by Bourneville in 1880, it is now estimated that nearly 2 million people are affected by the disease worldwide. The clinical features of TSC are distinctive and can vary widely between individuals, even within one family. Major features of the disease include tumours of the brain, skin, heart, lungs and kidneys, seizures and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which can include autism spectrum disorder and cognitive disability. TSC1 (also known as hamartin) and TSC2 (also known as tuberin) form the TSC protein complex that acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which in turn plays a pivotal part in regulating cell growth, proliferation, autophagy and protein and lipid synthesis. Remarkable progress in basic and translational research, in addition to several randomized controlled trials worldwide, has led to regulatory approval of the use of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas, brain subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but further research is needed to establish full indications of therapeutic treatment. In this Primer, we review the state-of-the-art knowledge in the TSC field, including the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, medical management, major knowledge gaps and ongoing research towards a cure.

  8. Complex Semantic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  9. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The authority of complexity.

    PubMed

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R

    2001-06-01

    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable.

  11. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monica P; Roach, E Steve

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that can affect the brain, skin, eyes, kidneys, heart, and lungs. TSC alters cellular proliferation and differentiation, resulting in hamartomas of various organs, tumor formation, and altered neuronal migration. The phenotype is highly variable. Most individuals have seizures, commonly including infantile spasms, and there is variable intellectual disability and autism. Neonates can present with cardiac failure due to intracardiac rhabdomyomas. The likelihood of renal angiomyolipomas increases with age, and renal disease is the most common cause of death in adults with TSC. Pulmonary involvement occurs predominantly in women and carries a high morbidity and mortality. TSC is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, but spontaneous mutations are common. A mutation of either TSC1 on chromosome 9 or TSC2 on chromosome 16 leads to dysfunction of hamartin or tuberin, respectively. These two proteins form a functional complex that modulates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Medications that inhibit mTOR are being used to treat TSC-related tumors, and current studies are investigating whether these agents could alleviate other TSC complications. Consensus statements guide identification and optimal management of many of the TSC-related complications at diagnosis and throughout the lifespan. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for optimal management of individuals with TSC.

  12. Dislocations in complex materials.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Matthew F; Kumar, Sharvan; Hazzledine, Peter

    2005-02-04

    Deformation of metals and alloys by dislocations gliding between well-separated slip planes is a well-understood process, but most crystal structures do not possess such simple geometric arrangements. Examples are the Laves phases, the most common class of intermetallic compounds and exist with ordered cubic, hexagonal, and rhombohedral structures. These compounds are usually brittle at low temperatures, and transformation from one structure to another is slow. On the basis of geometric and energetic considerations, a dislocation-based mechanism consisting of two shears in different directions on adjacent atomic planes has been used to explain both deformation and phase transformations in this class of materials. We report direct observations made by Z-contrast atomic resolution microscopy of stacking faults and dislocation cores in the Laves phase Cr2Hf. These results show that this complex dislocation scheme does indeed operate in this material. Knowledge gained of the dislocation core structure will enable improved understanding of deformation mechanisms and phase transformation kinetics in this and other complex structures.

  13. Complex master slave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rivet, Sylvain; Maria, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-02-08

    A general theoretical model is developed to improve the novel Spectral Domain Interferometry method denoted as Master/Slave (MS) Interferometry. In this model, two functions, g and h are introduced to describe the modulation chirp of the channeled spectrum signal due to nonlinearities in the decoding process from wavenumber to time and due to dispersion in the interferometer. The utilization of these two functions brings two major improvements to previous implementations of the MS method. A first improvement consists in reducing the number of channeled spectra necessary to be collected at Master stage. In previous MSI implementation, the number of channeled spectra at the Master stage equated the number of depths where information was selected from at the Slave stage. The paper demonstrates that two experimental channeled spectra only acquired at Master stage suffice to produce A-scans from any number of resolved depths at the Slave stage. A second improvement is the utilization of complex signal processing. Previous MSI implementations discarded the phase. Complex processing of the electrical signal determined by the channeled spectrum allows phase processing that opens several novel avenues. A first consequence of such signal processing is reduction in the random component of the phase without affecting the axial resolution. In previous MSI implementations, phase instabilities were reduced by an average over the wavenumber that led to reduction in the axial resolution.

  14. Growth of Complex Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2000-03-01

    We analyze a database comprising all publicly-traded US firms within the years 1974--93(M.H.R. Stanley et al.), Nature 379, 804 (1996); L.A.N. Amaral et al., J. Phys. (France) I 7, 621 (1997). We find (i) that the distribution of the annual growth rates ---for companies with approximately the same size S--- decays as an exponential, and (ii) that the standard deviation σ of these distributions scales as σ ~ S^-β. We introduce a dynamical model in which we assume that each firm has a complex internal structure comprising many subunits(L.A.N. Amaral et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1385 (1998). We study the case in which (i) each subunit grows in a multiplicative manner, and (ii) the interactions between the firms are mean field. We find agreement between our predictions and the empirical results for firms. We then analyze the fluctuations in the gross domestic product of 152 countries for the period 1950--92 and find a surprising agreement with the results for firm growth (Y. Lee et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998). Finally, we analyze the fluctuations in the research output and research input of US universities and find sinilar scaling laws(V. Plerou et al.), Nature 400, 433 (1999). Our empirical results and model suggest that the growth of organizations with complex structure are governed by similar mechanisms.

  15. Complex attentional control settings.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Stacey E; Levinthal, Brian R; Franconeri, Steven L

    2010-12-01

    The visual system prioritizes information through a variety of mechanisms, including "attentional control settings" that specify features (e.g., colour) that are relevant to current goals. Recent work shows that these control settings may be more complex than previously thought, such that participants can monitor for independent features at different locations (Adamo, Pun, Pratt, & Ferber, 2008). However, this result leaves unclear whether these control settings affect early attentional selection or later target processing. We dissociated between these possibilities in two ways. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to determine whether a target object, which was preceded by an uninformative cue, matched one of two target templates (e.g., a blue vertical object or a green horizontal object). Participants monitored for independent features in the same location, but in different objects, which should reduce the effectiveness of the control setting if it is due to early attentional selection, but not if it is due to later target processing. In Experiment 2, we removed the ability of the cue to prime the target identity, which makes the opposite prediction. Together, the results suggest that complex attentional control settings primarily affect later target identity processing, and not early attentional selection.

  16. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  17. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  18. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  19. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  20. Integration of borehole and seismic data to unravel complex stratigraphy: Case studies from the Mannville Group, Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzalejo Silva, Sabrina Ester

    Understanding the stratigraphic architecture of geologically complex reservoirs, such as the heavy oil deposits of Western Canada, is essential to achieve an efficient hydrocarbon recovery. Borehole and 3-D seismic data were integrated to define the stratigraphic architecture and generate 3-dimensional geological models of the Mannville Group in Saskatchewan. The Mannville is a stratigraphically complex unit formed of fluvial to marine deposits. Two areas in west-central and southern Saskatchewan were examined in this study. In west-central Saskatchewan, the area corresponds to a stratigraphically controlled heavy oil reservoir with production from the undifferentiated Dina-Cummings Members of the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group. The southern area, although non-prospective for hydrocarbons, shares many similarities with time-equivalent strata in areas of heavy oil production. Seismic sequence stratigraphic principles together with log signatures permitted the subdivision of the Mannville into different packages. An initial geological model was generated integrating seismic and well-log data Multiattribute analysis and neural networks were used to generate a pseudo-lithology or gamma-ray volume. The incorporation of borehole core data to the model and the subsequent integration with the lithological prediction were crucial to capture the distribution of reservoir and non-reservoir deposits in the study area. The ability to visualize the 3-D seismic data in a variety of ways, including arbitrary lines and stratal or horizon slicing techniques helped the definition of stratigraphic features such as channels and scroll bars that affect fluid flow in hydrocarbon producing areas. Small-scale heterogeneities in the reservoir were not resolved due to the resolution of the seismic data. Although not undertaken in this study, the resulting stratigraphic framework could be used to help construct a static reservoir model. Because of the small size of the 3-D seismic surveys

  1. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  2. Using the Abitibi Greenstone Belt to Understand Martian Hydrothermal Systems and the Potential for Biosignature Preservation in High Temperature Aqueous Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurowitz, J.; Abelson, J.; Allwood, A.; Anderson, R.; Atkinson, B.; Beaty, D.; Bristow, T.; Ehlmann, B.; Eigenbrode, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hand, K.; Halevy, I.; Knoll, A.; McCleese, D.; Milliken, R.; Russell, M.; Stolper, D.; Stolper, E.; Tosca, N.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 +/- 0.07% (+/- SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  3. Edaphic Selection Pressures as Drivers of Contrasting White Spruce Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure and Diversity in the Canadian Boreal Forest of Abitibi-Témiscamingue Region

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Martin B.; P. Khasa, Damase

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about edaphic selection pressures as drivers of contrasting white spruce ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure and diversity in the Canadian boreal forest. We hypothesized that community composition differs among the four sites sampled–nursery, mining site, forest edge, and natural forest. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community structure and diversity was studied at the four locations with soil fertility gradient through morpho-molecular and phylogenetic analyses in relationships with rhizospheric soil chemical properties. 41 different species were identified. Mining site had a significantly different species composition than the surrounding environments. Soil pH and percentage of roots colonized by ECM fungi increased while soil P, N, Fe, C, K, Mg, Al, Ca, and Na contents declined across the soil fertility gradient: nursery → natural forest → forest edge → mining site. Contrary to the preference of acid soils by ECM fungi, a few ecologically adapted to high pH, poor soil chemical fertility, and low organic matter content colonize white spruce roots on the non-acidogenic mining site, allowing natural regeneration of white spruce seedlings. Other ECM fungi are adapted to high fertigation level of commercial nursery. This study clearly shows the contrasting difference in white spruce ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure and diversity driven by edaphic selection pressures. PMID:27835688

  4. Edaphic Selection Pressures as Drivers of Contrasting White Spruce Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure and Diversity in the Canadian Boreal Forest of Abitibi-Témiscamingue Region.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Martin B; P Khasa, Damase

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about edaphic selection pressures as drivers of contrasting white spruce ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure and diversity in the Canadian boreal forest. We hypothesized that community composition differs among the four sites sampled-nursery, mining site, forest edge, and natural forest. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community structure and diversity was studied at the four locations with soil fertility gradient through morpho-molecular and phylogenetic analyses in relationships with rhizospheric soil chemical properties. 41 different species were identified. Mining site had a significantly different species composition than the surrounding environments. Soil pH and percentage of roots colonized by ECM fungi increased while soil P, N, Fe, C, K, Mg, Al, Ca, and Na contents declined across the soil fertility gradient: nursery → natural forest → forest edge → mining site. Contrary to the preference of acid soils by ECM fungi, a few ecologically adapted to high pH, poor soil chemical fertility, and low organic matter content colonize white spruce roots on the non-acidogenic mining site, allowing natural regeneration of white spruce seedlings. Other ECM fungi are adapted to high fertigation level of commercial nursery. This study clearly shows the contrasting difference in white spruce ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure and diversity driven by edaphic selection pressures.

  5. Complexity in scalable computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Rouson, Damian W. I.

    2008-12-01

    The rich history of scalable computing research owes much to a rapid rise in computing platform scale in terms of size and speed. As platforms evolve, so must algorithms and the software expressions of those algorithms. Unbridled growth in scale inevitably leads to complexity. This special issue grapples with two facets of this complexity: scalable execution and scalable development. The former results from efficient programming of novel hardware with increasing numbers of processing units (e.g., cores, processors, threads or processes). The latter results from efficient development of robust, flexible software with increasing numbers of programming units (e.g., procedures, classes, components or developers). The progression in the above two parenthetical lists goes from the lowest levels of abstraction (hardware) to the highest (people). This issue's theme encompasses this entire spectrum. The lead author of each article resides in the Scalable Computing Research and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. Their co-authors hail from other parts of Sandia, other national laboratories and academia. Their research sponsors include several programs within the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and its National Nuclear Security Administration, along with Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and the Office of Naval Research. The breadth of interests of these authors and their customers reflects in the breadth of applications this issue covers. This article demonstrates how to obtain scalable execution on the increasingly dominant high-performance computing platform: a Linux cluster with multicore chips. The authors describe how deep memory hierarchies necessitate reducing communication overhead by using threads to exploit shared register and cache memory. On a matrix-matrix multiplication problem, they achieve up to 96% parallel efficiency with a three-part strategy: intra

  6. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  7. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  8. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-11-07

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the 'host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.

  9. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    Work and heat fluctuations in systems with deterministic and stochastic forces / E. G. D. Cohen and R. Van Zon -- Is the entropy S[symbol] extensive or nonextensive? / C. Tsallis -- Superstatistics: recent developments and applications / C. Beck -- Two stories outside Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Mori's Q-phase transitions and glassy dynamics at the onset of chaos / A. Robledo, F. Baldovin and E. Mayoral -- Time-averages and the heat theorem / A. Carati -- Fundamental formulae and numerical evidences for the central limit theorem in Tsallis statistics / H. Suyari -- Generalizing the Planck distribution / A. M. C. Soma and C. Tsallis -- The physical roots of complexity: renewal or modulation? / P. Grigolini -- Nonequivalent ensembles and metastability / H. Touchette and R. S. Ellis -- Statistical physics for cosmic structures / L. Pietronero and F. Sylos Labini -- Metastability and anomalous behavior in the HMF model: connections to nonextensive thermodynamics and glassy dynamics / A. Pluchino, A. Rapisarda and V. Latora -- Vlasov analysis of relaxation and meta-equilibrium / C. Anteneodo and R. O. Vallejos -- Weak chaos in large conservative systems - infinite-range coupled standard maps / L. G. Moyano, A. P. Majtey and C. Tsallis -- Deterministc aging / E. Barkai -- Edge of chaos of the classical kicked top map: sensitivity to initial conditions / S. M. Duarte Queirós and C. Tsallis -- What entropy at the edge of chaos? / M. Lissia, M. Coraddu and R. Tonelli -- Fractal growth of carbon schwarzites / G. Benedek ... [et al.] -- Clustering and interface propagation in interacting particle dynamics / A. Provata and V. K. Noussiou -- Resonant activation and noise enhanced stability in Josephson junctions / A. L. Pankratov and B. Spagnolo -- Symmetry breaking induced directed motions / C.-H. Chang and T. Y. Tsong -- General theory of Galilean-invariant entropic lattic Boltzmann models / B. M. Boghosian -- Unifying approach to the jamming transition in granular media and

  10. Complex Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    After a century of study, scientists have come to the realization that the ordinary matter made of atoms is a minority in the universe. In order to explain observations, it appears that there exists a new and undiscovered kind of matter, called dark matter, that is five times more prevalent than ordinary matter. The evidence for this new matter’s existence is very strong, but scientists know only a little about its nature. In today’s video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about an exciting and unconventional idea, specifically that dark matter might have a very complex set of structures and interactions. While this idea is entirely speculative, it is an interesting hypothesis and one that scientists are investigating.

  11. Complex Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-04-16

    After a century of study, scientists have come to the realization that the ordinary matter made of atoms is a minority in the universe. In order to explain observations, it appears that there exists a new and undiscovered kind of matter, called dark matter, that is five times more prevalent than ordinary matter. The evidence for this new matter’s existence is very strong, but scientists know only a little about its nature. In today’s video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about an exciting and unconventional idea, specifically that dark matter might have a very complex set of structures and interactions. While this idea is entirely speculative, it is an interesting hypothesis and one that scientists are investigating.

  12. Recognizing complex patterns.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pawan

    2002-11-01

    How the brain recognizes complex patterns in the environment is a central, but little understood question in neuroscience. The problem is of great significance for a host of applications such as biometric-based access control, autonomous robots and content-based information management. Although some headway in these directions has been made, the current artificial systems do not match the robustness and versatility of their biological counterparts. Here I examine recognition tasks drawn from two different sensory modalities--face recognition and speaker/speech recognition. The goal is to characterize the present state of artificial recognition technologies for these tasks, the influence of neuroscience on the design of these systems and the key challenges they face.

  13. The tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Orlova, Ksenia A.; Crino, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and is associated with hamartoma formation in multiple organ systems. The neurological manifestations of TSC are particularly challenging and include infantile spasms, intractable epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. Progress over the past 15 years has demonstrated that the TSC1 or TSC2 encoded proteins modulate cell function via the mTOR signaling cascade and serve as keystones in regulating cell growth and proliferation. The mTOR pathway provides an intersection for an intricate network of protein cascades that respond to cellular nutrition, energy levels, and growth-factor stimulation. In the brain, TSC1 and TSC2 have been implicated in cell body size, dendritic arborization, axonal outgrowth and targeting, neuronal migration, cortical lamination, and spine formation. Antagonism of the mTOR pathway with rapamycin and related compounds may provide new therapeutic options for TSC patients. PMID:20146692

  14. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Emily S.; De La Cerda, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic disorder that often results in debilitating chronic pain, but the diagnosis may elude providers as it is one of exclusion. A history of trauma may be elucidated. We report a case of CRPS and review the clinical findings, appropriate workup, and treatment options for the patient. The patient we describe went through an extensive workup before receiving the correct diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis leads to prolonged suffering for the patient and, at times, unnecessary invasive debridement procedures. Raising awareness of this entity may help physicians make the correct diagnosis early, as well as initiate a collaborative effort between neurology, anesthesiology, and dermatology to provide the patient the most favorable outcome. PMID:27365892

  15. Managing Complex Medication Regimens.

    PubMed

    Harvath, Theresa A; Lindauer, Allison; Sexson, Kathryn

    2017-05-01

    : This article is the first in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The first video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A74.

  16. Evolution of Biological Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    It is a general rule of nature that larger organisms are more complex, at least as measured by the number of distinct types of cells present. This reflects the fitness advantage conferred by a division of labor among specialized cells over homogeneous totipotency. Yet, increasing size has both costs and benefits, and the search for understanding the driving forces behind the evolution of multicellularity is becoming a very active area of research. This article presents an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work aimed at understanding this biological problem from the perspective of physics. For a class of model organisms, the Volvocine green algae, an emerging hypothesis connects the transition from organisms with totipotent cells to those with terminal germ-soma differentiation to the competition between diffusion and fluid advection created by beating flagella. A number of challenging problems in fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory emerge when one probes the workings of the simplest multicellular organisms.

  17. Divergences in holographic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Alan; Ross, Simon F.

    2017-05-01

    We study the UV divergences in the action of the ‘Wheeler-de Witt patch’ in asymptotically AdS spacetimes, which has been conjectured to be dual to the computational complexity of the state of the dual field theory on a spatial slice of the boundary. We show that including a surface term in the action on the null boundaries which ensures invariance under coordinate transformations has the additional virtue of removing a stronger than expected divergence, making the leading divergence proportional to the proper volume of the boundary spatial slice. We compare the divergences in the action to divergences in the volume of a maximal spatial slice in the bulk, finding that the qualitative structure is the same, but subleading divergences have different relative coefficients in the two cases.

  18. Complex Tectonism on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Complex tectonism is evident in these images of Ganymede's surface. The solid state imaging camera on NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The 80 kilometer (50 mile) wide lens-shaped feature in the center of the image is located at 32 degrees latitude and 188 degrees longitude along the border of a region of ancient dark terrain known as Marius Regio, and is near an area of younger bright terrain named Nippur Sulcus. The tectonism that created the structures in the bright terrain nearby has strongly affected the local dark terrain to form unusual structures such as the one shown here. The lens-like appearance of this feature is probably due to shearing of the surface, where areas have slid past each other and also rotated slightly. Note that in several places in these images, especially around the border of the lens-shaped feature, bright ridges appear to turn into dark grooves. Analysis of the geologic structures in areas like this are helping scientists to understand the complex tectonic history of Ganymede.

    North is to the top-left of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The image covers an area about 63 kilometers (39 miles) by 120 kilometers (75 miles) across at a resolution of 188 meters (627 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 18,522 kilometers (11,576 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  19. Complex Tectonism on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Complex tectonism is evident in these images of Ganymede's surface. The solid state imaging camera on NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The 80 kilometer (50 mile) wide lens-shaped feature in the center of the image is located at 32 degrees latitude and 188 degrees longitude along the border of a region of ancient dark terrain known as Marius Regio, and is near an area of younger bright terrain named Nippur Sulcus. The tectonism that created the structures in the bright terrain nearby has strongly affected the local dark terrain to form unusual structures such as the one shown here. The lens-like appearance of this feature is probably due to shearing of the surface, where areas have slid past each other and also rotated slightly. Note that in several places in these images, especially around the border of the lens-shaped feature, bright ridges appear to turn into dark grooves. Analysis of the geologic structures in areas like this are helping scientists to understand the complex tectonic history of Ganymede.

    North is to the top-left of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The image covers an area about 63 kilometers (39 miles) by 120 kilometers (75 miles) across at a resolution of 188 meters (627 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 18,522 kilometers (11,576 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  20. The Complex Cepstrum - Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemerait, R. C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Since this paper comes at the twilight of my career, it is appropriate to share my views on a subject very dear to my heart and to my long career. In 2004 "From Frequency to Quefrency: A History of the Cepstrum" was published in the IEEE Signal Processing magazine. There is no question that the authors, Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, were pioneers in this area of research, and this publication documents their involvement quite nicely. In parallel research also performed in the 1960's, Childers, et. al., renamed the original "Cepstrum" to the "Power Cepstrum" to avoid confusion with the principal topic of their research, that being the "Complex Cepstrum." The term "Power Cepstrum" has become widely used in the literature since that time. The Childers team, including Dr. Kemerait, published a summary of their work, as of that date, in the IEEE Proceedings of October 1977, and titled the article "The Cepstrum: A Guide to Processing." In the subsequent 40 years, Dr. Kemerait has continued to research cepstral techniques applied to many diverse problems; however, his primary research has been on estimating the depth of underground and underwater events. He has also applied these techniques to biomedical data: EEG, EKG, and Visua-evoked responses as well as on hydroacoustic data ; thereby, determining the "bubble pulse frequency", and the depths of the explosion and the ocean depth at the explosion point. He has also used cepstral techniques in the processing of ground penetrating radar, speech, machine diagnostics, and, throughout these years, seismic data. This paper emphasizes his recent improvements in processing primarily seismic and infrasound data associated with nuclear treaty monitoring. The emphasis is mainly on the recent improvements and the automation of the Complex Cepstrum process.

  1. The Ethical Complexity of Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzyna, Thomas; Batschelet, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Argues that classroom collaboration is complex, perhaps more complex than collaboration in industry; students need to be trained in leadership and group dynamics and to be informed about the ethical complexity of their task; and instructors must make their expectations clear and state their standards for assessing a group's performance. (SR)

  2. Complexity and Diversity of Digraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertz, Steven H.; Pereira, Gil Z.; Zamfirescu, Christina M. D.

    There has been a great deal of ferment in `Complexity Science' in recent years, as chronicled in the proceedings of the New England Complex Systems Institute's International Conference on Complex Systems [Minai & Bar-Yam 2006, 2008] and those of the Santa Fe Institute [Nadel & Stein 1995, Cowan 1994]. We have been primarily focused on developing metrics of complexity relevant to chemistry, especially synthetic chemistry [Bertz 2003a-c]. Our approach involves abstracting a molecule or a plan for its synthesis as a graph and then using the tools of graph theory to characterize its complexity and diversity.

  3. Grammatical complexity of strange sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Ditza; Procaccia, Itamar

    1990-06-01

    Chaotic dynamical systems can be organized around an underlying strange set, which is comprised of all the unstable periodic orbits. In this paper, we quantify the complexity of such an organization; this complexity addresses the difficulty of predicting the structure of the strange set from low-order data and is independent of the entropy and the algorithmic complexity. We refer to the new measure as the grammatical complexity. The notion is introduced, discussed, and illustrated in the context of simple dynamical systems. In addition, the grammatical complexity is generalized to include metric properties arising due to the nonuniform distribution of the invariant measure on the strange set.

  4. The Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Inderlied, C B; Kemper, C A; Bermudez, L E

    1993-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease emerged early in the epidemic of AIDS as one of the common opportunistic infections afflicting human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. However, only over the past few years has a consensus developed about its significance to the morbidity and mortality of AIDS. M. avium was well known to mycobacteriologists decades before AIDS, and the MAC was known to cause disease, albeit uncommon, in humans and animals. The early interest in the MAC provided a basis for an explosion of studies over the past 10 years largely in response to the role of the MAC in AIDS opportunistic infection. Molecular techniques have been applied to the epidemiology of MAC disease as well as to a better understanding of the genetics of antimicrobial resistance. The interaction of the MAC with the immune system is complex, and putative MAC virulence factors appear to have a direct effect on the components of cellular immunity, including the regulation of cytokine expression and function. There now is compelling evidence that disseminated MAC disease in humans contributes to both a decrease in the quality of life and survival. Disseminated disease most commonly develops late in the course of AIDS as the CD4 cells are depleted below a critical threshold, but new therapies for prophylaxis and treatment offer considerable promise. These new therapeutic modalities are likely to be useful in the treatment of other forms of MAC disease in patients without AIDS. The laboratory diagnosis of MAC disease has focused on the detection of mycobacteria in the blood and tissues, and although the existing methods are largely adequate, there is need for improvement. Indeed, the successful treatment of MAC disease clearly will require an early and rapid detection of the MAC in clinical specimens long before the establishment of the characteristic overwhelming infection of bone marrow, liver, spleen, and other tissue. Also, a standard method of susceptibility testing

  5. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  6. Complexity of formation in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Shira; Marrochio, Hugo; Myers, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the `complexity of formation' [1, 2], i.e. the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions d > 2, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case d = 2, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  7. Metal complexes of tetrapodal ligands: synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies, and X-ray crystal structure studies of Na(I), Ca(II), Sr(II), and Ba(II) complexes of tetrapodal ligands N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Geeta; Hundal, Maninder Singh; Obrai, Sangeeta; Poonia, N S; Kumar, Subodh

    2002-04-22

    -paired 3 complex. High charge density Ca(2+) forms only monomeric complexes. It has more affinity toward stronger nucleophiles such as DNP and PIC with which it gives partially charge-separated eight-coordinated complexes. But with relatively weaker nucleophile like DNB, water replaces the anion and produces a seven coordinated totally charge-separated complex. Sr(2+) with lesser charge/radius ratio forms only charge-separated monomeric as well as dimeric complexes. Higher coordination number of Sr(2+) is achieved with coordinated water molecules which may be bridging or nonbridging in nature. All charge-separated complexes of the largest Ba(2+) are dimeric with bridging water molecules. Only one monomeric ion-paired complex was obtained with Ba(PIC)(2). Na(+) forms a unique dinuclear cryptand-like complex with HPEN behaving as a heptadentate chelating-cum-bridging ligand.

  8. Complexity of vesicle microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaoui, B.; Tahiri, N.; Biben, T.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Biros, G.; Misbah, C.

    2011-10-01

    This study focuses numerically on dynamics in two dimensions of vesicles in microcirculation. The method used is based on boundary integral formulation. This study is inspired by the behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvasculature. Red RBCs carry oxygen from the lungs and deliver it through the microvasculature. The shape adopted by RBCs can affect blood flow and influence oxygen delivery. Our simulation using vesicles (a simple model for RBC) reveals unexpected complexity as compared to the case where a purely unbounded Poiseuille flow is considered [Kaoui, Biros, and Misbah, Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.188101 103, 188101 (2009)]. In sufficiently large channels (in the range of 100μm; the vesicle size and its reduced volume are taken in the range of those of a human RBC), such as arterioles, a slipperlike (asymmetric) shape prevails. A parachutelike (symmetric) shape is adopted in smaller channels (in the range of 20μm, as in venules), but this shape loses stability and again changes to a pronounced slipperlike morphology in channels having a size typical of capillaries (5-10 μm). Stiff membranes, mimicking malaria infection, for example, adopt a centered or off-centered snakelike locomotion instead (the denomination snaking is used for this regime). A general scenario of how and why vesicles adopt their morphologies and dynamics among several distinct possibilities is provided. This finding potentially points to nontrivial RBCs dynamics in the microvasculature.

  9. Information Complexity and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  10. Sociality influences cultural complexity

    PubMed Central

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W.; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

  11. [Toxic complex from parrotfish].

    PubMed

    Chungue, E; Bagnis, R; Fusetani, N; Yasumoto, T

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations suggested that a complex toxic molecule is involved in the parrotfish flesh (Scarus gibbus) poisoning from Gambier Islands. The fat soluble extract obtained from the muscles upon ciguatoxin preparation showed two toxic substances after fractionation by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The major toxin is different from ciguatoxin judging by its chromatographic behaviour. The other is closely similar to (or identical with) ciguatoxin from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. They were named SG1 for the new toxin and SG2 for the ciguatoxin like compound. Successive filtrations on Sephadex LH-20 of SG1 and SG2 gave respectively a lethality to mice of 0.03 microgram/g and 0.06 microgram/g. SG1, specifically occurs in the muscles of the parrotfish family (scaritoxin) while it is absent from other ciguateric fishes. According to that specificity and the lack of SG1 in S. gibbus liver and gut contents, the origin of scaritoxin is briefly discussed.

  12. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Talha; Franco, Rose Amy

    2014-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour) persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP) and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP) related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs. PMID:24693440

  13. Sociality influences cultural complexity.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-07

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution.

  14. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  15. It is complicated! - misunderstanding the complexities of 'complex'.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Katerndahl, David A

    2017-04-01

    Terminology matters - as Lakoff emphasised, words and phrases evoke powerful images and frames of understanding. It is for that reason that we need to discern and use appropriately the term complex/complexity in the health science/professional/policy domain. Complex is the fashionable term used when in reality one means 'complicated', 'difficult to understand' or 'multiple simultaneous actions'. However, this is not what complex means. The Latin term means 'entwined/interwoven' - a structural characteristic describing systems. Complexity arises from the interactions between structurally connected entities - a functional characteristic of a system. The basis of scientific rigor is a clear understanding of a discipline's epistemology. Complexity refers to the emergence of outcomes from the interactions of a system's constituent components (and thus has nothing in common with the colloquial meaning of complicatedness). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.

    PubMed

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  17. Physical Complexity and Cognitive Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlicka, Peter

    Our intuition tells us that there is a general trend in the evolution of nature, a trend towards greater complexity. However, there are several definitions of complexity and hence it is difficult to argue for or against the validity of this intuition. Christoph Adami has recently introduced a novel measure called physical complexity that assigns low complexity to both ordered and random systems and high complexity to those in between. Physical complexity measures the amount of information that an organism stores in its genome about the environment in which it evolves. The theory of physical complexity predicts that evolution increases the amount of `knowledge' an organism accumulates about its niche. It might be fruitful to generalize Adami's concept of complexity to the entire evolution (including the evolution of man). Physical complexity fits nicely into the philosophical framework of cognitive biology which considers biological evolution as a progressing process of accumulation of knowledge (as a gradual increase of epistemic complexity). According to this paradigm, evolution is a cognitive `ratchet' that pushes the organisms unidirectionally towards higher complexity. Dynamic environment continually creates problems to be solved. To survive in the environment means to solve the problem, and the solution is an embodied knowledge. Cognitive biology (as well as the theory of physical complexity) uses the concepts of information and entropy and views the evolution from both the information-theoretical and thermodynamical perspective. Concerning humans as conscious beings, it seems necessary to postulate an emergence of a new kind of knowledge - a self-aware and self-referential knowledge. Appearence of selfreflection in evolution indicates that the human brain reached a new qualitative level in the epistemic complexity.

  18. What is a complex graph?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongkwang; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Many papers published in recent years show that real-world graphs G(n,m) ( n nodes, m edges) are more or less “complex” in the sense that different topological features deviate from random graphs. Here we narrow the definition of graph complexity and argue that a complex graph contains many different subgraphs. We present different measures that quantify this complexity, for instance C1e, the relative number of non-isomorphic one-edge-deleted subgraphs (i.e. DECK size). However, because these different subgraph measures are computationally demanding, we also study simpler complexity measures focussing on slightly different aspects of graph complexity. We consider heuristically defined “product measures”, the products of two quantities which are zero in the extreme cases of a path and clique, and “entropy measures” quantifying the diversity of different topological features. The previously defined network/graph complexity measures Medium Articulation and Offdiagonal complexity ( OdC) belong to these two classes. We study OdC measures in some detail and compare it with our new measures. For all measures, the most complex graph G has a medium number of edges, between the edge numbers of the minimum and the maximum connected graph n-1complexity measures are characterized with the help of different example graphs. For all measures the corresponding time complexity is given. Finally, we discuss the complexity of 33 real-world graphs of different biological, social and economic systems with the six computationally most simple measures (including OdC). The complexities of the real graphs are compared with average complexities of two different random graph versions: complete random graphs (just fixed n,m) and rewired graphs with fixed node degrees.

  19. Complex oxides: Intricate disorder

    DOE PAGES

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro

    2016-02-29

    In this study, complex oxides such as pyrochlores have a myriad of potential technological applications, including as fast ion conductors and radiation-tolerant nuclear waste forms. They are also of interest for their catalytic and spin ice properties. Many of these functional properties are enabled by the atomic structure of the cation sublattices. Pyrochlores (A2B2O7) contain two different cations (A and B), typically a 3+ rare earth and a 4+ transition metal such as Hf, Zr, or Ti. The large variety of chemistries that can form pyrochlores leads to a rich space in which to search for exotic new materials. Furthermore,more » how cations order or disorder on their respective sublattices for a given chemical composition influences the functional properties of the oxide. For example, oxygen ionic conductivity is directly correlated with the level of cation disorder — the swapping of A and B cations1. Further, the resistance of these materials against amorphization has also been connected with the ability of the cations to disorder2, 3. These correlations between cation structure and functionality have spurred great interest in the structure of the cation sublattice under irradiation, with significant focus on the disordering mechanisms and disordered structure. Previous studies have found that, upon irradiation, pyrochlores often undergo an order-to-disorder transformation, in which the resulting structure is, from a diffraction point of view, indistinguishable from fluorite (AO2) (ref. 3). Shamblin et al. now reveal that the structure of disordered pyrochlore is more complicated than previously thought4.« less

  20. Complex oxides: Intricate disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro

    2016-02-29

    In this study, complex oxides such as pyrochlores have a myriad of potential technological applications, including as fast ion conductors and radiation-tolerant nuclear waste forms. They are also of interest for their catalytic and spin ice properties. Many of these functional properties are enabled by the atomic structure of the cation sublattices. Pyrochlores (A2B2O7) contain two different cations (A and B), typically a 3+ rare earth and a 4+ transition metal such as Hf, Zr, or Ti. The large variety of chemistries that can form pyrochlores leads to a rich space in which to search for exotic new materials. Furthermore, how cations order or disorder on their respective sublattices for a given chemical composition influences the functional properties of the oxide. For example, oxygen ionic conductivity is directly correlated with the level of cation disorder — the swapping of A and B cations1. Further, the resistance of these materials against amorphization has also been connected with the ability of the cations to disorder2, 3. These correlations between cation structure and functionality have spurred great interest in the structure of the cation sublattice under irradiation, with significant focus on the disordering mechanisms and disordered structure. Previous studies have found that, upon irradiation, pyrochlores often undergo an order-to-disorder transformation, in which the resulting structure is, from a diffraction point of view, indistinguishable from fluorite (AO2) (ref. 3). Shamblin et al. now reveal that the structure of disordered pyrochlore is more complicated than previously thought4.

  1. Carney complex (CNC)

    PubMed Central

    Bertherat, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD

  2. Spatiotemporal imaging of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen E.; Mandell, Arnold J.; Coppola, Richard

    2013-01-01

    What are the functional neuroimaging measurements required for more fully characterizing the events and locations of neocortical activity? A prime assumption has been that modulation of cortical activity will inevitably be reflected in changes in energy utilization (for the most part) changes of glucose and oxygen consumption. Are such a measures complete and sufficient? More direct measures of cortical electrophysiological activity show event or task-related modulation of amplitude or band-limited oscillatory power. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), these measures have been shown to correlate well with energy utilization sensitive BOLD fMRI. In this paper, we explore the existence of state changes in electrophysiological cortical activity that can occur independently of changes in averaged amplitude, source power or indices of metabolic rates. In addition, we demonstrate that such state changes can be described by applying a new measure of complexity, rank vector entropy (RVE), to source waveform estimates from beamformer-processed MEG. RVE is a non-parametric symbolic dynamic informational entropy measure that accommodates the wide dynamic range of measured brain signals while resolving its temporal variations. By representing the measurements by their rank values, RVE overcomes the problem of defining embedding space partitions without resorting to signal compression. This renders RVE-independent of absolute signal amplitude. In addition, this approach is robust, being relatively free of tunable parameters. We present examples of task-free and task-dependent MEG demonstrating that RVE provides new information by uncovering hidden dynamical structure in the apparent turbulent (or chaotic) dynamics of spontaneous cortical activity. PMID:23355820

  3. Canine immune complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Plechner, A J

    1976-11-01

    Though not conclusive, our primary findings indicate that a feature common to many of our tumor and ICD patients is depressed cortisol production. Additionally, the response to ACTH adrenal cortex stimulation tests, at 2-hour intervals between rest and stimulation, have ranged from negative to substantially less than would be expected in normal subjects. Peripheral plasma cortisol values for dogs, at rest and 2 hours after ACTH stimulation, respectively, have been reported as 2-10 and 25-30 mug/dl, 3-8 and 7.5-18 mug/dl, and 1-12.5 and 9.5-22 mug/dl. For representative patients, our resting values have been 1.2-5.2 mug/dl, vs 1.2-7.6 mug after ACTH stimulation (Table 2). Altogether we have studied 42 cases in detail, and we feel that a post-ACTH level of 8.0 mug/dl or less is a conservative indication of adrenocortical insufficiency; all levels have been between 1 and 8 mug/dl. We believe these low cortisol levels indicate either a genetically-induced adrenal cortical insufficiency (evident at 2 months to 1 year of age) or an immune complex adrenal cortical suppression (occurring after 1 year of age in association with other immunodeficiency disorders). Our studies demonstrate a need for biphasic therapy. We have found it necessary to not only initiate cortisone acetate therapy to support the deficient adrenal cortical secretion, but also use other immunosuppressive drugs to control the ICD. If the target organ has been suppressed or destroyed, the need for supplementation is obvious. However, other immune-injury moieties must be suppressed also, eg, ANA, anti-IgG antibodies, etc.

  4. The hamstring muscle complex.

    PubMed

    van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.

  5. Titan's chemical complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuitton, Veronique

    2012-04-01

    We review here our current knowledge of Titan's gas phase chemistry. We base our discussion on photochemical models as well as on laboratory experiments. We identify the lower mass positive [1,2] and negative [3] ions detected in the upper atmosphere and we show that their formation is a direct consequence of the presence of heavy neutrals. We demonstrate that the observed densities of CO, CO2 and H2O can be explained by a combination of exogenous O, and OH/H2O input [4]. We argue that benzene [5] and ammonia [6] are created in the upper atmosphere through complex chemical processes involving both neutral and ion chemistry. These species diffuse downward where they are at the origin of heavier aromatics and amines, respectively. Finally, we discuss the impact on hydrocarbon densities of recent theoretical calculations of the rate constants of association reactions [7]. [1] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle and V. G. Anicich, Astrophys. J., 647, L175 (2006). [2] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle and M. J. McEwan, Icarus, 191, 722 (2007). [3] V. Vuitton, P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, M. Galand, A. Wellbrock, G. R. Lewis, A. J. Coates and J.-E. Wahlund, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1558 (2009). [4] S. M. Hörst, V. Vuitton, and R. V. Yelle, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10006 (2008). [5] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle and J. Cui, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E05007 (2008). [6] R. V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, P. Lavvas, S. J. Klippenstein, M. A. Smith, S. M. Hörst and J. Cui, Faraday Discuss., 147, 31 (2010). [7] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, S. J. Klippenstein and P. Lavvas, Astrophys. J., in press.

  6. Carney complex (CNC).

    PubMed

    Bertherat, Jérôme

    2006-06-06

    The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65% of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80% of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD.

  7. Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability

    PubMed Central

    Gierut, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects. PMID:17329671

  8. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  9. Forecasting in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Graves, W. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Complex nonlinear systems are typically characterized by many degrees of freedom, as well as interactions between the elements. Interesting examples can be found in the areas of earthquakes and finance. In these two systems, fat tails play an important role in the statistical dynamics. For earthquake systems, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency is applicable, whereas for daily returns for the securities in the financial markets are known to be characterized by leptokurtotic statistics in which the tails are power law. Very large fluctuations are present in both systems. In earthquake systems, one has the example of great earthquakes such as the M9.1, March 11, 2011 Tohoku event. In financial systems, one has the example of the market crash of October 19, 1987. Both were largely unexpected events that severely impacted the earth and financial systems systemically. Other examples include the M9.3 Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, and the Great Recession which began with the fall of Lehman Brothers investment bank on September 12, 2013. Forecasting the occurrence of these damaging events has great societal importance. In recent years, national funding agencies in a variety of countries have emphasized the importance of societal relevance in research, and in particular, the goal of improved forecasting technology. Previous work has shown that both earthquakes and financial crashes can be described by a common Landau-Ginzburg-type free energy model. These metastable systems are characterized by fat tail statistics near the classical spinodal. Correlations in these systems can grow and recede, but do not imply causation, a common source of misunderstanding. In both systems, a common set of techniques can be used to compute the probabilities of future earthquakes or crashes. In this talk, we describe the basic phenomenology of these systems and emphasize their similarities and differences. We also consider the problem of forecast validation and verification

  10. Waves in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hang

    The theme of this thesis is the study of wave phenomena in complex systems. In particular, the following three topics constitute the foci of my research. The first topic involves the generalization of an electronic transport mechanism commonly observed in disordered media, fluctuation induced tunneling conduction, by considering tunneling through not just insulating potential barriers, but also narrow conducting channels. Here the wave nature of the electron implies that a narrow conduction channel can act as an electronic waveguide, with a cutoff transverse dimension that is half the Fermi wavelength. My research involves the study of electronic transport through finite-length conducting channels with transverse dimensions below the cutoff. Such narrow conduction channel may be physically realized by chains of single conducting atoms, for example. At small voltage bias across the conduction channel, only tunneling transport is possible at zero temperature. But at finite temperatures some of the electrons with energies above the Fermi level can ballistically transport across the channel. By considering both tunneling and thermal activation mechanisms, with thermally-generated (random) voltage bias across the narrow channel, we obtained a temperature-dependent conductivity behavior that is in good agreement with the measured two-lead conductance of RuO2 and IrO2 nanowires. Furthermore, by considering high applied voltage across the nano conduction channels, our model predicts interesting electronic Fabry-Perot behavior whose experimental verification is presently underway. The second topic involves the study of the Hall effect in mesoscopic samples. In particular, we are interested in the possibility of enhancing the Hall effect by nano-patterning samples of 2D electron gas. Through numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation in the presence of a magnetic field, mesoscopic transport behavior is obtained for samples with given geometric patterns of the

  11. Complexity in de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the holographic complexity conjectures for de-Sitter invariant states in a quantum field theory on de Sitter space, dual to asymptotically anti-de Sitter geometries with de Sitter boundaries. The bulk holographic duals include solutions with or without a horizon. If we compute the complexity from the spatial volume, we find results consistent with general expectations, but the conjectured bound on the growth rate is not saturated. If we compute complexity from the action of the Wheeler–de Witt patch, we find qualitative differences from the volume calculation, with states of smaller energy having larger complexity than those of larger energy, even though the latter have bulk horizons.

  12. Boron oxygen complexes in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanati, M.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2006-04-01

    The carrier lifetime in boron-doped Czochralski Si is strongly reduced by irradiation (space-based solar cells) or illumination (terrestrial cells). The culprits are believed to be boron-oxygen complexes. We use first-principles theory to predict the structure, electrical activity, and stability of complexes involving substitutional or interstitial B and interstitial O or oxygen dimers. Four complexes with comparable binding energies and thermodynamic gap levels are identified and their local vibrational modes predicted. Replacing B with Ga yields complexes with much smaller binding energies.

  13. Structural complexity of quantum networks

    SciTech Connect

    Siomau, Michael

    2016-06-10

    Quantum network is a set of nodes connected with channels, through which the nodes communicate photons and classical information. Classical structural complexity of a quantum network may be defined through its physical structure, i.e. mutual position of nodes and channels connecting them. We show here that the classical structural complexity of a quantum network does not restrict the structural complexity of entanglement graphs, which may be created in the quantum network with local operations and classical communication. We show, in particular, that 1D quantum network can simulate both simple entanglement graphs such as lattices and random graphs and complex small-world graphs.

  14. Technology and complexity: trouble brewing?

    PubMed

    Clancy, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 14th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. This article focuses on new theories explaining growth in healthcare complexity, its effects on providers and patients, and solutions to manage it.

  15. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  16. COMPLEX DIFFUSION ON IMAGE GRAPHS

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dohyung; Vemuri, Baba C

    2009-01-01

    Complex diffusion was introduced in image processing literature as a means to achieve simultaneous denoising and enhancement of scalar valued images. In this paper, we present a novel geometric framework for achieving complex diffusion on color images expressed as image graphs. In this framework, we develop a new variational formulation for achieving complex diffusion. This formulation involves a modified harmonic map functional and is quite distinct from the Polyakov action described in earlier work by Sochen et al. Our formulation provides a framework for simultaneous (feature preserving) denoising and enhancement. We present results of comparison between the complex diffusion, and Beltrami flow all in the image graph framework. PMID:20490365

  17. The complexity of hierarchical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccatto, H. A.; Huberman, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    We introduce a procedure for coarse graining a given hierarchical structure and show how it leads to an effective saturation of the complexity value with increasing number of lower levels. Secondly, we verify that this coarse grained measure has the property of isolating the most diverse trees as the ones with maximal complexity. As a corollary, we cast the dynamical measure of complexity of Bachas and Huberman in terms of purely static properties of trees representing ultradiffusion. We also discuss the differences between the coarse-grained measure of complexity and that provided by relaxation processes.

  18. New types of lanthanide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kahwa, I.A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Three new types of lanthanide (Ln) complexes, namely, the first examples of homodinuclear macrocyclic lanthanide complexes, novel binary and ternary gaseous polyatomic lanthanide oxides and new lanthanide oxalato complexes are described in chapters one, two and three respectively. The homodinuclear complexes are 2:2 condensation products of 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol and triethylenetetramine templated by Ln(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and Ln(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 3/. The complexes are dimorphic, and are off-white (the more stable form) when they are obtained from dilute solutions and orange if they arise from more concentrated reactants. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS), electronic absorption and IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry along with preliminary spectroscopic studies using electron paramagnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility and luminescence. The orange complexes exhibit more antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, low Ln/sup 3 +/magnetic moments and multi-exponential luminescence decay kinetics, whereas the off-white complexes show single exponential luminescence decay and free ion magnetic moments. At low temperatures and in presence of excess triethylenetetramine, solvated light lanthanide mononuclear complexes of a 1:1 acyclic Schiff base acetal were isolated and the structure of one of these was confirmed by single crystal x-ray diffraction crystallography.

  19. Quantitative assessment of increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernai, L. P.; Spinnangr, S. F.; Velle, S.

    2017-05-01

    We study the build up of complexity on the example of 1 kg matter in different forms. We start with the simplest example of ideal gases, and then continue with more complex chemical, biological, life, social and technical structures. We assess the complexity of these systems quantitatively, based on their entropy. We present a method to attribute the same entropy to known physical systems and to complex organic molecules, up to a DNA molecule. The important steps in this program and the basic obstacles are discussed.

  20. Complexity leadership: a healthcare imperative.

    PubMed

    Weberg, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare system is plagued with increasing cost and poor quality outcomes. A major contributing factor for these issues is that outdated leadership practices, such as leader-centricity, linear thinking, and poor readiness for innovation, are being used in healthcare organizations. Complexity leadership theory provides a new framework with which healthcare leaders may practice leadership. Complexity leadership theory conceptualizes leadership as a continual process that stems from collaboration, complex systems thinking, and innovation mindsets. Compared to transactional and transformational leadership concepts, complexity leadership practices hold promise to improve cost and quality in health care. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Energy-Complexity Relations by Structural Complexity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Renzo L.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we shall review some of the most recent developments and results on work on energy-complexity relations and, if time will allow it, we shall provide an analytical proof of eq. (3) below, a fundamental relation between energy and complexity established by numerical experiments.

  2. Complex Constructivism: A Theoretical Model of Complexity and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Education has long been driven by its metaphors for teaching and learning. These metaphors have influenced both educational research and educational practice. Complexity and constructivism are two theories that provide functional and robust metaphors. Complexity provides a metaphor for the structure of myriad phenomena, while constructivism…

  3. Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

  4. Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

  5. Societal Complexity and Familial Complexity: Evidence for the Curvilinear Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser; Winch, Robert F.

    1972-01-01

    The hypothesis is supported that the most extended, complex familial systems should be found among societies in an intermediate range of societal complexity, particularly among settled agricultural peoples. Among the simple hunting-gathering groups and in modern industrial states is found the nuclear family system: small, independent, nonextended…

  6. Competing Complexity Metrics and Adults' Production of Complex Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hintat; Kemper, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the adequacy of 11 metrics for measuring linguistic complexity of language samples obtained from 60 to 90 year olds indicated that, although most of the metrics adequately accounted for age-group and individual differences in complexity, the amount and type of embedding proved to predict how easily sentences are understood and how…

  7. Tuberous sclerosis complex in autism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Tu, Wen-Jun; Shi, Xiao-Dong

    2012-09-01

    To study the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder. We studied one cohort of children followed up since 2005 until 2009, with autistic disorder, to determine the incidence of tuberous sclerosis complex. We established an autistic disorder registry in 2005 at China Rehabilitation Research Center. During the 4-year period (2005-2009), we collected a database of 429 children (390 boys and 39 girls; male to female ratio 10:1) with autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders. We routinely examined all children with autistic disorder for any features of tuberous sclerosis complex by looking for neurocutaneous markers such as depigmented spots. In those with infantile spasm or epilepsy, the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex were monitored regularly during follow-up. Of these, five had tuberous sclerosis complex. Thus, the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder is 1.17%. All of these children were mentally retarded with moderate to severe grades. Their IQ or developmental quotient was less than 70. The prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder was 1.17% in our region; autism spectrum disorder is a condition that might be associated with development of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  8. Teacher Knowledge: A Complex Tapestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty

    2015-01-01

    Teachers need to know a great deal, in many areas and in multiple ways. Teacher knowledge is a complex tapestry, and teachers must successfully weave the multiple threads. In this article, I present a conceptualisation of teacher knowledge that provides a framework for describing the complexity of teacher knowledge. The framework describes three…

  9. Syntactic Complexity and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Dona M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes two studies of which one analyzes syntactic complexity in writing samples by secondary and postsecondary students, while the other correlates the syntactic dimensions revealed by the former with measures of cognitive style. Correlations indicate an association between complexity and analytic cognitive style. (MES)

  10. COMPLEX MIXTURES AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experience has shown that many soil and ground-water contamination problems involve complex mixtures of chemicals. his manuscript identifies and discusses, in a generic sense, some of the important processes which must be considered when dealing with complex mixtures in the subsu...

  11. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  12. Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method: The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language…

  13. Classroom Management and Complex Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.

    This paper illustrates how organizational theory can be usefully applied to issues of classroom management. A review of research findings on the relationship between the teacher's use of authority and the implementation and outcomes of "complex instruction" is offered. "Complex instruction" refers to instruction in which different groups carry out…

  14. A Simple Explanation of Complexation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, J. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The topics of solution thermodynamics, activity coefficients, and complex formation are introduced through computational exercises and sample applications. The presentation is designed to be accessible to freshmen in a chemical engineering computations course. The MOSCED model is simplified to explain complex formation in terms of hydrogen…

  15. Teacher Knowledge: A Complex Tapestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoniou, Misty

    2015-01-01

    Teachers need to know a great deal, in many areas and in multiple ways. Teacher knowledge is a complex tapestry, and teachers must successfully weave the multiple threads. In this article, I present a conceptualisation of teacher knowledge that provides a framework for describing the complexity of teacher knowledge. The framework describes three…

  16. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  17. Complexity and Education: Vital Simultaneities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the place of complexity science within education and educational research. The discussion begins with the suggestion that educational research has a history of adopting interpretive frames from other domains with little adaptation. Complexity science is argued to compel a different sort of positioning, one that requires…

  18. Understanding and Teaching Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…

  19. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  20. Complexity and Education: Vital Simultaneities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the place of complexity science within education and educational research. The discussion begins with the suggestion that educational research has a history of adopting interpretive frames from other domains with little adaptation. Complexity science is argued to compel a different sort of positioning, one that requires…

  1. Complex Variables in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Jerry; Moskal, Barbara; Duke, Billy; Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the work of outreach mathematicians introducing the topic of complex variables to eighth and ninth grade students (13- to 15-year-olds) in the US. Complex variables is an area of mathematics that is not typically studied at secondary level. The authors developed seven lessons designed to stimulate students' interest in…

  2. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  3. A Simple Explanation of Complexation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, J. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The topics of solution thermodynamics, activity coefficients, and complex formation are introduced through computational exercises and sample applications. The presentation is designed to be accessible to freshmen in a chemical engineering computations course. The MOSCED model is simplified to explain complex formation in terms of hydrogen…

  4. Grammatical Complexity of Aphasic Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukkonen, Pirkko

    Spoken narratives as a genre usually show literary stylistic features. Written/literary registers are characterized by lexical density whereas spoken/colloquial genres are characterized by the complex combination of simple clauses into clause complexes. It has been observed that when aiming at informationally dense speech, people often hesitate…

  5. The Complexity of Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also…

  6. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  7. The Evolution of Complex Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, John

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  8. [Health: an adaptive complex system].

    PubMed

    Toro-Palacio, Luis Fernando; Ochoa-Jaramillo, Francisco Luis

    2012-02-01

    This article points out the enormous gap that exists between complex thinking of an intellectual nature currently present in our environment, and complex experimental thinking that has facilitated the scientific and technological advances that have radically changed the world. The article suggests that life, human beings, global society, and all that constitutes health be considered as adaptive complex systems. This idea, in turn, prioritizes the adoption of a different approach that seeks to expand understanding. When this rationale is recognized, the principal characteristics and emerging properties of health as an adaptive complex system are sustained, following a care and services delivery model. Finally, some pertinent questions from this perspective are put forward in terms of research, and a series of appraisals are expressed that will hopefully serve to help us understand all that we have become as individuals and as a species. The article proposes that the delivery of health care services be regarded as an adaptive complex system.

  9. The evolution of complex life.

    PubMed

    Billingham, J

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  10. Complex systems in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Winkler, James D; Erickson, Keesha; Choudhury, Alaksh; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic engineers manipulate intricate biological networks to build efficient biological machines. The inherent complexity of this task, derived from the extensive and often unknown interconnectivity between and within these networks, often prevents researchers from achieving desired performance. Other fields have developed methods to tackle the issue of complexity for their unique subset of engineering problems, but to date, there has not been extensive and comprehensive examination of how metabolic engineers use existing tools to ameliorate this effect on their own research projects. In this review, we examine how complexity affects engineering at the protein, pathway, and genome levels within an organism, and the tools for handling these issues to achieve high-performing strain designs. Quantitative complexity metrics and their applications to metabolic engineering versus traditional engineering fields are also discussed. We conclude by predicting how metabolic engineering practices may advance in light of an explicit consideration of design complexity.

  11. Ternary complexes in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Babko, A K

    1968-08-01

    Reactions between a complex AB and a third component C do not always proceed by a displacement mechanism governed by the energy difference of the chemical bonds A-B and A-C. The third component often becomes part of the complex, forming a mixed co-ordination sphere or ternary complex. The properties of this ternary complex ABC are not additive functions of the properties of AB and AC. Such reactions are important in many methods in analytical chemistry, particularly in photometric analysis, extractive separation, masking, etc. The general properties of the four basic types of ternary complex are reviewed and examples given. The four types comprise the systems (a) metal ion, electronegative ligand, organic base, (b) one metal ion, two different electronegative ligands, (c) ternary heteropoly acids, and (d) two different metal ions, one ligand.

  12. Complex Training: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebben, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of plyometric training is well supported by research. Complex training has gained popularity as a training strategy combining weight training and plyometric training. Anecdotal reports recommend training in this fashion in order to improve muscular power and athletic performance. Recently, several studies have examined complex training. Despite the fact that questions remain about the potential effectiveness and implementation of this type of training, results of recent studies are useful in guiding practitioners in the development and implementation of complex training programs. In some cases, research suggests that complex training has an acute ergogenic effect on upper body power and the results of acute and chronic complex training include improved jumping performance. Improved performance may require three to four minutes rest between the weight training and plyometrics sets and the use of heavy weight training loads. PMID:24688269

  13. Inner-sphere complexation of cations at the rutile-water interface: A concise surface structural interpretation with the CD and MUSIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Moira K.; Hiemstra, Tjisse; van Riemsdijk, Willem H.; Machesky, Michael L.

    2009-04-01

    Acid-base reactivity and ion-interaction between mineral surfaces and aqueous solutions is most frequently investigated at the macroscopic scale as a function of pH. Experimental data are then rationalized by a variety of surface complexation models. These models are thermodynamically based which in principle does not require a molecular picture. The models are typically calibrated to relatively simple solid-electrolyte solution pairs and may provide poor descriptions of complex multi-component mineral-aqueous solutions, including those found in natural environments. Surface complexation models may be improved by incorporating molecular-scale surface structural information to constrain the modeling efforts. Here, we apply a concise, molecularly-constrained surface complexation model to a diverse suite of surface titration data for rutile and thereby begin to address the complexity of multi-component systems. Primary surface charging curves in NaCl, KCl, and RbCl electrolyte media were fit simultaneously using a charge distribution (CD) and multisite complexation (MUSIC) model [Hiemstra T. and Van Riemsdijk W. H. (1996) A surface structural approach to ion adsorption: the charge distribution (CD) model. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 179, 488-508], coupled with a Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer. In addition, data for the specific interaction of Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ with rutile, in NaCl and RbCl media, were modeled. In recent developments, spectroscopy, quantum calculations, and molecular simulations have shown that electrolyte and divalent cations are principally adsorbed in various inner-sphere configurations on the rutile 1 1 0 surface [Zhang Z., Fenter P., Cheng L., Sturchio N. C., Bedzyk M. J., Předota M., Bandura A., Kubicki J., Lvov S. N., Cummings P. T., Chialvo A. A., Ridley M. K., Bénézeth P., Anovitz L., Palmer D. A., Machesky M. L. and Wesolowski D. J. (2004) Ion adsorption at the rutile-water interface: linking molecular and macroscopic

  14. inner-sphere complexation of cations at the rutile-water interface: A concise surface structural interpretation with the CD and MUSIC model

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, Mora K.; Hiemstra, T; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.; Machesky, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Acid base reactivity and ion-interaction between mineral surfaces and aqueous solutions is most frequently investigated at the macroscopic scale as a function of pH. Experimental data are then rationalized by a variety of surface complexation models. These models are thermodynamically based which in principle does not require a molecular picture. The models are typically calibrated to relatively simple solid-electrolyte solution pairs and may provide poor descriptions of complex multicomponent mineral aqueous solutions, including those found in natural environments. Surface complexation models may be improved by incorporating molecular-scale surface structural information to constrain the modeling efforts. Here, we apply a concise, molecularly-constrained surface complexation model to a diverse suite of surface titration data for rutile and thereby begin to address the complexity of multi-component systems. Primary surface charging curves in NaCl, KCl, and RbCl electrolyte media were fit simultaneously using a charge distribution (CD) and multisite complexation (MUSIC) model [Hiemstra T. and Van Riemsdijk W. H. (1996) A surface structural approach to ion adsorption: the charge distribution (CD) model. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 179, 488 508], coupled with a Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer. In addition, data for the specific interaction of Ca2+ and Sr2+ with rutile, in NaCl and RbCl media, were modeled. In recent developments, spectroscopy, quantum calculations, and molecular simulations have shown that electrolyte and divalent cations are principally adsorbed in various inner-sphere configurations on the rutile 110 surface [Zhang Z., Fenter P., Cheng L., Sturchio N. C., Bedzyk M. J., Pr edota M., Bandura A., Kubicki J., Lvov S. N., Cummings P. T., Chialvo A. A., Ridley M. K., Be ne zeth P., Anovitz L., Palmer D. A., Machesky M. L. and Wesolowski D. J. (2004) Ion adsorption at the rutile water interface: linking molecular and macroscopic

  15. Intermittency in Complex Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Redondo, Jose M.

    2017-04-01

    Experimental results of the complex turbulent wake of a cilinder in 2D [1] and 3D flows [2] were used to investigate the scaling of structure functions, similar research was also performed on wave propagation and breaking in the Ocean [3], in the the stratified Atmosphere (ABL) [4] and in a 100large flume (UPC) for both regular and irregular waves, where long time series of waves propagating and generating breaking turbulence velocity rms and higher order measurements were taken in depth. [3,5] by means of a velocimeter SONTEK3-D. The probability distribution functions of the velocity differences and their non Gaussian distribution related to the energy spectrum indicate that irregularity is an important source of turbulence. From Kolmogorov's K41 and K61 intermittency correction: the p th-order longitudinal velocity structure function δul at scale l in the inertial range of three-dimensional fully developed turbulence is related by ⟨δup⟩ = ⟨(u(x+ l)- u(x))p⟩ ˜ ɛp0/3lp/3 l where ⟨...⟩ represents the spatial average over flow domain, with ɛ0 the mean energy dissipation per unit mass and l is the separation distance. The importance of the random nature of the energy dissipation led to the K62 theory of intermittency, but locality and non-homogeneity are key issues. p p/3 p/3 ξd ⟨δul⟩ ˜ ⟨ɛl ⟩l ˜ l and ξp = p 3 + τp/3 , where now ɛl is a fractal energy dissipation at scale l, τp/3 is the scaling of < ɛℓp/3 > and ξp is the scaling exponent of the velocity structure function of order p. Both in K41 and K62, the structure functions of third order related to skewness is ξ3 = 1. But this is not true either. We show that scaling exponents ξp do deviate from early studies that only investigated homogeneous turbulence, where a large inertial range dominates. The use of multi-fractal analysis and improvements on Structure function calculations on standard Enhanced mixing is an essential property of turbulence and efforts to alter and to

  16. Cancer complexity and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2014-07-01

    Management of radiological risks typically encountered in environmental and occupational settings is challenging because of uncertainties in the magnitude of the risks and the benefits of risk reduction. In practice, radiation dose instead of risk is measured. However, the relationship between dose and risk is not straightforward because cancer (the major health effect of concern at low doses) is a disease of complexity. Risks at small doses (defined as less than 100 mSv) can never be known exactly because of the inherent uncertainties in cancer as a complex disease. Tumors are complex because of the nonlinear interactions that occur among tumor cells and between the tumor and its local tissue environment. This commentary reviews evidence for cancer complexity and what complexity means for radiation protection. A complexity view of cancer does not mean we must abandon our current system of protection. What it does mean is that complexity requires new ways of thinking about control of cancer-the ideas that cancers can occur without cause, cancers behave unpredictably, and calculated cancer risks following small doses of radiation are highly uncertain.

  17. Solar active region magnetic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikbakhsh, Shabnam; Tanskanen, Eija; Hackman, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    We have studied the Mount Wilson Classification of solar Active Regions (ARs) for the period from 1996 to 2015. Sunspots are visual indicators of ARs where the solar magnetic field is disturbed. Major manifestations of solar magnetic activity, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), are associated with solar ARs. There has been so many attempts to classify solar ARs based on their magnetic complexity as a measure of their acitivity. For this study we applied the Mount Wilson Classification which groups ARs in terms of their magnetic complexity from the least complex alpha to the most complex one beta-gamma-delta. We compared the magnetic complexity data to two sets of sunspot number: 1- International Sunspot Number (ISSN) 2- NOAA sunspot number We have been found that the number of more complex structures reach its maximum two years after solar maximum. We also compared the result to our identified geomagnetic storm list. The results showed the more complex ARs are responsible for the strongest geomagnetic storms.

  18. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  19. The complexity of anatomical systems

    PubMed Central

    Grizzi, Fabio; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The conception of anatomical entities as a hierarchy of infinitely graduated forms and the increase in the number of observed anatomical sub-entities and structural variables has generated a growing complexity, thus highlighting new properties of organised biological matter. Results (1) Complexity is so pervasive in the anatomical world that it has come to be considered as a primary characteristic of anatomical systems. (2) Anatomical entities, when viewed at microscopic as well as macroscopic level of observation, show a different degree of complexity. (3) Complexity can reside in the structure of the anatomical system (having many diverse parts with varying interactions or an intricate architecture) or in its behaviour. Often complexity in structure and behaviour go together. (4) Complex systems admit many descriptions (ways of looking at the system) each of which is only partially true. Each way of looking at a complex system requires its own description, its own mode of analysis and its own breaking down of the system in different parts; (5) Almost all the anatomical entities display hierarchical forms: their component structures at different spatial scales or their process at different time scales are related to each other. Conclusion The need to find a new way of observing and measuring anatomical entities, and objectively quantifying their different structural changes, prompted us to investigate the non-Euclidean geometries and the theories of complexity, and to apply their concepts to human anatomy. This attempt has led us to reflect upon the complex significance of the shape of an observed anatomical entity. Its changes have been defined in relation to variations in its status: from a normal (i.e. natural) to a pathological or altered state introducing the concepts of kinematics and dynamics of anatomical forms, speed of their changes, and that of scale of their observation. PMID:16029490

  20. Quantum Tunneling and Complex Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynig, Max; Haggard, Hal

    2017-01-01

    In general, the semiclassical approximation of quantum mechanical tunneling fails to treat tunneling through barriers if real initial conditions and trajectories are used. By analytically continuing classical dynamics to the complex plane the problems encountered in the approximation can be resolved. While, the complex methods discussed here have been previously explored, no one has exhibited an analytically solvable case. The essential features of the complex method will be discussed in the context of a novel, analytically solvable problem. These methods could be useful in quantum gravity, with applications to the tunneling of spacetime geometries.

  1. [Carney's Complex: familial cardiac myxoma].

    PubMed

    Guerra, Miguel S; Santos, Nelson; Neves, Fátima; Carlos Mota, João; Miranda, José António; Vouga, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The Carney Complex is a very rare autosomal dominant disease including multiple neoplasia syndrome. This syndrome was initially described in 1985 under the rubric "...the complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity". We present a case report of an old woman with Carney Complex who had the characteristic features of facial hirsutism and acromegalic facies, a large pigmented swelling over the face and a cardiac myxoma arising from the left atrium. We emphasize the need for periodic echocardiographic screening of patients and family members.

  2. The energetics of genome complexity.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nick; Martin, William

    2010-10-21

    All complex life is composed of eukaryotic (nucleated) cells. The eukaryotic cell arose from prokaryotes just once in four billion years, and otherwise prokaryotes show no tendency to evolve greater complexity. Why not? Prokaryotic genome size is constrained by bioenergetics. The endosymbiosis that gave rise to mitochondria restructured the distribution of DNA in relation to bioenergetic membranes, permitting a remarkable 200,000-fold expansion in the number of genes expressed. This vast leap in genomic capacity was strictly dependent on mitochondrial power, and prerequisite to eukaryote complexity: the key innovation en route to multicellular life.

  3. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  4. Complex bile duct injuries: management

    PubMed Central

    Ardiles, V.; Pekolj, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the present treatment of choice for patients with gallbladder stones, despite its being associated with a higher incidence of biliary injuries compared with the open procedure. Injuries occurring during the laparoscopic approach seem to be more complex. A complex biliary injury is a disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. We considered complex injuries: 1) injuries that involve the confluence; 2) injuries in which repair attempts have failed; 3) any bile duct injury associated with a vascular injury; 4) or any biliary injury in association with portal hypertension or secondary biliary cirrhosis. The present review is an evaluation of our experience in the treatment of these complex biliary injuries and an analysis of the international literature on the management of patients. PMID:18695753

  5. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  6. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  7. Making the Tent Function Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprows, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This note can be used to illustrate to the student such concepts as periodicity in the complex plane. The basic construction makes use of the Tent function which requires only that the student have some working knowledge of binary arithmetic.

  8. Making the Tent Function Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprows, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This note can be used to illustrate to the student such concepts as periodicity in the complex plane. The basic construction makes use of the Tent function which requires only that the student have some working knowledge of binary arithmetic.

  9. Synchronization in uncertain complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maoyin; Zhou, Donghua

    2006-03-01

    We consider the problem of synchronization in uncertain generic complex networks. For generic complex networks with unknown dynamics of nodes and unknown coupling functions including uniform and nonuniform inner couplings, some simple linear feedback controllers with updated strengths are designed using the well-known LaSalle invariance principle. The state of an uncertain generic complex network can synchronize an arbitrary assigned state of an isolated node of the network. The famous Lorenz system is stimulated as the nodes of the complex networks with different topologies. We found that the star coupled and scale-free networks with nonuniform inner couplings can be in the state of synchronization if only a fraction of nodes are controlled.

  10. Synchronization in uncertain complex networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maoyin; Zhou, Donghua

    2006-03-01

    We consider the problem of synchronization in uncertain generic complex networks. For generic complex networks with unknown dynamics of nodes and unknown coupling functions including uniform and nonuniform inner couplings, some simple linear feedback controllers with updated strengths are designed using the well-known LaSalle invariance principle. The state of an uncertain generic complex network can synchronize an arbitrary assigned state of an isolated node of the network. The famous Lorenz system is stimulated as the nodes of the complex networks with different topologies. We found that the star coupled and scale-free networks with nonuniform inner couplings can be in the state of synchronization if only a fraction of nodes are controlled.

  11. Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-08

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex BIC is a large layered igneous intrusion within the earth crust, exposed at the edge of the Transvaal Basin in South Africa. Numerous mines, tailings piles, and leach ponds are shown in blue.

  12. SDO: Complex Mass of Plasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A small, but complex mass of solar material gyrated and spun about over the course of 40 hours above the surface of the sun on Sept. 1-3, 2015. It was stretched and pulled back and forth by powerfu...

  13. The future of complexity engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Regina; Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Complexity Engineering encompasses a set of approaches to engineering systems which are typically composed of various interacting entities often exhibiting self-* behaviours and emergence. The engineer or designer uses methods that benefit from the findings of complexity science and often considerably differ from the classical engineering approach of "divide and conquer". This article provides an overview on some very interdisciplinary and innovative research areas and projects in the field of Complexity Engineering, including synthetic biology, chemistry, artificial life, self-healing materials and others. It then classifies the presented work according to five types of nature-inspired technology, namely: (1) using technology to understand nature, (2) nature-inspiration for technology, (3) using technology on natural systems, (4) using biotechnology methods in software engineering, and (5) using technology to model nature. Finally, future trends in Complexity Engineering are indicated and related risks are discussed.

  14. Unitarity and Complex Mass Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollini, C. G.; Oxman, L. E.

    We consider a field obeying a simple higher order equation with a real mass and two complex conjugate mass parameters. The evaluation of vacuum expectation values leads to the propagators, which are (resp.) a Feynman causal function and two complex conjugate Wheeler-Green functions (half retarded plus half advanced). By means of the computation of convolutions, we are able to show that the total self-energy has an absorptive part which is only due to the real mass. In this way it is shown that this diagram is compatible with unitarity and the elimination of free complex-mass asymptotic states from the set of external legs of the S-matrix. It is also shown that the complex masses act as regulators of ultraviolet divergences.

  15. Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Bai-Lin; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    The following sections are included: * Formal Languages and Their Complexity * Formal Language * Chomsky Hierarchy of Grammatical Complexity * The L-System * Regular Language and Finite Automaton * Finite Automaton * Regular Language * Stefan Matrix as Transfer Function for Automaton * Beyond Regular Languages * Feigenbaum and Generalized Feigenbaum Limiting Sets * Even and Odd Fibonacci Sequences * Odd Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Kneading Map * Even Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Distinct Excluded Blocks * Summary of Results

  16. Complexity, action, and black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-18

    In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  17. Thermochemical Radii of Complex Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roobottom, Helen K.; Jenkins, H. Donald B.; Passmore, Jack; Glasser, Leslie

    1999-11-01

    Using rectilinear correlations of lattice energy with the inverse cubic root of the volume per molecule of complex salts of type MX (1:1), M2X (2:1), and MX2 (1:2) we have generated a comprehensive self-consistent tabulation of more than 400 thermochemical radii for complex ions. These radii can be used in the Kapustinskii equation to generate lattice energies and also as ion size parameters.

  18. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  19. Complexity, action, and black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  20. Evolving Complexity, Cognition, and Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljenström, H.

    2012-12-01

    All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing

  1. Quantum complexity and negative curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Susskind, Leonard; Zhao, Ying

    2017-02-01

    As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k -local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system—classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.

  2. Complex numbers in quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Glenn

    In 1927, Nobel prize winning physicist, E. Schrodinger, in correspondence with Ehrenfest, wrote the following about the new theory: "What is unpleasant here, and indeed directly to be objected to, is the use of complex numbers. Psi is surely fundamentally a real function." This seemingly simple issue remains unexplained almost ninety years later. In this dissertation I elucidate the physical and theoretical origins of the complex requirement. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Complexity, action, and black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-18

    In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  4. Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three 34m (110 ft.) diameter Beam Waveguide antennas located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, situated in the Mojave Desert in California. This is one of three complexes which comprise NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The DSN provides radio communications for all of NASA's interplanetary spacecraft and is also utilized for radio astronomy and radar observations of the solar system and the universe.

  5. Septin pairs, a complex choreography.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Helge

    2011-06-13

    Septins form a filamentous collar at the mother-bud neck in budding yeast. In cytokinesis, this collar splits into two rings and the septin complexes undergo a dramatic reorientation. Using fluorescence polarization microscopy, DeMay et al. (2011. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201012143) now demonstrate that septin complexes assemble as paired filaments in vivo and reveal new insights into septin organization during cytokinesis.

  6. STUDY OF METAL FLUORINE COMPLEXES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    spectroscopy. These series consisted of fluorotitanate complexes of formula TiF4.2(donor) and TiF5.(donor)(-), where donor represents an organic molecule... fluorotitanate complexes. The temperature dependence of the TiF4.2D spectra was also studied. The low infrared spectra of some SnF4.2D and TiF4.2D were also obtained. (Author)

  7. Determinants of Hospital Casemix Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Edmund R.; Steinwald, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Using the Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities' Resource Need Index as a measure of casemix complexity, this paper examines the relative contributions of teaching commitment and other hospital characteristics, hospital service and insurer distributions, and area characteristics to variations in casemix complexity. The empirical estimates indicate that all three types of independent variables have a substantial influence. These results are discussed in light of recent casemix research as well as current policy implications. PMID:6799430

  8. Mixed real/complex factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, L.T.G. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Martines, N.; Pinto, H.J.C.P. . Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica)

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes a mixed real/complex sparse matrix factorization and solution scheme applied to a large matrix problem. Large system eigenanalysis and frequency domain methods will directly benefit from the proposed scheme, which can reduce both memory and CPU time requirements when compared to conventional complex-only solutions. The application in hand is the small signal electromechanical stability analysis of large power systems. The savings obtained are significant considering the CPU intensive nature of these matrix problems.

  9. Conforming Morse-Smale Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, Attila; Gunther, David; Levine, Joshua A.; Tierny, Julien; Pascucci, Valerio

    2014-08-11

    Morse-Smale (MS) complexes have been gaining popularity as a tool for feature-driven data analysis and visualization. However, the quality of their geometric embedding and the sole dependence on the input scalar field data can limit their applicability when expressing application-dependent features. In this paper we introduce a new combinatorial technique to compute an MS complex that conforms to both an input scalar field and an additional, prior segmentation of the domain. The segmentation constrains the MS complex computation guaranteeing that boundaries in the segmentation are captured as separatrices of the MS complex. We demonstrate the utility and versatility of our approach with two applications. First, we use streamline integration to determine numerically computed basins/mountains and use the resulting segmentation as an input to our algorithm. This strategy enables the incorporation of prior flow path knowledge, effectively resulting in an MS complex that is as geometrically accurate as the employed numerical integration. Our second use case is motivated by the observation that often the data itself does not explicitly contain features known to be present by a domain expert. We introduce edit operations for MS complexes so that a user can directly modify their features while maintaining all the advantages of a robust topology-based representation.

  10. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2011-12-01

    We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum hat{q} and hat{p} being replaced with non-hermitian operators hat{q}_{new} and hat{p}_{new}, and their eigenstates | q >_{new} and | p >_{new} with complex eigenvalues q and p. Introducing a philosophy of keeping the analyticity in path integration variables, we define a modified set of complex conjugate, real and imaginary parts, hermitian conjugates and bras, and explicitly construct hat{q}_{new}, hat{p}_{new}, |q >_{new} and |p >_{new} by formally squeezing coherent states. We also pose a theorem on the relation between functions on the phase space and the corresponding operators. Only in our formalism can we describe a complex action theory or a real action theory with complex saddle points in the tunneling effect etc. in terms of bras and kets in the functional integral. Furthermore, in a system with a non-hermitian diagonalizable bounded Hamiltonian, we show that the mechanism to obtain a hermitian Hamiltonian after a long time development proposed in our paper [Prog. Theor. Phys. 125 (2011), 633] works also in the complex coordinate formalism. If the hermitian Hamiltonian is given in a local form, a conserved probability current density can be constructed with two kinds of wave functions.

  11. The Ndc80 complex bridges two Dam1 complex rings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae ook; Zelter, Alex; Umbreit, Neil T; Bollozos, Athena; Riffle, Michael; Johnson, Richard; MacCoss, Michael J; Asbury, Charles L; Davis, Trisha N

    2017-01-01

    Strong kinetochore-microtubule attachments are essential for faithful segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis. The Dam1 and Ndc80 complexes are the main microtubule binding components of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochore. Cooperation between these two complexes enhances kinetochore-microtubule coupling and is regulated by Aurora B kinase. We show that the Ndc80 complex can simultaneously bind and bridge across two Dam1 complex rings through a tripartite interaction, each component of which is regulated by Aurora B kinase. Mutations in any one of the Ndc80p interaction regions abrogates the Ndc80 complex’s ability to bind two Dam1 rings in vitro, and results in kinetochore biorientation and microtubule attachment defects in vivo. We also show that an extra-long Ndc80 complex, engineered to space the two Dam1 rings further apart, does not support growth. Taken together, our work suggests that each kinetochore in vivo contains two Dam1 rings and that proper spacing between the rings is vital. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21069.001 PMID:28191870

  12. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  13. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-04

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  14. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-01

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  15. Fluoroquinolone-Gyrase-DNA Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M.; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R.; Kerns, Robert J.; Berger, James M.; Drlica, Karl

    2014-01-01

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys466 gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly81 and GyrB-Glu466 residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases. PMID:24497635

  16. Complexity analysis of angiogenesis vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Vijay; Tyrell, James A.; Tong, Ricky T.; Brown, Edward B.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Roysam, Badrinath

    2005-04-01

    Tumor vasculature has a high degree of irregularity as compared to normal vasculature. The quantification of the morphometric complexity in tumor images can be useful in diagnosis. Also, it is desirable in several other medical applications to have an automated complexity analysis to aid in diagnosis and prognosis under treatment. e.g. in diabetic retinopathy and in arteriosclerosis. In addition, prior efforts at segmentation of the tumor vasculature using matched filtering, template matching and splines have been hampered by the irregularity of these vessels. We try to solve both problems by introducing a novel technique for vessel detection, followed by a tracing-independent complexity analysis based on a combination of ideas. First, the vessel cross-sectional profile is modeled using a continuous and everywhere differentiable family of super-Gaussian curves. This family generates rectangular profiles that can accurately localize the vessel boundaries in microvasculature images. Second, a robust non-linear regression algorithm based on M-estimators is used to estimate the parameters that optimally characterize the vessel"s shape. A framework for the quantitative analysis of the complexity of the vasculature based on the vessel detection is presented. A set of measures that quantify the complexity are proposed viz. Squared Error, Entropy-based and Minimum Description Length-based Shape Complexities. They are completely automatic and can deal with complexities of the entire vessel unlike existing tortuousity measures which deal only with vessel centerlines. The results are validated using carefully constructed phantom and real image data with ground truth information from an expert observer.

  17. Building a complex complex: Assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Luke E; Dibley, Marris G; Stroud, David A; Ryan, Michael T

    2017-08-07

    Mitochondrial complex I is the primary entry point for electrons into the electron transport chain, required for the bulk of cellular ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Complex I consists of 45 subunits, which are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Currently, at least 15 assembly factors are known to be required for the complete maturation of complex I. Mutations in the genes encoding subunits and assembly factors lead to complex I deficiency, which can manifest as mitochondrial disease. The current model of complex I assembly suggests that the enzyme is built by the association of a set of smaller intermediate modules containing specific conserved core subunits and additional accessory subunits. Each module must converge in a spatially and temporally orchestrated fashion to allow assembly of the mature holoenzyme to occur. This review outlines the current understanding of complex I biogenesis, with an emphasis on the assembly factors that facilitate the building of this architectural giant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic Investigations Featuring Amidometallic Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Christopher Colin

    Chapters 1-3 describe results illustrating a new technique for synthesizing nanoclusters of metal sulfide semiconductors within block copolymer microdomains. The sulfides of divalent Zn, Cd, and Pb were considered. Block copolymers were prepared using living ring-opening metathesis polymerization techniques based on well-defined initiators such as Mo(NAr)(CHR)(OR)_2 (Ar = 2,6-C_6H_3 -i-Pr_2; R = t-Bu). Certain amidometallic complexes were prepared that were polymerized in a living fashion permitting block copolymer synthesis; the block copolymers were converted to films through static casting and the domain-confined amidometallic complexes served as precursors to metal sulfides. In the course of this research a preparative route to light-sensitive pentamethylcyclopentadienyl cadmium complexes was uncovered. This led in turn to a nanocluster synthesis in which a precursor complex such as ZnPh_2 or CdAr_2 (Ar = 3,5-C_6H_3 (CF_3)_2) was attached to the desired block copolymer by a dative link. It was possible to synthesize ZnS and CdS within block copolymers displaying various morphologies using this versatile methodology. Chapters 4-9 describe transition metal chemistry stemming from the application of a novel tetradentate, tris(amido) ligand system: (RNCH_2CH _2)_3N (R = Me_3 Si, (N_3N); R = t-BuMe _2Si, (N_3N ^'); R = Et_3Si, (N_3N^*]). A terminal monohydride complex, HTi (N _3N), was investigated with respect to cyclometallation and ethylene insertion chemistry. A series of trigonal monopyramidal complexes M (N_3N) ^') (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) was synthesized; the rare TMP coordination geometry has not previously been encountered for early transition metal complexes. The chemistry of V (N_3 N) was studied extensively; chalcogenide atom and imido group transfer to V (N_3N) are facile processes that lead to a formal two-electron oxidation of vanadium and give rise to a terminal vanadium -element multiple bond. Starting from Fe (N_3 N^') it was possible to

  19. Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holovatch, Yurij; Kenna, Ralph; Thurner, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex systems are characterised by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behaviour. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical worlds. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicists' point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualised in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics of societies, and the representation of texts as evolutionary objects. We discuss why these areas form complex systems in the above sense. We argue that there exists plenty of new ground for physicists to explore and that methodical and conceptual progress is needed most.

  20. Control principles of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-07-01

    A reflection of our ultimate understanding of a complex system is our ability to control its behavior. Typically, control has multiple prerequisites: it requires an accurate map of the network that governs the interactions between the system's components, a quantitative description of the dynamical laws that govern the temporal behavior of each component, and an ability to influence the state and temporal behavior of a selected subset of the components. With deep roots in dynamical systems and control theory, notions of control and controllability have taken a new life recently in the study of complex networks, inspiring several fundamental questions: What are the control principles of complex systems? How do networks organize themselves to balance control with functionality? To address these questions here recent advances on the controllability and the control of complex networks are reviewed, exploring the intricate interplay between the network topology and dynamical laws. The pertinent mathematical results are matched with empirical findings and applications. Uncovering the control principles of complex systems can help us explore and ultimately understand the fundamental laws that govern their behavior.