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Sample records for curcuma zedoaria roscoe

  1. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe fluid extract used in oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joao Paulo Dos Santos; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Nicoletti, Maria Aparecida

    2012-12-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of the Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe (popular name: zedoary) fluid extract, as used in preparations for oral hygiene, mostly for anti-septic purposes. The cell viability and cell growth were assessed by Trypan blue dye exclusion assay using the LMF cell line derived from oral mucosa. Cell viability (short-term assay) was measured 0, 6, 12 and 24 h after contact with the fluid extract. Cell growth (long-term assay) was analyzed in 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. The experimental groups were those testing the fluid extract obtained from the zedoary rhizome and the extractor liquid (ethanol 70° GL) in the concentrations of 0.01-0.0001% v/v. Fresh DMEM were used in the control cultures. Short-term assay-all studied cultures maintained stable cell viability; Long-term assay-there was progressive cell growth in all studied cultures. According to the results, the zedoary fluid extract presents low cytotoxicity and probably can be used in the oral hygiene products.

  2. Functional food quality of Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa endemic to Northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Nebie, Roger H C; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2013-03-01

    Curcuma spp. (Zingiberaceae) is one of the significant ingredients in food and traditional medicines. The current study was to investigate health-benefits of the rhizomes of endemic Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa using in vitro antioxidant, antiinflammatory and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Among these, C. caesia (black turmeric) showed the best overall biological activities based on [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes, and tumor cell growth inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of C. caesia (CCH and CCM) showed LPO inhibition by 31 and 43 %, and COX-2 enzyme by 29 and 38 %, respectively, at 100 μg/ml. Eleven terpenoids were isolated and identified. The MTT antioxidant assay revealed that the extracts of three Curcuma spp. at 250 μg/ml and isolates at 5 μg/ml demonstrated activity comparable to positive controls vitamin C and t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) at 25 μg/ml. The extracts inhibited LPO by 40 % at 250 μg/ml whereas pure isolates 1-11 by about 20 %. The extracts and isolates inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes between the ranges of 3-56 and 5-30 %, respectively. The in vitro biological activity exhibited by the extracts and isolates of C. caesia rhizome further supported its use in traditional medicine.

  3. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Syed Abdul Rahman, Syarifah Nur; Awang, Khalijah; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Looi, Chung Yeng; Thomas, Noel Francis; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17),12 diene-15,16 dial (1), dehydrocurdione (2), curcumenone (3), comosone II (4), curcumenol (5), procurcumenol (6), germacrone (7), zerumbone epoxide (8), zederone (9), 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[6.2.1.01,5]undec-6-en-8-ol (10), furanodiene (11), germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12), calcaratarin A (13), isoprocurcumenol (14), germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15), zerumin A (16), curcumanolide A (17), curcuzedoalide (18), and gweicurculactone (19). Compounds (1–19) were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29). Curcumenone (3) and curcumenol (5) displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 8.3 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.) and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25126594

  4. Optimization of phenolics and flavonoids extraction conditions of Curcuma Zedoaria leaves using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Azahar, Nur Fauwizah; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Mohd Mokhtar, Nor Fadzillah

    2017-10-02

    This study focused on maximizing the extraction yield of total phenolics and flavonoids from Curcuma Zedoaria leaves as a function of time (80-120 min), temperature (60-80 °C) and ethanol concentration (70-90 v/v%). The data were subjected to response surface methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R 2 ) above 99%, proving their suitability for prediction purposes. Using desirability function, the optimum operating conditions to attain a higher extraction of phenolics and flavonoids was found to be 75 °C, 92 min of extraction time and 90:10 of ethanol concentration ratios. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental values for total phenolics and flavonoids of Curcuma zedoaria leaves were 125.75 ± 0.17 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 6.12 ± 0.23 mg quercetin/g of extract, which closely agreed with the predicted values. Besides, in this study, the leaves from Curcuma zedoaria could be considered to have the strong antioxidative ability and can be used in various cosmeceuticals or medicinal applications.

  5. Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control.

    PubMed

    Farina, Vitor Hugo; Lima, Ana Paula de; Balducci, Ivan; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2012-01-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea). These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water). The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from the School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, SP, Brazil. Each volunteer tested the four mouthwashes. The Cysteine Challenge Method, modified for this study, was used for initial breath standardization. Four breath assessments were conducted after volunteers rinsed orally with acetylcysteine: one before the test mouthwash was used; the second, one minute after its use; a third 90 minutes later; and the last 180 minutes later. The results showed that chlorhexidine gluconate lowered VSC production immediately, and that this effect lasted up to 3 hours, while the tested plants had immediate inhibitory effects but no residual inhibitory effects on VSC. We concluded that Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis, prepared as infusions and used as mouthwashes, did not have a residual neutralizing effect on VSC.

  6. Antitumour Effects of Isocurcumenol Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes on Human and Murine Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, S.; Padmaja, G.; Remani, P.

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma zedoaria belonging to the family Zingiberaceae has been used in the traditional system of medicine in India and Southwest Asia in treating many human ailments and is found to possess many biological activities. The rationale of the present study was to isolate, identify, and characterize antitumour principles from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria, to assess its cytotoxic effects on human and murine cancer cells, to determine its apoptosis inducing capacity in cancer cells, and to evaluate its tumour reducing properties in in vivo mice models. Isocurcumenol was characterized as the active compound by spectroscopy and was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells without inducing significant toxicity to the normal cells. Fluorescent staining exhibited the morphological features of apoptosis in the compound-treated cancer cells. In vivo tumour reduction studies revealed that a dose of 35.7 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the ascitic tumour in DLA-challenged mice and increased the lifespan with respect to untreated control mice. PMID:27429805

  7. New Sesquiterpenoids and Anti-Platelet Aggregation Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jih-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Han; Liao, Hsiang-Ruei; Chen, Li-Chai; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Chun-Lin; Wei, Chun-Sheng

    2016-10-17

    Two new sesquiterpenoids-13-hydroxycurzerenone ( 1 ) and 1-oxocurzerenone ( 2 )-have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria , together with 13 known compounds ( 3 - 15 ). The structures of two new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Among the isolated compounds, 13-hydroxycurzerenone ( 1 ), 1-oxocurzerenone ( 2 ), curzerenone ( 3 ), germacrone ( 4 ), curcolone ( 5 ), procurcumenol ( 6 ), ermanin ( 7 ), curcumin ( 8 ), and a mixture of stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione ( 12 ) and stigmasta-4,22-dien-3,6-dione ( 13 ) exhibited inhibition (with inhibition % in the range of 21.28%-67.58%) against collagen-induced platelet aggregation at 100 μM. Compounds 1 , 5 , 7 , 8 , and the mixture of 12 and 13 inhibited arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation at 100 μM with inhibition % in the range of 23.44%-95.36%.

  8. Toxicity of shoti (Indian arrowroot: Curcuma zedoaria) for rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Latif, M A; Morris, T R; Miah, A H; Hewitt, D; Ford, J E

    1979-01-01

    1. A flour was prepared from rhizomes of shoti(Curcuma zedoaria) in such a way that most of the protein was retained. The crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) content in this product was 155 g/kg, compared with approximately 10 g/kg in commercial shoti flour. 2. The high-protein flour proved highly toxic to 5-week-old rats and caused 100% mortality within 6 d when given at 320 g/kg diet. 3. Fresh rhizomes were minced and dried, and the resulting meal was given to weanling rats at 400 g/kg diet. All the animals lost weight rapidly, and two of the five rats died within 4 d. 4. This same shoti meal was given to 1-d-old chicks at 100 and 200 g/kg diet. All the chicks survived the test period (20 d), but body-weight, food intake and efficiency of food conversion decreased with increase in the level of shoti meal in the diet. 5. The traditional method of preparing shoti involves prolonged washing in changes of water, which removes most of the protein and other water-soluble nutrients and, presumably, a toxic constituent. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic principle, and to discover a less wasteful procedure for removing it.

  9. In vivo assessment of plant extracts for control of plant diseases: A sesquiterpene ketolactone isolated from Curcuma zedoaria suppresses wheat leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Woo; Shim, Sang Hee; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Dang, Quang Le; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2018-02-01

    As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina. When the C. zedoaria methanol extracts were partitioned with various solvents, the layers of n-hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate showed disease control values of 100, 80, and 43%, respectively, against wheat leaf rust. From the C. zedoaria rhizome extracts, an antifungal substance was isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene ketolactone based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The active compound controlled the development of rice sheath blight, wheat leaf rust, and tomato late blight. Considering the in vivo antifungal activities of the sesquiterpene ketolactone and the C. zedoaria extracts, these results suggest that C. zedoaria can be used as a potent fungicide in organic agriculture.

  10. Antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of four plants with therapeutic potential on gynecological diseases; Semen persicae, Leonurus cardiaca, Hedyotis diffusa, and Curcuma zedoaria.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaojian; Fattahi, Amir; Raffel, Nathalie; Hoffmann, Inge; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf; Schrauder, Michael

    2017-11-25

    Little information is available concerning antioxidant effects of plant teas (water boiled) which are used more commonly in traditional Chinese medicine than other extracts. Thus, we addressed this issue by evaluating the ability of teas from four different plants with therapeutic potential on gynecological diseases. The aqueous extracts of Semen persicae, Leonurus cardiaca, Hedyotis diffusa, and Curcuma zedoaria rhizome were prepared and then their effects on copper-induced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation were evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method was recruited to isolate LDL-C from healthy individuals. Our results showed that adding 10, 20, and 30 µl S. persicae could increase the lag phase duration of LDL-C oxidation compared with control reaction 12, 21, and 33%, respectively. The most effective delay (87%) was observed when 30 µl H. diffusa was added to the reaction. In cases of L. cardiaca and C. zedoaria, we found no significant influence on the lag phase duration (p > 0.05). Moreover, our findings about starting point of the decomposition phase were almost in parallel with the lag phase results, as 30 µl of S. persicae or H. diffusa teas could significantly increase the initiation time of decomposition (p < 0.05). In conclusion our results showed that both S. persicae and H. diffusa teas and not L. cardiaca and C. zedoaria could have medicinal therapeutic effects partly through direct oxidation prevention.

  11. Rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc induce caspase dependant apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.

    PubMed

    Senathilake, K S; Karunanayake, E H; Samarakoon, S R; Tennekoon, K H; de Silva, E D

    2016-08-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is mainly caused by filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and is the second leading cause of long term and permanent disability in tropical countries. To date, incapability to eliminate long lived adult parasites by current drugs remains the major challenge in the elimination of LF. Hence, in the current study, the efficacy of rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria (a plant traditionally used in Sri Lanka in the management of LF) was evaluated as an effective filaricide in vitro. Sequential solvent extracts of C. zedoaria rhizomes were screened for in vitro antifilarial activity at 0.01-1 mg/mL concentrations by motility inhibition assay and 3-(4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay using cattle parasite Setaria digitata as a model organism. Exposure of parasites to hexane and chloroform extracts of C. zedoaria caused a dose dependant reduction in motility and viability of microfilariae (IC50 = 72.42 μg/mL for hexane extract, 191.14 μg/mL for chloroform extract) and adult parasites (IC50 = 77.07 μg/mL for hexane extract, 259.87 μg/mL for chloroform extract). Both extracts were less toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells when compared to filariae. A dose dependant increase in caspase 3/CED 3 and a decrease in total protein content, cyclooxygenase (COX) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activities were observed in adult parasites treated with hexane or chloroform extract. A significant degree of chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation were also observed in these worms by Hoechst 33342 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining respectively. Dose dependant chromosomal DNA laddering was observed in treated adult worms but not in microfilariae in response to both extracts. Oxidative stress parameters such as reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increase in glutathione s transferase (GST

  12. Analysis of heavy metal lead (Pb) levels with Aas in cow's milk by giving cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), white turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.) and mango turmeric (Curcuma mangga Val.).

    PubMed

    Nurdin, E; Putra, D P; Amelia, T

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of giving Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.) and Mango Turmeric (Curcuma mango Val.) on levels of heavy metals lead (Pb) in cow's milk produced. The study was conducted in West Java with experimental method in 16 Fries Holland dairy cows with lactation period of 2-4 months and lactation months of 3-4 months. The design used is simple randomized design with 4 treatments such as Group A (control/no treatment), Group B (Cumin 0.03% body weight), Group C (White Turmeric 0.02% body weight) and Group D (Mango Turmeric 0.06% body weight). Measurement of Pb levels in milk using the method of wet destruction, while Pb measurements on faeces using wet ashing method, by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Based on the researsch results showed that administration of Cumin, White Turmeric and Mango Turmeric have very real effect on reducing levels of heavy metals lead (Pb) in cow's milk produced, with a consecutive decrease 98.36, 99.33 and 99.37% and the very real effect on elevated levels of Pb in faeces by 68.01, 64.52 and 80.54%. Mango Turmeric is the best treatment of three treatment in decreasing lead level in milk.

  13. Molecular modeling and docking characterization of CzR1, a CC-NBS-LRR R-gene from Curcuma zedoaria Loeb. that confers resistance to Pythium aphanidermatum

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Kar, Basudeba; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    Plant NBS-LRR R-genes recognizes several pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and limit pathogen infection through a multifaceted defense response. CzR1, a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat R-gene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria L exhibit constitutive resistance to different strains of P. aphanidermatum. Majority of the necrotrophic oomycetes are characterized by the presence of carbohydrate PAMPs β-glucans in their cell walls which intercat with R-genes. In the present study, we predicted the 3D (three dimensional) structure of CzR1 based on homology modeling using the homology module of Prime through the Maestro interface of Schrodinger package ver 2.5. The docking investigation of CzR1 with β-glucan using the Glide software suggests that six amino acid residues, Ser186, Glu187, Ser263, Asp264, Asp355 and Tyr425 act as catalytic residues and are involved in hydrogen bonding with ligand β-(1,3)-D-Glucan. The calculated distance between the carboxylic oxygen atoms of Glu187–Asp355 pair is well within the distance of 5Å suggesting a positive glucanase activity of CzR1. Elucidation of these molecular characteristics will help in in silico screening and understanding the structural basis of ligand binding to CzR1 protein and pave new ways towards a broad spectrum rhizome rot resistance development in the cultivated turmeric. PMID:23888096

  14. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-06-17

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided.

  15. Thin layer chromatography fingerprint, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safitri, A.; Batubara, I.; Khumaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Fingerprints of 5 temu hitam (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) accessions (Malang, Cirebon, Kuningan 1, Bogor, and Liwa) were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compared to fingerprints of turmeric (Curcuma longa L), temu putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe), and temu lawak (Curcuma zanthorriza Roxb.). Maceration method with ethanol as the solvent was used for extraction. The eluent used for fingerprint by TLC was chloroform:dichloromethane (9:1v/v). Five accessions of temu hitam show similar fingerprint patterns, but different in band thickness. Temu hitam rhizomes have bands of curcuminoid (Rf 0.22, 0.10, 0.03), and characteristic bands of Rf 0.42, 0.27, and 0.77, which can be distinguished from turmeric and temu lawak and Rf 0.13, which is different from temu putih. Leaves and stems of temu hitam can be distinguished from temu putih, turmeric, and temu lawak at Rf 0.60. Rhizomes of all plants reveal strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals than its corresponding stems and leaves. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities were determined by microdilution and TLC-bioautography. Antibacterial activity of rhizomes of Cirebon and Kuningan 1 accessions are higher than that of other accessions (MIC = 250 μg/mL MBC = 500 μg/mL, but lower as compared to that of temu lawak (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL, MBC = 250 μg/mL) and tetracycline (MIC = MBC = 15.63 μg/mL). Rhizome of Liwa accession exhibits the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 124.88 μg/mL) amongst all accessions, but lower than that of temu lawak (IC50 = 18.45 μg/mL), turmeric (IC50 = 18.82 μg/mL), and temu putih (IC50 = 94.35 μg/mL).

  16. Quantitative determination of curcuminoids from the Roots of Curcuma longa, Curcuma species and dietary supplements using an UPLC-UV-MS method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple, fast UPLC-UV-MS method was developed for the determination of curcuminoids from roots of Curcuma longa L., Curcuma species (C. zedoaria, C. phaecaulis, C. wenyujin and C. kwangsiensis) and dietary supplements claiming to contain C. longa. The total content of curcuminoids (curcumin, desmet...

  17. Sequence analysis of Chinese and Japanese Curcuma drugs on the 18S rRNA gene and trnK gene and the application of amplification-refractory mutation system analysis for their authentication.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yohei; Fushimi, Hirotoshi; Cao, Hui; Cai, Shao-Qing; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2002-12-01

    The botanical origins of Chinese and Japanese Curcuma drugs were determined to be Curcuma longa, C. phaeocaulis, the Japanese population of C. zedoaria, C. kwangsiensis, C. wenyujin, and C. aromatica based on a comparison of their 18S rRNA gene and trnK gene sequences with those of six Curcuma species reported previously. Moreover, to develop a more convenient identification method, amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis of both gene regions was performed on plants. The ARMS method for the 18S rRNA gene was established using two types of forward primers designed based on the nucleotide difference at position 234. When DNAs of four Curcuma species were used as templates, PCR amplification with either of the two primers only generated a fragment of 912 base pairs (bp). However, when DNAs of the purple-cloud type of C. kwangsiensis and C. wenyujin were used, PCR amplifications with both primers unexpectedly generated the fragment, suggesting that these two were heterozygotes. The ARMS method for the trnK gene was also established using a mixture of four types of specific reverse primers designed on the basis of base substitutions and indels among six species, and common reverse and forward primers. C. phaeocaulis or the Chinese population of C. zedoaria, the Japanese population of C. zedoaria or the purple-cloud type of C. kwangsiensis, the pubescent type of C. kwangsiensis or C. wenyujin, and C. aromatica were found to show specific fragments of 730, 185, 527 or 528, and 641 or 642 bp, respectively. All species including C. longa also showed a common fragment of 897-904 bp. Using both ARMS methods, together with information on producing areas, the identification of Curcuma plants was achieved. Moreover, the ARMS method for the trnK gene was also useful for authentication of Curcuma drugs.

  18. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: a potent antiinflammatory agent.

    PubMed

    Arawwawala, L D A M; Arambewela, L S R; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2012-02-15

    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) rhizomes are often used in Sri Lankan traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for bronchitis, cough, respiratory ailments, diabetics, asthma and arthritis. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and antiinflammatory properties. However, validity of the antiinflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antiinflammatory potential of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes using hot water extract (AWE) and hot ethanolic extract (AEE). The antiinflammatory activity of Alpinia calcarata was evaluated by use of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats. In addition, the mechanism/s by which Alpinia calcarata is mediated the antinflammatory activity was assessed by determining its effects on (a) membrane stabilizing, (b) antihistamine and (c) prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity. All the tested doses of AWE and AEE (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant (P≤0.05) inhibition of the inflammation, most pronounced at 4h after the injection of carrageenan. The antiinflammatory effect induced by 500 mg/kg of AEE was superior than the reference drug, indomethacin at 4h. Inhibition of histamine and prostaglandin synthesis production is probable mechanisms by which Alpinia calcarata mediates its antiinflammatory action. These findings rationalize the traditional usage of Alpinia calcarata as an antiinflammatory agent for the first time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Germacrone derivatives: synthesis, biological activity, molecular docking studies and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Feng, Yu; Han, Chao; Huang, Wu; Shen, Zhibin; Yang, Mengdie; Chen, Weiqiang; Ye, Lianbao

    2017-02-28

    Germacrone is one of the major bioactive components in the Curcuma zedoaria oil product, which is extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe, known as zedoary. The present study designed some novel germacrone derivatives based on combination principles, synthesized these compounds, and investigated their inhibitions on Bel-7402, HepG2, A549 and HeLa cells. Meanwhile, the study evaluated inhibitions of these derivatives on c-Met kinase, which has been detected in a number of cancers. The results suggested that the majority of the compounds showed stronger inhibitory effect on cancers and c-Met kinase than germacrone. Furthermore, our docking experiments analyzed the results and explained the molecular mechanism. Molecular dynamics simulations were then applied to perform further evaluation of the binding stabilities between compounds and their receptors.

  20. Efficacy of Curcuma for Treatment of Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kimberly; Sahy, William; Beckett, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this review is to identify, summarize, and evaluate clinical trials to determine the efficacy of curcuma in the treatment of osteoarthritis. A literature search for interventional studies assessing efficacy of curcuma was performed, resulting in 8 clinical trials. Studies have investigated the effect of curcuma on pain, stiffness, and functionality in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Curcuma-containing products consistently demonstrated statistically significant improvement in osteoarthritis-related endpoints compared with placebo, with one exception. When compared with active control, curcuma-containing products were similar to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and potentially to glucosamine. While statistical significant differences in outcomes were reported in a majority of studies, the small magnitude of effect and presence of major study limitations hinder application of these results. Further rigorous studies are needed prior to recommending curcuma as an effective alternative therapy for knee osteoarthritis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Efficacy of Curcuma for Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kimberly; Sahy, William; Beckett, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to identify, summarize, and evaluate clinical trials to determine the efficacy of curcuma in the treatment of osteoarthritis. A literature search for interventional studies assessing efficacy of curcuma was performed, resulting in 8 clinical trials. Studies have investigated the effect of curcuma on pain, stiffness, and functionality in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Curcuma-containing products consistently demonstrated statistically significant improvement in osteoarthritis-related endpoints compared with placebo, with one exception. When compared with active control, curcuma-containing products were similar to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and potentially to glucosamine. While statistical significant differences in outcomes were reported in a majority of studies, the small magnitude of effect and presence of major study limitations hinder application of these results. Further rigorous studies are needed prior to recommending curcuma as an effective alternative therapy for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:26976085

  2. Alpinia calcarata Roscoe: A potential phytopharmacological source of natural medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Atiar; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated. PMID:26009694

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Curcuma flaviflora (Curcuma).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Deng, Jiabin; Li, Yangyi; Gao, Gang; Ding, Chunbang; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yonghong; Yang, Ruiwu

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Curcuma flaviflora, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia, was sequenced. The genome size was 160 478 bp in length, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26 946 bp were separated by a large single copy (LSC) of 88 008 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 18 578 bp, respectively. The cp genome contained 132 annotated genes, including 79 protein coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. And 19 of these genes were duplicated in inverted repeat regions.

  4. Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2012-11-15

    Although leaves of Curcuma mangga and Curcuma longa are used in food preparations, the bioactive components in it are not known. In this study, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of leave extracts and its isolates were investigated using established bioassay procedures in our laboratory. The leaf extracts of both plants gave similar bioassay and chromatographic profiles. The methanolic and water extracts of C. mangga (CMM and CMW) and C. longa (CLM and CLW), at 100 μg/mL, inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 78%, 63%, 81% and 43%, cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 55%, 33%, 43% and 24% and COX-2 by 65%, 55%, 77% and 69%, respectively. At same concentration, CMM, CMW, CLM and CLW showed growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%. Therefore, a bioassay-guided isolation of water and methanolic extracts of C. longa was carried out and afforded nine isolates. At 25 μg/mL, these compounds inhibited LPO by 11-87%, COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 0-35% and 0-82% and growth of human tumour cells by 0-36%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification and characterization of novel fibrin(ogen)olytic protease from Curcuma aromatica Salisb.: Role in hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Priya, B S; Soujanya, K N; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2016-12-01

    The proteases from turmeric species have procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activity. This provides a scientific basis for traditional use of turmeric to stop bleeding and promote wound healing processes. Our previous studies revealed that fibrinogenolytic action of crude enzyme fraction of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., was found to be more influential than those of Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. Hence, the purpose of this study is to purify and characterize protease from C. aromatica and to explore its role in wound healing process. The protease was purified by Sephadex G-50 gel permeation chromatography. Peak with potent proteolytic activity was subjected to rechromatography and then checked for homogeneity by SDS-PAGE and native PAGE. Furthermore purity of the peak was assessed by RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF. The biochemical properties, type of protease, kinetic studies, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and fibrinolytic activities were carried out. The two proteolytic peaks were fractionated in gel permeation chromatography. Among these, the peak-II showed potent proteolytic activity with specific activity of 10units/mg/min and named as C. aromatica protease-II (CAP-II). This protein resolved into a single sharp band both in SDS-PAGE (reducing and non-reducing) as well as in native (acidic) PAGE. It is a monomeric protein, showing sharp peak in RP-HPLC and its relative molecular mass was found to be 12.378kDa. The caseinolytic and fibrinolytic activity of CAP-II was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF). The CAP-II exhibited optimum temperature of 45°C and optimum pH of 7.5. The Km and Vmax of CAP-II was found to be 1.616µg and 1.62units/mg/min respectively. The CAP-II showed hydrolysis of all three subunits of fibrinogen in the order Aα>Bß>γ. The CAP-II exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time. It also showed fibrinolytic activity by complete

  6. Analgesic principle from Curcuma amada.

    PubMed

    Faiz Hossain, Chowdhury; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Rahman, Kazi Md Mahabubur; Sarker, Aurin; Alam, Md Mahamudul; Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan; Khan, Shamsun Nahar; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar

    2015-04-02

    The rhizome of Curcuma amada has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatic disorders in the northern part of Bangladesh and has also used for the treatment of inflammation and fever in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. Aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic principle of the MeOH extract of the rhizome of Curcuma amada by an in vivo bioassay guided chromatographic separation and purification, and the structure elucidation of the purified compound by spectroscopic methods. Dried powder of Curcuma amada rhizomes was extracted with MeOH. The analgesic activity of the crude extract and its chromatographic fractions as well as the purified compound itself was evaluated by the acetic acid induced writhing method and the formalin induced licking test in Swiss albino mice. The MeOH extract was separated by chromatographic methods and the pure active compound was purified by crystallization in hexanes. The structure of the pure compound was then elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The MeOH extract of Curcuma amada exhibited 41.63% and 45.53% inhibitions in the acetic acid induced writhing method at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively. It also exerted 20.43% and 28.50% inhibitions in early phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively, and 30.41% and 42.95% inhibitions in late phase at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively in the formalin induced licking test. Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) of crude extract yielded five fractions and Fr. 1 was found to have the most potent analgesic activity with inhibitions of 36.96% in the acetic acid induced writhing method and 47.51% (early phase), 39.50% (late phase) in the formalin induced licking test at a dose of 200mg/kg. Column chromatography of Fr. 1 on silica gel generated seven fractions (SF. 1-SF. 7). SF. 2 showed the most potent activity with inhibition of 49.81% in the acetic acid induced writhing method at a dose of 100mg/kg. Crystallization of SF. 2 yielded

  7. Distribution and diversity of twelve Curcuma species in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanyue; Wei, Jingwen; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Feng; Xian, Qiqiu; Su, Ping; Pan, Wanyi; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhiyun

    2018-02-01

    Genus Curcuma a wild species presents an important source of valuable characters for improving the cultivated Curcuma varieties. Based on the collected germplasms, herbariums, field surveys and other literatures, the ecogeographical diversity of Genus Curcuma and its potential distributions under the present and future climate are analysed by DIVA-GIS. The results indicate Genus Curcuma is distributed over 17 provinces in China, and particularly abundant in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. The simulated current distributions are close to the actual distribution regions. In the future climate, the suitable areas for four Curcuma species will be extended, while for other three species the regions will be significantly decreased, and thus these valuable resources need protecting.

  8. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ke, Weixin; Bao, Rui; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yongkyu

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project, α-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and α-zingiberene makes up 35.02 ± 0.30% of its total essential oil. α-Zingiberene showed low IC50 values, 60.6 ± 3.6, 46.2 ± 0.6, 172.0 ± 6.6, 80.3 ± 6.6 (μg/mL) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than IC50 values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of α-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of α-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and α-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:27437089

  10. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongkyu

    2016-07-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project, α-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and α-zingiberene makes up 35.02 ± 0.30% of its total essential oil. α-Zingiberene showed low IC50 values, 60.6 ± 3.6, 46.2 ± 0.6, 172.0 ± 6.6, 80.3 ± 6.6 (μg/mL) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than IC50 values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of α-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of α-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and α-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics.

  11. Comparison of the Carba NP, Modified Carba NP, and Updated Rosco Neo-Rapid Carb Kit Tests for Carbapenemase Detection

    PubMed Central

    AbdelGhani, Sameh; Thomson, Gina K.; Snyder, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms is a major challenge for clinical laboratories. The Carba NP test is highly accurate but inconvenient, as it requires frequent preparation of fresh imipenem solution. The current study was designed to compare the Carba NP test to two alternative tests for accuracy and convenience. These were a modified Carba NP test that utilized intravenous (i.v.) imipenem-cilastatin, which is less expensive than reference standard imipenem powder, and an updated version of the Rosco Neo-Rapid Carb kit, which does not require the preparation of imipenem solution and has a shelf life of 2 years. The comparison included 87 isolates that produced class A carbapenemases (including KPC-2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -8, NMC-A, and SME type), 40 isolates that produced metallo-β-lactamases (including NDM-1, GIM-1, SPM-1, IMP-1, -2, -7, -8, -18, and -27, and VIM-1, -2, and -7), 11 isolates that produced OXA-48, and one isolate that produced OXA-181. Negative controls consisted of 50 isolates that produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpCs (including hyperproducers), K1, other limited-spectrum β-lactamases, and porin and efflux mutants. Each test exhibited 100% specificity and high sensitivity (Carba NP, 100%; Rosco, 99% using modified interpretation guidelines; and modified Carba NP, 96%). A modified approach to interpretation of the Rosco test was necessary to achieve the sensitivity of 99%. If the accuracy of the modified interpretation is confirmed, the Rosco test is an accurate and more convenient alternative to the Carba NP test. PMID:26311862

  12. Effect temperature of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondari, Dewi; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2017-11-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been carried out at a pressure of 16 MPa, with temperatures between 20-40 °C, during extraction time of 6 hours and the flow rate of CO2 fluid 5.5 ml/min. The result of supercritical method was compared with the extraction maceration using a mixture of water and ethanol (70% v/v) for 24 hours. The main content in ginger that has a main role as an antioxidant is a gingerol compound that can help neutralize the damaging effects caused by free radicals in the body, as anti-coagulant, and inhibit the occurrence of blood clots. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on chemical components contained in rough extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and its antioxidant activity, total phenol and total flavonoid content. To determine the chemical components contained in the crude extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted by supercritical fluid and maceration extraction, GC-MS analysis was performed. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated based on a 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical damping method. The results of the analysis show that the result of ginger extract by using the supercritical CO2 extraction method has high antioxidant activity than by using maceration method. The highest total phenol content and total flavonoids were obtained on ginger extraction using supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, indicating that phenol and flavonoid compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. Chromatographic analysis showed that the chemical profile of ginger extract containing oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpene gingerol and esters. In supercritical fluid extraction, the compounds that can be identified at a temperature of 20-40 °C contain 27 compounds, and 11 compounds from the result of maceration extract. The main component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted using supercritical fluid

  13. Hepatic protection and anticancer activity of curcuma: A potential chemopreventive strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, YAN; SHI, XUE; ZHANG, JINGWEN; ZHANG, XIANG; MARTIN, ROBERT C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant transformation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs through repetitive liver injury in a context of inflammation and oxidative DNA damage. A spectrum of natural sesquiterpenoids from curcuma oil has displayed anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and anti-HCC effects of curcuma oil in vivo and in vitro. Mice were pretreated with curcuma oil (100 mg/kg) for 3 days, then treated with Concanavalin A (30 mg/kg). The hepatic tissue was evaluated for histology, CD4+ cell, interferon-γ, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and MnSOD. C57L/J mice were treated with curcuma oil and 107 Hepa1-6 cells directly inoculated into liver lobes. The effects of curcuma oil on cell growth and cell death were evaluated. In addition, MnSOD, HSP60, catalase, NF-κB and caspase-3 were also investigated in the Hepa1-6 cells treated with curcuma oil. Pretreatment with curcuma oil significantly attenuates inflammation and oxidative damage by Concanavalin A. Treatment with curcuma oil can decrease the incidence of HCC. Curcuma oil inhibits cell growth and induces cell death in Hepa1-6 cells. Curcuma protected mice with hepatic injury from inflammatory and oxidative stress. Curcuma oil can inhibit hepatoma cell growth in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24270742

  14. Hepatic protection and anticancer activity of curcuma: a potential chemopreventive strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Jingwen; Zhang, Xiang; Martin, Robert C G

    2014-02-01

    Malignant transformation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs through repetitive liver injury in a context of inflammation and oxidative DNA damage. A spectrum of natural sesquiterpenoids from curcuma oil has displayed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The aim of the study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and anti-HCC effects of curcuma oil in vivo and in vitro. Mice were pretreated with curcuma oil (100 mg/kg) for 3 days, then treated with Concanavalin A (30 mg/kg). The hepatic tissue was evaluated for histology, CD4+ cell, interferon-γ, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and MnSOD. C57L/J mice were treated with curcuma oil and 107 Hepa1-6 cells directly inoculated into liver lobes. The effects of curcuma oil on cell growth and cell death were evaluated. In addition, MnSOD, HSP60, catalase, NF-κB and caspase-3 were also investigated in the Hepa1-6 cells treated with curcuma oil. Pretreatment with curcuma oil significantly attenuates inflammation and oxidative damage by Concanavalin A. Treatment with curcuma oil can decrease the incidence of HCC. Curcuma oil inhibits cell growth and induces cell death in Hepa1-6 cells. Curcuma protected mice with hepatic injury from inflammatory and oxidative stress. Curcuma oil can inhibit hepatoma cell growth in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Reflections about Osteoarthritis and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    Akuri, Marina Cristina; Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Val, Raíssa Meira; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative process that affects joints such as the hands, hips, shoulders, feet, spine, and especially knees in millions of people worldwide. Some authors have shown that Curcuma longa components may exhibit benefic effects in the treatment of degenerative diseases as OA. This plant belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and it is popularly known as turmeric or saffron. This review intended to perform a retrospective search to identify studies involving humans and animal models. This review was based on articles linking OA and C. longa. Databases as Medline, Science Direct, and Lilacs were consulted and a retrospective search was carried out in order to identify studies involving humans and animal models. The curcuminoids from C. longa exhibit actions at different locations in the pathogenesis of OA once it may play an important role as anti-inflammatory, down-regulating enzymes as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, and lipoxygenases, and reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha-and interleukins such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8. They also act as inducer of apoptosis in synoviocytes, decreasing the inflammation process and may also reduce the synthesis of reactive oxygen species. For these reasons, new pharmaceutical technology and pharmacological studies should be proposed to determine the dose, the best delivery vehicle, pharmaceutical formulation and route of administration of this plant so its use as an adjunct in the treatment of OA may become a reality in clinical practice. PMID:28503046

  16. Toxicological evaluation of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) [Roscoe] K. Schum

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Nebojsa; Schmidt, Barbara M.; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta [Roscoe] K. Schum.) seeds are used in West Africa as a remedy for variety of ailments such as stomachache, snakebite, diarrhea and they have reported anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, the seeds contain gingerols and related compounds that may be useful against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and inflammation. Aim of study A 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female Sprague Dawley rats was conducted to evaluate the safety of a Grains of Paradise extract. Materials and methods An ethanolic extract of the seeds was evaluated for toxicological effect on rats. Results A dose-related increase in absolute and relative liver weights was observed in males and females dosed with 450 and 1500 mg/kg. There was a corresponding increase in alkaline phosphatase with no signs of steatosis or cirrhosis. At the same doses, there was a significant decrease in blood glucose in male rats. Conclusions This study shows that Grains of Paradise extract may be useful as a treatment for diabetes, however liver toxicity should be considered. PMID:19883745

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-08-26

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Updates on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Areeful; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. (family, Zingiberaceae) is a potent medicinal herb widely known as shampoo ginger and its rhizome is used in numerous ethnomedicinal applications including antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-diarrheal, antidiabetics, carminative, and diuretic. The aim of this review was to bring together all the scientific updates on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of this herb, including their toxicological studies, and critically analyzed the outcomes to provide directions for future research on the herb as potential source of bioactive metabolites for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. A structured electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Wiley Online Library) was carried out to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books and database on medicinal plants used in various countries. About 60 metabolites, mainly polyphenols, and terpenoids have been isolated and identified. However, most of the reported pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts, and only a few of those isolated metabolites, particularly zerumbone have been investigated for biological and pharmacological activities. Many of the mechanistic studies to understand the pharmacological effects of the plant are limited by many considerations with regard to design, experimentation and interpretation. The bioactive metabolites should be further investigated on their safety and more elaborate preclinical studies before clinical trials can be undertaken. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    PubMed Central

    Bellik, Yuva

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Methods The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the ability of the ginger extracts to scavenge ABTS°+ free radical. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by using the agar incorporation method. Results Ginger extracts exerted significant antioxidant activity and dose-depend effect. In general, oleoresin showed higher antioxidant activity [IC50=(1.820±0.034) mg/mL] when compared to the essential oil [IC50=(110.14±8.44) mg/mL]. In terms of antimicrobial activity, ginger compounds were more effective against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and less effective against Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus niger was least, whereas, Penicillium spp. was higher sensitive to the ginger extracts; minimal inhibitory concentrations of the oleoresin and essential oil were 2 mg/mL and 869.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the studied extracts showed an important antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Conclusions The study confirms the wide application of ginger oleoresin and essential oil in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal diseases.

  20. Longevity and Stress Resistant Property of 6-Gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; An, Chang Wan; Kim, Yeong Jee; Noh, Yun Jeong; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ju-Eun; Shrestha, Abinash Chandra; Ham, Ha-Neul; Leem, Jae-Yoon; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Sung; Moon, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Kyung Ok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2018-03-14

    In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions. Additionally, 6-gingerol elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities of C. elegans , and showed a dose-depend reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Further studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of 6-gingerol-mediated worms could result from the promotion of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). The lipofuscin levels in 6-gingerol treated intestinal worms were decreased in comparison to the control group. No significant 6-gingerol-related changes, including growth, food intake, reproduction, and movement were noted. These results suggest that 6-gingerol exerted longevity-promoting activities independently of these factors and could extend the human lifespan.

  1. Ayurvedic preparation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe: effects on cardiac and on smooth muscle parameters.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Poli, Ferruccio; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Graziadio, Alessandra; Venturini, Alice; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Micucci, Matteo

    2017-08-28

    The rhizome of the Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a biennial herb growing in South Asia, is commonly known as ginger. Ginger is used in clinical disorders, such as constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting and its use is also recommended by the traditional medicine for cardiopathy, high blood pressure, palpitations and as a vasodilator to improve the circulation. The decoction of ginger rhizome is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. In this papery by high-performance liquid chromatography, we have seen that its main phytomarkers were 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol and we report the effects of the decoction of ginger rhizome on cardiovascular parameters and on vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. In our experimental models, the decoction of ginger shows weak negative inotropic and chronotropic intrinsic activities but a significant intrinsic activity on smooth muscle with a potency on ileum is greater than on aorta: EC 50  = 0.66 mg/mL versus EC 50  = 1.45 mg/mL.

  2. The Effect of the Gambir (Uncaria gambir (Hunt.) Roxb.) Leaves Waste and White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria) for The Productivity, Antioxidant Content and Mastitis Condition of The Fries Holland Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin, E.; Fitrimawati

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the gambir leaves waste and white turmeric on the productivity, antioxidant content and mastitis condition of dairy cows. The treatments were A. 0% gambir waste + 0.02% white turmeric; B. 20% of gambir waste + 0.02% white turmeric; C. 30% gambir waste + 0.02% white turmeric; D. 40% gambir waste + 0.02% white turmeric; and E. 50% gambir waste + 0.02% white turmeric. The results of in vitro experiment showed that the optimum ecological conditions rumen pH were ranging from 6.66 to 7.59, NH3 concentrations were ranging from 23.42 to 31.54 nM and VFA concentrations were ranging from 66.15 to 119.82 mM. All treatments gave a real impact on the rumen ecology of dairy cows FH. In-vivo experiment for the best treatment from in-vitro experiment (30% gambir waste + 0.02% white turmeric) showed that similarly, the effect of administration of gambir leaves waste and white turmeric on dairy cattle FH, antioxidant activity affect the increase of milk production (P<0.05) from 9.75 liters to 11.52 liters (18.15%), increase the antioxidant content of milk (P<0.05) from 10.98 to 13.89 (26.50%) and a decline of the mastitis (P<0.05) from positive two to positive one. Gambir leaves decoction waste at the amount of 30% combined with white turmeric gave the optimal condition of rumen ecology. It was also increased milk production by 18.15%, the antioxidant content of milk by 26.50%, and decline mastitis.

  3. Cytotoxic active constituents of essential oils of Curcuma longa and Curcuma zanthorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Erich; Ryabchenko, Boris; Wanner, Juergen; Jäger, Walter; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The polar and apolar fractions of Curcuma longa and C. zanthorriza enriched by ar-turmerone, ar-curcumene and xanthorrizol were screened for cytotoxic activity against the HeLa cell line. Actinomycin D and curcumin were used as reference samples, both known for their cytotoxic properties. Amongst all fractions tested, the xanthorrizol fraction (CC50: 26.1 ± 1.9 μM) showed the strongest cytotoxic properties similar to those of curcumin (CC50: 8.1 ± 1.7 μM). Further studies also revealed that the cytotoxic effects of the extracts and pure compounds are caused by apoptosis induction identified by the cleaved form of PARP protein.

  4. Performance of the CLSI Carba NP and the Rosco Carb Screen Assays Using North American Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Lauren C.; Roundtree, Sylvester S.; Lancaster, Diana P.; Rudin, Susan D.; Bard, Jennifer Dien; Roberts, Amity L.; Marshall, Steven H.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the performance of the Carba NP assay, published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen kit. Carba NP had superior sensitivity, but both assays required an increased inoculum to detect carbapenemase production in isolates with blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaOXA-48. PMID:26269624

  5. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the 6-Shogaol-rich Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ok, Seon; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-06-01

    6-Shogaol, a dehydrated form of 6-gingerol, is a minor component in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and has recently been reported to have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol. Based on the thermal instability of gingerols (their dehydration to corresponding shogaols at high temperature), we aimed to develop an optimal process to maximize the 6-shogaol content during ginger extraction by modulating temperature and pH. Fresh gingers were dried under various conditions: freeze-, room temperature (RT)- or convection oven-drying at 60 or 80°C, and extracted by 95% ethanol at RT, 60 or 80°C. The content of 6-shogaol was augmented by increasing both drying and extraction temperatures. The highest production of 6-shogaol was achieved at 80°C extraction after drying at the same temperature and the content of 6-shogaol was about 7-fold compared to the lowest producing process by freezing and extraction at RT. Adjustment of pH (pH 1, 4, 7 and 10) for the 6-shogaol-richest extract (dried and extracted both at 80°C) also affected the chemical composition of ginger and the yield of 6-shogaol was maximized at the most acidic condition of pH 1. Taken together, the current study shows for the first time that a maximized production of 6-shogaol can be achieved during practical drying and extraction process of ginger by increasing both drying and extracting temperatures. Adjustment of pH to extraction solvent with strong acid also helps increase the production of 6-shogaol. Our data could be usefully employed in the fields of food processing as well as nutraceutical industry.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of [6]-shogaol, a pungent ingredient of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Part I).

    PubMed

    Asami, Akitoshi; Shimada, Tsutomu; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Asano, Takayuki; Takeda, Shuichi; Aburada, Takashi; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of [6]-shogaol, a pungent ingredient of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by using (14)C-[6]-shogaol (labeled compound) and [6]-shogaol (non-labeled compound). When the labeled compound was orally administered to rats, the maximum plasma concentration (C (max)) and the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma radioactivity concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner. When the labeled compound was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg, 20.0 + or - 1.8% of the radioactivity administered was excreted into urine, 64.0 + or - 12.9% into feces, and 0.2 + or - 0.1% into breath. Thus, more of the radioactivity was excreted into feces than into urine, and almost no radioactivity was excreted into breath. Furthermore, when the labeled compound was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg, cumulative biliary radioactivity excretion over 48 h was 78.5 + or - 4.5% of the radioactivity administered, and cumulative urinary radioactivity excretion over 48 h was 11.8 + or - 2.7%, showing that about 90% of the dose administered orally was absorbed from the digestive tract and most of the fecal excretion was via biliary excretion. On the other hand, when the non-labeled compound [6]-shogaol was orally administered, the plasma concentration and biliary excretion of the unchanged form were extremely low. When these results are combined with those obtained with the labeled compound, it would suggest that [6]-shogaol is mostly metabolized in the body and excreted as metabolites.

  7. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of ginger root (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract.

    PubMed

    Tung, Bui Thanh; Thu, Dang Kim; Thu, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hai, Nguyen Thanh

    2017-05-04

    Background Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of neurological disorder. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic contents, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) inhibitory activities of different fraction of Z. officinale root grown in Vietnam. Methods The roots of Z. officinale are extracted with ethanol 96 % and fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) solvents. These fractions evaluated the antioxidant activity by 1,1-Diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and AChE inhibitory activity by Ellman's colorimetric method. Results Our data showed that the total phenolic content of EtOAc fraction was highest equivalents to 35.2±1.4 mg quercetin/g of fraction. Our data also demonstrated that EtOAc fraction had the strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 was 8.89±1.37 µg/mL and AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 22.85±2.37 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner, followed by BuOH fraction and the n-hexane fraction is the weakest. Detailed kinetic analysis indicated that EtOAc fraction was mixed inhibition type with Ki (representing the affinity of the enzyme and inhibitor) was 30.61±1.43 µg/mL. Conclusions Our results suggest that the EtOAc fraction of Z. officinale may be a promising source of AChE inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

  8. [Breeding of new Curcuma wenyujin variety "Wenyujin No. 1"].

    PubMed

    Tao, Zheng-Ming; Jiang, Wu; Zheng, Fu-Bo; Wu, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    In order to breed and spread a new cultivar of Curcuma wenyujin, the C. wenyujin germplasm resources were investigated in authentic regions. Better varieties were chosen by comparing the yield, economic characters and quality differences between different cultivars. The results showed that the character of new selected cultivar was stable, the yield of zedoary, turmeric and curcuma was reached 313.7, 177.9, 91.2 kg per 667 m2, respectively, it increased 11.6%, 10.2%, 14.2% comparing with farmer varieties. The volatile oil contents in zedoary and turmeric was 4.0%, 3.0%, respectively. The target ingredients (germacrone) content was stable. It is demonstrated that the new cultivar "Wenyujin No. 1" has value for extension at authentic regions.

  9. Chemical constituents from aerial part of Curcuma wenyujin.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zheng-Ming; Li, Ying-Yu; Ji, Ping; Wang, Yu-Bo; Qin, Guo-Wei

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from aerial part of Curcuma wenyujin. Compounds were isolated by repeated column chromatography on silica gel. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Six compounds were isolated and identified as codonolactone (1), voleneol (2), octacosanoic acid (3), beta-sitosterol (4), mangdesisterol (5), and daucosterol (6). Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of four species of Curcuma rhizomes using twice development thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J S; Guan, J; Yang, F Q; Liu, H G; Cheng, X J; Li, S P

    2008-11-04

    The rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma wenyujin and Curcuma longa are used as Ezhu or Jianghuang in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Due to their similar morphological characters, it is difficult to distinguish their origins of raw materials used in clinic. In this study, a simple, rapid and reliable twice development TLC method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the four species of Curcuma rhizomes. The chromatography was performed on silica gel 60F(254) plate with chloroform-methanol-formic acid (80:4:0.8, v/v/v) and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase for twice development. The TLC markers were colorized with 1% vanillin-H(2)SO(4) solution. The four species of Curcuma were easily discriminated based on their characteristic TLC profiles, and simultaneous quantification of eight compounds, including bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, curcumine, curcumenol, curcumol, curdione, furanodienone and curzerene, in Curcuma were also performed densitometrically at lambda(scan)=518nm and lambda(reference)=800 nm. The investigated compounds had good linearity (r(2)>0.9905) within test ranges. Therefore, the developed TLC method can be used for quality control of Curcuma rhizomes.

  11. The Effects of Curcuma Longa on the Functionality of Pigmentation for Thin Film Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsi, N.; Rus, A. Z. M.; Tan, N. A. M. S.

    2017-08-01

    This project presents the effects of turmeric (Curcuma Longa) on the functionality of pigmentation was carried out to improve the sustainability, environment impact and reduction of potential cost saving without sacrificing the performance of thin film coating. The Curcuma Longa pigment was extracted by grating the turmeric into small particles at different percentages which is 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of Curcuma Longa pigment with 3, 6 and 9 layers of coating. The different percentages of Curcuma Longa pigment was formulated and synthesized with polyols by crosslinking agent of glycerol and calcium carbonate into temperature at 140 °C for 2 hours. The results of water droplet test (ASTM D5964) showed the water contact angle was achieved the optimum superhydrophobic characteristic up to 60% of Curcuma Longa at 153°. The formulation of 60% Curcuma Longa was revealed the optimum adhesion resistance test with no flaking and detachment when the coating applied at 9 layers in the classification grading of adhesion test at 5B. It is indicated that the adhesion resistance of thin film coating on metal substrate was obviously increased as the layer of coating as well as the Curcuma Longa pigment percentage up to 60% at 9 layers. This project also highlighted the potential of Curcuma Longa pigment to produce quality in the natural pigmentation as a replacement synthetic pigment which is long-term health hazards.

  12. Physicochemical/photophysical characterization and angiogenic properties of Curcuma longa essential oil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Lilhian A; Araújo, Rafael G M; Gomes, Flávia O; Lemes, Susy R; Almeida, Luciane M; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gonçalves, Pablo J; Mrué, Fátima; Silva-Junior, Nelson J; Melo-Reis, Paulo R DE

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the physicochemical and photophysical properties of essential oil of Curcuma longa and its angiogenic potential. The results showed that curcumin is the main fluorescent component present in the oil, although the amount is relatively small. The experimental chorioallantoic membrane model was used to evaluate angiogenic activity, showing a significant increase in the vascular network of Curcuma longa and positive control groups when compared to the neutral and inhibitor controls (P <0.05), but no significant difference was found between Curcuma longa essential oil and the positive control (P >0.05). Histological analysis showed extensive neovascularization, hyperemia and inflammation in the positive control group and Curcuma longa when compared to other controls (P <0.05), characteristic factors of the angiogenesis process. In conclusion, Curcuma longa oil showed considerable proangiogenic activity and could be a potential compound in medical applications.

  13. Data in support of three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hafid, Kahina; Hoggas, Naouel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article titled “Three Phase Partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes” (Gagaoua et al., 2015) [1]. Zingibain (EC 3.4.22.67), is a coagulant cysteine protease and a meat tenderizer agent that have been reported to produce satisfactory final products in dairy and meat technology, respectively. Zingibains were exclusively purified using chromatographic techniques with very low yield purification. This paper includes data of the effect of temperature, usual salts and organic solvents on the efficiency of the three phase partitioning (TPP) system. Also it includes data of the kinetic activity characterization of the purified zingibain using TPP purification approach. PMID:26909379

  14. A comparative UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for distinguishing Zingiber officinale Roscoe of two geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Mais, Enos; Alolga, Raphael N; Wang, Shi-Lei; Linus, Loveth O; Yin, Xiaojin; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2018-02-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a popular spice used in the food, beverage and confectionary industries. In this study, we report an untargeted UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for comprehensively discriminating between ginger from two geographical locations, Ghana in West Africa and China. Forty batches of fresh ginger from both countries were discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis. Sixteen differential metabolites were identified between the gingers from the two geographical locations, six of which were identified as the marker compounds responsible for the discrimination. Our study highlights the essence and predictive power of metabolomics in detecting minute differences in same varieties of plants/plant samples based on the levels and composition of their metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers as a complementary tool for identification of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) from crude drugs and multicomponent formulations.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Preeti; Warude, Dnyaneshwar; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2008-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (common or culinary ginger) is an official drug in Ayurvedic, Indian herbal, Chinese, Japanese, African and British Pharmacopoeias. The objective of the present study was to develop DNA-based markers that can be applied for the identification and differentiation of the commercially important plant Z. officinale Roscoe from the closely related species Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone, bitter or 'shampoo' ginger) and Zingiber cassumunar [cassumunar or plai (Thai) ginger]. The rhizomes of the other two Zingiber species used in the present study are morphologically similar to that of Z. officinale Roscoe and can be used as its adulterants or contaminants. Various methods, including macroscopy, microscopy and chemoprofiling, have been reported for the quality control of crude ginger and its products. These methods are reported to have limitations in distinguishing Z. officinale from closely related species. Hence, newer complementary methods for correct identification of ginger are useful. In the present study, RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis was used to identify putative species-specific amplicons for Z. officinale. These were further cloned and sequenced to develop SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers. The developed SCAR markers were tested in several non-Zingiber species commonly used in ginger-containing formulations. One of the markers, P3, was found to be specific for Z. officinale and was successfully applied for detection of Z. officinale from Trikatu, a multicomponent formulation.

  16. Study on Quality Standard of Processed Curcuma Longa Radix

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Quan, Liang; Zhou, Haiting; Cao, Dong; Li, Wenbing; Yang, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    To control the quality of Curcuma Longa Radix by establishing quality standards, this paper increased the contents of extract and volatile oil determination. Meanwhile, the curcumin was selected as the internal marker, and the relative correlation factors (RCFs) of demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of multicomponents were calculated based on their RCFs. The rationality and feasibility of the methods were evaluated by comparison of the quantitative results between external standard method (ESM) and quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS). Ethanol extracts ranged from 9.749 to 15.644% and the mean value was 13.473%. The volatile oil ranged from 0.45 to 0.90 mL/100 g and the mean value was 0.66 mL/100 g. This method was accurate and feasible and could provide a reference for further comprehensive and effective control of the quality standard of Curcuma Longa Radix and its processed products. PMID:29375640

  17. Curcuminoid content of Curcuma longa L. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome based on drying method with NMR and HPLC-UVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, S.; Artanti, A. N.; Rinanto, Y.; Wahyuni, D. S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Curcuminoid, consisting of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis demethoxycurcumin, is the major compound in Curcuma longa L. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome. It has been known to have a potent antioxidants, anticancer, antibacteria activity. Those rhizomes needs to be dried beforehand which influenced the active compounds concentration. The present work was conducted to assess the curcuminoid content of C. longa L. and C. xanthorrhiza based on drying method with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-UVD. Samples were collected and dried using freeze-drying and oven method. The latter is the common method applied in most drying method at herbal medicine preparation procedure. All samples were extracted using 96% ethanol and analyzed using NMR and HPLC-UVD. Curcuminoid as a bioactive compound in the sample exhibited no significant difference and weak significant difference in C. xanthorrhiza and C. longa L., respectively. HLPC-UVD as a reliable analytical method for the quantification is subsequently used to confirm of the data obtained by NMR. It resulted that curcuminoid content showed no significant difference in both samples. This replied that curcuminoids content in both samples were stable into heating process. These results are useful information for simplicia standardization method in pharmaceutical products regarding to preparation procedure.

  18. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for discrimination of Curcuma longa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber cassumunar.

    PubMed

    Rohaeti, Eti; Rafi, Mohamad; Syafitri, Utami Dyah; Heryanto, Rudi

    2015-02-25

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber cassumunar) are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines (jamu). They have similar color for their rhizome and possess some similar uses, so it is possible to substitute one for the other. The identification and discrimination of these closely-related plants is a crucial task to ensure the quality of the raw materials. Therefore, an analytical method which is rapid, simple and accurate for discriminating these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with some chemometrics methods was developed. FTIR spectra were acquired in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm(-1)). Standard normal variate, first and second order derivative spectra were compared for the spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for the classification of the three species. Samples could be discriminated by visual analysis of the FTIR spectra by using their marker bands. Discrimination of the three species was also possible through the combination of the pre-processed FTIR spectra with PCA and CVA, in which CVA gave clearer discrimination. Subsequently, the developed method could be used for the identification and discrimination of the three closely-related plant species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for discrimination of Curcuma longa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber cassumunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohaeti, Eti; Rafi, Mohamad; Syafitri, Utami Dyah; Heryanto, Rudi

    2015-02-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber cassumunar) are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines (jamu). They have similar color for their rhizome and possess some similar uses, so it is possible to substitute one for the other. The identification and discrimination of these closely-related plants is a crucial task to ensure the quality of the raw materials. Therefore, an analytical method which is rapid, simple and accurate for discriminating these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with some chemometrics methods was developed. FTIR spectra were acquired in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm-1). Standard normal variate, first and second order derivative spectra were compared for the spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for the classification of the three species. Samples could be discriminated by visual analysis of the FTIR spectra by using their marker bands. Discrimination of the three species was also possible through the combination of the pre-processed FTIR spectra with PCA and CVA, in which CVA gave clearer discrimination. Subsequently, the developed method could be used for the identification and discrimination of the three closely-related plant species.

  20. Cyclocurcumin, an Antivasoconstrictive Constituent of Curcuma longa (Turmeric).

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Jung-Jun; Jung, Yeryeon; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Syed, Ahmed Shah; Kim, Chul Young; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, Ok-Nam; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2017-01-27

    Despite the increasing attention on the therapeutic potential of Curcuma longa (turmeric), the biological activities of curcuminoids other than curcumin are not well understood. Here, we investigated antivasoconstrictive activities of C. longa extract and its ingredients using freshly isolated rat aortic rings. C. longa extract significantly suppressed agonist-stimulated vasoconstriction, and cyclocurcumin was found to be the most potent (IC 50 against phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction: 14.9 ± 1.0 μM) among the 10 tested ingredients including four curcuminoids. Cyclocurcumin significantly inhibited contraction of vascular smooth muscle, which was mediated by the suppression of myosin-light-chain phosphorylation and calcium influx via the L-type calcium channel. The inhibitory effect of cyclocurcumin was observed to be reversible and without cytotoxicity. Taken together, we demonstrated that cyclocurcumin, a bioactive ingredient in C. longa, may have a therapeutic potential as a novel antivasoconstrictive natural product.

  1. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-06-14

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.

  2. Composition and immunotoxicity activity of essential oils from leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Sang-Buem; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2011-03-01

    The leaves of Zingiber officinale Roscoe were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of Z. officinale leaves. The Z. officinale essential oil yield was 0.26%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were Camphene (5.26%), Phellandrene (6.58%), Zingiberene (36.48%), Geranial (4.32%), β-gurjunene (2.74%), and Citronellol β-sesguiphellandrene (12.31%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 46.38 ppm and an LC(90) value of 84.32 ppm. Also, Camphene (≥95.0%), Phellandrene (≥95.0%), Zingiberene (≥95.0%), Geranial (≥95.0%), β-gurjunene (≥97.0%), and Citronellol (≥95.0%) were tested against the F21 laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Zingiberene (≥95.0%) and Citronellol (≥95.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 99.55 ppm and 141.45 ppm. This indicates that other major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil.

  3. Development of intron length polymorphism markers in genes encoding diketide-CoA synthase and curcumin synthase for discriminating Curcuma species.

    PubMed

    Kita, Tomoko; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Iida, Osamu; Sugimura, Koji; Kawahara, Nobuo; Taguchi, Hiromu; Masamura, Noriya; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Various Curcuma rhizomes have been used as medicines or spices in Asia since ancient times. It is very difficult to distinguish them morphologically, especially when they are boiled and dried, which causes misidentification leading to a loss of efficacy. We developed a method for discriminating Curcuma species by intron length polymorphism markers in genes encoding diketide-CoA synthase and curcumin synthase. This method could apply to identification of not only fresh plants but also samples of crude drugs or edible spices. By applying this method to Curcuma specimens and samples, and constructing a dendrogram based on these markers, seven Curcuma species were clearly distinguishable. Moreover, Curcuma longa specimens were geographically distinguishable. On the other hand, Curcuma kwangsiensis (gl type) specimens also showed intraspecies polymorphism, which may have occurred as a result of hybridization with other Curcuma species. The molecular method we developed is a potential tool for global classification of the genus Curcuma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of Curcuma longa and curcumin on reproductive systems.

    PubMed

    Mohebbati, R; Anaeigoudari, A; Khazdair, M R

    2017-10-26

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) was used in some countries such as China and India for various medicinal purposes. Curcumin, the active component of C. longa, is commonly used as a coloring agent in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. C. longa and curcumin have been known to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagen, and anti-carcinogenic agents. Th e attempt of the present review was to give an effort on a detailed literature survey concentrated on the protective effects of C. longa and curcumin on the reproductive organs activity. The databases such as, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Iran- Medex, were considered. The search terms were "testis" or "ovary" and "Curcuma longa", "curcumin", "antioxidant effect", "anti-inflammatory effect" and "anti-cancer effect". C. longa and curcumin inhibited the production of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and increased the caspases (3, 8 and 9) activities in HL-60 prostate cancer. Furthermore, C. longa and curcumin suppressed the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (STAT) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in ovarian cancer cell line. C. longa and curcumin might decrease the risk of cancer and other malignant diseases in the reproductive system. C. longa and curcumin have a protective effect on the reproductive organs activity such as, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects in normal cells but showed pro-apoptotic effects in the malignant cells. Therefore, different effects of C. longa and curcumin are dependent on the doses and the type of cells used in various models studied.

  5. Study of the scattering of the light in aqueous samples collagen in the presence of nanoparticles and curcuma pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F. M. L.; Alencar, L. D. S.; Bernardi, M. I. B.; Lima, F. W. S.; Melo, C. A. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we investigate the scattering of light in means turbid in the presence or not of pigment and nanoparticles. For this we initially using a sample of collagen from means turbid with and without the presence of curcuma pigments and nanoparticles. Our results show that the light scattering is more intense in the samples with nanoparticles and curcuma pigment.

  6. Secondary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown at different locations using GC/TOF and UPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jueun; Jung, Youngae; Shin, Jeoung-Hwa; Kim, Ho Kyoung; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Ryu, Do Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2014-07-04

    Curcuma, a genus of rhizomatous herbaceous species, has been used as a spice, traditional medicine, and natural dye. In this study, the metabolite profile of Curcuma extracts was determined using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) to characterize differences between Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma longa grown on the Jeju-do or Jin-do islands, South Korea. Previous studies have performed primary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown in different regions using NMR-based metabolomics. This study focused on profiling of secondary metabolites from the hexane extract of Curcuma species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots showed significant differences between the C. aromatica and C. longa metabolite profiles, whereas geographical location had little effect. A t-test was performed to identify statistically significant metabolites, such as terpenoids. Additionally, targeted profiling using UPLC/Q-TOF MS showed that the concentration of curcuminoids differed depending on the plant origin. Based on these results, a combination of GC- and LC-MS allowed us to analyze curcuminoids and terpenoids, the typical bioactive compounds of Curcuma, which can be used to discriminate Curcuma samples according to species or geographical origin.

  7. Curcuma longa Is Able to Induce Apoptotic Cell Death of Pterygium-Derived Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sancilio, Silvia; Di Staso, Silvio; Sebastiani, Stefano; Centurione, Lucia; Ciancaglini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Pterygium is a relatively common eye disease that can display an aggressive clinical behaviour. To evaluate the in vitro effects of Curcuma longa on human pterygium-derived keratinocytes, specimens of pterygium from 20 patients undergoing pterygium surgical excision were collected. Pterygium explants were put into culture and derived keratinocytes were treated with an alcoholic extract of 1.3% Curcuma longa in 0.001% Benzalkonium Chloride for 3, 6, and 24 h. Cultured cells were examined for CAM5.2 (anti-cytokeratin antibody) and CD140 (anti-fibroblast transmembrane glycoprotein antibody) expression between 3th and 16th passage to assess cell homogeneity. TUNEL technique and Annexin-V/PI staining in flow cytometry were used to detect keratinocyte apoptosis. We showed that Curcuma longa exerts a proapoptotic effect on pterygium-derived keratinocytes already after 3 h treatment. Moreover, after 24 h treatment, Curcuma longa induces a significant increase in TUNEL as well as Annexin-V/PI positive cells in comparison to untreated samples. Our study confirms previous observations highlighting the expression, in pterygium keratinocytes, of nuclear VEGF and gives evidence for the first time to the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic VEGF-R1. All in all, these findings suggest that Curcuma longa could have some therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of human pterygium. PMID:29392130

  8. Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

    2012-10-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  9. Curcuma longa Is Able to Induce Apoptotic Cell Death of Pterygium-Derived Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sancilio, Silvia; Di Staso, Silvio; Sebastiani, Stefano; Centurione, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Nick; Ciancaglini, Marco; Di Pietro, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Pterygium is a relatively common eye disease that can display an aggressive clinical behaviour. To evaluate the in vitro effects of Curcuma longa on human pterygium-derived keratinocytes, specimens of pterygium from 20 patients undergoing pterygium surgical excision were collected. Pterygium explants were put into culture and derived keratinocytes were treated with an alcoholic extract of 1.3% Curcuma longa in 0.001% Benzalkonium Chloride for 3, 6, and 24 h. Cultured cells were examined for CAM5.2 (anti-cytokeratin antibody) and CD140 (anti-fibroblast transmembrane glycoprotein antibody) expression between 3th and 16th passage to assess cell homogeneity. TUNEL technique and Annexin-V/PI staining in flow cytometry were used to detect keratinocyte apoptosis. We showed that Curcuma longa exerts a proapoptotic effect on pterygium-derived keratinocytes already after 3 h treatment. Moreover, after 24 h treatment, Curcuma longa induces a significant increase in TUNEL as well as Annexin-V/PI positive cells in comparison to untreated samples. Our study confirms previous observations highlighting the expression, in pterygium keratinocytes, of nuclear VEGF and gives evidence for the first time to the expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic VEGF-R1. All in all, these findings suggest that Curcuma longa could have some therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of human pterygium.

  10. Protective effects of Curcuma longa against neurobehavioral and neurochemical damage caused by cerium chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Yamina; Nciri, Riadh; Brahmi, Noura; Saidi, Saber; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Aldahmash, Waleed; El Feki, Abdelfatteh; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2018-05-07

    Cerium chloride (CeCl 3 ) is considered an environmental pollutant and a potent neurotoxic agent. Medicinal plants have many bioactive compounds that provide protection against damage caused by such pollutants. Curcuma longa is a bioactive compound-rich plant with very important antioxidant properties. To study the preventive and healing effects of Curcuma longa on cerium-damaged mouse brains, we intraperitoneally injected cerium chloride (CeCl 3 , 20 mg/kg BW) along with Curcuma longa extract, administrated by gavage (100 mg/kg BW), into mice for 60 days. We then examined mouse behavior, brain tissue damage, and brain oxidative stress parameters. Our results revealed a significant modification in the behavior of the CeCl 3 -treated mice. In addition, CeCl 3 induced a significant increment in lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein (PCO), and advanced oxidation protein product levels, as well as a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity remarkably increased in the brain of CeCl 3 -treated mice. Histopathological observations confirmed these results. Curcuma longa attenuated CeCl 3 -induced oxidative stress and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. It also decreased AChE activity in the CeCl 3 -damaged mouse brain that was confirmed by histopathology. In conclusion, this study suggests that Curcuma longa has a neuroprotective effect against CeCl 3 -induced damage in the brain.

  11. Curcuma longa Extract Exerts a Myorelaxant Effect on the Ileum and Colon in a Mouse Experimental Colitis Model, Independent of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Giulia; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; D’Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Sartini, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Marocchi, Margherita; Cevenini, Monica; Rosini, Francesca; Montagnani, Marco; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. Methods The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Results Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Conclusions Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent. PMID:22984538

  12. Curcuma longa extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the ileum and colon in a mouse experimental colitis model, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Rita; Budriesi, Roberta; Roda, Giulia; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Sartini, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Marocchi, Margherita; Cevenini, Monica; Rosini, Francesca; Montagnani, Marco; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.

  13. Color improvement by irradiation of Curcuma aromatica extract for industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Kyung; Jo, Cheorun; Hwang, Han Joon; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Young Ji; Byun, Myung Woo

    2006-03-01

    Curcuma species are medicinal herbs with various pharmacological activities. They have a characteristic yellow color and contain curcuminoids which are natural antioxidants. In this study, Curcuma aromatica (CA) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts were gamma-irradiated for improving the color, and the irradiation effects on the curcuminoids contents in CA and CL extracts were determined in order to evaluate if CA can replace CL on the market, where the price of CA is 70% lower than the price of CL. The Hunter color L*-values were increased significantly in all the samples with increasing dose, while the a*-values and b*-values decreased, which implies that the color of the CA and CL extracts changed from dark yellow to brighter yellow. Curcuminoids contents of all the samples were evaluated, and CA contains more curcuminoids than CL. These results indicated that irradiation improved the properties of CA for possible industrial use in manufacturing food and cosmetic industrial products.

  14. [Optimization of stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix by orthogonal test].

    PubMed

    Shi, Dianhua; Su, Benzheng; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Jun; Qu, Yongsheng

    2011-05-01

    To optimize the stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix. The intrinsic quality (the content of Curcumin) and traditional outward appearance were chosen as indexes. The best technology was determined by orthogonal test L9 (3(4)). The factors of the moistening time, stir-baking temperature and stir-baking time were investigated. The optimal technology was as follows: the quantity of vinegar was 10%, the moistening time was 10 min, the stir-baking temperature was 130 degrees C and the stir-baking time was 10 min. The optimal stir-baking with vinegar technology for Curcumae Radix is reasonable, which can be used to guide the standardized production of Curcumae Radix stir-baked with vinegar.

  15. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Curcuma longa tuber powder

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamanian, Ali; Sangpour, Parvanh; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Zargar, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries. PMID:23341739

  16. Variation on Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oils of Four Common Curcuma Herbs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanyue; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Dingkang; Huang, Zebin; Li, Yongliang; Lan, Xinzi; Su, Ping; Pan, Wanyi; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhiyun

    2017-11-01

    Chemical compositions, antioxidative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of essential oils extracted from four common Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma wenyujin, and Curcuma kwangsiensis) rhizomes in P. R. China are comparatively studied. In total, 47, 49, 35, and 30 compounds are identified in C. longa, C. phaeocaulis, C. wenyujin, and C. kwangsiensis essential oils by GC/MS, and their richest compounds are ar-turmerone (21.67%), elemenone (19.41%), curdione (40.23%) and (36.47%), respectively. Moreover, C. kwangsiensis essential oils display the strongest DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity (IC 50 , 3.47 μg/ml), much higher than ascorbic acid (6.50 μg/ml). C. phaeocaulis oils show the best antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (MIC, 235.54 μg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (391.31 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (378.36 μg/ml), while C. wenyujin and C. kwangsiensis oils show optimum activities against Candida albicans (208.61 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (193.27 μg/ml), respectively. C. phaeocaulis (IC 50 , 4.63 μg/ml) and C. longa essential oils (73.05 μg/ml) have the best cytotoxicity against LNCaP and HepG2, respectively. C. kwangsiensis oils also exhibit the strongest anti-inflammatory activities by remarkably down-regulating expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. Therefore, due to their different chemical compositions and bioactivities, traditional Chinese Curcuma herbs should be differentially served as natural additives for food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. [Effect of vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma on bile metabolism in rats].

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei; Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Wang, Qiao-Han; Pan, Zi-Hao; Ji, De; Li, Lin; Zhang, Ji; Mao, Chun-Qin

    2016-04-01

    To explore the effect of vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma on endogenous metabolites in bile by investigating the endogenous metabolites difference in bile before and after Curcumae Rhizoma was processed with vinegar. Alcohol extracts of crude and vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma, as well as normal saline were prepared respectively, which were then given to the rats by intragastric administration for 0.5 h. Then common bile duct intubation drainage was conducted to collect 12 h bile of the rats. UPLC-TOF-MS analysis of bile samples was applied after 1∶3 acetonitrile protein precipitation; unidimensional statistics were combined with multivariate statistics and PeakView software was compared with network database to identify the potential biomarkers. Vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma extracts had significant effects on metabolites spectrum in bile of the rats. With the boundaries of P<0.05, 13 metabolites with significant differences were found in bile of crude and vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma groups, and 8 of them were identified when considering the network database. T-test unidimensional statistical analysis was applied between administration groups and blank group to obtain 7 metabolites with significant differences and identify them as potential biomarkers. 6 of the potential biomarkers were up-regulated in vinegar-processed group, which were related to the metabolism regulation of phospholipid metabolism, fat metabolism, bile acid metabolism, and N-acylethanolamine hydrolysis reaction balance, indicating the mechanism of vinegar-processed Curcumae Rhizoma on endogenous metabolites in bile of the rats. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Curcuma longa L. as a Therapeutic Agent in Intestinal Motility Disorders. 2: Safety Profile in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Micucci, Matteo; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Monica; Colliva, Carolina; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Giulia; Montagnani, Marco; Camborata, Cecilia; Camarda, Luca; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Budriesi, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Background Curcuma extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the mouse intestine. In view of a possible use of curcuma extract in motor functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, a safety profile study has been carried out in the mouse. Methods Thirty mice were used to study the in vitro effect of curcuma on gallbladder, bladder, aorta and trachea smooth muscular layers and hearth inotropic and chronotropic activity. The myorelaxant effect on the intestine was also thoroughly investigated. Moreover, curcuma extract (200 mg/Kg/day) was orally administered to twenty mice over 28 days and serum liver and lipids parameters were evaluated. Serum, bile and liver bile acids qualitative and quantitative composition was were also studied. Results In the intestine, curcuma extract appeared as a not competitive inhibitor through cholinergic, histaminergic and serotoninergic receptors and showed spasmolytic effect on K+ induced contraction at the level of L type calcium channels. No side effect was observed on bladder, aorta, trachea and heart when we used a dose that is effective on the intestine. An increase in gallbladder tone and contraction was observed. Serum liver and lipids parameters were normal, while a slight increase in serum and liver bile acids concentration and a decrease in bile were observed. Conclusions Although these data are consistent with the safety of curcuma extract as far as its effect on the smooth muscular layers of different organs and on the heart, the mild cholestatic effect observed in absence of alteration of liver function tests must be further evaluated and the effective dose with minimal side effects considered. PMID:24260512

  19. Curcuma longa L. as a therapeutic agent in intestinal motility disorders. 2: Safety profile in mouse.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Matteo; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Monica; Colliva, Carolina; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Giulia; Montagnani, Marco; Camborata, Cecilia; Camarda, Luca; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Budriesi, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the mouse intestine. In view of a possible use of curcuma extract in motor functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, a safety profile study has been carried out in the mouse. Thirty mice were used to study the in vitro effect of curcuma on gallbladder, bladder, aorta and trachea smooth muscular layers and hearth inotropic and chronotropic activity. The myorelaxant effect on the intestine was also thoroughly investigated. Moreover, curcuma extract (200 mg/Kg/day) was orally administered to twenty mice over 28 days and serum liver and lipids parameters were evaluated. Serum, bile and liver bile acids qualitative and quantitative composition was were also studied. In the intestine, curcuma extract appeared as a not competitive inhibitor through cholinergic, histaminergic and serotoninergic receptors and showed spasmolytic effect on K(+) induced contraction at the level of L type calcium channels. No side effect was observed on bladder, aorta, trachea and heart when we used a dose that is effective on the intestine. An increase in gallbladder tone and contraction was observed. Serum liver and lipids parameters were normal, while a slight increase in serum and liver bile acids concentration and a decrease in bile were observed. Although these data are consistent with the safety of curcuma extract as far as its effect on the smooth muscular layers of different organs and on the heart, the mild cholestatic effect observed in absence of alteration of liver function tests must be further evaluated and the effective dose with minimal side effects considered.

  20. Antifungal activity of Curcuma longa grown in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wuthi-udomlert, M; Grisanapan, W; Luanratana, O; Caichompoo, W

    2000-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. or turmeric (Zingiberaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used and cultivated in tropical regions. According to Thai traditional texts, fresh and dried rhizomes are used as peptic ulcer treatment, carminatives, wound treatment and anti-inflammatory agent. Using hydro distillation, 1.88% and 7.02% (v/w) volatile oils were extracted from fresh and dried rhizomes, respectively, and 6.95% (w/w)crude curcuminoids were extracted from dried rhizomes. Dried powder was extracted with 95% ethanol and yielded 29.52% (w/w) crude ethanol extract composed of curcumin (11.6%), demethoxycurcumin (10.32%) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (10.77%). These extracts were tested for antifungal activity by agar disc diffusion method against 29 clinical strains of dermatophytes. It was found that crude ethanol extract exhibited an inhibition zone range of 6.1 to 26.0 mm. There was no inhibition activity from crude curcuminoids while curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycutcumin gave different inhibition zone diameters ranging from 6.1 to 16.0 mm. Although antifungal activity of undiluted freshly distilled oil and 18-month-old oil revealed some differences, the inhibition zone diameters for both extracts varied within 26.1 to 46.0 mm. With 200 mg/ml ketoconazole, the activities of the standard agent were similar to the oil, both freshly distilled and 18-month-old, but were significantly different from those of curcuminoid compounds and crude ethanol extracts (p < 0.01). Turmeric oil was also tested for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth dilution method. The MICs of freshly distilled and 18-month-old oils were 7.8 and 7.2 mg/ml respectively.

  1. Serum lipidomics analysis of ovariectomized rats under Curcuma comosa treatment.

    PubMed

    Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Sueajai, Jetjamnong; Chaihad, Nichaboon; Panrak, Ratchanee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Sangvanich, Polkit; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2016-11-04

    Curcuma comosa Roxb. (C. comosa) or Wan Chak Motluk, Zingiberaceae family, has been used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of gynecological problems and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of C. comosa by determining the changes in the lipid profiles in the ovariectomized rats, as a model of estrogen-deficiency-induced hyperlipidemia, after treatment with different components of C. comosa using an untargeted lipidomics approach. Lipids were extracted from the serum of adult female rats subjected to a sham operation (SHAM; control), ovariectomy (OVX), or OVX with 12-week daily doses of estrogen (17β-estradiol; E 2 ), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (DPHD; a phytoestrogen from C. comosa), powdered C. comosa rhizomes or its crude ethanol extract. They were then analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, characterized, and subjected to the orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis statistical model to identify tentative biomarkers. Levels of five classes of lipids (ceramide, ceramide-1-phosphate, sphingomyelin, 1-O-alkenyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine) were elevated in the OVX rats compared to those in the SHAM rats, while the monoacylglycerols and triacylglycerols were decreased. The E 2 treatment only reversed the levels of ceramides, whereas treatments with DPHD, C. comosa extract or powder returned the levels of all upregulated lipids back to those in the SHAM control rats. The findings suggest the potential beneficial effects of C. comosa on preventing the increased ceramide levels in OVX rats, a possible cause of metabolic disturbance under estrogen deficiency. Overall, the results demonstrated the power of untargeted lipidomics in discovering disease-relevant biomarkers, as well as evaluating the effectiveness of treatment by C. comosa components (DPHD, extract or powder) as utilized in Thai traditional medicine, and also providing

  2. Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hee; Kim, Beom-Su; Keum, Ki-Suk; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Kim, Young-Hoi; Chang, Byoung-Soo; Ra, Ji-Young; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Seo, Bo-Ra; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) has been used as a spice in foods and as an antimicrobial in Oriental medicine. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of an essential oil isolated from C. longa on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which is an important bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries formation. First, the inhibitory effects of C. longa essential oil on the growth and acid production of S. mutans were tested. Next, the effect of C. longa essential oil on adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) was investigated. C. longa essential oil inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL. The essential oil also exhibited significant inhibition of S. mutans adherence to S-HAs at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. S. mutans biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. The essential oil of C. longa inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/mL. The components of C. longa essential oil were then analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the major components were α-turmerone (35.59%), germacrone (19.02%), α-zingiberene (8.74%), αr-turmerone (6.31%), trans-β-elemenone (5.65%), curlone (5.45%), and β-sesquiphellandrene (4.73%). These results suggest that C. longa may inhibit the cariogenic properties of S. mutans. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Cytotoxic and Antitumor Effects of Curzerene from Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youdi; Li, Jiahong; Guo, Jiquan; Wang, Qiyou; Zhu, Shuguang; Gao, Siyuan; Yang, Chen; Wei, Min; Pan, Xuediao; Zhu, Wei; Ding, Dongmei; Gao, Ruiping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Junye; Zang, Linquan

    2017-01-01

    Curzerene is a sesquiterpene and component used in oriental medicine. It was originally isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Curcuma rhizomes. In this study, anticancer activity of curzerene was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models. The result of the MTT assay showed that curzerene exhibited antiproliferative effects in SPC-A1 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. The anticancer IC 50 s were 403.8, 154.8, and 47.0 µM for 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. The flow cytometry analysis indicated curzerene arrested the cells in the G2/M cell cycle and promoted or induced apoptosis of SPC-A1 cells. The percentage of cells arrested in the G2/M phase increased from 9.26 % in the control group cells to 17.57 % in the cells treated with the highest dose (100 µM) of curzerene. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that curzerene induced the downregulation of GSTA1 protein and mRNA expressions in SPC-A1 cells. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in SPC-A1 cell-bearing nude mice by using curzerene (135 mg/kg daily), meanwhile, curzerene did not significantly affect body mass and the organs of the mice, which may indicate that curzerene has limited toxicity and side effects in vivo . In conclusion, curzerene could inhibit the proliferation of SPC-A1 human lung adenocarcinoma cells line in both in vitro and in vivo models. Focusing on its relationship with GSTA1, curzerene could induce the downregulation of GSTA1 protein and mRNA expressions in SPC-A1 cells. Curzerene might be used as an anti-lung adenocarcinoma drug candidate compound for further development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Antiparasitic efficacy of curcumin from Curcuma longa against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. In the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-Ich theronts. Anti-Ich efficac...

  5. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and E. tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Infected chickens given the C. longa-containing diet had increased body weig...

  6. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. [GC-MS analysis of essential oil from Curcuma aromatica rhizome of different growth periods].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Ming-ming; Huang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Hua-gang; Lai, Mao-xiang; Wei, Meng-han

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the essential oil from the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica of different growth periods, and to provide the scientific reference for reasonable cultivation and quality control of this plant. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC-MS. The relative contents were determined with area normalization method. The main volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica were basically the same. Among these volatile constituents, curdione was the major. The relative content of curdione was 16.35% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county, and 15.81% in the rhizome of one-year-old plant in Mingyang farm, Nanning city. The relative content of eucalyptol in the 2-year-old cultivated rhizome in Hengxian county was 15.40%, and 14.59% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county. beta-Elemene, beta-caryophyllene,eugenol and germacrone were also the main constituents in the rhizome essential oil. Volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica are similar to each other,but the relative content of each component is different. This result can provide the scientific foundation for the cultivation of Curcuma aromatica.

  8. Chromosome Numbers and Genome Size Variation in Indian Species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Šída, Otakar; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Sabu, Mamyil; Fér, Tomáš; Trávníček, Pavel; Suda, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size and chromosome numbers are important cytological characters that significantly influence various organismal traits. However, geographical representation of these data is seriously unbalanced, with tropical and subtropical regions being largely neglected. In the present study, an investigation was made of chromosomal and genome size variation in the majority of Curcuma species from the Indian subcontinent, and an assessment was made of the value of these data for taxonomic purposes. Methods Genome size of 161 homogeneously cultivated plant samples classified into 51 taxonomic entities was determined by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Chromosome numbers were counted in actively growing root tips using conventional rapid squash techniques. Key Results Six different chromosome counts (2n = 22, 42, 63, >70, 77 and 105) were found, the last two representing new generic records. The 2C-values varied from 1·66 pg in C. vamana to 4·76 pg in C. oligantha, representing a 2·87-fold range. Three groups of taxa with significantly different homoploid genome sizes (Cx-values) and distinct geographical distribution were identified. Five species exhibited intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content, reaching up to 15·1 % in cultivated C. longa. Chromosome counts and genome sizes of three Curcuma-like species (Hitchenia caulina, Kaempferia scaposa and Paracautleya bhatii) corresponded well with typical hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) Curcuma spp. Conclusions The basic chromosome number in the majority of Indian taxa (belonging to subgenus Curcuma) is x = 7; published counts correspond to 6x, 9x, 11x, 12x and 15x ploidy levels. Only a few species-specific C-values were found, but karyological and/or flow cytometric data may support taxonomic decisions in some species alliances with morphological similarities. Close evolutionary relationships among some cytotypes are suggested based on the similarity in homoploid genome sizes and geographical grouping

  9. Evaluation of Five Chromogenic Agar Media and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen Kit for Detection and Confirmation of Carbapenemase Production in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Matthew W.; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of β-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. PMID:25355764

  10. [The molecular mechanisms of curcuma wenyujin extract-mediated inhibitory effects on human esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Zou, Hai-Zhou; Xu, Fang

    2012-09-01

    To study the molecular mechanisms of Curcuma Wenyujin extract-mediated inhibitory effects on human esophageal carcinoma cells. The Curcuma Wenyujin extract was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. TE-1 cells were divided into 4 groups after adherence. 100 microL RMPI-1640 culture medium containing 0.1% DMSO was added in Group 1 as the control group. 100 microL 25, 50, and 100 mg/L Curcuma Wenyujin extract complete culture medium was respectively added in the rest 3 groups as the low, middle, and high dose Curcuma Wenyujin extract groups. The effects of different doses of Curcuma Wenyujin extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/L) on the proliferation of human esophageal carcinoma cell line TE-1 in vitro were analyzed by MTT assay. The gene expression profile was identified by cDNA microarrays in esophageal carcinoma TE-1 cells exposed to Curcuma Wenyujin extract for 48 h. The differential expression genes were further analyzed by Gene Ontology function analysis. Compared with the control group, MTT results showed that Curcuma Wenyujin extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of TE-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The expression level of 88 genes changed with significance, including 66 up-regulation genes and 22 down-regulation genes. Gene Ontology analysis indicated the genes coding for proteins was involved in signal transduction (6), cell cycle (8), apoptosis (14), and cell differentiation (10). The Curcuma Wenyujin extract could inhibit the growth of human esophageal carcinoma cell line TE-1 in vitro. The molecular mechanisms might be associated with regulating genes expressions at multi-levels.

  11. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J. Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Materials and methods Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Results Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. PMID:20420894

  12. Secretory structure and histochemistry test of some Zingiberaceae plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriyani, Serafinah

    2017-11-01

    A secretory structure is a structure that produces a plant's metabolite substances. Secretory structures are grouped into an internal and external. Zingiberaceae plants are known as traditional medicine plants and as spice plants due to secretory structures in their tissues. The objective of the research were to describe the secretory structure of Zingiberaceae plants and to discover the qualitatively primary metabolite substances in plant's tissues via histochemistry test. The research was conducted by observation descriptive design, quantitative data including the density of secretory cells per mm². The quantitative data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Duncan at α = 5 %. The results showed that the secretory structures in leaves, rhizome, and the root of 14 species of Zingiberaceae plants are found in the mesophyll of leaves and cortex, and also pith in rhizome and roots. The type of secretory structure is internal. Within the root of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.(bengle), Curcuma domestica Val. (kunyit), Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe (kunyit putih), Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J.E. Smith (lempuyang), Alpiniapurpurata K. Schum (lengkuas merah), and Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng) were found amylum grains, while in Kaemferia galanga L. (kencur), Boesen bergiapandurata L. (temu kunci), and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (temulawak) there were no amylum grains in the root as well as in the leaves. The roots of bengle had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 248.1 ± 9.8 secretory cells of amylum grains per mm². Lipids (oil droplets) were found in the root of bengle, Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. emprit (jahe emprit), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Gajah (jahe gajah), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Rubrum (jahe merah), Keampferia angustifolia L. (kunci pepet), kunyit, kunyit putih, lempuyang, lengkua smerah, Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng), and Curcuma mangga Val. and van Zijp (temu mangga); the root of lempuyang had the greatest density of oil

  13. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    SciTech Connect

    Fatimah, Is, E-mail: isfatimah@uii.ac.id; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particlemore » sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.« less

  14. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimah, Is; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    2016-02-01

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.

  15. Four new sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis and their iNOS inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiang-Hao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yue; Gao, Su-Yu; Ding, Li-Qin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Three new guaiane-type sesquiterpenes named phaeocaulisins K-M (1-3), and one germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid with new ring system of 1,5- and 1,8-ether groups named phagermadiol (4), were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1, the first example of norsesquiterpene with tropone backbone, and compound 3 with a novel 1,2-dioxolane sesquiterpene alcohol were isolated from the genus Curcuma. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compound 3 inhibited NO production with IC50 value of 6.05 ± 0.43 μM. The plausible biosynthetic pathway for compounds 3 and 4 in C. phaeocaulis was also discussed.

  16. Extraction of curcumin from Curcuma longa L. using ultrasound assisted supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimthet, Chhouk; Wahyudiono, Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is one of phenolic compounds, which has been recently shown to have useful pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, antifungal, and antimicrobial activities. The objective of this research is to extract the curcumin from Curcuma longa L. using ultrasound assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USC-CO2). The extraction was performed at 50°C, 25 MPa, CO2 flow rate of 3 mL/min with 10% cosolvent. The result of extraction, thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that ultrasound power could disrupt cell wall and release the target compounds from Curcuma longa L. USC-CO2 could provide higher curcumin content in the extracts and faster extraction compared to SC-CO2 extraction without ultrasound.

  17. Five new diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis and their antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Dan; Gao, Jin-Tao; Liu, Jing-Gong; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Rui-Zhi; Lu, Chuan-Jian

    2015-04-01

    Five new diarylheptanoids (1-5), along with nine known ones (6-14), were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1-3 were cyclic diarylheptanoids rarely discovered from C. kwangsiensis. Of all the isolated compounds, compound 4 showed moderate antiproliferative activity on HH and HaCaT cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Curcuma longa Extract Associated with White Pepper Lessens High Fat Diet-Induced Inflammation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Memvanga, Patrick B.; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. Conclusions/Significance These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition. PMID:24260564

  19. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  20. Curcuma decreases serum hepcidin levels in healthy volunteers: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Lainé, Fabrice; Laviolle, Bruno; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Fatih, Nadia; Jezequel, Caroline; Collet, Nicolas; Ropert, Martine; Morcet, Jeff; Hamon, Catherine; Reymann, Jean-Michel; Loréal, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Hepcidin, secreted by hepatocytes, controls iron metabolism by limiting iron egress in plasma. Hepcidin is upregulated during inflammation through the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transduction pathway, which decreases iron bioavailability and may explain the anemia of chronic inflammatory disease. In vitro, it has been shown that curcumin can decrease hepcidin synthesis by decreasing STAT3 activity. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to assess the effect of curcuma on hepcidin synthesis in human. This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, two-period study performed in 18 healthy male volunteers. Subjects received a single oral dose of 6 g curcuma containing 2% of curcumin or placebo. Serum hepcidin and iron parameters were assessed repeatedly until 48 h after dosing. When compared with a placebo curcuma decreased hepcidin levels significantly at 6 h (-19%, P = 0.004), 8 h (-17%, P = 0.009), and 12 h (-17%, P = 0.007) and tended to decrease hepcidin at 24 h (-15%, P = 0.076). Curcuma also significantly increased serum ferritin levels at 6 and 8 h (+7% for both times, P = 0.018, 0.030, respectively) and had no effects on serum iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation. This pilot study showed that curcuma decreases serum hepcidin levels in human and supports the idea that curcuma could be useful in treating hepcidin overproduction during inflammatory processes. Confirmatory studies in patients with chronic inflammation are now required to determine the optimal dose and therapeutic scheme of curcuma. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  1. Curcuma treatment prevents cognitive deficit and alteration of neuronal morphology in the limbic system of aging rats.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Blanca; Vázquez-Roque, Rubén A; Gnecco, Dino; Enríquez, Raúl G; Floran, Benjamin; Díaz, Alfonso; Flores, Gonzalo

    2017-03-01

    Curcuma is a natural compound that has shown neuroprotective properties, and has been reported to prevent aging and improve memory. While the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are unclear, they may be related to increases in neural plasticity. Morphological changes have been reported in neuronal dendrites in the limbic system in animals and elderly humans with cognitive impairment. In this regard, there is a need to use alternative therapies that delay the onset of morphologies and behavioral characteristics of aging. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcuma on cognitive processes and dendritic morphology of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of aged rats. 18-month-old rats were administered curcuma (100 mg/kg) daily for 60 days. After treatment, recognition memory was assessed using the novel object recognition test. Curcuma-treated rats showed a significant increase in the exploration quotient. Dendritic morphology was assessed by Golgi-Cox staining and followed by Sholl analysis. Curcuma-treated rats showed a significant increase in dendritic spine density and dendritic length in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, the CA1 and CA3, and the BLA. The preservation of dendritic morphology was positively correlated with cognitive improvements. Our results suggest that curcuma induces modification of dendritic morphology in the aforementioned regions. These changes may explain how curcuma slows the aging process that has already begun in these animals, preventing deterioration in neuronal morphology of the limbic system and recognition memory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Isolation and characterization of NBS-LRR- resistance gene candidates in turmeric (Curcuma longa cv. surama).

    PubMed

    Joshi, R K; Mohanty, S; Subudhi, E; Nayak, S

    2010-09-08

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), an important asexually reproducing spice crop of the family Zingiberaceae is highly susceptible to bacterial and fungal pathogens. The identification of resistance gene analogs holds great promise for development of resistant turmeric cultivars. Degenerate primers designed based on known resistance genes (R-genes) were used in combinations to elucidate resistance gene analogs from Curcuma longa cultivar surama. The three primers resulted in amplicons with expected sizes of 450-600 bp. The nucleotide sequence of these amplicons was obtained through sequencing; their predicted amino acid sequences compared to each other and to the amino acid sequences of known R-genes revealed significant sequence similarity. The finding of conserved domains, viz., kinase-1a, kinase-2 and hydrophobic motif, provided evidence that the sequences belong to the NBS-LRR class gene family. The presence of tryptophan as the last residue of kinase-2 motif further qualified them to be in the non-TIR-NBS-LRR subfamily of resistance genes. A cluster analysis based on the neighbor-joining method was carried out using Curcuma NBS analogs together with several resistance gene analogs and known R-genes, which classified them into two distinct subclasses, corresponding to clades N3 and N4 of non-TIR-NBS sequences described in plants. The NBS analogs that we isolated can be used as guidelines to eventually isolate numerous R-genes in turmeric.

  3. Inhibition of 12/15 lipoxygenase by curcumin and an extract from Curcuma longa L.

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Lýdia; Košťálová, Daniela; Obložinský, Marek; Hoffman, Peter; Pekárová, Mária; Kollárová, Renáta; Holková, Ivana; Mošovská, Silvia; Sturdík, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an orange-yellow secondary metabolic compound from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), a spice often found in curry powder. It is one of the major curcuminoids of turmeric. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparations or as a food colouring agent. A variety of enzymes that are closely associated with inflammation and cancer were found to be modulated by curcumin. This paper summarized the results of the inhibitory effect of curcumin and a Curcuma longa L. ethanolic extract on lipoxygenase from the rat lung cytosolic fraction. The positional specificity determination of arachidonic acid dioxygenation by RP- and SP-HPLC methods showed that in a purified enzyme preparation from the rat lung cytosol the specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX) is present exhibiting 12/15-LOX dual specificity (with predominant 15-LOX activity). The inhibitory activity of curcumin and Curcuma longa extract on LOX from cytosolic fraction of rat lung was expressed in the percentage of inhibition and as IC50. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis has indicated that curcumin is the competitive inhibitor of 12/15 LOX from the rat lung cytosolic fraction.

  4. Assessing the genetic relationships of Curcuma alismatifolia varieties using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Taheri, S; Abdullah, T L; Abdullah, N A P; Ahmad, Z; Karimi, E; Shabanimofrad, M R

    2014-09-05

    The genus Curcuma is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has recently become popular for use as flowering pot plants, both indoors and as patio and landscape plants. We used PCR-based molecular markers (SSRs) to elucidate genetic variation and relationships between five varieties of Curcuma (Curcuma alismatifolia) cultivated in Malaysia. Of the primers tested, 8 (of 17) SSR primers were selected for their reproducibility and high rates of polymorphism. The number of presumed alleles revealed by the SSR analysis ranged from two to six alleles, with a mean value of 3.25 alleles per locus. The values of HO and HE ranged from 0 to 0.8 (mean value of 0.2) and 0.1837 to 0.7755 (mean value of 0.5102), respectively. Eight SSR primers yielded 26 total amplified fragments and revealed high rates of polymorphism among the varieties studied. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.26 to 0.73. Dice's similarity coefficient was calculated for all pairwise comparisons and used to construct an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram. Similarity coefficient values from 0.2105 to 0.6667 (with an average of 0.4386) were found among the five varieties examined. A cluster analysis of data using a UPGMA algorithm divided the five varieties/hybrids into 2 groups.

  5. Antifungal activity, main active components and mechanism of Curcuma longa extract against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fusheng; Chen, Qin; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaorui; Liu, Qingya; Bao, Jinku

    2018-01-01

    Curcuma longa possesses powerful antifungal activity, as demonstrated in many studies. In this study, the antifungal spectrum of Curcuma longa alcohol extract was determined, and the resulting EC50 values (mg/mL) of its extract on eleven fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium tricinctum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Rhizopus oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum, were 0.1088, 0.1742, 0.1888, 0.2547, 0.3135, 0.3825, 0.4229, 1.2086, 4.5176, 3.8833 and 5.0183, respectively. Among them, F. graminearum was selected to determine the inhibitory effects of the compounds (including curdione, isocurcumenol, curcumenol, curzerene, β-elemene, curcumin, germacrone and curcumol) derived from Curcuma longa. In addition, the antifungal activities of curdione, curcumenol, curzerene, curcumol and isocurcumenol and the synergies of the complexes of curdione and seven other chemicals were investigated. Differential proteomics of F. graminearum was also compared, and at least 2021 reproducible protein spots were identified. Among these spots, 46 were classified as differentially expressed proteins, and these proteins are involved in energy metabolism, tRNA synthesis and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, several fungal physiological differences were also analysed. The antifungal effect included fungal cell membrane disruption and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, respiration, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and NADH oxidase. PMID:29543859

  6. Serum metabonomic analysis of protective effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal fibrosis rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangcai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yang, Yunjun; Zheng, Yongquan; Dong, Minjian; Wang, Yaqiang; Bai, Guanghui; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica oil is a traditional herbal medicine demonstrating protective and anti-fibrosis activities in renal fibrosis patients. However, study of its mechanism of action is challenged by its multiple components and multiple targets that its active agent acts on. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics combined with clinical chemistry and histopathology examination were performed to evaluate intervening effects of Curcuma aromatica oil on renal interstitial fibrosis rats induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. The metabolite levels were compared based on integral values of serum 1H NMR spectra from rats on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the medicine administration. Time trajectory analysis demonstrated that metabolic profiles of the agent-treated rats were restored to control levels after 7 days of dosage. The results confirmed that the agent would be an effective anti-fibrosis medicine in a time-dependent manner, especially in early renal fibrosis stage. Targeted metabolite analysis showed that the medicine could lower levels of lipid, acetoacetate, glucose, phosphorylcholine/choline, trimethylamine oxide and raise levels of pyruvate, glycine in the serum of the rats. Serum clinical chemistry and kidney histopathology examination dovetailed well with the metabonomics data. The results substantiated that Curcuma aromatica oil administration can ameliorate renal fibrosis symptoms by inhibiting some metabolic pathways, including lipids metabolism, glycolysis and methylamine metabolism, which are dominating targets of the agent working in vivo. This study further strengthens the novel analytical approach for evaluating the effect of traditional herbal medicine and elucidating its molecular mechanism.

  7. Curcuma longa as additive in the diet for Astyanax aff. bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    de Moraes França Ferreira, Pollyanna; Martins, Maria Tatiana Soares; Caldas, Débora Werneck; Gomes, Juliana Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Jerusa Maria; Salaro, Ana Lucia; Rocha, Juliana Silva; Zuanon, Jener Alexandre Sampaio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) as additive in the diet for Astyanax aff. bimaculatus. Fish (0.83 ± 0.04 g) were fed, for 60 days, with six diets containing 0.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, 80.0, and 100.0 g turmeric kg -1 feed. There was an increasing linear effect of turmeric on the thickness of the muscular layer, and height and width of the folds of the intestine. In the liver, a quadratic effect was observed of turmeric on the percentage of hepatocyte cytoplasm and a decreasing linear effect on the percentage of sinusoid capillaries. A quadratic effect was also observed of turmeric on the liver glycogen. There was no effect of turmeric on the antioxidant activity in the liver, carcass composition or productive performance of the fish. Thus, we concluded that Curcuma longa has trophic effects on the epithelium and the muscular layer of the intestine of A. aff. bimaculatus. Additionally, low levels of Curcuma longa cause increased deposition of liver glycogen and high levels cause reduction.

  8. Chemical constituents and biological research on plants in the genus Curcuma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Chuanhong; Guo, Shuhui; Gao, Hongwei; Tao, Hongxun; Lu, Jinjian; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-05-03

    Curcuma, a valuable genus in the family Zingiberaceae, includes approximately 110 species. These plants are native to Southeast Asia and are extensively cultivated in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Peru, Australia, and the West Indies. The plants have long been used in folk medicine to treat stomach ailments, stimulate digestion, and protect the digestive organs, including the intestines, stomach, and liver. In recent years, substantial progress has been achieved in investigations regarding the chemical and pharmacological properties, as well as in clinical trials of certain Curcuma species. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge on the chemistry and briefly discusses the biological activities of Curcuma species. A total of 720 compounds, including 102 diphenylalkanoids, 19 phenylpropene derivatives, 529 terpenoids, 15 flavonoids, 7 steroids, 3 alkaloids, and 44 compounds of other types isolated or identified from 32 species, have been phytochemically investigated. The biological activities of plant extracts and pure compounds are classified into 15 groups in detail, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities.

  9. Testing DNA barcodes in closely related species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Myanmar and China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Zhao, Jietang; Erickson, David L; Xia, Nianhe; Kress, W John

    2015-03-01

    The genus Curcuma L. is commonly used as spices, medicines, dyes and ornamentals. Owing to its economic significance and lack of clear-cut morphological differences between species, this genus is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. In this study, four chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS2) were generated for 44 Curcuma species and five species from closely related genera, represented by 96 samples. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in matK (89.7%), rbcL (100%), trnH-psbA (100%), trnL-F (95.7%) and ITS2 (82.6%) regions. The results further showed that four candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) yield no barcode gaps, indicating that the genus Curcuma represents a challenging group for DNA barcoding. The ITS2 region presented large interspecific variation and provided the highest correct identification rates (46.7%) based on BLASTClust method among the five regions. However, the ITS2 only provided 7.9% based on NJ tree method. An increase in discriminatory power needs the development of more variable markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of Curcuma longa on CYP2D6- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-03-01

    Effect of Curcuma longa rhizome powder and its ethanolic extract on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activity was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes and clinically in healthy human subjects. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as common probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 was evaluated through in vitro study; where microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of Curcuma extract. In clinical study phase-I, six healthy human subjects received a single dose (30 mg) of DEX syrup, and in phase-II DEX syrup was administered with Curcuma powder. The enzyme CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated O- and N-demethylation of dextromethorphan into dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Curcuma extract significantly inhibited the formation of DOR and 3-MM, in a dose-dependent and linear fashion. The 100 μg/ml dose of curcuma extract produced highest inhibition, which was about 70 % for DOR and 80 % for 3-MM. Curcuma significantly increases the urine metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR but the change in DEX/3-MM ratio was statistically insignificant. Present findings suggested that curcuma significantly inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 in in vitro as well as in vivo; which indicates that curcuma has potential to interact with CYP2D6 substrates.

  11. A systematic review of the anti-obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Javadivala, Zeinab; Mahluji, Sepideh; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  13. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhixiu

    2018-01-01

    Objective This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. Results 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was −1.00, (95% CI: −1.56, −0.44; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (−21.24; 95% CI: −33.21, −9.26; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Conclusion Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS. PMID:29541142

  14. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Chen, Hao; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Zhenshuang

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was -1.00, (95% CI: -1.56, -0.44; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (-21.24; 95% CI: -33.21, -9.26; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS.

  15. Hybridization among distantly related species: Examples from the polyploid genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Záveská, Eliška; Fér, Tomáš; Šída, Otakar; Marhold, Karol; Leong-Škorničková, Jana

    2016-07-01

    Discerning relationships among species evolved by reticulate and/or polyploid evolution is not an easy task, although it is widely discussed. The economically important genus Curcuma (ca. 120 spp.; Zingiberaceae), broadly distributed in tropical SE Asia, is a particularly interesting example of a group of palaeopolyploid origin whose evolution is driven mainly by hybridization and polyploidization. Although a phylogeny and a new infrageneric classification of Curcuma, based on commonly used molecular markers (ITS and cpDNA), have recently been proposed, significant evolutionary questions remain unresolved. We applied a multilocus approach and a combination of modern analytical methods to this genus to distinguish causes of gene tree incongruence and to identify hybrids and their parental species. Five independent regions of nuclear DNA (DCS, GAPDH, GLOBOSA3, LEAFY, ITS) and four non-coding cpDNA regions (trnL-trnF, trnT-trnL, psbA-trnH and matK), analysed as a single locus, were employed to construct a species tree and hybrid species trees using (*)BEAST and STEM-hy. Detection of hybridogenous species in the dataset was also conducted using the posterior predictive checking approach as implemented in JML. The resulting species tree outlines the relationships among major evolutionary lineages within Curcuma, which were previously unresolved or which conflicted depending upon whether they were based on ITS or cpDNA markers. Moreover, by using the additional markers in tests of plausible topologies of hybrid species trees for C. vamana, C. candida, C. roscoeana and C. myanmarensis suggested by previous molecular and morphological evidence, we found strong evidence that all the species except C. candida are of subgeneric hybrid origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Misra, Ankita; Khanna, Vivek; Prakash, Prem; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Curcuma oil (C. oil) isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Methods: Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr) for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) or C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Results: Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Interpretation & conclusions: High

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  18. Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Misra, Ankita; Khanna, Vivek; Prakash, Prem; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Curcuma oil (C. oil) isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr) for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) or C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. High fructose feeding to rats and hamsters led to the development of insulin

  19. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  20. Antioxidant and inhibitory effect of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegerative diseases have been linked to oxidative stress arising from peroxidation of membrane biomolecules and high levels of Fe have been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and other brain disorder. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the end-product of lipid peroxidation and the production of this aldehyde is used as a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress in an organism. The present study compares the protective properties of two varieties of ginger [red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) and white ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)] on Fe(2+) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro. Incubation of the brain tissue homogenate in the presence of Fe caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the brain. However, the aqueous extract from both varieties of ginger caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of the brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the aqueous extract of red ginger had a significantly higher inhibitory effect on both Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain homogenates than that of white ginger. This higher inhibitory effect of red ginger could be attributed to its significantly higher phytochemical content, Fe(2+) chelating ability, OH scavenging ability and reducing power. However, part of the mechanisms through which the extractable phytochemicals in ginger (red and white) protect the brain may be through their antioxidant activity, Fe(2+) chelating and OH scavenging ability. Therefore, oxidative stress in the brain could be potentially managed/prevented by dietary intake of ginger varieties (red ginger and white ginger rhizomes). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extract against Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Interleukin-1β in Cultured Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Bahrampour Juybari, Kobra; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Kamarul, Tunku; Bagheri, Aboulfazl; Tekiyehmaroof, Neda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract on IL-1β-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis were investigated in C28I2 human chondrocytes. The effects of various concentrations of ginger extract on C28I2 human chondrocyte viability were evaluated in order to obtain noncytotoxic concentrations of the drug by methylthiotetrazole assay. The cells were pretreated with 5 and 25 μg/mL ginger extract for 24 h, followed by incubation with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. The effects of ginger extract on IL-1β-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation were examined. The mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1, glutathione peroxidase-3, and glutathione peroxidase-4 were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blotting. No cytotoxicity was observed at any concentration of ginger extract in C28I2 cells. Ginger extract pretreatment remarkably increased the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the IL-1β-induced elevation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and caspase-3 activity. Ginger extract could considerably reduce IL-1β-induced oxidative stress and consequent mitochondrial apoptosis as the major mechanisms of chondrocyte cell death. These beneficial effects of ginger extract may be due to its antioxidant properties. It may be considered as a natural herbal product to prevent OA-induced cartilage destruction in the clinical setting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Ameliorating reactive oxygen species-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation in brain, liver, mitochondria and DNA damage by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A

    2010-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for a number of cellular activities. However, excess cellular iron can be toxic by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O(2) (-)) and hydroxyl radical (HO(·)) that damage proteins, lipids and DNA. Mutagenic and genotoxic end products of lipid peroxidation can induce the decline of mitochondrial respiration and are associated with various human ailments including aging, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer etc. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is a widely used spice around the world. The protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against ROS-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation and DNA damage was evaluated in this study. The lipid peroxidation was induced by hydroxyl radical generated from Fenton's reaction in rat liver and brain homogenates and mitochondrial fraction (isolated from rat liver). The DNA protection was evaluated using H(2)O(2)-induced changes in pBR-322 plasmid and Fenton reaction-induced DNA fragmentation in rat liver. The results indicated that Z. officinale significantly (P<0.001) protected the lipid peroxidation in all the tissue homogenate/mitochondria. The extract at 2 and 0.5 mg/ml could protect 92 % of the lipid peroxidation in brain homogenate and liver mitochondria respectively. The percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 1mg/ml of Z. officinale in the liver homogenate was 94 %. However, the extract could partially alleviate the DNA damage. The protective mechanism can be correlated to the radical scavenging property of Z. officinale. The results of the study suggest the possible nutraceutical role of Z. officinale against the oxidative stress induced human ailments.

  3. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-04-01

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P < 0.05). Mycorrhiza application in organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined application of tissue culture and mycorrhiza significantly increased concentrations of TF and gingerols and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05), suggesting their synergistic effects. Considerable amounts of phenolics were found in the Bound fractions of the rhizomes. Six-gingerol, ferulic acid, and lutein were predominant ones among gingerols, phenolic acids, and carotenoids, respectively, in ginger rhizomes. The results suggest that organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Optimizing oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Salea, Rinaldi; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2014-09-01

    Oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide was optimized using Taguchi method. The factors considered were pressure, temperature, carbon dioxide flowrate and time at levels ranging between 10-25 MPa, 35-60 °C, 10-25 g/min and 60-240 min respectively. The highest oil yield (8.0 %) was achieved at factor combination of 15 MPa, 50 °C, 20 g/min and 180 min whereas the highest xanthorrhizol content (128.3 mg/g oil) in Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil was achieved at a factor combination of 25 MPa, 50 °C, 15 g/min and 60 min. Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and percolation with ethanol gave oil yield of 5.88 %, 11.73 % and xanthorrhizol content of 42.6 mg/g oil, 75.5 mg/g oil, respectively. The experimental oil yield and xanthorrhizol content at optimum conditions agreed favourably with values predicted by computational process. The xanthorrizol content extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide was higher than extracted using Soxhlet extraction and percolation process.

  5. Essential oil from waste leaves of Curcuma longa L. alleviates skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant; Agarwal, Karishma; Singh, Monika; Saxena, Archana; Yadav, Pankaj; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Yadav, Anju; Tandon, Sudeep; Chanda, Debabrata; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2018-02-10

    Curcuma longa L. is an important industrial crop used by medicinal and cosmetic industries in the world. Its leaves are a waste material after harvesting rhizomes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical and pharmacological profile of essential oil from waste leaves of Curcuma longa (EOCl) against skin inflammation. EOCl was subjected to gas chromatography (GC) analysis for identification of essential oil constituents and its anti-inflammatory evaluation through in vitro and in vivo models. Chemical fingerprinting using GC and GC-MS analysis of EOCl revealed the presence of 11 compounds, representing 90.29% of the oil, in which terpinolene (52.88%) and α-phellandrene (21.13%) are the major components. In the in vitro testing EOCl inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in the human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Topical application of EOCl produced anti-inflammatory effects by reducing ear thickness, ear weight and ameliorating the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) at protein and mRNA levels as well as regulating the overproduction of oxidative markers and restoring the histopathological damage in a TPA-induced mouse model of inflammation. These findings of topical anti-inflammatory properties of EOCl provide a scientific basis for medicinal use of this plant material against inflammatory disorders.

  6. Liposomal formulation of turmerone-rich hexane fractions from Curcuma longa enhances their antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Gomes, Luciana A; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Ramos, Aline de S; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S; Vermelho, Alane B; Rodrigues, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent.

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-β1 and TNF-α were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved. PMID:23496995

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa (NR-INF-02).

    PubMed

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandhakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur

    2015-04-07

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    PubMed

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  10. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Gomes, Luciana A.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Ramos, Aline de S.; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Vermelho, Alane B.; Rodrigues, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent. PMID:25045693

  11. Curcuma longa L. leaves: Characterization (bioactive and antinutritional compounds) for use in human food in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Monick Cristina; Vieira, Ellen Caroline Silvério; de Oliveira, Tatianne Ferreira

    2018-11-01

    This study evaluated the physicochemical characterization of Curcuma longa L. leaves with respect to proximate composition, mineral content, the presence of antinutritional factors, content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity, and color measurements of leaves in natura and leaves subjected to microwave drying, oven drying, and freeze-drying methods. The proximate composition showed appreciable levels of protein (39.5 g.100 g -1 ), carbohydrates (44.74 g.100 g -1 ), total fiber (34.47 g.100 g -1 ), soluble fiber (22.65 g.100 g -1 ), insoluble fiber (11.81 g.100 g -1 ), ash (13.81 g.100 g -1 ), and low lipid contents (2.47 g.100 g -1 ). No cyanogenic compounds were detected in both samples. Freeze-drying stood out as the method that led to the greatest reductions of the bioactive compounds (33.12-73.86%, dry basis) and antioxidant capacity when compared to the leaves in natura. Microwave drying was the preservation method that produced dry leaves with higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, microwave drying produced dehydrated Curcuma longa L. leaves with the highest bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Curcuma extract and visible light on adults with plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Carrion-Gutierrez, Miguel; Ramirez-Bosca, Ana; Navarro-Lopez, Vicente; Martinez-Andres, Asunción; Asín-Llorca, Manuel; Bernd, August; Horga de la Parte, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a phase IV randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of oral curcumin together with local phototherapy in patients with plaque psoriasis. Patients with moderate to severe psoriasis received Curcuma extract orally with real visible light phototherapy (VLRT) or simulated visible light phototherapy (VLST) in the experimental area, while the rest of the body surface was treated with ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The endpoints were the number of responders and the temporal course of the response. The secondary outcomes were related to safety and adverse events. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, no patients included in the VLRT group showed "moderate" or "severe" plaques after the treatment, in contrast to the patients included in the VSLT group (p<0.01). Parallelisms in the evolution of PGA, BSA, and PASI scores were observed in the two groups following the treatment. At the end of the study period, 76% of all patients showed a response in the BSA exposed to UVA. Lesions on the experimental area showed a response in 81% of the patients in the VLRT group and 30% of the patients in the VLST group. There were no study-related adverse events that necessitated participant withdrawal. The results suggested that moderate to severe plaque psoriasis should show a therapeutic response to orally administered Curcuma if activated with visible light phototherapy, a new therapeutic method that would be safer for patients than existing treatments.

  13. Curcuma longa L. extract improves the cortical neural connectivity during the aging process

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. At the brain level, the aging process alters the synaptic intercommunication by a reduction in the dendritic arbor as well as the number of the dendritic spine in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, consequently reducing the size of these regions. The present review discusses the synaptic changes caused by the aging process and the neuroprotective role the Curcuma has through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions PMID:28761413

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chosdu, R.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and Curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated.

  15. Factors Affecting the Accumulation of Curcumin in Microrhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Sun, Shulan; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Curcuminoids, and mainly curcumin, are potential therapeutic agents for the prevention of various diseases; however, little is known about the factors that influence their accumulation in Curcuma species. In this study, the effects of factors such as sucrose concentration, different ratios of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and light quality on the accumulation of curcumin and other curcuminoids in Curcuma aromatica were investigated. Microrhizomes grown on media containing 3% sucrose produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids than those grown on higher concentrations. Moreover, when compared to other ratios of 6-BA and NAA, microrhizomes induced on 3% sucrose media supplemented with 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids; however, the amount was less than in microrhizomes grown on 3% sucrose alone. We determined that a 5% sucrose medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L of NAA enhanced the levels of curcumin and curcuminoids and that exposure to red light further increased production. PMID:25722985

  16. Factors affecting the accumulation of curcumin in microrhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Sun, Shulan; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Curcuminoids, and mainly curcumin, are potential therapeutic agents for the prevention of various diseases; however, little is known about the factors that influence their accumulation in Curcuma species. In this study, the effects of factors such as sucrose concentration, different ratios of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and light quality on the accumulation of curcumin and other curcuminoids in Curcuma aromatica were investigated. Microrhizomes grown on media containing 3% sucrose produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids than those grown on higher concentrations. Moreover, when compared to other ratios of 6-BA and NAA, microrhizomes induced on 3% sucrose media supplemented with 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced more curcumin and other curcuminoids; however, the amount was less than in microrhizomes grown on 3% sucrose alone. We determined that a 5% sucrose medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L of NAA enhanced the levels of curcumin and curcuminoids and that exposure to red light further increased production.

  17. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    PubMed

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile synthesis of Curcuma longa tuber powder engineered metal nanoparticles for bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Renu; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Anusha, Chidambaram; Kalaiarasi, Arunachalam; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials based fluorescent agents are rapidly becoming significant and promising transformative tools for improving medical diagnostics for extensive in vivo imaging modalities. Compared with conventional fluorescent agents, nano-fluorescence has capabilities to improve the in vivo detection and enriched targeting efficiencies. In our laboratory we synthesized fluorescent metal nanoparticles of silver, copper and iron using Curcuma longa tuber powder by simple reduction. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized metal nanoparticles were attained using UV-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy with EDAX spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Curcuma longa tuber powder has one of the bioactive compound Curcumin might act as a capping agent during the synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesized metal nanoparticles fluorescence property was confirmed by spectrofluorometry. When compared with copper and iron nanoparticles the silver nanoparticles showed high fluorescence intensity under spectrofluorometry. Moreover, in vitro cell images of the silver nanoparticles in A549 cell lines also correlated with the results of spectrofluorometry. These silver nanoparticles show inspiring cell-imaging applications. They enter into cells without any further modifications, and the fluorescence property can be utilized for fluorescence-based cell imaging applications.

  19. [Study on extracting and separating curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome using ultrasound strengthen by microemulsion].

    PubMed

    Yue, Chun-Hua; Zheng, Li-Tao; Guo, Qi-Ming; Li, Kun-Ping

    2014-05-01

    To establish a new method for the extraction and separation of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome by cloud-point preconcentration using microemulsions as solvent. The spectrophotometry was used to detect the solubility of curcumin in different oil phase, emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifier, and the microemulsion prescription was used for false three-phase figure optimization. The extraction process was optimized by uniform experiment design. The curcuminoids were separated from microemulsion extract by cloud-point preconcentration. Oil phase was oleic acid ethyl ester; Emulsifier was OP emulsifier; Auxiliary emulsifier was polyethylene glycol(peg) 400; The quantity of emulsifier to auxiliary emulsifier was the ratio of 5: 1; Microemulsion prescription was water-oleic acid ethyl ester-mixed emulsifier (0.45:0.1:0.45). The optimum extraction process was: time for 12.5 min, temperature of 52 degrees C, power of 360 W, frequency of 400 kHz, and the liquid-solid ratio of 40:1. The extraction rate of curcuminoids was 92.17% and 86.85% in microemulsion and oil phase, respectively. Curcuminoids is soluble in this microemulsion prescription with good extraction rate. This method is simple and suitable for curcuminoids extraction from Curcuma longa rhizome.

  20. Effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Charoenwanthanang, Puttavee; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Porntadavity, Sureerut

    2011-04-12

    Curcuma comosa has been known to have potential use in cardiovascular diseases, but its immunoregulatory role in atherosclerosis development and liver toxicity has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Twelve male New Zealand White rabbits were treated with 1.0% cholesterol for one month and were subsequently treated with 0.5% cholesterol either alone, or in combination with 5mg/kg/day of simvastatin or with 400mg/kg/day of Curcuma comosa powder for three months. The expression of IL-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in the isolated abdominal aorta and liver were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Liver toxicity was determined by hepatic enzyme activity. Curcuma comosa significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a stronger reduction in IL-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α expression compared to that was suppressed by simvastatin treatment. However, neither Curcuma comosa nor simvastatin affected the expression of anti-inflammation cytokines. In the liver, Curcuma comosa insignificantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significantly increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without altering the activity of hepatic enzymes. In contrast, simvastatin significantly increased the MCP-1 and TNF-α expressions and serum ALT level, without affecting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that Curcuma comosa exerts anti-inflammatory activity in the aorta and liver without causing liver toxicity, indicating that Curcuma comosa is a potential candidate as an alternative agent in cardiovascular disease therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and Spectral Properties of Curcumin and Metal- Curcumin Complex Derived from Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Vu Thi; Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Yen, Pham Nguyen Dong; Luong, Tran Thanh

    Structural and spectral properties of curcumin and metal- curcumin complex derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) were studied by SEM and vibrational (FTIR and Raman) techniques. By comparison between curcumin commercial, fresh turmeric and a yellow powder obtained via extraction and purification of turmeric, we have found that this insoluble powder in water is curcumin. The yellow compound could complex with certain ion metal and this metal-curcumin coloring complex is water soluble and capable of producing varying hues of the same colors and having antimicrobial, cytotoxicity activities for use in foodstuffs and pharmacy. The result also demonstrates that Micro-Raman spec-troscopy is a valuable non-destructive tool and fast for investigation of a natural plant even when occurring in low concentrations.

  2. Isolation and identification of curcumin and bisacurone from rhizome extract of temu glenyeh (Curcuma soloensis. Val)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitasari, Rista A.; Wibowo, Fajar R.; Marliyana, Soerya D.; Widyo Wartono, M.

    2016-02-01

    Temu glenyeh (Curcuma soloensis. Val) is one of the medicinal plants that grow in Surakarta. This plant is similar with C. longa and C. Xanthoriza. Chemical constituents from an extract of the plant have never been studied. In this paper, we report the isolation of a terpenoid and curcumin from the rhizome of C. soloensis. The isolation was employed by soxhlet apparatus using acetone as solvent. The fractionation and purification of the compound from the acetone extracts were undertaken by vacuum liquid chromatography and flash chromatography. Identification of compounds used spectroscopy methods, such as FTIR, NMR (1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and GC-MS. Isolated compounds were identified as curcumin (1) and bisacurone (2).

  3. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar.

  4. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  5. Identification and characterization of multiple curcumin synthases from the herb Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-09-03

    Curcuminoids are pharmaceutically important compounds isolated from the herb Curcuma longa. Two additional type III polyketide synthases, named CURS2 and CURS3, that are capable of curcuminoid synthesis were identified and characterized. In vitro analysis revealed that CURS2 preferred feruloyl-CoA as a starter substrate and CURS3 preferred both feruloyl-CoA and p-coumaroyl-CoA. These results suggested that CURS2 synthesizes curcumin or demethoxycurcumin and CURS3 synthesizes curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin. The availability of the substrates and the expression levels of the three different enzymes capable of curcuminoid synthesis with different substrate specificities might influence the composition of curcuminoids in the turmeric and in different cultivars.

  6. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lekshmi, P C; Arimboor, Ranjith; Indulekha, P S; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-11-01

    Anti-diabetic capacity of Curcuma longa volatile oil in terms of its ability to inhibit glucosidase activities was evaluated. Turmeric volatile oils inhibited glucosidase enzymes more effectively than the reference standard drug acarbose. Drying of rhizomes was found to enhance α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1.32-0.38 μg/ml) and α-amylase (IC₅₀ = 64.7-34.3 μg/ml) inhibitory capacities of volatile oils. Ar-Turmerone, the major volatile component in the rhizome also showed potent α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 0.28 μg) and α-amylase (IC₅₀ = 24.5 μg) inhibition.

  7. Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Funk, Janet L; Frye, Jennifer B; Oyarzo, Janice N; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-01-27

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO.

  8. Effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Their Constituents on Phase II Drug-metabolizing Enzymes Activity.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Nurul Afifah Mohd; Ismail, Sabariah; Ab Halim, Mohd Rohaimi

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities. The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM. In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC 50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC 50 values ranging between 9.59-22.76 μg/mL and 110.71-526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC 50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC 50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition. These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used : BSA: Bovine serum albumin, CAM: Complementary and alternative medicine, cDNA: Complementary

  9. Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.; Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Jatoi, Shakeel Ahmad; Kikuchi, Akira; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Watanabe, Kazuo N

    2007-06-01

    Curcuma amada Roxb. is an important species known as mango ginger due to its characteristic raw-mango aroma. It has a long history of traditional uses ranging from folk medicine to several culinary preparations. The phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies of C. amada are reviewed. The rhizome is rich in essential oils, and more than 130 chemical constituents with biomedical significance have been isolated from it. Its antibacterial, insecticidal, antifungal and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The conservation of indigenous knowledge by proper documentation is suggested. The chemotaxonomy, allelopathy and genetic diversity of C. amada have not yet been explored, and many such studies are possible. This review was compiled to provide consolidated information covering different aspects of the plant, to provide a basis on which to plan future studies and to promote sustainable use of C. amada. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Terpecurcumins A-I from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa: absolute configuration and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghao; Ji, Shuai; Li, Rui; Dong, Yinhui; Qiao, Xue; Hu, Hongbo; Yang, Wenzhi; Guo, Dean; Tu, Pengfei; Ye, Min

    2012-12-28

    Terpecurcumins A-I (1-9), together with three known analogues (10-12), were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric). They were derived from the hybridization of curcuminoids and bisabolanes. The structures and absolute configurations of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR and electronic circular dichroism spectra. The configuration of 10 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. A plausible biogenetic relationship for 1-12 is proposed. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, and 11 showed higher cytotoxic activities (IC(50), 10.3-19.4 μM) than curcumin (IC(50), 31.3-49.2 μM) against human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231).

  11. Prospective of curcumin, a pleiotropic signalling molecule from Curcuma longa in the treatment of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Lal, Neetika

    2016-02-15

    GBM (Glioblastoma) is the most malignant human brain tumor with median survival of one year. The treatment involves surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy mostly with the alkylation agents such as temozolomide (TMZ). Dietary polyphenol curcumin, isolated from the rhizome of the Curcuma longa (turmeric), has emerged as remarkable anti-cancer agent in the treatment of various peripheral cancers such as blood, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, melanoma as well as skin, lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic and colorectal epithelial cancers with a pleiotropic mode of action and also showed promise in alleviation of GBM. In this review, the mechanism of anticancer effect of curcumin in GBM has been discussed extensively. The clinical safety and pharmacokinetics of curcumin has been scrutinized to combat the challenges for the treatment of GBM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of antioxidant, anticholinesterase, and antidiabetic activities of three curcuminoids isolated from Curcuma longa L.

    PubMed

    Kalaycıoğlu, Zeynep; Gazioğlu, Işıl; Erim, F Bedia

    2017-12-01

    Antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities of three curcuminoids isolated from the Curcuma longa were simultaneously tested and compared in this study. The highest antioxidant power was detected for curcumin with the applied methods. The drug potentials of curcuminoids for Alzheimer's disease were controlled. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) showed substantial inhibitory activity. The activity of demethoxycurcumin (DMC) followed BDMC, whereas curcumin showed very little acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. Antidiabetic activity of curcuminoids was evaluated by their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. All curcuminoids show activities with decreasing order as BDMC > curcumin > DMC. The significant activities of BDMC compared to its isomers and examination of chemical structures of isomers might be a starting point in designing new drugs for Alzheimer's and Diabetes Mellitus.

  13. Interaction of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) with beneficial microbes: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Amit Kishore; Kaushik, Manish Singh; Mishra, Surabhi Kirti; Raj, Pratima; Singh, P K; Pandey, K D

    2017-12-01

    Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric, is a rhizomatous herb of the family Zingiberaceae. It is mostly used as a spice, a coloring agent and broadly used in traditional medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, etc., Turmeric rhizomes interact with a large numbers of rhizosphere-associated microbial species, and some enter the plant tissue and act as endophytes. Both rhizospheric and endophytic species are directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion and disease management in plants and also play an important role in the modulation of morphological growth, secondary metabolite production, curcumin content, antioxidant properties, etc. The present review focuses on the rhizobacterial and endophytic bacterial and fungal populations associated with the turmeric.

  14. Effect of concentration of Curcuma longa L. on chitosan-starch based edible coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, N. M.; Jai, J.; Hamzah, F.; Yahya, A.; Pinijsuwan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The ability of chitosan-starch based coating to extend shelf life of strawberry were studied. The main objectives of this paper is to study the effects of different concentrations (20, 15, 10 and 5 µL) of Curcuma longa L. (CUR) essential oil into chitosan-based edible coating on surface tension in order to increase the effectiveness of the coating. CUR or turmeric is one of the commercially planted herbs in Malaysia for its phytochemical benefits. Application of edible coating using dipping technique has been analysed and evaluated for their effectiveness in extending shelf life of fruits. Surface tension was analysed to investigate the adhesion properties. The best CUR concentration was 15 µL with the optimum surface tension was found to be 31.92 dynes/cm.

  15. Curcuma longa extract as a histological dye for collagen fibres and red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Avwioro, O G; Onwuka, S K; Moody, J O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Oduola, T; Ekpo, O E; Oladele, A A

    2007-01-01

    Crude ethanolic extract and column chromatographic fractions of the Allepey cultivar of Curcuma longa Roxb, commonly called turmeric (tumeric) in commerce, were used as a stain for tissue sections. Staining was carried out under basic, acidic and neutral media conditions. Inorganic and organic dissolution solvents were used. The stain was used as a counterstain after alum and iron haematoxylins. C. longa stained collagen fibres, cytoplasm, red blood cells and muscle cells yellow. It also stained in a fashion similar to eosin, except for its intense yellow colour. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the active column fraction revealed that it contained flavonoids, free anthraquinone and deoxy sugar. A cheap, natural dye can thus be obtained from C. longa. PMID:17451535

  16. Anthocyanins in the bracts of Curcuma species and relationship of the species based on anthocyanin composition.

    PubMed

    Koshioka, Masaji; Umegaki, Naoko; Boontiang, Kriangsuk; Pornchuti, Witayaporn; Thammasiri, Kanchit; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Tateishi, Akira; Kubota, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Five anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, petunidin 3-O-rutinoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified. Three anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside, were putatively identified based on C18 HPLC retention time, absorption spectrum, including λmax, and comparisons with those of corresponding standard anthocyanins, as the compounds responsible for the pink to purple-red pigmentation of the bracts of Curcuma alismatifolia and five related species. Cluster analysis based on four major anthocyanins formed two clusters. One consisted of only one species, C. alismatifolia, and the other consisted of five. Each cluster further formed sub-clusters depending on either species or habitats.

  17. Termitarium-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Enhanced Plant Growth and Bioactive Component in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ankit Kumar; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dheeman, Shrivardhan; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is the main bioactive component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) having remarkable multipotent medicinal and therapeutic applications. Two Bacilli isolated from termitarium soil and identified as Bacillus endophyticus TSH42 and Bacillus cereus TSH77 were used for bacterization of rhizome for raising C. longa ver. suguna for growth and enhancement. Both the strains showed remarkable PGP activities and also chemotactic in nature with high chemotactic index. Turmeric plants bacterized with strains B. endophyticus TSH42 and B. cereus TSH77 individually and in combination increased plant growth and turmeric production up to 18% in field trial in comparison to non-bacterized plants. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to determine the content of curcumin, which showed concentration of curcumin in un-inoculated turmeric as 3.66 g which increased by 13.6% (4.16 g) when combination of TSH42 and TSH77 was used.

  18. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  19. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guiyang; Zhou, Li; Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Three new sesquiterpenes including a new elemane-type sesquiterpene, 5βH-elem-1,3,7,8-tetraen-8,12-olide (1), and two new carabrane-type sesquiterpenes, 7α,11-epoxy-6α-methoxy-carabrane-4,8-dione (2) and 8,11-epidioxy-8-hydroxy-4-oxo-6-carabren (3), together with eight known sesquiterpenes (4-11) were isolated from Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. A possible biogenetic scheme for the related compounds was postulated. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) roots on immunity and telomerase function.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Badmaev, Vladimir

    2017-05-12

    Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin. Conclusions The ukonan family of polysaccharides may assist in promoting cellular immune responses, tissue repair and lifespan by enhancing immune response and telomere function.

  1. Anti-Arthritic Effects and Toxicity of the Essential Oils of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Janet L.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Oyarzo, Janice N.; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was non-toxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment, but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO. PMID:20025215

  2. Determination of free radical scavenging activity from aqueous extract of Curcuma mangga by DPPH method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indis, N. A.; Kurniawan, F.

    2016-04-01

    Curcuma mangga (mango ginger) belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae. The rhizome of C. mangga are morphologically similar to ginger (Zingiber officinale) with a little mango flavour. C. mangga can growth in tropical areas and easy found in Indonesia. The rhizomes of C. mangga were washed and cut into the small piece, then drying at room temperature for 6 days, and then grinded until get the powder of C. mangga. The powder of C. mangga was extracted with deminerahzed water by maceration for 6 hours. C. mangga extract was analysed with FTIR spectrophotometer to determine its functional groups. C. mangga extract was diluted at various of concentration (5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 mg/L) using deminerahzed water. C. mangga extracts were tested the antioxidant activity using 0.002% DPPH at 517nm with UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the IC50 value of C. mangga extract is 212.70 mg/L.

  3. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  4. Photodynamic therapy of Curcuma longa extract stimulated with blue light against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Saitawee, Darika; Teerakapong, Aroon; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Jitprasertwong, Paiboon; Hormdee, Doosadee

    2018-06-01

    Curcumin, one of an established curcuminoid substances extracted from Curcuma longa, has been used as a photosensitizer (PS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Curcuminoid substances has been reported to have benefits in treating dental chronic infection and inflammation diseases, such as chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to find the optimum concentration of Curcuma longa (CL) extract, containing all curcuminoid substances, and the power density of blue light (BL) in photodynamic therapy against periodontally pathogenic bacteria, A. actinomycetemcomitans. Antibacterial activity of various concentrations of CL extract against A. actinomycetemcomitans was determined. Exponentially growing bacteria were combined with 2-fold dilution of CL extract solution ranging from 25 to 0.098 μg/ml. Co-culture bacteria treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as the positive control. The effect of photostimulation with light emitting diode (LED) 420-480 nm at 16.8 J/cm 2 for 1 min on the selected concentration of CL extract was examined. Bacteria viability was determined by plate counting technique. In addition, production of free radicals was tested by electron spin resonance spectroscope (ESR) with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). The antibacterial activity of CL extract was dose dependent. Without BL, 25 μg/ml CL extract showed 6.03 ± 0.39 log 10 A. actinomycetemcomitans. Interestingly, the combination of BL and 0.78 μg/ml CL extract solution showed complete absence of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Peak signal intensity of hydroxyl radical production was also detected with the combination of BL and CL. CL extract not only had antimicrobial activity but also could be used as an effective PS when stimulated with BL in PDT. The optimal antibacterial effect of CL extract with BL was equal to the standard oral disinfectant, 0.12% CHX. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic window of curcuma oil: in rat embolic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Dohare, Preeti; Garg, Puja; sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, NR; Ray, Madhur

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the naturally occurring compounds, turmeric from the dried rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa has long been used extensively as a condiment and a household remedy all over Southeast Asia. Turmeric contains essential oil, yellow pigments (curcuminoids), starch and oleoresin. The present study was designed for investigating the neuroprotective efficacy and the time window for effective therapeutic use of Curcuma oil (C. oil). Method In the present study, the effect of post ischemic treatment of C.oil after ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in the rat was observed. C.oil (500 mg/kg body wt) was given 4 hrs post ischemia. The significant effect on lesion size as visualized by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and neuroscore was still evident when treatment was started 4 hours after insult. Animals were assessed for behavioral deficit scores after 5 and 24 hours of ischemia. Subsequently, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of infarct and edema volumes and other parameters. Results C.oil ameliorated the ischemia induced neurological functional deficits and the infarct and edema volumes measured after 5 and 24 hrs of ischemia. After 24 hrs, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of iNOS, cytochrome c and Bax/Bcl-2 were altered after the insult, and antagonized by treatment with C.oil. C.oil significantly reduced nitrosative stress, tended to correct the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and also affected caspase-3 activation finally apoptosis. Conclusion Here we demonstrated that iNOS-derived NO produced during ischemic injury was crucial for the up-regulation of ischemic injury targets. C.oil down-regulates these targets this coincided with an increased survival rate of neurons. PMID:18826584

  6. [Selective breeding research on new cultivar "ChuanPeng 1" of Curcuma phaeocaulis].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qin; Yang, Zhao-wu; Li, Min; Xia, Dong-mei

    2014-11-01

    To breed a new good cultivar of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Three rounds of selection were systematically made for screening the new cultivar using biological technology. Firstly, individual plant selection. Promising individual plant selection was made based on the thousands of Curcuma phaeocaulis resources collected from all over the country. Secondly, strain selection. The promising strain was selected continually from the superior individuals on basis of specificities such as biological characteristics, yield, content of volatile oil and resistance. Thirdly, strain comparison test. The superior strain was selected through strain trial and regional trial. For the new cultivar "ChuanPeng 1" , its main rhizome was in ovoid or spindle shape, and it was fleshy and corpulent. Average amount of rhizome was 4, with 6. 27 cm in length and 3. 37 cm in diameter, while the secondary roots were cylindrical-like, with a yellow green cross section as the main rhizome. Slender root ends were inflated into the fleshy spindle shape, average amount of whose was 25, 3. 20 cm in length and 1. 33 cm in diameter with a yellow green or near white cross section. Average yield of rhizome is 5 314. 5 kg/hm2, while the root is 1 942. 5 kg/hm2, which was 32. 9% and 22. 7% higher than the local main cultivar respectively. The average extract content of rhizome was 15. 41% and content of volatile oil was 2. 82%, which was 15. 60% and 9. 30% higher than the local cultivar respectively. " ChuanPeng 1" has good stability and strong adaptability with high yield and superior internal quality. It can be cultivated and promoted in Jinma River Valley,Sichuan.

  7. Microbial conversion of curcumin into colorless hydroderivatives by the endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. associated with Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Shoji; Ikeda, Michiteru; Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Chinami; Nagoe, Tetsuro; Ohashi, Kazuyoshi; Shibuya, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the microbial conversion of curcumin (1) using endophytic fungi associated with the rhizome of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). We found that Diaporthe sp., an endophytic filamentous fungus, converts curcumin (1) into four colorless derivatives, namely (3R,5R)-tetrahydrocurcumin (2), a novel (3R,5S)-hexahydrocurcumin (3) named neohexahydrocurcumin, (3S,5S)-octahydrocurcumin (4) and meso-octahydrocurcumin (5).

  8. Effect of acute gamma irradiation on Curcuma alismatifolia varieties and detection of DNA polymorphism through SSR marker.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Ahmad, Zaiton; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay

    2014-01-01

    The effects of eight different doses (0, 10, 20, 25, 35, 40, 60, and 100 Gy) of acute gamma irradiation on 44 (three varieties of Curcuma alismatifolia: Chiang Mai Red, Sweet Pink, Kimono Pink, and one Curcuma hybrid (Doi Tung 554) individual plants were investigated. Radiation sensitivity tests revealed that the LD50 values of the varieties were achieved at 21 Gy for Chiang Mai Red, 23 Gy for Sweet Pink, 25 Gy for Kimono Pink, and 28 Gy for Doi Tung 554. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), significant variations were observed for vegetative traits, flowering development, and rhizome characteristics among the four varieties of Curcuma alismatifolia and dose levels as well as the dose × variety interaction. In irradiated plants, the leaf length, leaf width, inflorescence length, the number of true flowers, the number of pink bracts, number of shoots, plant height, rhizome size, number of storage roots, and number of new rhizomes decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as the radiation dose increased. The cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCC) between genetic dissimilarity matrix estimated from the morphological characters and the UPGMA clustering method was r = 0.93, showing a proof fit. In terms of genetic variation among the acutely irradiated samples, the number of presumed alleles revealed by simple sequence repeats ranged from two to seven alleles with a mean value of 3.1, 4.5, and 5.3 alleles per locus for radiation doses of 0, 10, and 20 Gy, respectively. The average values of the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 2.5-3.2, 0.51-0.66, and 0.9-1.3, respectively. The constructed dendrogram grouped the entities into seven clusters. Principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering results. Consequently, it was concluded that irradiation with optimum doses of gamma rays efficiently induces mutations in Curcuma alismatifolia varieties.

  9. Therapeutic Effect of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Curcuma Species with Cancer Drugs in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique A; Lollett, Ivonne V; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    Synergistic effect of supercritical CO2 extracts of Curcuma species with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs was investigated in human alveolar (SJRH30) and embryonal (RD) rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. The Curcuma amada (mango ginger) (CA) extract showed the highest levels of cytotoxicity with inhibitory concentration IC50 values of 7.133 µg/ml and 7.501 µg/ml for SJRH30 and RD cell lines, respectively, as compared with Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza (Javanese turmeric) extracts. CA showed synergistic cytotoxic effects with vinblastine (VBL) and cyclophosphamide (CP) as indicated by the combination index values of <1 for VBL + CA, CP + CA, and VBL + CP + CA combinations in both embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. When lower doses of CA (0.1-0.2 µg/ml) were combined with cancer drugs like CP and VBL, caspase-3 activity increased significantly compared with individual agents and correlated with the percentage of apoptotic cells. CA in combination with VBL and CP induced a higher percentage of apoptosis than single agents in both cell lines. CA also modulated the expression of genes associated with intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, Bak, and p53) and also inhibited the expression of genes associated with inflammation such as COX-2 and NF-κB. Xenograft studies with SJRH30 tumors in nude mice showed that CA treatment inhibited tumor growth rate with and without VBL and increased the survival rate significantly. These results suggest that CA can be evaluated further as an adjuvant with cancer drugs for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Comparison of content of curdione, curcumol, germacrone and beta-elemene in different varieties of vinegar backed Rhizoma Curcuma].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guofei; Lu, Tulin; Mao, Chunqin; Su, Tao; Sun, Xiaomin

    2010-11-01

    To establish a HPLC method for determination of 4 components in different varieties of vinegar backed Rhizoma Curcuma. The method was established by using an Elite Hypersil ODS2 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase comprising acetonitrile (A) and water (B) was used to elute the targets in gradient elution mode. Flow rate and detection wavelength were set at 1 mL x min(-1) and 214 nm, respectively. The column temperature was 25 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. All calibration curves showed good linearity with r > 0.999 5. Recoveries measured at three concentrations were in the range of 97.27% - 99.27% with RSD < 3%. The validated method is simple, reliable, and successfully applied to determine the contents of the selected compounds in vinegar backed Rhizoma Curcuma. The results of the determination showed that contents of the four components in vinegar backed Curcuma wenyujin were relatively high.

  11. [Curcumine (Turmeric - Curcuma longa) as a Supportive Phytotherapeutic Treatment in Oncology].

    PubMed

    Frassová, Z; Rudá-Kučerová, J

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is mainly known as a constituent of curry spice. The main active ingredient, responsible for most of its biological effects, is the polyphenol curcumin. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of studies evaluating the benefits of therapeutic curcumin use in oncology. Preclinical studies provide information on the mechanism of action and potential toxicity of curcumin. Clinical studies have so far focused mainly on safety, pharmacokinetics, and determination of the optimal dose of curcumin. However, there are a growing number of trials evaluating the anti-tumor and oncopreventive effects of curcumin and its effect in alleviating the adverse effects of chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. So far, the results have been optimistic and should encourage further research. The main problem associated with curcumin treatment is its low oral bioavailability, which means it must administrated at high doses to be effective. Therefore, curcumin is more appropriate as a local treatment for areas such as the intestine, mucous membrane, or the skin, where there is no need for a strong systemic effect. Curcumin has a good safety profile when used up to several grams. Curcumin can also be used as a food supplement for people at increased risk of oncological disease, such as heavy smokers or those with pre-cancerous lesions. Due to its good safety profile, curcumin can be recommended to oncological patients who request a natural treatment.Key words: phytotherapy - drug-herb interactions - cancer - adverse effects - curcumine - turmeric - Curcuma longaSubmitted: 20. 7. 2017Accepted: 25. 9. 2017 This publication was written at Masaryk University as part of the project "Behavioural psychopharmacology and pharmacokinetics in preclinical drug research", number MUNI/A/1132/2017 with the support of the Specific University Research Grant, as provided by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic in the year 2018. The authors

  12. Synergistic potential of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa to ameliorate diabetic-dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Naveed; Hashmi, Abu-Saeed; Wasim, Muhammad; Akhtar, Tauqeer; Saeed, Shagufta; Ahmad, Toheed

    2018-03-01

    To find the cure of world's one of the leading morbid and mortal disorders; diabetes mellitus and its most prevalent complication, 'diabetic-dyslipidemia', is one of the leading health challenges of 21st century. The use of phytomedicine is a glimmer of hope in this scenario. Studies of current decade have shown that methanolic extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa have highly effective therapeutic potentials against the aforesaid disorders, however, which of the extracts has more potential is still unclear. Furthermore, synergistic effect of the extracts has never been studied. Forty-eight Albino adult rats of either sex were randomly divided into eight groups. A-D groups were containing healthy rats while E-H groups were of induced diabetic-dyslipidemic rats. For forty-two days, rats of each group were given either distilled water or Zingiber officinale methanolic extract (ZOME) or Curcuma longa methanolic extract (CLME) or ZOME+CLME therapies at dose rate of 300mg/100 mL dist. H 2 O/kg body wt/day. FPG and lipid profiles were estimated before and after the trial, and were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA along with Post-hoc Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Although, ZOME and CLME significantly (P<0.05) lowered fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and controlled lipid profiles in diabetic-dyslipidemic rats; yet, synergistic therapy of both extracts (ZOME+CLME) most significantly (P<0.05) controlled all parameters of diabetic-dyslipidemia (78.00±1.06mg/dL FPG, 62.00±0.58mg/dL TG, 66.50±0.76mg/dL cholesterol, 32.00±0.36mg/dL HDL, 22.43±0.64 mg/dL LDL, and 12.40±0.12mg/dL VLDL). Our findings may be useful to formulate new medicines having multiple potentials to control diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and diabetic-dyslipidemia.

  13. Differential effect of soil and environment on metabolic expression of turmeric (Curcuma longa cv. Roma).

    PubMed

    Sandeep, I S; Sanghamitra, Nayak; Sujata, Mohanty

    2015-06-01

    Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) is known for its uses in medicine, cosmetics, food flavouring and textile industries. The secondary metabolites of turmeric like essential oil, oleoresin and curcumin are important for its multipurpose uses. These traits of turmeric vary from place to place due to the influence of environment, soil and agro-climatic conditions. Here, we analyzed turmeric from different agroclimatic regions for influence of various factors on its growth and yield of important phytochemicals. A high curcumin yielding cultivar i.e., Roma was collected from high altitude research station, Koraput (HARS) and planted in nine agroclimatic regions of Odisha. Analysis of soil texture, pH, organic carbon, micro and macro nutrients were done from all the studied zones up to 2nd generation. Plants grown in their released station i.e., Eastern Ghat High Land showed 5% of curcumin and were taken as control. Plants grown in different agroclimatic zones showed a range of 1.4-5% of curcumin and 0.3-0.7% of rhizome essential oil and 0.3-1% of leaf essential oil content. Gas chromatography and mass spectra analysis showed tumerone and alpha phellandrene as the major compounds in all the zones with 10-20% variation. The present study will be immensely helpful for standardization and management of environmental and ecological factors for high phytochemical yield in turmeric plant.

  14. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L

    SciTech Connect

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara, E-mail: yuda.mechanical.engineer@student.uns.ac.id; Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Sutanto, Bayu, E-mail: bayu.sutanto@student.uns.ac.id

    2016-03-29

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, E{submore » HOMO} and E{sub LUMO} was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where E{sub red} = −0.37V, E{sub LUMO} = −4.28 eV, E{sub ox} = 1.15V, E{sub HOMO} = −5.83 eV, and E{sub band} {sub gap} = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.« less

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Jena, Sudipta; Ray, Asit; Banerjee, Anwesha; Sahoo, Ambika; Nasim, Noohi; Sahoo, Suprava; Kar, Basudeba; Patnaik, Jeetendranath; Panda, Pratap Chandra; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-09-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 35 identified constituents, comprising 92.6% and 92% of total leaf and rhizome oil, respectively. Curzerenone (33.2%), 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (18.6%) and γ-eudesmol acetate (7.3%) were the main components in leaf oil. In rhizome oil, curzerenone (72.6%), camphor (3.3%) and germacrone (3.3%) were found to be the major constituents. Antioxidant capacities of oil were assessed by various methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power ability (RPA). Based on the results, the leaf oil showed more antioxidant potential as compared to rhizome oil and reference standards (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)). Thus, the leaf essential oil of C. angustifolia can be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

  16. Spectrum-effect relationship between HPLC fingerprints and hypolipidemic effect of Curcuma aromatica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiqiong; Wu, Youjiao; Huang, Shushi; Liu, Huagang; Feng, Jie

    2018-02-23

    Curcuma aromatica is used as a traditional Chinese medicine, and it is mainly distributed in Guangxi, China. In this study, 10 batches of C. aromatica were collected from different origins in Guangxi. The fingerprints were established by HPLC technique to investigate the quality stability of C. aromatica. The spectrum-effect relationship between HPLC fingerprints and hypolipidemic effect of C. aromatica was assessed by similarity analysis, gray relational analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. From the results, the similarity values between each batch of C. aromatica and reference fingerprint were >0.880, indicating the good quality stability of the 10 batches of C. aromatica. Twenty common peaks were selected as the fingerprints to evaluate the quality and hypolipidemic effect of C. aromatica. The results of spectrum-effect relationship showed that peaks 10, 18, 13, 15 and 17 in the fingerprints were closely related to hypolipidemic effect. This study successfully established the spectrum-effect relationship between HPLC fingerprints and hypolipidemic effect of C. aromatica, which provided methods for quality control and more effectively studies on bioactive compounds of C. aromatica. It could also provide a new simple and effective method for utilizing the fingerprints to optimize the Chinese prescription and develop traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pharmacological evaluation of phytochemicals from South Indian Black Turmeric (Curcuma caesia Roxb.) to target cancer apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunthan, K S; Satyan, R S; Patel, T N

    2017-09-14

    Curcuma caesia Roxb. (Black turmeric), a perennial herb of the family Zingiberaceae is indigenous to India. C. caesia is used as a spice, food preservative and coloring agent commonly in the Indian subcontinent. Functional parametric pharmacological evaluations like drug ability and toxicity profile of this endangered species is poorly documented. In our present study, among all the extracts of dried C. caesia rhizome viz- hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water tested for free radical scavenging capacity by total antioxidant activity (TAO) method, Hexane Rhizome Extract (HRE) was found to possess remarkable activity (1200mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100g). In MTT assay across three cancer cell lines and a control cell line, HRE exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition only in cancer cells, with notable activity in HepG2 cell lines (IC50: 0976µg/mL). Further, western blotting and flow cytometry experiments proved that HRE induces cell arrest at G2/M phase along with cellular apoptosis as suggestive by multiple-point mitochondrial mediated intrinsic pathway of Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of HRE suggested twenty compounds that when docked in silico with Tubulin (1SA0) and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/ EGFR (1XKK) showed very intimate binding with the original ligands. Our results provided significant evidence of the toxicity mechanisms of HRE that may be beneficial for more rational applications of drug discovery for slowing down cancer progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential of turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) in agroforestry system based on silk tree (Albizia chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, D.; Budiastuti, M. S.; Sakya, A. T.; Cholid, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant. In Indonesia, it is generally cultivated in village home gardens. Famers conducted very simpple cultivation method of turmeric, without specific maintenance and below varies tree. The experiment was conducted by cultivating turmeric below silk trees as in agroforetry system. The experiment was arranged split plot design, the first factor was three level of irradiation (turmeric monoculture/full irradiation, turmeric below silktree with pruning canopy, and turmeric below silk tree no pruning). The second factor was fertilizer NPK 15-15-15 with three levels of doses (100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). Cultivating turmeric in agroforestry system based on silk tree which were one year old and not yet needed pruning, application of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer 100 kg ha-1 was enough. The rhizome yield of turmeric 3 months age reaches 139 g per plant (fresh weight). Litter fall from a silk tree one year old in one year is 30 kg per tree per year.

  19. Genetic diversity of turmeric germplasm (Curcuma longa; Zingiberaceae) identified by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, M S; Pinheiro, J B; Filho, J A Azevedo; Zucchi, M I

    2011-03-09

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel phytocystatin gene from turmeric, Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Chan, Seow-Neng; Abu Bakar, Norliza; Mahmood, Maziah; Ho, Chai-Ling; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Phytocystatin, a type of protease inhibitor (PI), plays major roles in plant defense mechanisms and has been reported to show antipathogenic properties and plant stress tolerance. Recombinant plant PIs are gaining popularity as potential candidates in engineering of crop protection and in synthesizing medicine. It is therefore crucial to identify PI from novel sources like Curcuma longa as it is more effective in combating against pathogens due to its novelty. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment encoding phytocystatin was isolated using degenerate PCR primers, designed from consensus regions of phytocystatin from other plant species. A full-length cDNA of the phytocystatin gene, designated CypCl, was acquired using 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and it has been deposited in NCBI database (accession number KF545954.1). It has a 687 bp long open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 228 amino acids. BLAST result indicated that CypCl is similar to cystatin protease inhibitor from Cucumis sativus with 74% max identity. Sequence analysis showed that CypCl contains most of the motifs found in a cystatin, including a G residue, LARFAV-, QxVxG sequence, PW dipeptide, and SNSL sequence at C-terminal extension. Phylogenetic studies also showed that CypCl is related to phytocystatin from Elaeis guineensis.

  1. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of 6 New Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.) Accessions.

    PubMed

    Chinedum, Eleazu; Kate, Eleazu; Sonia, Chukwuma; Ironkwe, Adanma; Andrew, Igwe

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of 6 new NRCRI turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) accessions (39, 35, 60, 30, 50 and 41) were determined using standard techniques. The moisture contents of the tumeric samples ranged from 15.75 to 47.80% and the curcumin contents of the turmeric samples fell within the range of curcumin obtained from turmeric in other countries of the world. Furthermore, the turmeric accessions contained considerable amounts of antioxidants (measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and reducing power assays), alkaloids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolics. There was significant correlation between the anthocyanin contents of the tumeric accessions versus their alkaloid (0.744) and flavonoid contents (0.986) suggesting an additive effect between the anthocyanins and alkaloids in turmeric; significant correlation between the inhibition of the turmeric accessions on DPPH radical versus their flavonoid (0.892) and anthocyanin (0.949) contents and significant correlation between the reducing power of the turmeric accessions versus their flavonoid (0.973) and anthocyanin (0.974) contents suggesting that anthocyanins as flavonoids largely contribute to the antioxidant activities of turmeric. The positive regression recorded between inhibition of DPPH radical by the turmeric accessions and quercetin versus reducing power (R2 = 0.852) suggest that any of these methods could be used to assess the antioxidant activities of tumeric. Finally, the study indicated the potentials of the turmeric accessions especially accessions 30 and 50 as promising sources of antioxidants.

  2. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-10-12

    Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.

  3. Curcumin, an active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and its effects on health.

    PubMed

    Kocaadam, Betül; Şanlier, Nevin

    2017-09-02

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a type of herb belonging to ginger family, which is widely grown in southern and south western tropical Asia region. Turmeric, which has an importance place in the cuisines of Iran, Malesia, India, China, Polynesia, and Thailand, is often used as spice and has an effect on the nature, color, and taste of foods. Turmeric is also known to have been used for centuries in India and China for the medical treatments of illnesses such as dermatologic diseases, infection, stress, and depression. Turmeric's effects on health are generally centered upon an orange-yellow colored, lipophilic polyphenol substance called "curcumin," which is acquired from the rhizomes of the herb. Curcumin is known recently to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer effects and, thanks to these effects, to have an important role in prevention and treatment of various illnesses ranging notably from cancer to autoimmune, neurological, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetic. Furthermore, it is aimed to increase the biological activity and physiological effects of the curcumin on the body by synthesizing curcumin analogues. This article reviews the history, chemical and physical features, analogues, metabolites, mechanisms of its physiological activities, and effects on health of curcumin.

  4. Synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils.

    PubMed

    Das, N G; Dhiman, Sunil; Talukdar, P K; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito repellents play an important role in preventing man-mosquito contact. In the present study, we evaluated the synergistic mosquito-repellent activity of Curcuma longa, Pogostemon heyneanus and Zanthoxylum limonella essential oils. The mosquito repellent efficacies of three essential oils were evaluated separately and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. N,N-Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) and dimethylphthalate (DMP) were used for comparison of the protection time of the mixture of essential oils. At an optimum concentration of 20%, the essential oils of C. longa, Z. limonella and P. heyneanus provided complete protection times (CPTs) of 96.2, 91.4 and 123.4 min, respectively, against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in the laboratory. The 1:1:2 mixture of the essential oils provided 329.4 and 391.0 min of CPT in the laboratory and field trials, respectively. The percent increases in CPTs for the essential oil mixture were 30 for DMP and 55 for N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA). The synergistic repellent activity of the essential oils used in the present study might be useful for developing safer alternatives to synthetic repellents for personal protection against mosquitoes. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.

  6. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

  7. Polar extract of Curcuma longa protects cartilage homeostasis: possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Bethapudi, Bharathi

    2018-01-08

    Curcuma longa has been well documented for managing joint inflammation and pain. The present study investigated the effect of polar extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02) on cartilage homeostasis in human articular chondrocytes knee (NHAC-kn) cells to understand its plausible mechanism of action. Dysregulation of cartilage homeostasis was induced by IL-1β and H 2 O 2 . Modulating effects of NR-INF-02 on degradation markers viz., chondrocyte apoptosis, senescence, cytokine, eicosanoids, and cartilage synthesis markers viz., glycosaminoglycans and type II collagen degradation was evaluated in human articular chondrocytes knee (NHAC-kn) cells. Further, the effect of NR-INF-02 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of NF-kB in RAW264.7 macrophages was investigated. NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated IL-1β-induced chondrocyte cytotoxicity, apoptosis and release of chondrocyte degradation markers such as IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, PGE 2 , TNF-α, ICAM-1 in NHAC-kn cells. Also, NR-INF-02 protected IL-1β-induced damage to synthesis markers such as glycosaminoglycans, type II collagen and further attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced chondrocyte senescence. In addition NR-INF-02 suppressed LPS-induced NF-kB expression in RAW264.7 cells. NR-INF-02 protects cartilage homeostasis by maintaining the balance between synthesis and degradation of cartilage matrix.

  8. Curcuma as a functional food in the control of cancer and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Moshe; Schaffer, Pamela M; Zidan, Jamal; Bar Sela, Gil

    2011-11-01

    Several nutritional compounds are the focus of public attention because of their potential beneficial health effects. Turmeric is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa. Extensive research over the past half century and especially in recent years has revealed important functions of curcumin and a timely review of clinical state-of-the-art using curcumin. In-vitro and in-vivo research has shown various activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, cytokines release, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, enhancing of the apoptotic process, and antiangiogenic properties. Curcumin also have been shown to be a mediator of chemo-resistance and radio-resistance. Various in-vitro and in-vivo and scarce number of clinical studies on curcumin were identified. The various effects and properties of curcumin are summarized in this review, including preclinical and especially clinical studies. This review concentrates on recent knowledge and research with curcumin clinical applications, and clinical studies, focusing on studies published between 2008 and 2011 demonstrating the gap between preclinical and clinical research.

  9. An update on Curcuma as a functional food in the control of cancer and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Moshe; Schaffer, Pamela M; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin, commonly known as turmeric, is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa. The present article presents an update of new studies of curcumin activities as tested in anticancer models from 2011 to 2015. Evidence from in-vitro and in-vivo research, together with clinical trials conducted over the past few decades, substantiates the potential of curcumin as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory agent. The development of formulations of curcumin in the form of nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, or phospholipid complexes to enhance its bioavailability and efficacy are still in the early stages. Clinical trials with curcumin indicate safety, tolerability, and nontoxicity. However, the efficacy is questionable, based on the small numbers of patients in each study. The laboratory and the clinical studies until 2011 were summarized in a review published in this journal. An update of the new studies and knowledge from 2011 to March 2015 focuses on new ways to overcome its low bioavailability and data from clinical trials.

  10. Ion wind generation and its application to drying of wild Ginger slices (Curcuma Xanthorhiza)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumariyah; Khuriati, Ainie; Fachriyah, Enny

    2018-05-01

    Temulawak or wild ginger is a herbal medicinal derived from lndonesia original. Wild ginger contains include an active compound as curcuminoid and antioxidant oleoresin components having a special quality to take care of health from various diseases. Drying is the important process to produce wild ginger (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) simplicia as raw material herbal medicine. In this study, has been dried of wild ginger using ion wind which yielded from corona discharge utilizing pin-multi ring concentred electrodes. Corona discharge was generated by using the fixed DC high voltage of 4,3 kV and drying was done at the distance between the fixed electrodes of 4 mm. Shaped of the five temulawak slices is a circle with a thickness of 2 mm and the diameter of 10 mm - 30 mm with 5 mm diameter interval. The sliced temulawak is placed just below the concentric multi-ring electrode and is 2 mm in distance. The wild ginger slices were dried with time varied 5-65 minutes with time interval 5 minutes. The researched result of drying of wild ginger slices obtained drying rate and shrinkage is inversely proportional to drying time.

  11. Curcuma longa extract - Haldi: A safe, eco-friendly natural cytoplasmic stain.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Hema; Naik, Rupali; Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, Rolly

    2017-01-01

    Eosin is most widely used synthetic dye belonging to the xanthene group. These dyes are efficient but are hazardous to human and animal health. With the increasing awareness of a green earth, it is advisable to use more of eco-friendly and biodegradable material which can be effectively achieved by the use of natural dyes obtained from plants and other natural sources. Turmeric, available as Curcuma longa (domestic), has long been in use in the subcontinent as a spice and flavoring agent in most food preparations. Its health benefit as a natural antibiotic and anti-inflammatory has been successfully established by several researchers. The intense yellow color imparted by turmeric inspired us to explore its efficacy as a potential alternative for eosin in routine histopathological procedures. The aim of this was to explore the efficacy of turmeric extract as a stand-alone counterstain for hematoxylin and its comparative assessment with routine H and E staining. The rhizomes of C. longa were cut into small pieces, dried and milled. This powder was dissolved into alcohol and centrifuged using a centrifugal machine. The supernatant was then collected with the help of micropipette. This supernatant was used as a counterstain for hematoxylin. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc.,). The P value obtained was statistically insignificant ( P > 0.05). Although eosin is the most efficient counterstain for hematoxylin, turmeric can also be used as an alternative for eosin.

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous turmeric (Curcuma longa) germplasm from India using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushma; Singh, Shweta; Sharma, Suresh; Tewari, S K; Roy, R K; Goel, A K; Rana, T S

    2015-04-01

    Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric, is one of the economically and medicinally important plant species. It is predominantly cultivated in the tropical and sub tropical countries. India is the largest producer, and exporter of turmeric in the world, followed by China, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Thailand. In the present study, Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR), methods were used to estimate the genetic variability in indigenous turmeric germplasm. Cumulative data analysis for DAMD (15) and ISSR (13) markers resulted into 478 fragments, out of which 392 fragments were polymorphic, revealing 82 % polymorphism across the turmeric genotypes. Wide range of pairwise genetic distances (0.03-0.59) across the genotypes revealed that these genotypes are genetically quite diverse. The UPGMA dendrogram generated using cumulative data showed significant relationships amongst the genotypes. All 29 genotypes studied grouped into two clusters irrespective of their geographical affiliations with 100 % bootstrap value except few genotypes, suggesting considerable diversity amongst the genotypes. These results suggested that the current collection of turmeric genotypes preserve the vast majority of natural variations. The results further demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of DAMD and ISSR markers in determining the genetic diversity and relationships among the indigenous turmeric germplasm. DAMD and ISSR profiling have identified diverse turmeric genotypes, which could be further utilized in various genetic improvement programmes including conventional as well as marker assisted breeding towards development of new and desirable turmeric genotypes.

  13. Application of Scion image software to the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa).

    PubMed

    Sotanaphun, Uthai; Phattanawasin, Panadda; Sriphong, Lawan

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin are bioactive constituents of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Owing to their different potency, quality control of turmeric based on the content of each curcuminoid is more reliable than that based on total curcuminoids. However, to perform such an assay, high-cost instrument is needed. To develop a simple and low-cost method for the simultaneous quantification of three curcuminoids in turmeric using TLC and the public-domain software Scion Image. The image of a TLC chromatogram of turmeric extract was recorded using a digital scanner. The density of the TLC spot of each curcuminoid was analysed by the Scion Image software. The density value was transformed to concentration by comparison with the calibration curve of standard curcuminoids developed on the same TLC plate. The polynomial regression data for all curcuminoids showed good linear relationship with R(2) > 0.99 in the concentration range of 0.375-6 microg/spot. The limits of detection and quantitation were 43-73 and 143-242 ng/spot, respectively. The method gave adequate precision, accuracy and recovery. The contents of each curcuminoid determined using this method were not significantly different from those determined using the TLC densitometric method. TLC image analysis using Scion Image is shown to be a reliable method for the simultaneous analysis of the content of each curcuminoid in turmeric.

  14. Antidermatophytic Properties of Ar-Turmerone, Turmeric Oil, and Curcuma longa Preparations.

    PubMed

    Jankasem, Mukda; Wuthi-Udomlert, Mansuang; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa L. or turmeric of the family Zingiberaceae is widely used in Thai traditional medicines for the treatment of rash, itching, tinea, and ringworm. Previous studies on turmeric oil reported effective antifungal activity against dermatophytes, a group of fungi that causes skin diseases. In this study, turmeric creams containing 6 and 10% w/w turmeric oil were prepared and tested against clinical strains of dermatophytes using broth dilution technique. Minimum fungicidal concentrations of 6 and 10% w/w turmeric creams were found to be 312  μ g/mL. Ar-turmerone, a major compound separated from turmeric oil, promoted more effective antidermatophytic activity with the MICs of 1.56-6.25  μ g/mL, compared to 3.90-7.81  μ g/mL of standard ketoconazole. The results indicated that 6% w/w turmeric oil in the cream was suitable to be formulated as antidermatophytic preparation. Further research should be done on long-term chemical and antifungal stabilities of the preparation.

  15. Antidermatophytic Properties of Ar-Turmerone, Turmeric Oil, and Curcuma longa Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Wuthi-udomlert, Mansuang; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa L. or turmeric of the family Zingiberaceae is widely used in Thai traditional medicines for the treatment of rash, itching, tinea, and ringworm. Previous studies on turmeric oil reported effective antifungal activity against dermatophytes, a group of fungi that causes skin diseases. In this study, turmeric creams containing 6 and 10% w/w turmeric oil were prepared and tested against clinical strains of dermatophytes using broth dilution technique. Minimum fungicidal concentrations of 6 and 10% w/w turmeric creams were found to be 312 μg/mL. Ar-turmerone, a major compound separated from turmeric oil, promoted more effective antidermatophytic activity with the MICs of 1.56–6.25 μg/mL, compared to 3.90–7.81 μg/mL of standard ketoconazole. The results indicated that 6% w/w turmeric oil in the cream was suitable to be formulated as antidermatophytic preparation. Further research should be done on long-term chemical and antifungal stabilities of the preparation. PMID:24066236

  16. Evaluation of in vitro anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities of compounds isolated from Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Grace G. L.; Chan, Ben C. L.; Hon, Po-Ming; Lee, Mavis Y. H.; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara B. S.

    2010-01-01

    The rhizome of Curcuma longa (CL) has been commonly used in Asia as a potential candidate for the treatment of different diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancers. The present study evaluated the anti-proliferative activities of the isolated compounds (3 curcuminoids and 2 turmerones) from CL, using human cancer cell lines HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The immunomodulatory activities of turmerones (α and aromatic) isolated from CL were also examined using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Our results showed that the curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and α-turmerone significantly inhibited proliferation of cancer cells in dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of these compounds in cancer cells ranged from 11.0–41.8 μg/ml. Alpha-turmerone induced MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo apoptosis, which was confirmed by annexin-V & propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assay. The caspase cascade was activated as shown by a significant decrease of procaspases-3, -8 and -9 in α-turmerone treated cells. Both α-turmerone and aromatic-turmerone showed stimulatory effects on PBMC proliferation and cytokine production. The anti-proliferative effect of α-turmerone and immunomodulatory activities of ar-turmerone were shown for the first time. The findings revealed the potential use of CL crude extract (containing curcuminoids and volatile oil including turmerones) as chemopreventive agent. PMID:20438793

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Phytocystatin Gene from Turmeric, Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Seow-Neng; Abu Bakar, Norliza; Mahmood, Maziah; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Phytocystatin, a type of protease inhibitor (PI), plays major roles in plant defense mechanisms and has been reported to show antipathogenic properties and plant stress tolerance. Recombinant plant PIs are gaining popularity as potential candidates in engineering of crop protection and in synthesizing medicine. It is therefore crucial to identify PI from novel sources like Curcuma longa as it is more effective in combating against pathogens due to its novelty. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment encoding phytocystatin was isolated using degenerate PCR primers, designed from consensus regions of phytocystatin from other plant species. A full-length cDNA of the phytocystatin gene, designated CypCl, was acquired using 5′/3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and it has been deposited in NCBI database (accession number KF545954.1). It has a 687 bp long open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 228 amino acids. BLAST result indicated that CypCl is similar to cystatin protease inhibitor from Cucumis sativus with 74% max identity. Sequence analysis showed that CypCl contains most of the motifs found in a cystatin, including a G residue, LARFAV-, QxVxG sequence, PW dipeptide, and SNSL sequence at C-terminal extension. Phylogenetic studies also showed that CypCl is related to phytocystatin from Elaeis guineensis. PMID:25853138

  18. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances: Review.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Vahid; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-06-01

    Curcumin is the major constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Turmeric has been widely used as a spice in foods and for therapeutic applications such as anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Turmeric and curcumin are nonmutagenic and nongenotoxic. Oral use of turmeric and curcumin did not have reproductive toxicity in animals at certain doses. Studies on human did not show toxic effects, and curcumin was safe at the dose of 6 g/day orally for 4-7 weeks. However, some adverse effects such as gastrointestinal upsets may occur. Moreover, oral bioavailable formulations of curcumin were safe for human at the dose of 500 mg two times in a day for 30 days, but there are still few trials and more studies are needed specially on nanoformulations and it should be discussed in a separate article. In addition, curcumin is known as a generally recognized as safe substance. This review discusses the safety and toxicity of turmeric and curcumin in medicine. Turmeric and curcumin are nontoxic for human especially in oral administration. Turmeric and curcumin are also safe in animals. They are nonmutagenic and are safe in pregnancy in animals but more studies in human are needed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Antiproliferative activity of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton extract using ultrasonic assistance and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Ying; Hu, Daode

    2017-01-02

    The objective of the study was to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of curdione, furanodienone, curcumol, and germacrone from Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton (Val.) and investigate the antiproliferative activity of the extract. Under the suitable high-performance liquid chromatography condition, the calibration curves for these four tested compounds showed high levels of linearity and the recoveries of these four compounds were between 97.9 and 104.3%. Response surface methodology (RSM) combining central composite design and desirability function (DF) was used to define optimal extraction parameters. The results of RSM and DF revealed that the optimum conditions were obtained as 8 mL g -1 for liquid-solid ratio, 70% ethanol concentration, and 20 min of ultrasonic time. It was found that the surface structures of the sonicated herbal materials were fluffy and irregular. The C. phaeocaulis Val. extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of RKO and HT-29 cells in vitro. The results reveal that the RSM can be effectively used for optimizing the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of bioactive components from C. phaeocaulis Val. for antiproliferative activity.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of fermented Curcuma longa L. on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongjae; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Jong-Choon; Jun, Woojin

    2014-05-15

    The hepatoprotective effect of fermented Curcuma longa L. (FC) was investigated in rats under CCl4-induced oxidative stress. FC at a dose of 30 or 300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was orally administered for 14 days followed by a single dose of CCl4 (1.25 mL/kg b.w. in 20% corn oil) on day 14. Pretreatment with FC drastically prevented the elevated activities of serum AST, ALT, LDH, and ALP caused by CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Histopathologically evident hepatic necrosis was significantly ameliorated by FC pretreatment. When compared to the CCl4-alone treated group, rats pretreated with FC displayed the reduced level of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, FC enhanced antioxidant capacities with higher activities of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase, and level of reduced glutathione. These results suggest that FC could be a candidate used for the prevention against various liver diseases induced by oxidative stress via elevating antioxidative potentials and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Labdane diterpenoids from Curcuma amada rhizomes collected in Myanmar and their antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ito, Takuya; Ngwe, Hla; Win, Yi Yi; Prema; Okamoto, Yasuko; Tanaka, Masami; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Four new labdane diterpenoids, 12β-hydroxy-15-norlabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16-oic acid (1), (E)-15-ethoxy-15-methoxylabda-8(17),12-dien-16-al (2), (E)-15α-ethoxy-14α-hydroxylabda-8(17),12-dien-16-olide (3), and 15-ethoxy-12β-hydroxylabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16,15-olide (4) were isolated from the methanol extract of Curcuma amada rhizomes collected in Myanmar, together with 13 known analogs. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques. All of the isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against a small panel of five different human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung cancer; HeLa, human cervical cancer; MCF7, human breast cancer; PANC-1 and PSN-1, human pancreatic cancer). Among the isolates, compounds 2-4, 7, 8, 12, and 17 showed mild antiproliferative activities with IC 50 values ranging from 19.7 to 96.1μM. (E)-14-Hydroxy-15-norlabda-8(17),12-dien-16-al (11) exhibited strong antiproliferative activities selectively against HeLa, PANC-1, and PSN-1 cells, with IC 50 values of 5.88, 1.00, and 3.98μM, respectively. These potencies were comparable to those of the positive control, 5-fluorouracil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Terpenoids from Curcuma wenyujin increased glucose consumption on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang-Xin; Zhang, Li-Sha; Chen, Fei-Fei; Wu, Hao-Shu; Mo, Jian-Xia; Gan, Li-She

    2017-09-01

    Thirty four terpenoids, including two new cadinane-type sesquiterpenoids containing conjugated aromatic-ketone moieties, curcujinone A (1) and curcujinone B (2), were isolated from 95% ethanol extract of the root tubers of Curcuma wenyujin. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR and HRMS techniques. The relative and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were identified by quantum chemical DFT and TDDFT calculations of the 13 C NMR chemical shifts, ECD spectra, and specific optical rotations. All compounds and extracts were evaluated for their anti-diabetic activities with a glucose consumption model on HepG2 Cells. The petroleum fraction CWP (10μg/mL) and compounds curcumenol (4), 7α,11α-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-9-guaiaen-8-one (5), curdione (17), (1S, 4S, 5S 10S)-germacrone (18), zederone (20), a mixture of curcumanolide A (25) and curcumanolide B (26), gajutsulactone B (27), and wenyujinin C (30) showed promising activities with over 45% increasing of glucose consumption at 10μM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Variation in Essential Oil and Bioactive Compounds of Curcuma kwangsiensis Collected from Natural Habitats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanyue; Yang, Zhiwen; Huang, Zebin; Zhao, Mincong; Li, Penghui; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Li; Tang, Jian; Fang, Yanxiong; Du, Zhiyun

    2017-07-01

    The chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Curcuma kwangsiensis rhizomes collected from six natural habitats in P. R. China were evaluated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty-seven components were identified from the six EOs, and their main constituents were 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene (2.37 - 42.59%), germacrone (6.53 - 22.20%), and l-camphor (0.19 - 6.12%). The six EOs exhibited different DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC 50 , 2.24 - 31.03 μg/ml), with the activity of most of EOs being much higher than that of Trolox C (IC 50 , 10.49 μg/ml) and BHT (IC 50 , 54.13 μg/ml). Most EOs had potent antimicrobial effects against the tested bacteria and fungus. They also exhibited cytotoxicity against B16 (IC 50 , 4.44 - 147.4 μg/ml) and LNCaP cells (IC 50 , 73.94 - 429.25 μg/ml). The EOs showed excellent anti-inflammatory action by significantly downregulating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α. This study provides insight into the interrelation among growth location, phytoconstituents, and bioactivities, and the results indicate the potential of C. kwangsiensis as natural nutrients, medicines, and others additives. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Absolute Configurations and NO Inhibitory Activities of Terpenoids from Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Ji, Feifei; Kang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Li, Shen; Jin, Da-Qing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-06-24

    Curcuma longa L., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb and has been used as a spice and a pigment in the food industry. In the ongoing search for inhibitory reagents of NO production and survey of the chemical composition of natural vegetable foods, the chemical constituents of C. longa used as spice were investigated. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 2 new terpenoids and 14 known analogues. Their structures were established on the basis of the extensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by comparison of the calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among them, compound 1 is a rare norditerpene with an ent-labdane skeleton, and 2 is a skeletally novel sesquiterpene having an eight-membered ring. All of the compounds were found to possess NO inhibitory activities in murine microglial BV-2 cells. The discovery of two new compounds in this chemical investigation further disclosed the chemical composition of C. longa used a food spice, and the bioassay implied that the natural food spice C. longa, containing terpenoids with NO inhibitory activities, may be potentially promotive to human health.

  5. CURCUMA LONGA AS MEDICINAL HERB IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABET- IC COMPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Karlowicz-Bodalska, Katarzyna; Han, Stanislaw; Freier, Julia; Smolenski, Michal; Bodalska, Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) of ginger family (Zingiberaceae) belongs to the group of oldest cultivated spice plants in the south-east Asian countries. For many years rhizome of this plant has been used also as a safe and active drug for the treatment of various.chronic diseases, especially of diabetes mellitus (DM). The active substance of turmeric - curcumin (diferuloylmethane), possesses multiple therapeutic properties. In recent years, many detailed research (tests in vito and in vivo) along with clinical trials have revealed its very valuable biological activities related to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cancer preventive properties, which are presented in numerous publications (1-6). At the molecular level it has been stated that curcumin inhibits cell proliferation, metastasis creation and apoptosis. Currently, great attention has been focused on curcumin as a blocker of TNF-s, which are the principal mediators of most inflammation-related disturbances (7). The main cause of blocking the broadly extended pharmacological and clinical investigations of curcumin is its extremely low solubility in water and in organ fluids. This feature consequently limits its systemic bioavailability and makes use of curcumin as a therapeutic remedy (to date) difficult. The primary aim of presently conducted research is to achieve increased solubilization and bioavailability of this promising nontoxic agent.

  6. Effects of Vehicles and Enhancers on the Skin Permeation of Phytoestrogenic Diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa.

    PubMed

    Tuntiyasawasdikul, Sarunya; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2017-04-01

    Curcuma comosa (C. comosa) is widely used in traditional medicine as a dietary supplement for health promotion in postmenopausal women in Thailand. It contains several diarylheptanoids, which are considered to be a novel class of phytoestrogens. However, the diarylheptanoids isolated from the plant rhizome are shown to have low oral bioavailability and faster elimination characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the permeation behavior of the active compounds of diarylheptanoids. The effects of binary vehicle systems and permeation enhancers on diarylheptanoids permeation and accumulation within the skin were studied using side-by-side diffusion cells through the porcine ear skin. Among the tested binary vehicle systems, the ethanol/water vehicle appeared to be the most effective system for diarylheptanoids permeation with the highest flux and shortest lag time. The presence of transcutol in the vehicle system significantly increased diarylheptanoid's permeation and accumulation within the skin in a concentration-dependent manner. Although the presence of terpenes in formulation decreased the flux of diarylheptanoids, it raised the amount of diarylheptanoids retained within the skin substantially. Based on the feasibility of diarylheptanoid permeation, C. comosa extract should be further developed into an effective transdermal product for health benefits and hormone replacement therapy.

  7. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  8. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David

    2013-10-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Dietary supplementation with C. longa enhanced coccidiosis resistance as demonstrated by increased BW gains, reduced fecal oocyst shedding, and decreased gut lesions compared with infected birds fed a nonsupplemented control diet. The chickens fed C. longa-supplemented diet showed enhanced systemic humoral immunity, as assessed by greater levels of serum antibodies to an Eimeria microneme protein, MIC2, and enhanced cellular immunity, as measured by concanavalin A-induced spleen cell proliferation, compared with controls. At the intestinal level, genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray hybridization identified 601 differentially expressed transcripts (287 upregulated, 314 downregulated) in gut lymphocytes of C. longa-fed chickens compared with nonsupplemented controls. Based on the known functions of the corresponding mammalian genes, the C. longa-induced intestinal transcriptome was mostly associated with genes mediating anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary C. longa could be used to attenuate Eimeria-induced, inflammation-mediated gut damage in commercial poultry production.

  9. Dose-dependent effect of Curcuma longa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Guo, Rui-You

    2017-05-01

    Curcuma longa is a plant that belongs to the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It has been used in Siddha medicine for thousands of years in Asia. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that affects the motor system of the brain. Death of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra leads to PD. Exposure to salsolinol, which is an endogenous neurotoxin, has been associated with damage to dopamine-producing cells. The present study assessed the toxicity of salsolinol in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and subsequently investigated the neuroprotective potential of C. longa extract in salsolinol-induced toxic conditions in SH-SY5Y cells. Sulphorhodamine-B assay showed the protective effect of the anti-apoptotic effect of treated SH-SY5Y cells. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscope analysis indicated the anti-apoptotic impact of the C. longa extract. Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species were reduced in C. longa extract-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Downregulated mRNA expression levels of p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein and caspase 3 were observed in the C. longa extract-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Caspase 3 activity was reduced in the C. longa extract-treated SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that solsolinol is neurotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells, and C. longa extract may be useful in the treatment of PD.

  10. Acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa residue for ethanol and lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Park, Youn-Je; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa waste, to obtain the hydrolysate containing lactic acid and ethanol fermentative sugars. A central composite design for describing regression equations of variables was used. The selected optimum condition was 4.91% sulphuric acid, 122.68°C and 50 min using the desirability function under the following conditions: the maximum reducing sugar (RS) yield is within the limited range of the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural concentrations. Under the condition, the obtained solution contained 144 g RS/L, 0.79 g furfural/L and 2.59 g HMF/L and was directly fermented without a detoxification step. The maximum product concentration, average productivity, RS conversion and product yield were 115.36 g/L, 2.88 g/L/h, 89.43% and 64% for L-lactic acid; 113.92 g/L, 2.59 g/L/h, 88.31% and 63.29% for D-lactic acid; and 55.03 g/L, 1.38 g/L/h, 42.66 and 30.57%, respectively, for ethanol using a 7-L jar fermenter. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Branum, Amy; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-08-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a commonly used spice throughout the world, has been shown to exhibit antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-neoplastic properties. Growing evidence shows that an active component of turmeric, curcumin, may be used medically to treat a variety of dermatologic diseases. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of both topical and ingested turmeric/curcumin to modulate skin health and function. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans that examined the relationship between products containing turmeric, curcumin, and skin health. A total of 234 articles were uncovered, and a total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. Nine studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, eight studies evaluated the effects of topical, and one study evaluated the effects of both ingested and topical application of turmeric/curcumin. Skin conditions examined include acne, alopecia, atopic dermatitis, facial photoaging, oral lichen planus, pruritus, psoriasis, radiodermatitis, and vitiligo. Ten studies noted statistically significant improvement in skin disease severity in the turmeric/curcumin treatment groups compared with control groups. Overall, there is early evidence that turmeric/curcumin products and supplements, both oral and topical, may provide therapeutic benefits for skin health. However, currently published studies are limited and further studies will be essential to better evaluate efficacy and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future.

  13. Effect of balanced low pressure drying of curcuma longa leaf on skin immune activation activities.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wooseok; Lim, Hye Won; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of balanced low pressure drying pretreatment associated with ultrasonication extraction (BU) on the enhancement of skin immune modulatory activities of Curcuma longa leaf was studied by comparing with conventional hot air drying (HE), freeze drying (FE) and balanced low pressure drying (BE) pretreatment processes. In considering skin immune activation activities such as the inhibition of hyaluronidase activity, the BU extract showed ca. 10% higher than those of HE, and even higher than that of the FE extract. Nitric oxide production from macrophage of the BU extract in adding 1.0 mg/mL was increased up to 16.5 μM. When measuring inhibition of IL-6 and TNF-a production from the human T lymphocytes (T cell), the BU extract also showed 53% and 78% of inhibition effect, respectively. It is found that the BU extract could effectively suppress the expression levels of skin inflammation related genes such as Cox-2 and iNOS, down to 80% and 85% compared to the control, respectively. Balanced low pressure drying process was especially active on dehydration of the leaves with minimizing the destruction and making easier elution of the bioactive substances, which resulted in higher extraction yield and better biological activities.

  14. [Extraction Optimization of Rhizome of Curcuma longa by Response Surface Methodology and Support Vector Regression].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei-pei; Shan, Jin-feng; Jiang, Jian-lan

    2015-12-01

    To optimize the optimal microwave-assisted extraction method of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa. On the base of single factor experiment, the ethanol concentration, the ratio of liquid to solid and the microwave time were selected for further optimization. Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Central Composite Design-Response Surface Methodology (CCD) algorithm were utilized to design and establish models respectively, while Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was introduced to optimize the parameters of SVR models and to search optimal points of models. The evaluation indicator, the sum of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin by HPLC, were used. The optimal parameters of microwave-assisted extraction were as follows: ethanol concentration of 69%, ratio of liquid to solid of 21 : 1, microwave time of 55 s. On those conditions, the sum of three curcuminoids was 28.97 mg/g (per gram of rhizomes powder). Both the CCD model and the SVR model were credible, for they have predicted the similar process condition and the deviation of yield were less than 1.2%.

  15. Protective effect of crude Curcuma longa and its methanolic extract in alloxanized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mobasher; Kamran, Sairah Hafeez; Mobasher, Afroze

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa (C. longa) is commonly found in different areas of Pakistan. It has been locally utilized as a traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and total antioxidant effect of the crude drug and its methanolic extract in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with alloxan (180mg/kg). Two major groups were designed, curative and protective groups. In curative group the crude drug and its methanolic extract was orally administered to the diabetic animals and acute study was performed. On the other hand in protective group the crude drug and its methanolic extract were administered for eight days prior to the diabetes induction. Results indicated that in Curative group the crude and methanolic extract of C. longa significantly improved the levels of serum glucose, serum transaminases and antioxidant activity (AOA). In protective group, serum glucose, serum transaminases were not significantly increased by alloxan, in both crude as well as methanolic extract group. This study shows that C. longa acts as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in diabetes especially type 1 diabetes.

  16. In vitro effectiveness of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale extracts on Echinococcus protoscoleces.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Esam; Al-Shaebi, Esam M; Al-Quarishy, Saleh; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an important economic and human public health problem with a wide geographical distribution. Surgical excision remains the primary treatment and the only hope for complete cure of hydatosis. The most important complications arising from surgical excision, however, is recurrence, which is due to dissemination of protoscolices during the surgery. Pre-surgical inactivation of the contents of the hydatid cyst by injection of scolicidal agent into the cyst has been used as adjunct to surgery in order to overcome the risk of recurrence. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) and ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) were tested as scolicidal agent for Echinococcus protoscoleces. Protoscoleces were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Three concentrations (10, 30 and 50 mg/ml) of each extract were investigated and viability of the protoscoleces was tested by 0.1% eosin staining. Ginger extract showed the strongest scolicidal effect (100%) after 20 min at a concentration of 30 mg/ml and 10 min at 50 mg/ml . The maximum scolicidal effect of turmeric was 93.2% after 30 min at a concentration of 50 mg/ml. It is concluded that turmeric and ginger extracts have high scolicidal activity and could be used as effective scolicidal agents against Echinococcus protoscoleces.

  17. The in vitro inhibitory effects of crude extracts of traditional Chinese herbs on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chan, Paul; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Lo, Ming-Yu; Lin, Jung-Yaw

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death in Western countries. Epidemiological studies have shown that hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Clinical trials of lipid lowering therapy with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase inhibitor have been shown to decrease coronary events and mortality. Flavonoids are polyphenolic natural antioxidants occurring in natural products such as traditional Chinese herbs, fruits and beverages such as tea and wine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude extracts from traditional Chinese herbs on HMG Co-A reductase. The methods for analysis of specific inhibitors of mevalonate biosynthesis have been well-established by using Vero cells, a cell line obtained from kidneys of African green monkeys. Crude extracts from different traditional Chinese herbs were dissolved in 1% Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and incubated with Vero cells with or without the addition of 1 mM mevalonate or 5 mM sodium acetate for 24 hours in order to observe cell growth. Pravastatin, a specific HMG Co-A reductase inhibitor, was used as a positive control which inhibits Vero cells growth effectively and cell growth inhibition was reversible after 1 mM mevalonate. Among 100 traditional Chinese herbs used for the study, only two herbs: Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Poncirus trifoliata Raf. showed significant growth inhibition of Vero cells. This study shows that some crude extracts isolated from traditional medicinal herbs were effective HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors which might be developed into new hypocholesterolemic agents.

  18. Inhibition of AKT signaling by supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Portalatin, Gilda; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a less-investigated herb for anticancer properties than other related Curcuma species. AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase B, originally identified as an oncogene in the transforming retrovirus AKT8) plays a central role in the development and promotion of cancer. In this investigation, we have analyzed the effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) on the genetic pathways associated with AKT signaling in human glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada) on AKT signaling was investigated in U-87MG glioblastoma cells. CA was highly cytotoxic to glioblastoma cell line (IC50=4.92±0.81 µg/mL) compared to mHypoE-N1 normal mouse hypothalamus cell line (IC50=40.57±0.06 µg/mL). CA inhibits AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophophate -activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration which is necessary for invasion and metastasis was also inhibited by CA treatment, with about 43% reduction at 20 µg/mL concentration. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis showed that CA modulates expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, BNIP3, caspase-3, mutant p53 and p21), cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Additionally, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα genes interacting with the AKT signaling pathway were also downregulated by CA treatment. These results indicate the molecular targets and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of CA in human glioblastoma cells.

  19. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  20. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Margină, Denisa; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Grădinaru, Daniela; GuȚu, Claudia; Voicu, Sorina; Dinischiotu, Anca; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-11-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro . Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4-39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  1. Effect of Acute Gamma Irradiation on Curcuma alismatifolia Varieties and Detection of DNA Polymorphism through SSR Marker

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Ahmad, Zaiton; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay

    2014-01-01

    The effects of eight different doses (0, 10, 20, 25, 35, 40, 60, and 100 Gy) of acute gamma irradiation on 44 (three varieties of Curcuma alismatifolia: Chiang Mai Red, Sweet Pink, Kimono Pink, and one Curcuma hybrid (Doi Tung 554) individual plants were investigated. Radiation sensitivity tests revealed that the LD50 values of the varieties were achieved at 21 Gy for Chiang Mai Red, 23 Gy for Sweet Pink, 25 Gy for Kimono Pink, and 28 Gy for Doi Tung 554. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), significant variations were observed for vegetative traits, flowering development, and rhizome characteristics among the four varieties of Curcuma alismatifolia and dose levels as well as the dose × variety interaction. In irradiated plants, the leaf length, leaf width, inflorescence length, the number of true flowers, the number of pink bracts, number of shoots, plant height, rhizome size, number of storage roots, and number of new rhizomes decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as the radiation dose increased. The cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCC) between genetic dissimilarity matrix estimated from the morphological characters and the UPGMA clustering method was r = 0.93, showing a proof fit. In terms of genetic variation among the acutely irradiated samples, the number of presumed alleles revealed by simple sequence repeats ranged from two to seven alleles with a mean value of 3.1, 4.5, and 5.3 alleles per locus for radiation doses of 0, 10, and 20 Gy, respectively. The average values of the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 2.5–3.2, 0.51–0.66, and 0.9–1.3, respectively. The constructed dendrogram grouped the entities into seven clusters. Principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering results. Consequently, it was concluded that irradiation with optimum doses of gamma rays efficiently induces mutations in Curcuma alismatifolia varieties. PMID:24719878

  2. Sesquiterpenes from Curcuma wenyujin with their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Suyu; Xia, Guiyang; Wang, Liqing; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Jian; Chen, Lixia

    2017-03-01

    One new sesquiterpene, 7α,11-epoxy-6α-hydroxy-carabrane-4,8-dione, along with 10 known ones were isolated from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by the CD analysis of the insitu formed [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ] complex, and the CD data analysis based on the octane rule of cyclohexanone. The inhibitory effects of these sesquiterpenes on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages were also evaluated. Furthermore, the biosynthesis pathway of the isolated compounds was proposed.

  3. Antiviral effects of Curcuma longa L. against dengue virus in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichsyani, M.; Ridhanya, A.; Risanti, M.; Desti, H.; Ceria, R.; Putri, D. H.; Sudiro, T. M.; Dewi, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Dengue is the most common infective disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and endemic diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. Until now, there is no specific antiviral for dengue infection. It is known that viral load is related to disease severity. Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) with curcumin as major active compound has been identified for its antiviral effect. This study to determine antiviral effect of C. longa extract on DENV-2 in vitro and in vivo along with its toxicity in liver and kidney of ddY mice. Antiviral activity (IC50) and toxicity (CC50) in vitro was examined on Huh7it-1 cells by focus assay and a MTT assay, respectively. To determine the selectivity index (SI), we used CC50 and IC50 value. The safe doses obtained were used for toxicity tests of liver and kidney with histopathological and biochemical observations. The C. longa extracts was given orally with dose of 0.147 mg/mL for each mice at 2 hours after injected with DENV-2 infected Huh7it-1 cells. Serum was collected from intraorbital at 6 hours and 24 hours after infection and focus assay was used to determine viral load. In this study, the acquired value of IC50 was 17,91 μg/mL whereas the value of CC50 was 85,4 μg/mL. The value of SI of C. longa was 4.8. In vivo, we found that C. longa remarkable reduced of viral load after 24 hour. Histopathological examination showed no specific abnormalities in liver and kidney. There was no significant increase in levels of SGPT, SGOT, urea, and creatinine. From this study it can be concluded that C. longa could potentially be used as antiviral against DENV with low cytotoxicity and effective inhibition.

  4. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorptionmore » band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.« less

  5. Antiparasitic efficacy of curcumin from Curcuma longa against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Meng; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Fu, Yao-Wu; Lin, De-Jie; Zhou, Sheng-Yu; Li, Jian-Pei

    2017-03-15

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. In the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-I. multifiliis theronts. Anti-I. multifiliis efficacy of curcumin was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin resulted in 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at a concentration of 1mg/L within 21.7±1.2min and killed all tomonts at 8mg/L within 31.0±1.0min. Curcumin at 4mg/L for 16h exposure can completely terminate the reproduction of tomonts. The pretreatment with curcumin at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125mg/L for 2h significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts. Curcumin at 4mg/L completely cured the infected grass carp and protected naive fish from I. multifiliis infection after 10days exposure. The 4h median effective concentration (EC 50 ) of curcumin to I. multifiliis theronts and the 5h EC 50 of curcumin to I. multifiliis tomonts were 0.303mg/L and 2.891mg/L, respectively. The 96h median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of curcumin to grass carp was 56.8mg/L, which was approximately 187.4 times EC 50 of curcumin to theronts and 19.6 times EC 50 of curcumin to tomonts. The results demonstrated that curcumin has the potential to be a safe and effective therapeutant for controlling ichthyophthiriasis in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Curcuma longa extract – Haldi: A safe, eco-friendly natural cytoplasmic stain

    PubMed Central

    Suryawanshi, Hema; Naik, Rupali; Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, Rolly

    2017-01-01

    Background: Eosin is most widely used synthetic dye belonging to the xanthene group. These dyes are efficient but are hazardous to human and animal health. With the increasing awareness of a green earth, it is advisable to use more of eco-friendly and biodegradable material which can be effectively achieved by the use of natural dyes obtained from plants and other natural sources. Turmeric, available as Curcuma longa (domestic), has long been in use in the subcontinent as a spice and flavoring agent in most food preparations. Its health benefit as a natural antibiotic and anti-inflammatory has been successfully established by several researchers. The intense yellow color imparted by turmeric inspired us to explore its efficacy as a potential alternative for eosin in routine histopathological procedures. Aim: The aim of this was to explore the efficacy of turmeric extract as a stand-alone counterstain for hematoxylin and its comparative assessment with routine H and E staining. Materials and Methods: The rhizomes of C. longa were cut into small pieces, dried and milled. This powder was dissolved into alcohol and centrifuged using a centrifugal machine. The supernatant was then collected with the help of micropipette. This supernatant was used as a counterstain for hematoxylin. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc.,). The P value obtained was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Although eosin is the most efficient counterstain for hematoxylin, turmeric can also be used as an alternative for eosin. PMID:29391705

  7. Isolation and characterization of iron chelators from turmeric (Curcuma longa): selective metal binding by curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Messner, Donald J; Surrago, Christine; Fiordalisi, Celia; Chung, Wing Yin; Kowdley, Kris V

    2017-10-01

    Iron overload disorders may be treated by chelation therapy. This study describes a novel method for isolating iron chelators from complex mixtures including plant extracts. We demonstrate the one-step isolation of curcuminoids from turmeric, the medicinal food spice derived from Curcuma longa. The method uses iron-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-agarose, to which curcumin binds rapidly, specifically, and reversibly. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin each bound iron-NTA-agarose with comparable affinities and a stoichiometry near 1. Analyses of binding efficiencies and purity demonstrated that curcuminoids comprise the primary iron binding compounds recovered from a crude turmeric extract. Competition of curcuminoid binding to the iron resin was used to characterize the metal binding site on curcumin and to detect iron binding by added chelators. Curcumin-Iron-NTA-agarose binding was inhibited by other metals with relative potency: (>90% inhibition) Cu 2+  ~ Al 3+  > Zn 2+  ≥ Ca 2+  ~ Mg 2+  ~ Mn 2+ (<20% inhibition). Binding was also inhibited by pharmaceutical iron chelators (desferoxamine or EDTA) or by higher concentrations of weak iron chelators (citrate or silibinin). Investigation of the physiological effects of iron binding by curcumin revealed that curcumin uptake by cultured cells was reduced >80% by addition of iron to the media; uptake was completely restored by desferoxamine. Ranking of metals by relative potencies for blocking curcumin uptake agreed with their relative potencies in blocking curcumin binding to iron-NTA-agarose. We conclude that curcumin can selectively bind toxic metals including iron in a physiological setting, and propose inhibition of curcumin binding to iron-NTA-agarose for iron chelator screening.

  8. Korean Curcuma longa L. induces lipolysis and regulates leptin in adipocyte cells and rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won-Yeong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been reported to have many biological functions including anti-obesity. Leptin, peptide hormone produced by adipocytes and its concentration is increased in proportion to the amount of the adipocytes. In the present study, we examined the effects of Korean turmeric on the regulation of adiposity and leptin levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Leptin secretion, free fatty acid and glycerol contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were measured after incubation of cells with turmeric for 24 hours. Rats were divided into four experimental groups: a normal diet group (N), a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet group (HF), a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet group supplemented with 2.5% turmeric extracts (TPA group) and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet group supplemented with 5% turmeric extracts (TPB group). Serum samples were used for the measurement of leptin concentration. RESULTS Contents of free fatty acid and glycerol showed concentration dependent increase in response to turmeric extracts. Effects of turmeric extracts on reduction of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells were examined by Oil Red O staining. Treatment with turmeric extracts resulted in increased expression levels of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA. The concentration of leptin from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was significantly decreased by turmeric. Proportional abdominal and epididymal fats weights of the turmeric 5% supplemented group, TPB has significantly decreased compared to the HF group. The serum levels of leptin in the TPA and TPB groups were significantly lower than those of the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Based on these results, we suggested that Korean turmeric may contribute to the decreasing of body fat and regulating leptin secretion. PMID:27698955

  9. Curcuma longa (Turmeric) for Prevention of Capecitabine-Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Scontre, Vanessa Armenio; Martins, Janine Capobiango; de Melo Sette, Claudia Vaz; Mutti, Haila; Cubero, Daniel; Fonseca, Fernando; Del Giglio, Auro

    2017-11-02

    Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is common and frequently occurs in the first cycle of treatment in approximately 40% to 50% of patients who receive capecitabine. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a plant used in Ayurvedic medicine with clinical activity in various inflammatory conditions. Our objective was to evaluate whether turmeric was active for the prevention of capecitabine-induced HFS. We included patients older than 18 years of age without previous exposure to capecitabine who were scheduled to receive this medication. Before starting treatment, after three weeks and at the end of six weeks, we evaluated dermatologic toxicity, conducted quality-of-life questionnaires (EORTC-QLQC30 and DLQI) and collected serum inflammatory biomarkers (inerleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin). We administered turmeric at a dose of 4 g/day (2 pills 12 hours apart) starting at the beginning of capecitabine treatment and lasting six weeks. We included 40 patients whose mean age was 62 years. Most were female (80%), 52% had breast cancer, and 47.5% had GI tumors. After the first cycle of capecitabine treatment, we observed that 11 of 40 patients developed HFS (27.5%; 95% CI [15, 42]), whereas four patients developed HFS equal or superior to grade 2 (10%; 95% CI [3.3, 23]). We did not find any correlations between the inflammatory markers tested and HFS. We show that turmeric combined with capecitabine seems to produce a lower rate of HFS, especially grade 2 or higher. These findings need to be reproduced in larger controlled studies.

  10. Potential chemoprevention of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats: myrrh (Commiphora molmol) vs. turmeric (Curcuma longa).

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, Mohamed; El-Abd, Sabah; Alkafafy, Mohamed; El-Khatib, Gamal

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential chemopreventive effects of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) vs. turmeric (Curcuma longa) in hepatocarcinogenic rats induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg body weight). Ninety male Wistar rats used in this study were randomly divided into six equal groups (n=15). Group 1 rats served as negative controls; group 2 received a single i.p. injection of DENA and served as positive controls. Rats in both groups were fed on basal diet. Group 3 rats were fed a diet containing 5% turmeric, whereas group 4 rats were fed a diet containing 2% myrrh. Rats in groups 5 and 6 received a single i.p. injection of DENA and were fed diets containing 5% turmeric and 2% myrrh, respectively. The study demonstrated that DENA caused a significant increase in serum indices of liver enzymes and also severe histological and immunohistochemical changes in hepatic tissues. These included disorganized hepatic parenchyma, appearance of pseudoacinar and trabecular arrays of hepatocytes and alterations in CD10-immunoreactivity. Dietary supplementation of turmeric relatively improved the biochemical parameters to values approximating those of the negative controls and delayed the initiation of carcinogenesis. In contrast, myrrh did not improve the biochemical parameters or delay the hepatocarcinogenesis. Both turmeric and myrrh induced significant biochemical and histological changes in non-treated rats. In conclusion, DENA significantly changes the biological enzymatic activities in serum and the integrity of hepatic tissues. Phytochemicals with potential hepatoprotective effects must be applied cautiously owing to their potential hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Chinampudur V.; Sundarajan, Kannan; Edwin, Jothie R.; Gururaja, Giligar M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background: While curcuminoids have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of polar extracts (devoid of curcuminoids) of Curcuma longa (C. longa) has seldom been studied. In this study, we have investigated immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous based extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02) and its fractions in presence and absence of mitogens. Materials and Methods: Effects of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin™, Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India) on proliferation, nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukins (ILs) and prostaglandin (PGE2) levels of mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells were determined. Results: NR-INF-02 increased splenocytes number in presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A. Treatment of NR-INF-02 showed a significant increase of NO, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN) gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and MCP-1 production in unstimulated mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophages. Interestingly, NR-INF-02 showed potent inhibitory effect towards release of PGE2 and IL-12 levels in LPS stimulated mouse splenocytes. Further, NR-INF-02 was fractionated into polysaccharide fraction (F1) and mother liquor (F2) to study their immune-modulatory effects. F1 was found to be more potent than F2 toward inhibiting PGE2 and IL-12 in LPS stimulated splenocytes. Conclusion: Present findings revealed the novel anti-inflammatory property of NR-INF-02 and its polysaccharide fraction by inhibiting the secretion of IL-12 and PGE2 in vitro. PMID:23798880

  12. Dose-dependent effect of Curcuma longa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Guo, Rui-You

    2017-01-01

    Curcuma longa is a plant that belongs to the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It has been used in Siddha medicine for thousands of years in Asia. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that affects the motor system of the brain. Death of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra leads to PD. Exposure to salsolinol, which is an endogenous neurotoxin, has been associated with damage to dopamine-producing cells. The present study assessed the toxicity of salsolinol in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and subsequently investigated the neuroprotective potential of C. longa extract in salsolinol-induced toxic conditions in SH-SY5Y cells. Sulphorhodamine-B assay showed the protective effect of the anti-apoptotic effect of treated SH-SY5Y cells. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscope analysis indicated the anti-apoptotic impact of the C. longa extract. Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species were reduced in C. longa extract-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Downregulated mRNA expression levels of p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein and caspase 3 were observed in the C. longa extract-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Caspase 3 activity was reduced in the C. longa extract-treated SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated that solsolinol is neurotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells, and C. longa extract may be useful in the treatment of PD. PMID:28565770

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  14. Determination of oral bioavailability of curcuminoid dispersions and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei Shan; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing Huei

    2018-01-01

    Curcuminoid from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has been demonstrated to be effective in anti-cancer and anti-inflammation. The objectives of the present study were to prepare curcuminoid dispersion and nanoemulsion from C. longa and determine their oral bioavailabilities in rats. After curcuminoid extraction using 99.5% ethanol, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and curcumin were separated within 10 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 1 mL min -1 , column temperature of 35 °C and detection wavelength of 425 nm. Curcuminoid nanoemulsion at a particle size of 12.1 nm and encapsulation efficiency 98.8% was prepared using lecithin, Tween 80 and water. A pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that the parameters including T max , C max , t 1/2 and the area under the curve were higher for curcuminoid nanoemulsions than for curcuminoid dispersion at the same dose employed for gavage administration, whereas, for intravenous injection, an opposite trend was shown. The oral bioavailabilities of BDMC, DMC, curcumin and total curcuminoids in nanoemulsion and dispersion were 34.39 and 4.65%, 39.93 and 5.49%, 47.82 and 9.38%, and 46 and 8.7%, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate a higher oral bioavailability after incorporation of curcuminoid into nanoemulsion, facilitating its application as a botanic drug. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Stability of Curcuma longa rhizome lectin: Role of N-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Himadri; Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Curcuma longa rhizome lectin, a mannose-binding protein of non-seed portions of turmeric, is known to have antifungal, antibacterial and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. We studied the role of complex-type glycans attached to asparagine (Asn) 66 and Asn 110 to elucidate the role of carbohydrates in lectin activity and stability. Apart from the native lectin, the characteristics of a deglycosylated Escherichia coli expressed lectin, high-mannose oligosaccharides at both asparagines and its glycosylation mutants N66Q and N110Q expressed in Pichia pastoris, were compared to understand the relationship between glycosylation and activity. Far UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra, fluorescence emission maximum, hemagglutination assay show no change in secondary or tertiary structures or sugar-binding properties between wild-type and aforementioned recombinant lectins under physiological pH. But reduced agglutination activity and loss of tertiary structure are observed in the acidic pH range for the deglycosylated and the N110Q protein. In thermal and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnCl)-induced unfolding, the wild-type and high-mannose lectins possess higher stability compared with the deglycosylated recombinant lectin and both mutants, as measured by a higher Tm of denaturation or a greater free energy change, respectively. Reversibility experiments after thermal denaturation reveal that deglycosylated proteins tend to aggregate during thermal inactivation but the wild type shows a much greater recovery to the native state upon refolding. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in turmeric lectin is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in pH, and that the oligosaccharides help in maintaining the active conformation and prevent aggregation in unfolded or partially folded molecules. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Topical vesicular formulations of Curcuma longa extract on recuperating the ultraviolet radiation-damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Swarnlata

    2011-12-01

      Ultraviolet radiations generate reactive oxygen species, leading to adverse effects on skin properties. Botanical extracts are multifunctional in nature having various properties like photoprotection, anti-aging, moisturizing, antioxidant, astringent, anti-irritant, and antimicrobial activity.   The aim of this study was to formulate creams having Curcuma longa extract loaded novel vesicular systems (liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes) and study their photoprotective effect by assessment of skin hydration (Cutometer) and sebum content (Sebumeter).   The alcoholic C. longa extract loaded liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes having 0.5-2.0% w/w extract were prepared, evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency, and incorporated into the cream. Their long-term interaction with skin (6 weeks) was compared in terms of their effects on skin hydration and sebum content.   Vesicular size obtained was in the range 167.3 ± 3.0 to 262.4 ± 2.4 nm with low polydispersity index (0.2-0.3) and high entrapment efficiency. The efficacy was in the order C. longa extract loaded transfersomal creams > C. longa extract loaded ethosomal creams > C. longa extract loaded liposomal creams > C. longa extract loaded creams > Empty transfersome loaded cream > Empty ethosome loaded cream > Empty liposome loaded cream > Base cream.   The photoprotective properties of the constituents of C. longa extract and hydrant, moisturizing lipid components of nano vesicles with better skin penetration resulted in improvement in skin properties like skin hydration and sebum content. The herbal extract loaded nano vesicles incorporated in cream could be used as photoprotective formulations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of alcoholic extract of Curcuma longa on Ascaridia infestation affecting chicken.

    PubMed

    Alrubaie, Abdulrazak Labi

    2015-07-01

    Ascaridia galli, the common intestinal nematode, remains a major cause of economic loss in the poultry industry in developing countries. Treatments using chemicals are not only expensive but also affect host health. Plant extracts as better alternative is gaining significance. Here, we have studied the effects of alcoholic extract of turmeric, Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) roots, against A. galli infection in chicken. Different concentrations of C. longa root extract were tested in vitro on 5 groups of adults A. galli worms and in vivo on 6 groups of chicks. The results showed that the turmeric root extract @ 60 mg mL(-1) in vitro significantly (P < 0.001) proved paralytic and fatal against worms (16.80 ± 1.28 h). In vivo, chicken groups (G2-G6) were infected with an average of 300 ± 12 embryonated eggs of A. galli. The G2 was not given any treatment while G3 was treated with piperazine (@ 200 mg kg(-1) body wt.); and Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given turmeric @ 200, 400 and 600 mg kg(-1) body wt., respectively. The mean number of worms extracted at the end of the trial in G2 (untreated) was 18.10 ± 2.42, while the G3 treated with piperazine had no worms. Groups 4 and 5 did not show any significant difference compared to G2. However, G6 that had 3.20 ± 1.33 worms was statistically significant. Higher concentrations of turmeric given to infected chickens significantly reduced the length and weight of worms. The study showed that the worm infestation damaged the intestinal villi, and.treatment with high concentration of C. longa had healing effects and restored the integrity of intestinal mucosa. The results have demonstrated the ameliorating effect of C. longa turmeric on A. galli infested chickens.

  18. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  19. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( P< 0.05 ) against growth rate and efficiency feed catfishes. The average is 0.275 - 0.33 growth and the results efficiency feed catfishes of 60.70 % - 73.10 % and the results obtained temperature water quality around 27-30°C, pH 7-8, and DO 3.09-6.4. Based on this research cultivator of the suggested use flour curcuma as feed additive on formulations feed.

  20. Curcumin and Curcuma longa L. extract ameliorate lipid accumulation through the regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum redox and ER stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Wook; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Choi, Min-Kyung; Chung, Han-Wool; Lee, Yong-Chul; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-07-26

    For this study, we examined the effects of curcumin against acute and chronic stress, paying specific attention to ROS. We also aimed to clarify the differences between acute and chronic stress conditions. We investigated the effects of curcumin against acute stress (once/1 day CCl 4 treatment) and chronic-stress (every other day/4week CCl 4 treatment). Compared with acute stress, in which the antioxidant system functioned properly and aspartate transaminase (AST) and ROS production increased, chronic stress increased AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatic enzymes, and ROS more significantly, and the antioxidant system became impaired. We also found that ER-originated ROS accumulated in the chronic model, another difference between the two conditions. ER stress was induced consistently, and oxidative intra-ER protein folding status, representatively PDI, was impaired, especially in chronic stress. The PDI-associated client protein hepatic apoB accumulated with the PDI-binding status in chronic stress, and curcumin recovered the altered ER folding status, regulating ER stress and the resultant hepatic dyslipidemia. Throughout this study, curcumin and curcumin-rich Curcuma longa L. extract promoted recovery from CCl 4 -induced hepatic toxicity in both stress conditions. For both stress-associated hepatic dyslipidemia, curcumin and Curcuma longa L. extract might be recommendable to recover liver activity.

  1. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins increase intestinal microbiome and necrotic enteritis in three commercial broiler breeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho; Kim, Geun Bae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David M

    2015-10-01

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compositions were quite distinct depending on the broiler breed type. In the absence of oleoresin diet, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was decreased in infected Cobb, and increased in Ross and Hubbard, compared with the uninfected. In the absence of oleoresin diet, all chicken breeds had a decreased Candidatus Arthromitus, while the proportion of Lactobacillus was increased in Cobb, but decreased in Hubbard and Ross. Oleoresin supplementation of infected chickens increased OTUs in Cobb and Ross, but decreased OTUs in Hubbard, compared with unsupplemented/infected controls. Oleoresin supplementation of infected Cobb and Hubbard was associated with an increased percentage of gut Lactobacillus and decreased Selenihalanaerobacter, while Ross had a decreased fraction of Lactobacillus and increased Selenihalanaerobacter, Clostridium, Calothrix, and Geitlerinema. These results suggest that dietary Capsicum/Curcuma oleoresins reduced the negative consequences of NE on body weight and intestinal lesion, in part, through alteration of the gut microbiome in 3 commercial broiler breeds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. Rhizome Reveals Novel Transcripts Related to Anticancer and Antimalarial Terpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C.; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A. V. S. K.; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa. PMID:23468859

  3. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO₂ extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 μg/mL, 12.87 μg/mL, and 21.30 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Targeted Integration of RNA-Seq and Metabolite Data to Elucidate Curcuminoid Biosynthesis in Four Curcuma Species.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghan; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Ohta, Daisaku; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Arita, Masanori; Tanaka, Ken; Ma, Zhiqiang; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2015-05-01

    Curcuminoids, namely curcumin and its analogs, are secondary metabolites that act as the primary active constituents of turmeric (Curcuma longa). The contents of these curcuminoids vary among species in the genus Curcuma. For this reason, we compared two wild strains and two cultivars to understand the differences in the synthesis of curcuminoids. Because the fluxes of metabolic reactions depend on the amounts of their substrate and the activity of the catalysts, we analyzed the metabolite concentrations and gene expression of related enzymes. We developed a method based on RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis that focuses on a specific set of genes to detect expression differences between species in detail. We developed a 'selection-first' method for RNA-Seq analysis in which short reads are mapped to selected enzymes in the target biosynthetic pathways in order to reduce the effect of mapping errors. Using this method, we found that the difference in the contents of curcuminoids among the species, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, could be explained by the changes in the expression of genes encoding diketide-CoA synthase, and curcumin synthase at the branching point of the curcuminoid biosynthesis pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. De Novo transcriptome assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. rhizome reveals novel transcripts related to anticancer and antimalarial terpenoids.

    PubMed

    Annadurai, Ramasamy S; Neethiraj, Ramprasad; Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa.

  6. Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shakhawoat; Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 µg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent. PMID:23569881

  7. In vitro Inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Constituents on Human Liver Glucuronidation Activity.

    PubMed

    Husni, Zulhilmi; Ismail, Sabariah; Zulkiffli, Mohd Halimhilmi; Afandi, Atiqah; Haron, Munirah

    2017-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza are commonly consumed as herbal medicines. However their effects on human liver glucuronidation activity are not yet evaluated. In this study, we evaluate the inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and their constituents on human liver glucuronidation activity. Herbal extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts) and their constituents were incubated with human liver microsomes with the addition of UDPGA to initiate the reaction. Working concentrations of herbal extracts and their constituents ranged from 10 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL and 10 μM to 300 μM respectively. IC50 was determined by monitoring the decrement of glucuronidation activity with the increment of herbal extracts or phytochemical constituent's concentrations. All herbal extracts inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity in range of 34.69 μg/mL to 398.10 μg/mL whereas for the constituents, only xanthorrhizol and curcumin (constituents of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ) inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity with IC50 of 538.50 and 32.26 μM respectively. In the present study, we have proved the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to interfere with in vitro glucuronidation process in human liver microsomes. This study documented the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata , Gynura procumbens , Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to inhibit human liver glucuronidation activity which may affect the metabolism of therapeutic drugs or hazardous toxicants that follow the same glucuronidation pathway. Abbreviations used: UGT: Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase; 4-MU: 4-methylumbelliferone; IC50: Half Maximal Inhibitory Concentration; Km: Michaelis constant; Vmax: Maximum velocity.

  8. In vitro Inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea, and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Constituents on Human Liver Glucuronidation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Husni, Zulhilmi; Ismail, Sabariah; Zulkiffli, Mohd Halimhilmi; Afandi, Atiqah; Haron, Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza are commonly consumed as herbal medicines. However their effects on human liver glucuronidation activity are not yet evaluated. Objective: In this study, we evaluate the inhibitory Effects of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and their constituents on human liver glucuronidation activity. Materials and Methods: Herbal extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts) and their constituents were incubated with human liver microsomes with the addition of UDPGA to initiate the reaction. Working concentrations of herbal extracts and their constituents ranged from 10 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL and 10 μM to 300 μM respectively. IC50 was determined by monitoring the decrement of glucuronidation activity with the increment of herbal extracts or phytochemical constituent's concentrations. Results: All herbal extracts inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity in range of 34.69 μg/mL to 398.10 μg/mL whereas for the constituents, only xanthorrhizol and curcumin (constituents of Curcuma xanthorrhiza) inhibited human liver glucuronidation activity with IC50 of 538.50 and 32.26 μM respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, we have proved the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to interfere with in vitro glucuronidation process in human liver microsomes. SUMMARY This study documented the capabilities of Andrographis paniculata, Gynura procumbens, Ficus deltoidea and Curcuma xanthorrhiza to inhibit human liver glucuronidation activity which may affect the metabolism of therapeutic drugs or hazardous toxicants that follow the same glucuronidation pathway. Abbreviations used: UGT: Uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase; 4-MU: 4-methylumbelliferone; IC50: Half Maximal Inhibitory Concentration; Km: Michaelis constant; Vmax: Maximum velocity. PMID

  9. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR. PMID:26288372

  10. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR.

  11. Protective effect of Curcuma longa L. extract on CCl4-induced acute hepatic stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geum-Hwa; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Min-Kyung; Chung, Han-Wool; Kim, Seung-Wook; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Curcuma longa L. (CLL) rhizome has long been used to treat patients with hepatic dysfunction. CLL is a member of the ginger family of spices that are widely used in China, India, and Japan, and is a common spice, coloring, flavoring, and traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of CLL extract and its active component curcumin in an acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver stress model. Acute hepatic stress was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl 4 (0.1 ml/kg body weight) in rats. CLL extract was administered once a day for 3 days at three dose levels (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day) and curcumin was administered once a day at the 200 mg/kg/day. We performed alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). activity analysis and also measured total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation. At 100 g CLL, the curcuminoid components curcumin (901.63 ± 5.37 mg/100 g), bis-demethoxycurcumin (108.28 ± 2.89 mg/100 g), and demethoxycurcumin (234.85 ± 1.85 mg/100 g) were quantified through high liquid chromatography analysis. In CCl 4 -treated rats, serum AST and ALT levels increased 2.1- and 1.2-fold compared with the control. AST but not ALT elevation induced by CCl 4 was significantly alleviated in CLL- and curcumin-treated rats. Peroxidation of membrane lipids in the liver was significantly prevented by CLL (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day) on tissue lipid peroxidation assay and immunostaining with anti-4HNE antibody. We found that CLL extract and curcumin exhibited significant protection against liver injury by improving hepatic superoxide dismutase (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione content in the CCl 4 -treated group (p < 0.05), leading to a reduced lipid peroxidase level. Our data suggested that CLL extract and curcumin protect the liver from acute CCl 4 -induced injury in a rodent model by suppressing

  12. Salinity alters curcumin, essential oil and chlorophyll of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Mostajeran, A; Gholaminejad, A; Asghari, G

    2014-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a perennial rhizomatous plant from the family of Zingibraceae, native in South Asia. The main components of turmeric are curcuminoids and essential oil which are responsible for turmeric characteristic such as odor and taste. Due to the large areas of saline land in Iran and less information related to cultivation of turmeric, in this research, the effect of salinity on growth, curcumin and essential oil of turmeric was evaluated. Rhizomes were planted in coco peat and perlite for germination. Then uniform germinated rhizomes transferred to hydroponic condition containing Hoagland's solution. Two months old plants were exposed to salinity (0, 20, 60 and 100 mM NaCl) for two months via hydroponic media using Hoagland's solution. Then dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll, curcumin and essential oil components of turmeric were determined. The result indicated that, dry weight reductions in 100 mM NaCl were 191%, 141%, 56%, 30% in leaf, pseudo-stem, root and rhizome, respectively (This is almost equal to 6.9, 2.87, 0.34 and 0.23 mg plant(-1) mM(-1)NaCl reduction of dry weight, respectively). The reductions in chlorophyll a and b are almost 3.32 and 0.79 μg/gFW respectively due to one unit addition of NaCl (P < 0.05). The addition of curcumin of rhizome for four months old plant versus three months were almost 5 fold for 0 mM NaCl and 2 fold for 100 mM NaCl due to one month of delay in harvest. Low salinity has positive effect in curcumin production but higher salinity (higher than 60 mM) had adverse effect and causes 24% reduction of curcumin compared to control plants. There were more para-cymene and terpineol in volatile oils of turmeric rhizome than the other components, most of the volatile oil compounds were unchanged or varied slightly as salinity changed.

  13. Bioactive Turmerosaccharides from Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02): Potential Ameliorating Effect on Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Bethapudi, Bharathi; Murugan, Sasikumar; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur

    2017-10-01

    Curcuma longa has long history of medicinal use in Ayurveda. A unique product NR-INF-02 was prepared from C. longa that was standardized to contain turmerosaccharides. The present study investigated the effect of turmerosaccharides rich fraction of NR-INF-02 on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA pain animal model that mimics human OA. Further, the analgesic effect of turmerosaccharides rich fraction was compared to turmerosaccharides less fraction of NR-INF-02. OA pain was chemically induced by intra-articular administration of single dose of 25 μl of 0.9% saline containing 0.3 mg MIA into the right knee of male albino Wistar rat. Turmerosaccharides rich fraction and turmerosaccharides less fraction (at 22.5, 45 and 90 mg/kg rat body weight dose levels) were administered as a single dose orally on day 5 of post-MIA injection. OA pain was measured using hind limb weight-bearing ability at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h post-test substance administration on day 5. Oral administration of turmerosaccharides rich fraction and turmerosaccharides less fraction (at 45 and 90 mg/kg) although significantly decreased the OA pain at all the intervals, the effect of turmerosaccharides rich fraction (57%) on OA pain was superior to turmerosaccharides less fraction (35%). Bioactive turmerosaccharides from C. longa extract contribute to the observed anti-arthritic effect in rats. Osteoarthritic pain was induced by intra-articular injection of MIA into the right kneeSingle administration of TRF/TLF on day 5 resulted in dose-dependent significant reduction of OA painTRF showed better analgesic activity than TLFTRF at 45 and 90 mg/kg has similar effects on OA pain as that of tramadolTurmerosaccharides identified as bioactive constituents of C. longa extract. Abbreviations used: MIA: Monosodium iodoacetate; i.ar: Intra-articular; OA: Osteoarthritis; TRF: Turmerosaccharides rich fraction; TLF: Turmerosaccharides less fraction; PGE2: Prostaglandin E2; ROS: Reactive oxygen species.

  14. Salinity alters curcumin, essential oil and chlorophyll of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mostajeran, A.; Gholaminejad, A.; Asghari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a perennial rhizomatous plant from the family of Zingibraceae, native in South Asia. The main components of turmeric are curcuminoids and essential oil which are responsible for turmeric characteristic such as odor and taste. Due to the large areas of saline land in Iran and less information related to cultivation of turmeric, in this research, the effect of salinity on growth, curcumin and essential oil of turmeric was evaluated. Rhizomes were planted in coco peat and perlite for germination. Then uniform germinated rhizomes transferred to hydroponic condition containing Hoagland's solution. Two months old plants were exposed to salinity (0, 20, 60 and 100 mM NaCl) for two months via hydroponic media using Hoagland's solution. Then dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll, curcumin and essential oil components of turmeric were determined. The result indicated that, dry weight reductions in 100 mM NaCl were 191%, 141%, 56%, 30% in leaf, pseudo-stem, root and rhizome, respectively (This is almost equal to 6.9, 2.87, 0.34 and 0.23 mg plant-1 mM-1NaCl reduction of dry weight, respectively). The reductions in chlorophyll a and b are almost 3.32 and 0.79 μg/gFW respectively due to one unit addition of NaCl (P < 0.05). The addition of curcumin of rhizome for four months old plant versus three months were almost 5 fold for 0 mM NaCl and 2 fold for 100 mM NaCl due to one month of delay in harvest. Low salinity has positive effect in curcumin production but higher salinity (higher than 60 mM) had adverse effect and causes 24% reduction of curcumin compared to control plants. There were more para-cymene and terpineol in volatile oils of turmeric rhizome than the other components, most of the volatile oil compounds were unchanged or varied slightly as salinity changed. PMID:25598799

  15. Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin - an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Priya, Selvam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2014-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is caused primarily by the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming ability of uropathogens. In the present investigation, an anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) agent curcumin from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was shown to inhibit the biofilm formation of uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, possibly by interfering with their QS systems. The antibiofilm potential of curcumin on uropathogens as well as its efficacy in disturbing the mature biofilms was examined under light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The treatment with curcumin was also found to attenuate the QS-dependent factors, such as exopolysaccharide production, alginate production, swimming and swarming motility of uropathogens. Furthermore, it was documented that curcumin enhanced the susceptibility of a marker strain and uropathogens to conventional antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antidotal or protective effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and its active ingredient, curcumin, against natural and chemical toxicities: A review.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Azar; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous perennial herb that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, native to South Asia and is commonly known as turmeric. It is used as herbal remedy due to the prevalent belief that the plant has medical properties. C. longa possesses different effects such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and gastroprotective activities. The recent studies have shown that C. longa and curcumin, its important active ingredient, have protective effects against toxic agents. In this review article, we collected in vitro and animal studies which are related to protective effects of turmeric and its active ingredient against natural and chemical toxic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Tooth enamel surface micro-hardness with dual species Streptococcus biofilm after exposure to Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isjwara, F. R. G.; Hasanah, S. N.; Utami, Sri; Suniarti, D. F.

    2017-08-01

    Streptococcus biofilm on tooth surfaces can decrease mouth environment pH, thus causing enamel demineralization that can lead to dental caries. Java Turmeric extract has excellent antibacterial effects and can maintain S. mutans biofilm pH at neutral levels for 4 hours. To analyze the effect of Java Turmeric extract on tooth enamel micro-hardness, the Java Turmeric extract was added on enamel tooth samples with Streptococcus dual species biofilm (S. sanguinis and S. mutans). The micro-hardness of enamel was measured by Knoop Hardness Tester. Results showed that Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. could not maintain tooth enamel surface micro-hardness. It is concluded that Java Turmeric extract ethanol could not inhibit the hardness of enamel with Streptococcus dual species biofilm.

  18. Development, characterization and cross species amplification of polymorphic microsatellite markers from expressed sequence tags of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Siju, S; Dhanya, K; Syamkumar, S; Sasikumar, B; Sheeja, T E; Bhat, A I; Parthasarathy, V A

    2010-02-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were used for the screening of type and frequency of Class I (hypervariable) simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 231 microsatellite repeats were detected from 12,593 EST sequences of turmeric after redundancy elimination. The average density of Class I SSRs accounts to one SSR per 17.96 kb of EST. Mononucleotides were the most abundant class of microsatellite repeat in turmeric ESTs followed by trinucleotides. A robust set of 17 polymorphic EST-SSRs were developed and used for evaluating 20 turmeric accessions. The number of alleles detected ranged from 3 to 8 per loci. The developed markers were also evaluated in 13 related species of C. longa confirming high rate (100%) of cross species transferability. The polymorphic microsatellite markers generated from this study could be used for genetic diversity analysis and resolving the taxonomic confusion prevailing in the genus.

  19. Cadinane sesquiterpenes from Curcuma phaeocaulis with their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yue; Gao, Suyu; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Four new cadinane-type sesquiterpenes named phacadinanes A-D (1-4) were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, as well as accurate mass measurements. Compound 4 was the first example of a rare 4,5-seco-cadinane sesquiterpene isolated from the Zingiberaceae family. Furthermore, inhibitory effects of the isolated compounds on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated macrophages were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 showed strong inhibitory activities on NO production with IC50 values of 3.88±0.58 and 2.25±0.71 μM, respectively. A possible biogenetic pathway for 4,5-seco-cadinane sesquiterpene (4) was postulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement in antioxidant functionality and shelf life of yukwa (fried rice snack) by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder addition.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-05-15

    The physico-chemical, oxidative and sensory characteristics of fried rice snack, yukwa with different amounts of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) were investigated. The moisture content of the pallet ranged from 16.47% to 19.84%. After frying the pallet, a slight decrease in the degree of expansion was obtained with increasing turmeric powder content. The textural properties of yukwa were not changed until the turmeric powder content reached 5%; however, over 8% addition induced a decrease in the hardness and an increase in the crispiness. Oxidative deterioration was effectively inhibited by turmeric powder addition, and more turmeric powder in yukwa led to higher free radical scavenging activity. Based on the sensory characteristics, a 5% addition of turmeric powder was the most acceptable for the yukwa product. In the correlation results among variables, the moisture content of the pallet proved to be the most important factor for yukwa quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Standardized Chemically Modified Curcuma longa Extract Modulates IRAK-MAPK Signaling in Inflammation and Potentiates Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Minakshi; Maurya, Preeti; Reddy, Sukka S.; Singh, Vishal; Ahmad, Hafsa; Dwivedi, Anil K.; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    The TLR/IL-1R pathway is a critical signaling module that is misregulated in pathologies like inflammation and cancer. Extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) enriched in curcumin and carbonyls like turmerones have been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxic effect and the underlying mechanism of a novel chemically modified, non-carbonyl compound enriched Curcuma longa L. (C. longa) extract (CMCE). CMCE (1 or 10 μg/mL; 14 h) significantly decreased LPS (50-100 ng/mL) induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, human, and mouse whole blood as measured by ELISA. LPS-induced IRAK1, MAPK activation, TLR4 expression, TLR4-MyD88 interaction, and IκBα degradation were significantly reduced in CMCE pre-treated THP-1 cells as assessed by Western blotting. CMCE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg; 10 days p.o.) pre-treated and LPS (10 mg/kg) challenged Swiss mice exhibited attenuated plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite, aortic iNOS expression, and vascular dysfunction. In a PI permeability assay, cell lines derived from acute myeloid leukemia were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of CMCE. Analysis of Sub-G1 phase, Annexin V-PI positivity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3, and PARP-1 activation confirmed CMCE induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. IRAK inhibition also sensitized HL-60 cells to CMCE induced cytotoxicity. The present study defines the mechanism underlying the action of CMCE and suggests a therapeutic potential for its use in sepsis and leukemia. PMID:27504095

  2. Anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa fruits: possible role in prevention of diabetic complication.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ibrar; Ahmad, Haroon; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycationend products (AGE's) in the body, due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is associated with several pathological conditions like aging and diabetes mellitus. Hence a plant having anti-glycation and anti-oxidation potentials may serve as therapeutic agent for diabetic complications and aging. In this study the anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of crude methanolic extracts of fruits of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa were investigated. Among the two C. frutescens had more anti-glycation ability with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 90βg/mLas compared to 324βg/mL MIC50 of C. longa. Curcuma longa had the more anti-oxidation potential i.e. 35.01, 30.83 and 28.08% at 0.5mg, 0.25mg and 0.125mg respectively.

  3. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  5. Curcuma longa Linn. extract and curcumin protect CYP 2E1 enzymatic activity against mercuric chloride-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress: A protective approach.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepmala; Mittal, Deepak Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta; Srivastav, Sunil Kumar; Dixit, Vaibhav A

    2017-07-05

    The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Curcuma longa (200mgkg -1 , po) and curcumin (80mgkg -1 , po) for their hepatoprotective efficacy against mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 : 12μmolkg -1 , ip; once only) hepatotoxicity. The HgCl 2 administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum which were restored towards control by therapy of Curcuma longa or curcumin. On the other hand, both treatments showed a protective effect on drug metabolizing enzymes viz. aniline hydroxylase (AH) and amidopyrine-N-demethylase (AND), hexobarbitone induced sleep time and BSP retention. Choleretic, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH)-free radical scavenging activities and histological studies also supported the biochemical findings. The present study concludes that Curcuma longa extract or curcumin has the ability to alleviate the hepatotoxic effects caused by HgCl 2 in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

  7. The Inhibitory Effects of Curcuma longa L. Essential Oil and Curcumin on Aspergillus flavus Link Growth and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski Junior, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α-turmerone (23.5%) and β-turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01–0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants. PMID:24367241

  8. Recent Progress for the Utilization of Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum and Phoenix dactylifera Seeds against Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, T; Sarfraz, M; Ashraf, M A

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. Even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. The intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes. By using various electronic search databases, a comprehensive English literature search was conducted. Different search terms were used by combining all the search fields in titles, abstracts and keywords. Curcuma longa, a spice, is commonly known as turmeric and belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Piper nigrum is also a spice, commonly called black pepper, and belongs to the family Piperaceae. Phoenix dactylifera , commonly known as date fruit, belongs to the family Arecaceae. From ancient times, they have been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Among various activities, regulation of hyperglycaemia is considered one of their important effects. One of the aetiological factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals. Antioxidant properties of antidiabetic compounds would be more beneficial. Extracts of these plants have shown hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects by the involvement of several mechanisms. In the future, further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms involved in their hypoglycaemic potential and their active constituents as synthetic analogues. This review focusses on some medicinal plants that have antidiabetic effect, thus contributing to the reduction of risk factors associated with diabetes, and related beneficial effects are compiled.

  9. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil of Curcuma longa L. and curcumin on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Link.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Janeiro, Vanderly; Ferreira, Francine Maery Dias; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Silva, Expedito Leite; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-15

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food and commodities poses serious hazards to the health of humans and animals. Turmeric, Curcuma longa L., is a native plant of Southeast Asia and has antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal properties. This paper reports the antiaflatoxigenic activities of the essential oil of C. longa and curcumin. The medium tests were prepared with the oil of C. longa, and the curcumin standard at concentrations varied from 0.01% to 5.0%. All doses of the essential oil of the plant and the curcumin standard interfered with mycotoxin production. Both the essential oil and curcumin significantly inhibited the production of aflatoxins; the 0.5% level had a greater than 96% inhibitory effect. The levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production were 1.0 and 42.7 μg/mL, respectively, for the samples treated with the essential oil of C. longa L. and curcumin at a concentration of 0.5%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

    2013-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean β-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The neuroprotective effects of an ethanolic turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract against trimethyltin-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuliani, Sapto; Mustofa; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2018-03-07

    Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. An ethanolic turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract containing curcumin has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. The present study aims to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of the ethanolic turmeric extract against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced oxidative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. The ethanolic turmeric extract and citicoline were administered to the TMT exposed rats from day 1 to day 28 of the experiment. The TMT injection was administered on day 8 of the experiment. The plasma and brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and the activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes in the brain were examined at the end of the experiment. The administration of 200 mg/kg bw of the ethanolic turmeric extract prevented oxidative stress by decreasing the plasma and brain MDA levels and increasing the SOD, CAT, and GPx enzyme activities and GSH levels in the brain. These effects seem to be comparable to those of citicoline. The ethanolic turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw may exert neuroprotective effects on TMT-exposed Sprague Dawley rats by preventing them from oxidative stress.

  12. Chemoprevention by essential oil of turmeric leaves (Curcuma longa L.) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, S; Chempakam, B; Leela, N K; Suseela Bhai, R

    2011-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for a wide range of medicinal properties. Essential oil of turmeric leaves (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated at varying concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) broth inoculated with spore suspension of Aspergillus flavus of 10(6)conidia/ml. These were evaluated for their potential in the control of aflatoxigenic fungus A. flavus and aflatoxin production. Turmeric leaf oil exhibited 95.3% and 100% inhibition of toxin production respectively at 1.0% and 1.5%. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the concentration of essential oil used. The oil exhibited significant inhibition of fungal growth as well as aflatoxins B(1) and G(1) production. The LD(50) and LD(90) were also determined. GC-MS analysis of the oil showed α-phellandrene, p-cymene and terpinolene as the major components in turmeric leaf oil. The possibility of using these phytochemical components as bio-preservatives for storage of spices is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the Anti-schistosomal Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Versus Praziquantel in Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Atef; Rashed, Samia; El Hayawan, Ibrahim; El-Sayed, Rabab; Ali, Hemat

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is the major active ingredient of Curcuma longa L. , traditionally known as turmeric and has been shown to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-parasitic effect. However, it is found to be water-insoluble and has low bioavailability. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of turmeric solved in olive oil either alone or in combination with praziquantel (PZQ) in treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni . The whole turmeric powder suspended in olive oil (as a solvent) is indicated to S. mansoni -infected mice aiming to study its potential therapeutic role, either alone or in combination with PZQ. Turmeric significantly reduced S. mansoni worm burden and complete absence of adult worms achieved in mice treated with combination of turmeric and PZQ. Turmeric has slight non-significant effect on the oogram pattern in all examined S. mansoni infected mice. Turmeric and PZQ found to exert a significant reduction of granuloma size in comparison with control. However, turmeric has a non-significant effect on granuloma number. On the other hand, turmeric or/and PZQ treated mice showed obvious improvement of pathology with mild cloudy swelling and less hydropic degeneration. Turmeric significantly reduced parasite worm burden, granuloma size and consequently the pathology of affected liver, it still far less effective than PZQ.

  14. Evaluation of the Anti-schistosomal Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Versus Praziquantel in Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    HUSSEIN, Atef; RASHED, Samia; El HAYAWAN, Ibrahim; El-SAYED, Rabab; ALI, Hemat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Curcumin is the major active ingredient of Curcuma longa L., traditionally known as turmeric and has been shown to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-parasitic effect. However, it is found to be water-insoluble and has low bioavailability. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of turmeric solved in olive oil either alone or in combination with praziquantel (PZQ) in treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni. Methods: The whole turmeric powder suspended in olive oil (as a solvent) is indicated to S. mansoni-infected mice aiming to study its potential therapeutic role, either alone or in combination with PZQ. Results: Turmeric significantly reduced S. mansoni worm burden and complete absence of adult worms achieved in mice treated with combination of turmeric and PZQ. Turmeric has slight non-significant effect on the oogram pattern in all examined S. mansoni infected mice. Turmeric and PZQ found to exert a significant reduction of granuloma size in comparison with control. However, turmeric has a non-significant effect on granuloma number. On the other hand, turmeric or/and PZQ treated mice showed obvious improvement of pathology with mild cloudy swelling and less hydropic degeneration. Conclusion: Turmeric significantly reduced parasite worm burden, granuloma size and consequently the pathology of affected liver, it still far less effective than PZQ. PMID:29317884

  15. EST-SSR marker revealed effective over biochemical and morphological scepticism towards identification of specific turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ambika; Jena, Sudipta; Kar, Basudeba; Sahoo, Suprava; Ray, Asit; Singh, Subhashree; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-05-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., family Zingiberaceae) is one of the most economically important plants for its use in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. Cultivar identification is a major constraint in turmeric, owing to high degree of morphological similarity that in turn, affects its commercialization. The present study addresses this constraint, using EST-SSR marker based, molecular identification of 8 elite cultivars and 88 accessions in turmeric. Fifty EST-SSR primers were screened against eight cultivars of turmeric (Suroma, Roma, Lakadong, Megha, Alleppey Supreme, Kedaram, Pratibha, and Suvarna); out of which 11 primers showed polymorphic banding pattern. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of these primers ranged from 0.13 to 0.48. However, only three SSR loci (CSSR 14, CSSR 15, and CSSR 18) gave reproducible unique banding pattern clearly distinguishing the cultivars 'Lakadong' and 'Suvarna' from other cultivars tested. These three unique SSR markers also proved to be effective in identification of 'Lakadong' cultivars when analysed with 88 accessions of turmeric collected from different agro-climatic regions. Furthermore, two identified cultivars (Lakadong and Suvarna) could also be precisely differentiated when analysed and based on phylogenetic tree, with other 94 genotypes of turmeric. The novel SSR markers can be used for identification and authentication of two commercially important turmeric cultivars 'Lakadong' and 'Suvarna'.

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as mutagenic evaluation of essential oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    PubMed

    Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Jeena, Kottarapat; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the acute, subchronic and genotoxicity of turmeric essential oil (TEO) from Curcuma longa L. Acute administration of TEO was done as single dose up to 5 g of TEO per kg body weight and subchronic toxicity study for thirteen weeks was done by daily oral administration of TEO at doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt. in Wistar rats. There were no mortality, adverse clinical signs or changes in body weight; water and food consumption during acute as well as subchronic toxicity studies. Indicators of hepatic function such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were unchanged in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Oral administration of TEO for 13 weeks did not alter total cholesterol, triglycerides, markers of renal function, serum electrolyte parameters and histopathology of tissues. TEO did not produce any mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-102 and TA-1535 with or without metabolic activation. Administration of TEO to rats (1 g/kg b.wt.) for 14 days did not produce any chromosome aberration or micronuclei in rat bone marrow cells and did not produce any DNA damage as seen by comet assay confirming the non toxicity of TEO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protection of trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is dependent on extract composition.

    PubMed

    Wright, Laura E; Frye, Jennifer B; Timmermann, Barbara N; Funk, Janet L

    2010-09-08

    Extracts prepared from turmeric (Curcuma longa L., [Zingiberaceae]) containing bioactive phenolic curcuminoids were evaluated for bone-protective effects in a hypogonadal rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-month female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with a chemically complex turmeric fraction (41% curcuminoids by weight) or a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric fraction (94% curcuminoids by weight), both dosed at 60 mg/kg 3x per week, or vehicle alone. Effects of two months of treatment on OVX-induced bone loss were followed prospectively by serial assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while treatment effects on trabecular bone microarchitecture were assessed at two months by microcomputerized tomography (microCT). Chemically complex turmeric did not prevent bone loss, however, the curcuminoid-enriched turmeric prevented up to 50% of OVX-induced loss of trabecular bone and also preserved the number and connectedness of the strut-like trabeculae. These results suggest that turmeric may have bone-protective effects but that extract composition is a critical factor.

  18. Screening for Endophytic Fungi from Turmeric Plant (Curcuma longa L.) of Sukabumi and Cibinong with Potency as Antioxidant Compounds Producer.

    PubMed

    Bustanussalam; Rachman, Fauzy; Septiana, Eris; Lekatompessy, Sylvia J R; Widowati, Tiwit; Sukiman, Harmastini I; Simanjuntak, Partomuan

    2015-01-01

    Potency of medicinal plant is related to microorganisms lived in the plant tissue. Those microorganisms are known as endophytic microbes that live and form colonies in the plant tissue without harming its host. Each plant may contains several endophytic microbes that produce biological compounds or secondary metabolites due to co-evolution or genetic transfer from the host plant to endophytic microbes. Endophytic fungi research done for turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.) gave 44 isolated fungi as results. Those 44 fungi isolated were fermented in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) media, filtered, extracted with ethylacetate and then were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method and tested for their antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method. The antioxidant activity of the ethylacetate filtrate extracts either from Sukabumi or Cibinong were higher than the biomass extracts. There were 6 fungi that showed antioxidant activities over 65%, i.e., with code name K.Cl.Sb.R9 (93.58%), K.Cl.Sb.A11 (81.49%), KCl.Sb.B1 (78.81%), KCl.Sb.R11 (71.67%) and K.Cl.Sb.A12 (67.76%) from Sukabumi and K.Cl.Cb.U1 (69.27%) from Cibinong. These results showed that bioproduction by endophytic microbes can gave potential antioxidant compounds.

  19. Protection of Trabecular Bone in Ovariectomized Rats by Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is Dependent on Extract Composition

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Laura E.; Frye, Jennifer B.; Timmermann, Barbara N.; Funk, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from turmeric (Curcuma longa L., [Zingiberaceae]) containing bioactive phenolic curcuminoids were evaluated for bone-protective effects in a hypogonadal rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Three-month female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with a chemically complex turmeric fraction (41% curcuminoids by weight) or a curcuminoid-enriched turmeric fraction (94% curcuminoids by weight), both dosed at 60mg/kg 3x per week, or vehicle alone. Effects of two months of treatment on OVX-induced bone loss were followed prospectively by serial assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal femur using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while treatment effects on trabecular bone microarchitecture were assessed at two months by micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Chemically complex turmeric did not prevent bone loss, however, the curcuminoid-enriched turmeric prevented up to 50% of OVX-induced loss of trabecular bone and also preserved the number and connectedness of the strut-like trabeculae. These results suggest that turmeric may have bone-protective effects but that extract composition is a critical factor. PMID:20695490

  20. Attenuation of gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunsuyi, Opeyemi B; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes on antioxidant status and renal damage induced by gentamycin in rats. Renal damage was induced in albino rats pretreated with dietary inclusion of ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for three days. Assays for renal damage biomarkers (plasma creatinine, plasma urea, blood urea nitrogen and plasma uric acid), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as renal antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out. The study revealed significant (p < 0.05) increases in renal damage biomarkers following gentamycin administration with severe alteration in kidney antioxidant status. However, pretreatment with ginger and turmeric rhizome (2% and 4%) prior to gentamycin administration significantly (p < 0.05) protected the kidney and attenuated oxidative stress by modulating renal damage and antioxidant indices. This finding therefore suggests that dietary inclusion of ginger and turmeric rhizomes may protect against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  1. Intensification of extraction of curcumin from Curcuma amada using ultrasound assisted approach: Effect of different operating parameters.

    PubMed

    Shirsath, S R; Sable, S S; Gaikwad, S G; Sonawane, S H; Saini, D R; Gogate, P R

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a dietary phytochemical, has been extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma amada using ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and the results compared with the conventional extraction approach to establish the process intensification benefits. The effect of operating parameters such as type of solvent, extraction time, extraction temperature, solid to solvent ratio, particle size and ultrasonic power on the extraction yield have been investigated in details for the approach UAE. The maximum extraction yield as 72% was obtained in 1h under optimized conditions of 35°C temperature, solid to solvent ratio of 1:25, particle size of 0.09mm, ultrasonic power of 250W and ultrasound frequency of 22kHz with ethanol as the solvent. The obtained yield was significantly higher as compared to the batch extraction where only about 62% yield was achieved in 8h of treatment. Peleg's model was used to describe the kinetics of UAE and the model showed a good agreement with the experimental results. Overall, ultrasound has been established to be a green process for extraction of curcumin with benefits of reduction in time as compared to batch extraction and the operating temperature as compared to Soxhlet extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2010-04-01

    The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of L- and D-lactic acid from waste Curcuma longa biomass through simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Kim, Jin-Seog; Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc; Kim, Seul Ki; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) of Curcuma longa waste biomass obtained after turmeric extraction to L- and D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus coryniformis and Lactobacillus paracasei, respectively, was investigated. This is a rich, starchy, agro-industrial waste with potential for use in industrial applications. After optimizing the fermentation of the biomass by adjusting nitrogen sources, enzyme compositions, nitrogen concentrations, and raw material concentrations, the SSCF process was conducted in a 7-l jar fermentor at 140 g dried material/L. The maximum lactic acid concentration, average productivity, reducing sugar conversion and lactic acid yield were 97.13 g/L, 2.7 g/L/h, 95.99% and 69.38 g/100 g dried material for L-lactic acid production, respectively and 91.61 g/L, 2.08 g/L/h, 90.53% and 65.43 g/100 g dried material for D-lactic acid production, respectively. The simple and efficient process described in this study could be utilized by C. longa residue-based lactic acid industries without requiring the alteration of plant equipment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stability indicating HPLC-UV method for detection of curcumin in Curcuma longa extract and emulsion formulation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Haroon Khalid; Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2015-03-01

    A stability-indicating HPLC-UV method for the determination of curcumin in Curcuma longa extract and emulsion was developed. The system suitability parameters, theoretical plates (N), tailing factor (T), capacity factor (K'), height equivalent of a theoretical plate (H) and resolution (Rs) were calculated. Stress degradation studies (acid, base, oxidation, heat and UV light) of curcumin were performed in emulsion. It was found that N>6500, T<1.1, K' was 2.68-3.75, HETP about 37 and Rs was 1.8. The method was linear from 2 to 200 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The intra-day precision and accuracy for curcumin were ⩽0.87% and ⩽2.0%, while the inter-day precision and accuracy values were ⩽2.1% and ⩽-1.92. Curcumin degraded in emulsion under acid, alkali and UV light. In conclusion, the stability-indicating method could be employed to determine curcumin in bulk and emulsions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD₄₉₀ compared to the control wells. The SMIC₅₀ and SMIC₈₀ of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD₄₉₀ was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    PubMed

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  7. Growth Promoting Rhizospheric and Endophytic Bacteria from Curcuma longa L. as Biocontrol Agents against Rhizome Rot and Leaf Blight Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vinayarani, G; Prakash, H S

    2018-06-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria were isolated from different varieties of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) from South India. Totally 50 strains representing, 30 PGPR and 20 endophytic bacteria were identified based on biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric, by dual culture and liquid culture assays. Results revealed that only five isolates of PGPR and four endophytic bacteria showed more than 70% suppression of test pathogens in both assays. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed significant ultrastructural changes of the hyphae like shriveling, breakage and desication of the pathogens by PGPR B. cereus (RBac-DOB-S24) and endophyte P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19). Selected isolates showed multiple Plant growth promoting traits. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of B. cereus (RBacDOB-S24) showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence (PDI) of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 16.4% and 15.5% respectively. Similarly, P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19) recorded PDI of rhizome rot (17.5%) and leaf blight (17.7%). The treatment of these promising isolates exhibited significant increase in plant height and fresh rhizome yield/plant in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. Thereby, these isolates can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.

  8. The genome-wide expression profile of Curcuma longa-treated cisplatin-stimulated HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Ko, Eunjung; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shin, Minkyu; Hong, Moochang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2010-01-01

    AIM The rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa (CL), is a herbal medicine used in many traditional prescriptions. It has previously been shown that CL treatment showed greater than 47% recovery from cisplatin-induced cell damage in human kidney HEK 293 cells. This study was conducted to evaluate the recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by examining the genome wide mRNA expression profiles of HEK 293 -cells. METHOD Recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were determined by microarray, real-time PCR, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results of microarray analysis and real-time PCR revealed that NFκB pathway-related genes and apoptosis-related genes were down-regulated in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. In addition, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis revealed that NFκB p65 nuclear translocation was inhibited in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. Therefore, the mechanism responsible for the effects of CL on HEK 293 cells is closely associated with regulation of the NFκB pathway. CONCLUSION CL possesses novel therapeutic agents that can be used for the prevention or treatment of cisplatin-induced renal disorders. PMID:20840446

  9. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  10. Histological and immunohistochemical effects of Curcuma longa on activation of rat hepatic stellate cells after cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Mansy, A A; Mazroa, S A; Hamed, W S; Yaseen, A H; El-Mohandes, E A

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a target for toxic chemicals such as cadmium (Cd). When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated and transformed into myofibroblast-like cells, which are responsible for liver fibrosis. Curcuma longa has been reported to exert a hepato-protective effect under various pathological conditions. We investigated the effects of C. longa administration on HSC activation in response to Cd induced hepatotoxicity. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group 1 (control), group 2 (Cd treated), group 3 (C. longa treated) and group 4 (Cd and C. longa treated). After 6 weeks, liver specimens were prepared for light and electron microscopy examination of histological changes and immunohistochemical localization of alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) as a specific marker for activated HSC. Activated HSC with a positive αSMA immune reaction were not detected in groups 1 and 3. Large numbers of activated HSC with αSMA immune reactions were observed in group 2 in addition to Cd induced hepatotoxic changes including excess collagen deposition in thickened portal triads, interlobular septa with hepatic lobulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, a significant increase in Kupffer cells and degenerated hepatocytes. In group 4, we observed a significant decrease in HSC that expressed αSMA with amelioration of the hepatotoxic changes. C. longa administration decreased HSC activation and ameliorated hepatotoxic changes caused by Cd in adult rats.

  11. Effect of a Natural Supplement Containing Curcuma Longa, Guggul, and Chlorogenic Acid in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patti, Angelo Maria; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Katsiki, Niki; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Nikolic, Dragana; Vanella, Luca; Giglio, Rosaria Vincenza; Giannone, Valeria Ausilia; Montalto, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Manfredi

    2015-10-01

    The impact of a natural supplement (Kepar; Rikrea, Italy), containing several plant extracts such as curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid, and inulin, was evaluated in 78 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS; 45 men; age: 62 ± 9 years). Kepar at a dose of 2 pills/d was given for 4 months as add-on therapy to the ongoing treatment, maintained at fixed doses for the entire study. Anthropometric variables, plasma lipids, glucose parameters, and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 4 months. We found significant reductions in body weight (from 81.1 ± 13.5 to 79.4 ± 12.5 kg, P < .0001), body mass index (from 29.6 [23.7] to 29.3 [21.9] kg/m(2), P = .001), and waist circumference (from 105 ± 11 to 102 ± 10 cm, P = .0004) as well as in fasting glucose (from 6.5 [11.7] to 6.4 [7.6] mmol/L, P = .014) and total cholesterol (from 4.8 ± 1.4 to 4.5 ± 1.0 mmol/L, P = .03). No significant changes were found in the other appraised parameters, including oxidative stress. In conclusion, after few months of treatment Kepar seems to exert beneficial effects in patients with MetS. Larger studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Facile preparation of water soluble curcuminoids extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder by using steviol glucosides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Si, Jinbeom; Kang, Choongil; Chung, Byoungsang; Chung, Donghwa; Kim, Doman

    2017-01-01

    Curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma longa possess various biological activities. However, low aqueous solubility and consequent poor bioavailability of curcuminoids are major limitations to their use. In this study, curcuminoids extracted from turmeric powder using stevioside (Ste), rebaudioside A (RebA), or steviol glucosides (SG) were solubilized in water. The optimum extraction condition by Ste, RebA, or SG resulted in 11.3, 9.7, or 6.7mg/ml water soluble curcuminoids. Curcuminoids solubilized in water showed 80% stability at pH from 6.0 to 10.0 after 1week of storage at 25°C. The particle sizes of curcuminoids prepared with Ste, RebA, and SG were 110.8, 95.7, and 32.7nm, respectively. The water soluble turmeric extracts prepared with Ste, RebA, and SG showed the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (SC50) activities of 127.6, 105.4, and 109.8μg/ml, and the inhibition activities (IC50) against NS2B-NS3(pro) from dengue virus type IV of 14.1, 24.0 and 15.3μg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa extract) on LPS-induced acute lung injury is mediated by the activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joungmin; Jeong, Seong-Wook; Quan, Hui; Jeong, Cheol-Won; Choi, Jeong-Il; Bae, Hong-Beom

    2016-02-01

    Curcumin, a biphenolic compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated whether curcumin could increase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in macrophages and modulate the severity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Macrophages were treated with curcumin and then exposed (or not) to LPS. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal administration of LPS in BALB/c mice. Curcumin increased phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a downstream target of AMPK, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Curcumin did not increase phosphorylation of liver kinase B1, a primary kinase upstream of AMPK. STO-609, an inhibitor of calcium(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase, diminished curcumin-induced AMPK phosphorylation, but transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 inhibitor did not. Curcumin also diminished the LPS-induced increase in phosphorylation of inhibitory κB-alpha and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 by macrophages. Systemic administration of curcumin significantly decreased the production of TNF-α, MIP-2, and IL-6 as well as neutrophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and also decreased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels and the wet/dry weight ratio in mice subjected to LPS treatment. These results suggest that the protective effect of curcumin on LPS-induced acute lung injury is associated with AMPK activation.

  14. Adsorption capacity of Curcuma longa for the removal of basic green 1 dye--equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Roopavathi, K V; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, Curcuma longa (turmeric plant) was used as an adsorbent to remove Basic Green 1 (BG) dye. Batch study was carried out to evaluate the adsorption potential of C. longa and influencing factors such as pH (4-10), adsorbent dose (0.2-5 g l-1), initial dye concentration (50-250 mg l-1) and temperature (30-50°C) on dye removal were analysed. The characterisation of adsorbent was carried out using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) method. Isotherm models that included Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich, and kinetic models such as pseudo first order, pseudo second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models were studied. A maximum removal percentage (82.76%) of BG dye from aqueous solution was obtained with optimum conditions of pH 7, 1g l-1 adsorbent dose and 30°C temperature, for 100 mg l-1 initial dye concentration. The equilibrium and kinetic study revealed that the experimental data fitted suitably the Freundlich isotherm and Pseudo second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic analysis proved that adsorption system in this study was spontaneous, feasible and endothermic in nature.

  15. Mechanisms of antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic properties of essential oil derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Kong, Weijun; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Meihua

    2017-04-01

    The antifungal activity and potential mechanisms in vitro as well as anti-aflatoxigenic efficiency in vivo of natural essential oil (EO) derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) against Aspergillus flavus was intensively investigated. Based on the previous chemical characterization of turmeric EO by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the substantially antifungal activities of turmeric EO on the mycelial growth, spore germination and aflatoxin production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, these antifungal effects were related to the disruption of fungal cell endomembrane system including the plasma membrane and mitochondria, specifically i.e. the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, mitochondrial ATPase, malate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase activities. Moreover, the down-regulation profiles of turmeric EO on the relative expression of mycotoxin genes in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway revealed its anti-aflatoxigenic mechanism. Finally, the suppression effect of fungal contamination in maize indicated that turmeric EO has potential as an eco-friendly antifungal agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The inhibitory effects of Curcuma longa L. essential oil and curcumin on Aspergillus flavus link growth and morphology.

    PubMed

    Dias Ferreira, Flávio; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Dias Ferreira, Francine Maery; Arrotéia, Carla Cristina; da Costa, Christiane Luciana; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Machinski, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil from Curcuma longa L. was analysed by GC/MS. The major components of the oil were ar-turmerone (33.2%), α -turmerone (23.5%) and β -turmerone (22.7%). The antifungal activities of the oil were studied with regard to Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and altered morphology, as preliminary studies indicated that the essential oil from C. longa inhibited Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxin production. The concentration of essential oil in the culture media ranged from 0.01% to 5.0% v/v, and the concentration of curcumin was 0.01-0.5% v/v. The effects on sporulation, spore viability, and fungal morphology were determined. The essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity than curcumin on A. flavus. The essential oil reduced the fungal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. A. flavus growth rate was reduced by C. longa essential oil at 0.10%, and this inhibition effect was more efficient in concentrations above 0.50%. Germination and sporulation were 100% inhibited in 0.5% oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of A. flavus exposed to oil showed damage to hyphae membranes and conidiophores. Because the fungus is a plant pathogen and aflatoxin producer, C. longa essential oil may be used in the management of host plants.

  17. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled study on the anti-haemostatic effects of Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis and Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Fung, Foon Yin; Wong, Wan Hui; Ang, Seng Kok; Koh, Hwee Ling; Kun, Mei Ching; Lee, Lai Heng; Li, Xiaomei; Ng, Heng Joo; Tan, Chuen Wen; Zhao, Yan; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2017-08-15

    Herbs with "blood-activating" properties by traditional medicine theory often raise concerns for their possible anti-platelet or anticoagulation effects based on reports from in vitro studies. Such herbs have been implicated for bleeding manifestations based on only anecdotal reports. In particular, the combination of such herbs with anti-platelet agents is often empirically advised against despite lack of good clinical evidence. Here we studied 3 commonly used herbal preparations Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis and Panax ginseng on their respective anti-platelet and anticoagulation effect, alone and in combination with aspirin. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 25 healthy volunteers for each herbal preparation. Each subject underwent 3 phases comprising of herbal product alone, aspirin alone and aspirin with herbal product, where each phase lasted for 3 weeks with 2 weeks of washout between phases. PT/APTT, platelet function by light transmission aggregometry and thrombin generation assay by calibrated automated thrombogram were measured at baseline and after each phase. Information on adverse reaction including bleeding manifestations was collected after each phase. On the whole there was no clinically relevant impact on platelet and coagulation function. With the exception of 5 of 24 subjects in the Curcuma longa group, 2 of 24 subjects in the Angelica sinensis group and 1 of 23 subjects in the Panax ginseng group who had an inhibition in arachidonic-acid induced platelet aggregation, there was no effect of these 3 herbals products on platelet aggregation by other agonists. Combination of these herbal products with aspirin respectively did not further aggravate platelet inhibition caused by aspirin. None of the herbs impaired PT/APTT or thrombin generation. There was no significant bleeding manifestation. This study on healthy volunteers provides good evidence on the lack of bleeding risks of Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis

  18. New findings on the in vivo antioxidant activity of Curcuma longa extract by an integrated (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS metabolomic approach.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Stocchero, Matteo; Boschiero, Irene; Schiavon, Mariano; Golob, Samuel; Uddin, Jalal; Voinovich, Dario; Mammi, Stefano; Schievano, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    Curcuminoids possess powerful antioxidant activity as demonstrated in many chemical in vitro tests and in several in vivo trials. Nevertheless, the mechanism of this activity is not completely elucidated and studies on the in vivo antioxidant effects are still needed. Metabolomics may be used as an attractive approach for such studies and in this paper, we describe the effects of oral administration of a Curcuma longa L. extract (150 mg/kg of total curcuminoids) to 12 healthy rats with particular attention to urinary markers of oxidative stress. The experiment was carried out over 33 days and changes in the 24-h urine samples metabolome were evaluated by (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS. Both techniques produced similar representations for the collected samples confirming our previous study. Modifications of the urinary metabolome lead to the observation of different variables proving the complementarity of (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS for metabolomic purposes. The urinary levels of allantoin, m-tyrosine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and nitrotyrosine were decreased in the treated group thus supporting an in vivo antioxidant effect of the oral administration of Curcuma extract to healthy rats. On the other hand, urinary TMAO levels were higher in the treated compared to the control group suggesting a role of curcumin supplementation on microbiota or on TMAO urinary excretion. Furthermore, the urinary levels of the sulphur containing compounds taurine and cystine were also changed suggesting a role for such constituents in the biochemical pathways involved in Curcuma extract bioactivity and indicating the need for further investigation on the complex role of antioxidant curcumin effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Central Kalimantan plant extracts on intraerythrocytic Babesia gibsoni in culture.

    PubMed

    Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Trimurningsih; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2004-07-01

    The inhibitory effects of 45 plant extracts selected from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia on Babesia gibsoni in vitro and their acute toxicity to mice were evaluated. Of these plant extracts studied, Arcangelisia flava, Curcuma zedoaria, Garcinia benthamiana, Lansium domesticum and Peronema canescens were found to have appreciable antibabesial activity with IC50 values from 5.3 to 49.3 microg/ml without acute toxicity in mice at the intraperitoneal dose of 0.7 g/kg of body weight.

  20. Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Ipseeta; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Background In the present investigation, the effect of Curcuma longa (Cl) and Ocimum sanctum (Os) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in an ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) model of myocardial injury. Methods Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups and orally fed saline once daily (sham, control IR) or Cl (100 mg/kg; Cl-IR) or Os (75 mg/kg; Os-IR) respectively for 1 month. On the 31st day, in the rats of the control IR, Cl-IR and Os-IR groups LAD occlusion was undertaken for 45 min, and reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. The hemodynamic parameters{mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular peak positive (+) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure development) and negative (-) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure decline)} were monitored at pre-set points throughout the experimental duration and subsequently, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistopathological (Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression & TUNEL positivity) and histopathological studies. Results Chronic treatment with Cl significantly reduced TUNEL positivity (p < 0.05), Bax protein (p < 0.001) and upregulated Bcl-2 (p < 0.001) expression in comparison to control IR group. In addition, Cl demonstrated mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced hemodynamic {(+)LVdP/dt, (-) LVdP/dt & LVEDP} and histopathological perturbations. Chronic Os treatment resulted in modest modulation of the hemodynamic alterations (MAP, LVEDP) but failed to demonstrate any significant antiapoptotic effects and prevent the histopathological alterations as compared to control IR group. Conclusion In the present study, significant cardioprotection and functional recovery demonstrated by Cl may be attributed to its anti-apoptotic property. In contrast to Os, Cl may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the impairment of cardiac performance. PMID:16504000

  1. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  2. Development of Prediction Model and Experimental Validation in Predicting the Curcumin Content of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Akbar, Abdul; Kuanar, Ananya; Joshi, Raj K; Sandeep, I S; Mohanty, Sujata; Naik, Pradeep K; Mishra, Antaryami; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2016-01-01

    The drug yielding potential of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) is largely due to the presence of phyto-constituent 'curcumin.' Curcumin has been found to possess a myriad of therapeutic activities ranging from anti-inflammatory to neuroprotective. Lack of requisite high curcumin containing genotypes and variation in the curcumin content of turmeric at different agro climatic regions are the major stumbling blocks in commercial production of turmeric. Curcumin content of turmeric is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Hence, a prediction model based on artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to map genome environment interaction basing on curcumin content, soli and climatic factors from different agroclimatic regions for prediction of maximum curcumin content at various sites to facilitate the selection of suitable region for commercial cultivation of turmeric. The ANN model was developed and tested using a data set of 119 generated by collecting samples from 8 different agroclimatic regions of Odisha. The curcumin content from these samples was measured that varied from 7.2% to 0.4%. The ANN model was trained with 11 parameters of soil and climatic factors as input and curcumin content as output. The results showed that feed-forward ANN model with 8 nodes (MLFN-8) was the most suitable one with R 2 value of 0.91. Sensitivity analysis revealed that minimum relative humidity, altitude, soil nitrogen content and soil pH had greater effect on curcumin content. This ANN model has shown proven efficiency for predicting and optimizing the curcumin content at a specific site.

  3. Neuropharmacological profile and chemical analysis of fresh rhizome essential oil of Curcuma longa (turmeric) cultivated in Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyemitan, Idris A; Elusiyan, Christianah A; Onifade, Ayoola O; Akanmu, Moses A; Oyedeji, Adebola O; McDonald, Armando G

    2017-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) is commonly used as spice and also used to treat fever, cough and febrile convulsions in Nigeria. This study determined the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. longa and evaluated its neuropharmacological activity in mice. Essential oil of C. longa (EOCL) fresh rhizome was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition determined by GC-MS. Acute toxicity (LD 50 ) profile of the essential oil was determined orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.); and the EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated for its behavioural, anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities using appropriate models in Albino mice (Vom Strain, Jos, Nigeria). Analysis of the oil showed the presence of 23 compounds with turmerone (35.9%) being the major component. The LD 50 values obtained for the mice were 2154 mg/kg, p.o., and 693 mg/kg, i.p. The EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) caused significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of rearing {F (4,20)  = 9} and locomotor {F (3,16)  = 42} activity; decreased head dips in hole board {F (4,20)  = 4}; increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated pus maze {F (4,20)  = 9}; prolonged total sleeping time {F (4,20)  = 21} induced by ketamine injection, and protected mice against pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions. The major component of the essential oil of this C. longa species was turmerone; the oil was slightly toxic orally but moderately toxic intraperitoneally in mice; exhibited significant anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities in mice.

  4. Recent Progress for the Utilization of Curcuma longa, Piper nigrum and Phoenix dactylifera Seeds against Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Khaliq, T; Sarfraz, M; Ashraf, MA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important human disease afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. Even though modern medicines contribute a variety of effective treatment options, they can have several unfavourable effects. The intention of this review is to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted on the effectiveness of these herbal plants in diabetes. Method: By using various electronic search databases, a comprehensive English literature search was conducted. Different search terms were used by combining all the search fields in titles, abstracts and keywords. Results: Curcuma longa, a spice, is commonly known as turmeric and belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Piper nigrum is also a spice, commonly called black pepper, and belongs to the family Piperaceae. Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date fruit, belongs to the family Arecaceae. From ancient times, they have been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Among various activities, regulation of hyperglycaemia is considered one of their important effects. One of the aetiological factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals. Antioxidant properties of antidiabetic compounds would be more beneficial. Extracts of these plants have shown hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects by the involvement of several mechanisms. In the future, further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms involved in their hypoglycaemic potential and their active constituents as synthetic analogues. Conclusions: This review focusses on some medicinal plants that have antidiabetic effect, thus contributing to the reduction of risk factors associated with diabetes, and related beneficial effects are compiled. PMID:27399905

  5. Identification of a novel compound (β-sesquiphellandrene) from turmeric (Curcuma longa) with anticancer potential: comparison with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yuan, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2015-12-01

    Considering that as many as 80% of the anticancer drugs have their roots in natural products derived from traditional medicine, we examined compounds other than curcumin from turmeric (Curcuma longa) that could exhibit anticancer potential. Present study describes the isolation and characterization of another turmeric-derived compound, β-sesquiphellandrene (SQP) that exhibits anticancer potential comparable to that of curcumin. We isolated several compounds from turmeric, including SQP, α-curcumene, ar-turmerone, α-turmerone, β-turmerone, and γ-turmerone, only SQP was found to have antiproliferative effects comparable to those of curcumin in human leukemia, multiple myeloma, and colorectal cancer cells. While lack of the NF-κB-p65 protein had no effect on the activity of SQP, lung cancer cells that expressed p53 were more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of SQP than were cells that lacked p53 expression. SQP was also found to be highly effective in suppressing cancer cell colony formation and inducing apoptosis, as shown by assays of intracellular esterase activity, plasma membrane integrity, and cell-cycle phase. SQP was found to induce cytochrome c release and activate caspases that lead to poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. SQP exposure was associated with downregulation of cell survival proteins such cFLIP, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, c-IAP1, and survivin. Furthermore, SQP was found to be synergistic with the chemotherapeutic agents velcade, thalidomide and capecitabine. Overall, our results indicate that SQP has anticancer potential comparable to that of curcumin.

  6. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  7. Fungal endophytes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and their biocontrol potential against pathogens Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Vinayarani, G; Prakash, H S

    2018-03-14

    Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays. The endophyte T. harzianum TharDOB-31 showed significant in vitro mycelial growth inhibition of P. aphanidermatum (76.0%) and R. solani (76.9%) when tested by dual culture method. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed morphological abnormalities like parasitism, shriveling, breakage and lysis of hyphae of the pathogens by endophyte TharDOB-31. Selected endophytic isolates recorded multiple plant growth promoting traits in in vitro studies. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of endophyte TharDOB-31 showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 13.8 and 11.6% respectively. The treatment of TharDOB-31 exhibited significant increase in plant height (85 cm) and fresh rhizome yield/plant (425 g) in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. The confocal microscopy validates the colonization of the TharDOB-31 in turmeric rhizomes. The secondary metabolites in ethyl acetate extract of TharDOB-31 were found to contain higher number of antifungal compounds by high resolution liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis. Thereby, endophyte T. harzianum isolate can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.

  8. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea, and leaves of Annona muricata. Materials and methods Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund’s adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. Results The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group (P<0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Conclusion Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa, flowers of C. lutea, and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits. PMID:27877047

  9. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa , flowers of Cordia lutea , and leaves of Annona muricata . Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund's adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group ( P <0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa , flowers of C. lutea , and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits.

  10. Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome accelerates rat excisional wound healing: involvement of Hsp70/Bax proteins, antioxidant defense, and angiogenesis activity.

    PubMed

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Zahedifard, Maryam; Tayeby, Faezeh; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens BI. is a member of Zingiberaceae family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wound healing properties of hexane extract of C. purpurascens rhizome (HECP) against excisional wound healing in rats. Twenty four rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A) negative control (blank placebo, acacia gum), B) low dose of HECP, C) high dose of HECP, and D) positive control, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions (approximately 2.00 cm) were made on the neck area of each rat. Groups 1-4 were treated two-times a day for 20 days with blank placebo, HECP (100 mg/kg), HECP (200 mg/kg), and intrasite gel as a positive control, respectively. After 20 days, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings were employed to investigate the histopathological alterations. Protein expressions of Bax and Hsp70 were examined in the wound tissues using immunohistochemistry analysis. In addition, levels of enzymatic antioxidants and malondialdehyde representing lipid peroxidation were measured in wound tissue homogenates. Macroscopic evaluation of wounds showed conspicuous elevation in wound contraction after topical administration of HECP at both doses. Moreover, histopathological analysis revealed noteworthy reduction in the scar width correlated with the enhanced collagen content and fibroblast cells, accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory cells in the granulation tissues. At the molecular level, HECP facilitates wound-healing process by downregulating Bax and upregulating Hsp70 protein at the wound site. The formation of new blood vessel was observed in Masson's trichrome staining of wounds treated with HECP (100 and 200 mg/kg). In addition, HECP administration caused a significant surge in enzymatic antioxidant activities and a decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggested that HECP accelerated wound-healing process in rats via antioxidant activity, angiogenesis effect and anti-inflammatory responses involving Hsp70/Bax.

  11. [In vitro antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) against nosocomial bacteria in Montería, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Méndez Álvarez, Nelson; Angulo Ortíz, Alberto; Contreras Martínez, Orfa

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial resistance is a growing health problem worldwide that has serious economic and social impacts, compromising public health, and the therapeutic action of current antibiotics. Therefore, the search for new compounds with antimicrobial properties is relevant in modern studies, particularly against bacteria of clinical interest. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract and essential oil of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated against nosocomial bacteria, using the microdilution method. Escherichia coli strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus sp. were used, Salmonella sp. and Bacillus sp., isolated from nosocomial infections in a hospital in the city of Monteria and reference strains of S. aureus ATCC 43300, S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922 and K. pneumonia ATCC 700603. The ethanol extract antibacterial profile was more efficient at higher concentrations (1 000 ppm), obtaining significant percentages of reduction of more than 50 % against K. pneumoniae ATCC 700603 and a clinical isolate of E. coli; while compared to Bacillus clinical isolate, was more active than the essential oil. For the rest of microorganisms, the reduction percentages obtained at a concentration of 1 000 ppm varied between 17 and 42 % with ethanolic extract, and 8 to 43 % with essential oil. At concentrations of 100 and 500 ppm antibacterial activity of the extracts was lower. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract and essential oil of C. longa rhizomes have active compounds with antibacterial properties that could be used in future research as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by nosocomial pathogens.

  12. Development of Prediction Model and Experimental Validation in Predicting the Curcumin Content of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Abdul; Kuanar, Ananya; Joshi, Raj K.; Sandeep, I. S.; Mohanty, Sujata; Naik, Pradeep K.; Mishra, Antaryami; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2016-01-01

    The drug yielding potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is largely due to the presence of phyto-constituent ‘curcumin.’ Curcumin has been found to possess a myriad of therapeutic activities ranging from anti-inflammatory to neuroprotective. Lack of requisite high curcumin containing genotypes and variation in the curcumin content of turmeric at different agro climatic regions are the major stumbling blocks in commercial production of turmeric. Curcumin content of turmeric is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Hence, a prediction model based on artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to map genome environment interaction basing on curcumin content, soli and climatic factors from different agroclimatic regions for prediction of maximum curcumin content at various sites to facilitate the selection of suitable region for commercial cultivation of turmeric. The ANN model was developed and tested using a data set of 119 generated by collecting samples from 8 different agroclimatic regions of Odisha. The curcumin content from these samples was measured that varied from 7.2% to 0.4%. The ANN model was trained with 11 parameters of soil and climatic factors as input and curcumin content as output. The results showed that feed-forward ANN model with 8 nodes (MLFN-8) was the most suitable one with R2 value of 0.91. Sensitivity analysis revealed that minimum relative humidity, altitude, soil nitrogen content and soil pH had greater effect on curcumin content. This ANN model has shown proven efficiency for predicting and optimizing the curcumin content at a specific site. PMID:27766103

  13. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Chakraborty, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Methods First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. Results The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. Conclusions In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity. PMID:23569758

  14. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  15. Combinatorial cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kurapati, Kesava Rao V.; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Kadiyala, Dakshayani B.; Zainulabedin, Saiyed M.; Gandhi, Nimisha; Sathaye, Sadhana S.; Indap, Manohar A.; Boukli, Nawal; Rodriguez, Jose W.; Nair, Madhavan P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many plant-derived products exhibit potent chemopreventive activity against animal tumor models as well as rodent and human cancer cell lines. They have low side effects and toxicity and presumably modulate the factors that are critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. The present study investigates the effects of some medicinal plant extracts from generally recognized as safe plants that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Methods Clonogenic assays using logarithmically-growing cells were performed to test the effect. The cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were studied using sulforhodamine B assay, tetrazolium dye assay, colony morphology and microscopic analysis. Results Out of the 13 lyophilized plant-derived extracts evaluated for growth-inhibitory effects on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line, two extracts derived from C. longa and Z. officinale showed significant inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability. The individual and augmentative effects of these two extracts were tested for their narrow range effective lower concentration on PC-3M in clonogenic assays. At relatively lower concentrations, C. longa showed significant inhibition of colony formation in clonogenic assays; whereas at same concentrations Z. officinale showed only moderate inhibitory effects. However, when both the agents were tested together at the same concentrations, the combined effects were much more significant than their individual ones. On normal prostate epithelial cells both C. longa and Z. officinale had similar effects but at a lower magnitude. These observations were confirmed by several cytotoxicity assays involving the morphological appearance of the colonies, microscopic observations, per cent inhibition in comparison to control by sulforhodamine B and tetrazolium dye assay. Conclusions From these observations, it was concluded that the combined effects of C. longa and Z. officinale

  16. Protective mechanism of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on carbofuran-induced hematological and hepatic toxicities in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Md Sakib; Tanvir, E M; Prince, Maruf Billah; Paul, Sudip; Saha, Moumoni; Ali, Md Yousuf; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Karim, Nurul

    2017-12-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 μM Fe 2+ ) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.

  17. Anti-giardial therapeutic potential of dichloromethane extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dyab, Ahmad K; Yones, Doaa A; Ibraheim, Zedan Z; Hassan, Tasneem M

    2016-07-01

    Giardiosis is one of the common parasitic diarrhoea in humans, especially in children, worldwide. Many drugs are used for its treatment, but there is evidence of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and unpleasant side effects. Natural products are good candidates for discovering more effective anti-giardial compounds. This study evaluated the activity of extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (curcumin) against Giardia lamblia in vitro and in vivo. Giardia cyst suspension was prepared from children faecal specimens. For the in vitro experiment, 1, 10 and 50 mg⁄mL dichloromethane extracts of ginger and curcumin separately were incubated with Giardia cysts for 5, 10, 30 and 60 min. The viability was distinguished by 0.1 % eosin and a haemocytometer. For the in vivo experiments, Balb/c mice were infected with Giardia cyst suspension containing 10,000 cysts/mL. Infected mice were administered 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ginger and curcumin extracts separately for 7 days post-infection. The effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated by faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts and histopathological examination of the small intestine. In vitro ginger extract had a higher significant effect on cyst viability than curcumin, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo ginger (more effective) and curcumin extracts significantly treated infected mice, and this was evidenced by the faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts reduction, in addition to evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damages induced by Giardia infection. Z. officinale and C. longa extracts may represent effective and natural therapeutic alternatives with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiosis.

  18. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Dajpratham, Piyapat; Taechaarpornkul, Wirat; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Lukkanapichonchut, Pranee; Chootip, Chirawan; Saengsuwan, Jittima; Tantayakom, Kesthamrong; Laongpech, Supphalak

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in pain reduction and functional improvement. Methods 367 primary knee osteoarthritis patients with a pain score of 5 or higher were randomized to receive ibuprofen 1,200 mg/day or C. domestica extracts 1,500 mg/day for 4 weeks. The main outcomes were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC function scores. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results 185 and 182 patients were randomly assigned into C. domestica extracts and ibuprofen groups, respectively. The baseline characteristics were no different between groups. The mean of all WOMAC scores at weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed significant improvement when compared with the baseline in both groups. After using the noninferiority test, the mean difference (95% confidence interval) of WOMAC total, WOMAC pain, and WOMAC function scores at week 4 adjusted by values at week 0 of C. domestica extracts were noninferior to those for the ibuprofen group (P=0.010, P=0.018, and P=0.010, respectively), except for the WOMAC stiffness subscale, which showed a trend toward significance (P=0.060). The number of patients who developed AEs was no different between groups. However, the number of events of abdominal pain/discomfort was significantly higher in the ibuprofen group than that in the C. domestica extracts group (P=0.046). Most subjects (96%–97%) were satisfied with the treatment, and two-thirds rated themselves as improved in a global assessment. Conclusion C. domestica extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The side effect profile was similar but with fewer gastrointestinal AE reports in the C. domestica extracts group. PMID:24672232

  19. Determination of the Marker Diarylheptanoid Phytoestrogens in Curcuma comosa Rhizomes and Selected Herbal Medicinal Products by HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Yingngam, Bancha; Brantner, Adelheid; Jinarat, Damrongsak; Kaewamatawong, Rawiwun; Rungseevijitprapa, Wandee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2018-01-01

    A method for quantification of diarylheptanoids in Curcuma comosa rhizomes and selected pharmaceutical preparations was established by using HPLC-diode array detector (DAD). The chromatographic separation of three diarylheptanoids [(3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (1), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (2), and (3S)-1,7-diphenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (3)] was performed on a Luna C 18 analytical column using gradient elution with 0.5% acetic acid in water and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a column temperature of 35°C. The calibration curves for the analytes showed good linearity (R 2 >0.999), high precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) <2%) and acceptable recovery (98.35-103.90%, RSD <2%). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.06-0.22 and 0.18-0.69 µg/mL, respectively. The results of all validated parameters were within the limits according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines. The established method was successfully applied for qualitative and quantitative determination of the three constituents in different samples of C. comosa and some commercial products in capsules. The simplicity, rapidity, and reliability of the method could be useful for the fingerprint analysis and standardization of diarylheptanoids, which are responsible for the estrogenic activity in raw materials and herbal medicinal products of C. comosa.

  20. Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome accelerates rat excisional wound healing: involvement of Hsp70/Bax proteins, antioxidant defense, and angiogenesis activity

    PubMed Central

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Zahedifard, Maryam; Tayeby, Faezeh; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcuma purpurascens BI. is a member of Zingiberaceae family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wound healing properties of hexane extract of C. purpurascens rhizome (HECP) against excisional wound healing in rats. Materials and methods Twenty four rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A) negative control (blank placebo, acacia gum), B) low dose of HECP, C) high dose of HECP, and D) positive control, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions (approximately 2.00 cm) were made on the neck area of each rat. Groups 1–4 were treated two-times a day for 20 days with blank placebo, HECP (100 mg/kg), HECP (200 mg/kg), and intrasite gel as a positive control, respectively. After 20 days, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome stainings were employed to investigate the histopathological alterations. Protein expressions of Bax and Hsp70 were examined in the wound tissues using immunohistochemistry analysis. In addition, levels of enzymatic antioxidants and malondialdehyde representing lipid peroxidation were measured in wound tissue homogenates. Results Macroscopic evaluation of wounds showed conspicuous elevation in wound contraction after topical administration of HECP at both doses. Moreover, histopathological analysis revealed noteworthy reduction in the scar width correlated with the enhanced collagen content and fibroblast cells, accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory cells in the granulation tissues. At the molecular level, HECP facilitates wound-healing process by downregulating Bax and upregulating Hsp70 protein at the wound site. The formation of new blood vessel was observed in Masson’s trichrome staining of wounds treated with HECP (100 and 200 mg/kg). In addition, HECP administration caused a significant surge in enzymatic antioxidant activities and a decline in lipid peroxidation. Conclusion These findings suggested that HECP accelerated wound-healing process in rats via antioxidant activity, angiogenesis

  1. The chemopreventive potential of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome in reducing azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, is a popular spice in Indonesia that is traditionally used in assorted remedies. Dichloromethane extract of C. purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) has previously been shown to have an apoptosis-inducing effect on colon cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the potential of DECPR to prevent colon cancer development in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg) by determining the percentage inhibition in incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Starting from the day immediately after AOM treatment, three groups of rats were orally administered once a day for 2 months either 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg, cancer control), DECPR (250 mg/kg, low dose), or DECPR (500 mg/kg, high dose). Meanwhile, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with 5-fluorouracil (35 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After euthanizing the rats, the number of ACF was enumerated in colon tissues. Bax, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expressions were examined using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Antioxidant enzymatic activity was measured in colon tissue homogenates and associated with malondialdehyde level. The percentage inhibition of ACF was 56.04% and 68.68% in the low- and high-dose DECPR-treated groups, respectively. The ACF inhibition in the treatment control group was 74.17%. Results revealed that DECPR exposure at both doses significantly decreased AOM-induced ACF formation, which was accompanied by reduced expression of PCNA. Upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 suggested the involvement of apoptosis in the chemopreventive effect of DECPR. In addition, the oxidative stress resulting from AOM treatment was significantly attenuated after administration of DECPR, which was shown by the elevated antioxidant enzymatic activity and reduced malondialdehyde level. Taken together, the present data clearly indicate that DECPR significantly inhibits ACF formation

  2. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Chakraborty, Biswajit

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  3. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Curcuma longa polyphenols improve insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and attenuate proinflammatory response of 3T3-L1 adipose cells during oxidative stress through regulation of key adipokines and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Septembre-Malaterre, Axelle; Le Sage, Fanny; Hatia, Sarah; Catan, Aurélie; Janci, Laurent; Gonthier, Marie-Paule

    2016-07-08

    Plant polyphenols may exert beneficial action against obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation which promote insulin resistance. This study evaluated the effect of polyphenols extracted from French Curcuma longa on 3T3-L1 adipose cells exposed to H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress. We found that Curcuma longa extract exhibited high amounts of curcuminoids identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which exerted free radical-scavenging activities. Curcuma longa polyphenols improved insulin-mediated lipid accumulation and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene expression and adiponectin secretion which decreased in H2 O2 -treated cells. Curcuminoids attenuated H2 O2 -enhanced production of pro-inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor κappa B. Moreover, they reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species elevated by H2 O2 and modulated the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase and catalase antioxidant enzymes. Collectively, these findings highlight that Curcuma longa polyphenols protect adipose cells against oxidative stress and may improve obesity-related metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):418-430, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. An aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes stimulates insulin release and mimics insulin action on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Sureshkumar; McFarlane, James R

    2011-03-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used widely as a spice, particularly in Asian countries. It is also used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as an antiinflammatory and antimicrobial agent and for numerous other curative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (AEC) on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis. The extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of ground turmeric in 1 L of water, which was filtered and stored at -20°C prior to use. Pancreas and muscle tissues of adult mice were cultured in DMEM with 5 or 12 mmol/L glucose and varying doses of extract. The AEC stimulated insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic tissues under both basal and hyperglycaemic conditions, although the maximum effect was only 68% of that of tolbutamide. The AEC induced stepwise stimulation of glucose uptake from abdominal muscle tissues in the presence and absence of insulin, and the combination of AEC and insulin significantly potentiated the glucose uptake into abdominal muscle tissue. However, this effect was attenuated by wortmannin, suggesting that AEC possibly acts via the insulin-mediated glucose uptake pathway. In summary, water soluble compounds of turmeric exhibit insulin releasing and mimicking actions within in vitro tissue culture conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Herbal composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra prevents atherosclerosis by upregulating p27 (Kip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Han, Joo-Hui; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-07-28

    Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). To assess the anti-proliferative effect of Kiom-18 in vitro, we performed thymidine incorporation, cell cycle progression, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays in VSMCs stimulated by platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF)-BB. In addition, we used LDLr knockout mice to identify the effects of Kiom-18 as a preliminary result in an atherosclerosis animal model. Kiom-18 inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated-VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. Additionally, Kiom-18 arrested the cell cycle transition of G0/G1 stimulated by PDGF-BB and its cell cycle-related proteins. Correspondingly, the level of p27(kip1) expression was upregulated in the presence of the Kiom-18 extract. Moreover, in an atherosclerosis animal model of LDLr knockout mice, Kiom-18 extract showed a preventive effect for the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and suppressed body weight, fat weight, food treatment efficiency, neutrophil count, and triglyceride level. These results indicate that Kiom-18 exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by inhibiting VSMC proliferation via G0/G1 arrest, which upregulates p27(Kip1) expression.

  7. [Screening of anti-lung cancer bioactive compounds from Curcuma longa by target cell extraction and UHPLC/LTQ Orbitrap MS].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Liang; Wu, Ye-Qing; Tan, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Ming; Ma, Lin-Ke

    2016-10-01

    A target cell extraction-chemical profiling method based on human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 cells) and UHPLC/LTQ Orbitrap MS for screening the anti-lung cancer bioactive compounds from Curcuma longa has been developed in this paper. According to the hypothesis that when cells are incubated together with the extract of Curcuma longa, the potential bioactive compounds in the extract should selectively combine with the cells, then the cell-binding compounds could be separated and analyzed by LC-MS. The bioactive compounds in C. longa are lipophilic components. They intend to be absorbed on the inner wall of cell culture flask when they were incubated with A549 cells, which will produce interference in the blank solution. In this paper, by using cells digestion and multi-step centrifugation and transfer strategy, the interference problem has been solved. Finally, using the developed method, three cell-binding compounds were screened out and were identified as bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and curcumin. These compounds are the main bioactive compounds with anti-lung cancer bioactivity in C. longa. The improved method developed in this paper could avoid the false positive results due to the absorption of lipophilic compounds on the inner wall of cell culture flask, which will to be an effective complementary method for current target cell extraction-chemical profiling technology. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Simultaneous screening of four epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists from Curcuma longa via cell membrane chromatography online coupled with HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Ma, Wei-na; Guo, Ying; Hu, Zhi-gang; He, Lang-chong

    2013-07-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are significant targets for screening active compounds. In this work, an analytical method was established for rapid screening, separation, and identification of EGFRs antagonists from Curcuma longa. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells with a steadily high expression of EGFRs were used to prepare the cell membrane stationary phase in a cell membrane chromatography model for screening active compounds. Separation and identification of the retention chromatographic peaks was achieved by HPLC-MS. The active sites, docking extents and inhibitory effects of the active compounds were also demonstrated. The screening result found that ar-turmerone, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin from Curcuma longa could be active components in a similar manner to gefitinib. Biological trials showed that all of four compounds can inhibit EGFRs protein secretion and cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, and downregulate the phosphorylation of EGFRs. This analytical method demonstrated fast and effective characteristics for screening, separation and identification of the active compounds from a complex system and should be useful for drug discovery with natural medicinal herbs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. In vitro mineral nutrition of Curcuma longa L. affects production of volatile compounds in rhizomes after transfer to the greenhouse.

    PubMed

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Grace, Mary H; Janbey, Alan; Lila, Mary Ann; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2018-06-18

    Turmeric is a rich source of bioactive compounds useful in both medicine and cuisine. Mineral concentrations effects (PO 4 3- , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and KNO 3 ) were tested during in vitro rhizome development on the ex vitro content of volatile constituents in rhizomes after 6 months in the greenhouse. A response surface method (D-optimal criteria) was repeated in both high and low-input fertilizer treatments. Control plants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, acclimatized in the greenhouse and grown in the field. The volatile constituents were investigated by GC-MS. The total content of volatiles was affected by fertilizer treatments, and in vitro treatment with Ca 2+ and KNO 3 ; but PO 4 3- and Mg 2+ had no significant effect. The content was higher in the high-input fertilizer treatments (49.7 ± 9 mg/g DM) with 4 mM Ca 2+ , 60 mM KNO 3 and 5 mM NH 4 + , than the low-input fertilizer (26.6 ± 9 mg/g DM), and the MS control (15.28 ± 2.7 mg/g DM; 3 mM Ca 2+ , 20 mM K + , 39 mM NO 3 - , 20 mM NH 4 + , 1.25 mM PO 4 3- , and 1.5 mM Mg 2+ ). The interaction of Ca 2+ with KNO 3 affected curcumenol isomer I and II, germacrone, isocurcumenol, and β-elemenone content. Increasing in vitro phosphate concentration to 6.25 mM increased ex vitro neocurdione and methenolone contents. These results show that minerals in the in vitro bioreactor medium during rhizome development affected biosynthesis of turmeric volatile components after transfer to the greenhouse six months later. The multi-factor design identified 1) nutrient regulation of specific components within unique phytochemical profile for Curcuma longa L. clone 35-1 and 2) the varied phytochemical profiles were maintained with integrity during the greenhouse growth in high fertility conditions.

  10. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Jaisabai, Jiraporn; Luangtoomma, Nantakarn; Waranuch, Neti; Khorana, Nantaka; Wisuitiprot, Wudtichai; Scholfield, C Norman; Champachaisri, Katechan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-02-15

    Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. C. aeruginosa essential oil (CA-oil) formulated as a lotion is an efficacious and safe inhibitor of axillary hair growth. This trial was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 10 weeks, intervention in 60 women (18-23 years) and 2 weeks washout with axillary hair length was the primary end-point. Bioactive-enriched essential oil of C. aeruginosa was formulated with a base lotion. All participants were pre-challenged with lotions by 4-h patch irritation tests to exclude skin reactions. Participants were randomly allocated to use either 1 or 5%w/w CA-oil lotion on one axilla and base-lotion (placebo) to the other for 10 weeks followed by placebo in both axillae for 2 weeks. Every week, the axillae were photographed to measure hair lengths, shaved, and roll-on applicators containing appropriate lotion replaced. Also, skin melanin by spectrophotometry and hair density were measured. From weeks 5-11 of trial, 1 and 5%w/w CA-oil retarded growth by 13 ± 1.5% and 16 ± 0.9% respectively, while placebo was ineffective. CA-oil had no influence on hair density. Both concentrations of CA-oil rapidly and equally effectively brightened skin within 3 weeks which persisted 2 weeks after treatment ceased while placebo darkened the skin. Adherence appeared good as judged by consistency of lotion consumption and between axillae. Participants were satisfied with the treatment and reported reduced hairiness, freedom from any discomforts, but product odour attracted some negative comment. No adverse reactions ascribed to CA-oil were detected or reported. This study points to a safe and efficacious dual action on retarding hair-growth and skin lightening by CA-oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  11. Evaluation of physiological response and performance by supplementation of Curcuma longa in broiler feed under hot humid tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Oke, O E

    2018-06-01

    Dietary manipulation has been seen as one of the practical ways to ameliorate the adverse effects of thermal stress in the hot humid tropical climate. In order to investigate the influence of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizome powder on physiological responses and performance under hot humid tropical climate, 240 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments having four replicates of 15 birds each in a complete randomized design. Broiler birds were fed basal diets and supplemented with 0 (CT), 4 (TG), 8 (FT), and 12 g (SG) of turmeric powder/kg of diet for 8 weeks. Data were collected weekly on feed intake and body weights. Blood samples were collected from eight birds per treatment at week 4 (starter phase) and week 8 (finisher phase) of the experiment for the determination of plasma 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA). Rectal temperature of the birds was also taken. At 56 days of age, eight birds from each treatment were slaughtered for the determination of relative organ weights. Results showed that the final weights of the birds in FT were significantly higher than those of the birds in TG, SG, and CT. The weight gain of the birds in FT was higher than those of the birds in SG while those of SG were higher than those of TG whose values were higher than that of CT. The feed conversion ratio of the broiler chickens in CT was higher (P < 0.05) than those of other treatment groups while the birds in FT and SG had similar feed conversion ratios. SOD of birds fed turmeric rhizome powder was higher than the birds in the control group at both starter and finisher phases. Furthermore, MDA of the birds in FT was lower than those of the birds in the other treatment groups at the finisher phase. Plasma T 3 was higher in the birds fed turmeric at the finisher phase than chickens in the control group. There was no difference in the rectal temperatures of the birds. To conclude, turmeric rhizome powder

  12. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  13. Preparation of monodisperse curcumin-imprinted polymer by precipitation polymerization and its application for the extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L.

    PubMed

    Kitabatake, Tomoko; Tabo, Hiromi; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2013-08-01

    A monodisperse molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for curcumin was first prepared by precipitation polymerization using methacrylamide (MAM) and 4-vinylpyridine as functional co-monomers, divinylbenzene as a crosslinker, and a mixture of acetonitrile and toluene as a porogen. The use of MAM as the co-monomer resulted in the formation of a monodisperse MIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP). MIP and NIP, respectively, were monodispersed with a narrow particle size distribution (3.3 ± 0.09 and 3.5 ± 0.10 μm). In addition to shape recognition, hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions affected the retention and molecular-recognition of curcumin on the MIP. The MIP for curcumin could extract curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) in Curcuma longa L.

  14. Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) and ascorbic acid on physical characteristics and oxidative status of fresh and stored rabbit burgers.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simone; Preziuso, Giovanna; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Szendrő, Zsolt; Fratini, Filippo; Paci, Gisella

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Curcuma longa powder and ascorbic acid on some quality traits of rabbit burgers. The burgers (burgers control with no additives; burgers with 3.5 g of turmeric powder/100g meat; burgers with 0.1g of ascorbic acid/100g meat) were analyzed at Days 0 and 7 for pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, fatty acid profile, TBARS, antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and microbial growth. The addition of turmeric powder modified the meat color, produced an antioxidant capacity similar to ascorbic acid and determined a lower cooking loss than other formulations. Turmeric powder might be considered as a useful natural antioxidant, increasing the quality and extending the shelf life of rabbit burgers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on the colour strength and fastness properties of fabric using turmeric (Curcuma longa L .) as natural dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Ijaz A.; Adeel, Shahid; Jamal, M. Asghar; Safdar, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the dyeing of cotton with extract of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder has been investigated. Cotton fabric and turmeric powder were irradiated to absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing parameters such as temperature, pH and mordant concentration were optimized. Dyeing was performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with the extracts of un-irradiated and irradiated turmeric powder in order to investigate the effect of radiation treatment on the colour strength of dyed fabric. The reported data of un-irradiated and irradiated fabrics dyed with un-irradiated and irradiated dyes were obtained using the spectraflash SF-650. The colourfastness to light, rubbing- and washing-fastness properties showed that gamma irradiation has improved the dyeing characteristics from fair to good.

  16. Short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influences biochemical and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop [Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)].

    PubMed

    Dinesh, R; Srinivasan, V; Hamza, S; Manjusha, A

    2010-06-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influence biochemical and microbial variables reflecting soil quality. For the study, soils were collected from a field experiment conducted on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) involving organic nutrient management (ONM), chemical nutrient management (CNM) and integrated nutrient management (INM). The findings revealed that application of organic manures and biofertilizers (ONM and INM) positively influenced microbial biomass C, N mineralization, soil respiration and enzymes activities. Contrarily, greater metabolic quotient levels in CNM indicated a stressed soil microbial community. Principal component analysis indicated the strong relationship between microbial activity and the availability of labile and easily mineralizable organic matter. The findings imply that even short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers promoted soil microbial and enzyme activities and these parameters are sensitive enough to detect changes in soil quality due to short-term incorporation of biological fertilizers. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemotaxonomic Characterization and in-Vitro Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of the Leaf Essential Oil of Curcuma longa Grown in Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Essien, Emmanuel E.; Newby, Jennifer Schmidt; Walker, Tameka M.; Setzer, William N.; Ekundayo, Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used in Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurvedic medicine for many years. Methods: The leaf essential oil of C. longa from southern Nigeria was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was screened for in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. The major components in C. longa leaf oil were ar-turmerone (63.4%), α-turmerone (13.7%), and β-turmerone (12.6%). A cluster analysis has revealed this to be a new essential oil chemotype of C. longa. The leaf oil showed notable antibacterial activity to Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal activity to Aspergillus niger, and cytotoxic activity to Hs 578T (breast tumor) and PC-3 (prostate tumor) cells. The ar-turmerone-rich leaf essential oil of C. longa from Nigeria has shown potent biological activity and therapeutic promise. PMID:28930216

  18. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. Germacrane sesquiterpenes isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. inhibit UVB-induced upregulation of MMP-1, -2, and -3 expression in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hae; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Jung, Ye-Jin; Shrestha, Sabina; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Chang-Ho; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-10-01

    Four sesquiterpenes were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.: furanodiene (1), germacrone (2), furanodienone (3), and 13-hydroxygermacrone (4). Importantly, this was the first time compounds 1 and 4 were isolated from this plant. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 2 and 4 inhibited UVB-induced upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this upregulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 1-10 μM for each compound.

  20. Production of Gentisyl Alcohol from Phoma herbarum Endophytic in Curcuma longa L. and Its Antagonistic Activity Towards Leaf Spot Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suruchi; Kaul, Sanjana; Singh, Baljinder; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Dhar, Manoj K

    2016-11-01

    Endophytes from medicinal plants represent a potential source of bioactive compounds. During the present investigation, fungal endophytes were isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), an important medicinal plant. A total of 207 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained from the rhizome of C. longa L. They were grouped into seven genera based on morphological and molecular data. The fungal endophytes of C. longa were evaluated for antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal organism of leaf spot of turmeric. The disease is a major cause for economic loss in turmeric cultivation. Endophytic Phoma herbarum showed significant activity against C. gloeosporioides and was therefore selected for further studies. A compound gentisyl alcohol was isolated from P. herbarum which showed effective antagonism against C. gloeosporioides. The organism could therefore be used as a biocontrol agent against C. gloeosporioides.

  1. In vitro activity of natural honey alone and in combination with curcuma starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in correlation with bioactive compounds and diastase activity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Moussa; Djebli, Noureddine; Aissat, Saad; Khiati, Baghdad; Meslem, Abdelmalek; Bacha, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro activity and synergism of the combinations of natural honey and curcuma starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in correlation with total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and diastase activity. Methods The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenols content and the flavonoid content was analyzed using by the aluminum chloride method. The antifungal activity of the natural honey, determined by an agar well diffusion assay and agar incorporation method. Results Total phenolic content varied from (63.93±0.11) to (95.36±6.08) mg GAE/100 g honey as gallic acid equivalent. Total flavonoids content varied from (5.41±0.04) to (9.94±0.54) mg CE/100 g. Diastase activity values were between (7.3±2.8) and (26±2.8). The zone inhibition diameter for the six honey samples without starch ranged between 6 and 20 mm. When starch was mixed with honey and then added to well, a zone inhibition increase diameter 7 and 21 mm. The percentage increase was noticed with each variety and it ranged between 5% and 62.5%. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for the six varieties of honey without starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa ranged between 28% and 36% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a minimal inhibitory concentration drop has been noticed with each variety. It ranged between 6.66 % and 20% (w/v). No significant correlation was established between diastase activity and bioactive compounds. Conclusions The mixture of curcuma starch and honey could lead to the development of new combination antibiotics against Rhodotorula infections PMID:24075348

  2. Pharmacogenomic Characterization and Isobologram Analysis of the Combination of Ascorbic Acid and Curcumin-Two Main Metabolites of Curcuma longa-in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ooko, Edna; Kadioglu, Onat; Greten, Henry J; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Curcuma longa has long been used in China and India as anti-inflammatory agent to treat a wide variety of conditions and also as a spice for varied curry preparations. The chemoprofile of the Curcuma species exhibits the presence of varied phytochemicals with curcumin being present in all three species but AA only being shown in C. longa . This study explored the effect of a curcumin/AA combination on human cancer cell lines. The curcumin/AA combination was assessed by isobologram analysis using the Loewe additivity drug interaction model. The drug combination showed additive cytotoxicity toward CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines and HCT116p53 +/+ and HCT116p53 -/- colon cancer cell line, while the glioblastoma cell lines U87MG and U87MG.ΔEGFR showed additive to supra-additive cytotoxicity. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to induction by curcumin and AA were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Numerous genes involved in transcription ( TFAM, TCERG1, RGS13, C11orf31 ), apoptosis-regulation ( CRADD, CDK7, CDK19, CD81, TOM1 ) signal transduction ( NR1D2, HMGN1, ABCA1, DE4ND4B, TRIM27 ) DNA repair ( TOPBP1, RPA2 ), mRNA metabolism ( RBBP4, HNRNPR, SRSF4, NR2F2, PDK1, TGM2 ), and transporter genes ( ABCA1 ) correlated with cellular responsiveness to curcumin and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, this study shows the effect of the curcumin/AA combination and identifies several candidate genes that may regulate the response of varied cancer cells to curcumin and AA.

  3. Pharmacogenomic Characterization and Isobologram Analysis of the Combination of Ascorbic Acid and Curcumin—Two Main Metabolites of Curcuma longa—in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ooko, Edna; Kadioglu, Onat; Greten, Henry J.; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Curcuma longa has long been used in China and India as anti-inflammatory agent to treat a wide variety of conditions and also as a spice for varied curry preparations. The chemoprofile of the Curcuma species exhibits the presence of varied phytochemicals with curcumin being present in all three species but AA only being shown in C. longa. This study explored the effect of a curcumin/AA combination on human cancer cell lines. The curcumin/AA combination was assessed by isobologram analysis using the Loewe additivity drug interaction model. The drug combination showed additive cytotoxicity toward CCRF-CEM and CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines and HCT116p53+/+ and HCT116p53−/− colon cancer cell line, while the glioblastoma cell lines U87MG and U87MG.ΔEGFR showed additive to supra-additive cytotoxicity. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to induction by curcumin and AA were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Numerous genes involved in transcription (TFAM, TCERG1, RGS13, C11orf31), apoptosis-regulation (CRADD, CDK7, CDK19, CD81, TOM1) signal transduction (NR1D2, HMGN1, ABCA1, DE4ND4B, TRIM27) DNA repair (TOPBP1, RPA2), mRNA metabolism (RBBP4, HNRNPR, SRSF4, NR2F2, PDK1, TGM2), and transporter genes (ABCA1) correlated with cellular responsiveness to curcumin and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, this study shows the effect of the curcumin/AA combination and identifies several candidate genes that may regulate the response of varied cancer cells to curcumin and AA. PMID:28210221

  4. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric characterization of Curcuma longa: Protection against pathogenic microbes and lipid peroxidation in rat's tissue homogenate.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Gul, Shehnaz; Rehman, Shakilla; Kanwal, Farina; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Fazal, Hina; Shah, Ziarat; Rahman, Ataur; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the mineral content and antimicrobial activity of Curcuma Longa extracts and its essential oil. We also determined the lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of the ethanolic extract against sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) formation in rat's brain, kidney and liver homogenates. Major constituents of essential oil identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) were beta-sesquiphellandrene (38.69%), alpha-curcumene (18.44%) and p-mentha-1,4 (8)-diene (16.29%). Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used for the quantitative estimation of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Manganese (Mn). The extract showed highest Mg (49.4 mg/l) concentration followed by Ca (35.42 mg/l) and Fe (1.27 mg/l). Our data revealed that the ethanolic extract of Curcuma Longa at 1-10 mg/kg significantly inhibited TBARS production in all tested homogenates. Crude extracts and essential oil were tested against three gram positive bacteria i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophoeus, Staphylococcus aureus, six gram negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonias, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erwinia carotovora, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and one fungal strain namely Candida albicans by disc diffusion assay. Essential oil showed highest anti-microbial activity as compared to the crude extracts. The present study confirms the significant antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the studied plant, which can be considered as a diet supplement for a variety of oxidative stress induced or infectious diseases.

  5. In vitro activity of natural honey alone and in combination with curcuma starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in correlation with bioactive compounds and diastase activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Moussa; Djebli, Noureddine; Aissat, Saad; Khiati, Baghdad; Meslem, Abdelmalek; Bacha, Salima

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the in vitro activity and synergism of the combinations of natural honey and curcuma starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in correlation with total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and diastase activity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenols content and the flavonoid content was analyzed using by the aluminum chloride method. The antifungal activity of the natural honey, determined by an agar well diffusion assay and agar incorporation method. Total phenolic content varied from (63.930.11) to (95.366.08) mg GAE/100 g honey as gallic acid equivalent. Total flavonoids content varied from (5.41±0.04) to (9.94±0.54) mg CE/100 g. Diastase activity values were between (7.3±2.8) and (26±2.8). The zone inhibition diameter for the six honey samples without starch ranged between 6 and 20 mm. When starch was mixed with honey and then added to well, a zone inhibition increase diameter 7 and 21 mm. The percentage increase was noticed with each variety and it ranged between 5% and 62.5%. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for the six varieties of honey without starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa ranged between 28% and 36% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a minimal inhibitory concentration drop has been noticed with each variety. It ranged between 6.66 % and 20% (w/v). No significant correlation was established between diastase activity and bioactive compounds. The mixture of curcuma starch and honey could lead to the development of new combination antibiotics against Rhodotorula infections. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. From medicinal plant extracts to defined chemical compounds targeting the histamine H4 receptor: Curcuma longa in the treatment of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Annika; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Adawi, Azmi; Schwed, Johannes S; Stark, Holger; Rayan, Anwar

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the activity of seven medicinal, anti-inflammatory plants at the hH 4 R with focus on defined chemical compounds from Curcuma longa. Activities were analyzed with membrane preparations from Sf9 cells, transiently expressing the hH 4 R, G αi2 and G β1γ2 subunits. From the methanolic extract of C. longa curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bis(4-hydroxy-cinnamoyl)methane (3) were isolated, purified with HPLC (elution-time 10.20, 9.66, 9.20 min, respectively) and together with six additional extracts, were characterized via radioligand binding studies at the hH 4 R. Compounds from C. longa were the most potent ligands at the hH 4 R. They exhibited estimated K i values of 4.26-6.26 µM (1.57-2.31 µg/mL) (1); 6.66--8.97 µM (2.26-3.04 µg/mL) (2) and 10.24-14.57 µM (3.16-4.49 µg/mL) (3) (95% CI). The estimated K i value of the crude extract of curcuma was 0.50-0.81 µg/mL. Fractionated curcumin and the crude extract surpassed the effect of pure curcumin with a K i value of 5.54 µM or 2.04 µg/mL [95% CI (4.47-6.86 µM), (1.65-2.53 µg/mL)]. Within this study, defined compounds of C. longa were recognized as potential ligands and reasonable lead structures at the hH 4 R. The mode of anti-inflammatory action of curcumin was further elucidated and the role of extracts in traditional phytomedicine was strengthened.

  7. Anti-apoptotic effects of Curcuma longa L. extract and its curcuminoids against blue light-induced cytotoxicity in A2E-laden human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Il; Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, So Ra; Jang, Young Pyo

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the protective effect of the Curcuma longa L. extract (CLE) and its curcuminoids against blue light-induced cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells laded with A2E. A2E has been concerned in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To perform this study, A2E-accumulated ARPE-19 cells were exposed to blue light to induce cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity and apoptotic gene expression levels were evaluated using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. Curcuma longa L. extract was found to exert a protective effect in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 15 μm, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin exerted significant protective effects against blue light-induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with CLE and curcuminoids meaningfully reduced the mRNA levels of c-Abl and p53, which was known to be augmented in apoptotic RPE cells. Demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were found to inhibit p38 expression, which is increased in blue light-irradiated A2E-accumulated RPE cells. Curcuma longa L. extract and its curcuminoids provided significant protection against photooxidative damage and apoptosis in the RPE cells. Our results suggest that curcuminoids may show potential in the treatment of AMD. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Curcuma aeruginosa, a novel botanically derived 5α-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of male-pattern baldness: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Pumthong, Ganniga; Asawanonda, Pravit; Varothai, Supenya; Jariyasethavong, Vorapicha; Triwongwaranat, Daranporn; Suthipinittharm, Puan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Leelapornpisit, Pimporn; Waranuch, Neti

    2012-10-01

    Several botanically derived agents are available for the treatment of male-pattern baldness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa, a botanically derived inhibitor of 5α-reductase and 5% minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Eighty-seven men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) were randomized to receive 5% Curcuma aeruginosa, 5% minoxidil, combination formulation (5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa + 5% minoxidil) or placebo, twice daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by target area hair count, global photographic review as well as patients' subjective assessments of hair regrowth and hair shedding. There were statistically significant improvements in global photographic review (p < 0.001), subjects' overall assessments of hair regrowth (p = 0.008), and hair shedding (p = 0.004) when the combination formulation was compared with placebo. Similarly, treatment with 5% minoxidil and 5% C. aeruginosa extract also led to some degrees of hair regrowth. There were no serious adverse events during and after the study. In men with hair loss in the vertex area of the scalp, the combination of 5% hexane extract of C. aeruginosa and 5% minoxidil slowed hair loss and increased hair growth.

  9. In Silico and In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Isolated Novel Marker Compound from Chemically Modified Bioactive Fraction from Curcuma longa (NCCL).

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Arshi; Malasoni, Richa; Gupta, Swati; Srivastava, Akansha; Pandey, Rishi R; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is reported to possess wide array of biological activities. Herbal Medicament (HM) is a standardized hexane-soluble fraction of C. longa and is well known for its neuroprotective effect. In this study, we attempted to synthesize a novel chemically modified bioactive fraction from HM (NCCL) along with isolation and characterization of a novel marker compound (I). NCCL was prepared from HM. The chemical structure of the marker compound isolated from NCCL was determined from 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared. The compound so isolated was subjected to in silico and in vitro screenings to test its inhibitory effect on estrogen receptors. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding poses of the compound I was energetically favorable. Among NCCL and compound I taken for in vitro studies, NCCL had exhibited good anti-cancer activity over compound I against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, DU-145, and PC-3 cells. This is the first study about the synthesis of a chemically modified bioactive fraction which used a standardized extract since the preparation of the HM. It may be concluded that NCCL fraction having residual components induce more cell death than compound I alone. Thus, NCCL may be used as a potent therapeutic drug. In the present paper, a standardized hexane soluble fraction of Curcuma longa (HM) was chemically modified to give a novel bioactive fraction (NCCL). A novel marker compound was isolated from NCCL and was characerized using various spectral techniques. The compound so isolated was investigated for in-silico screenings. NCCL and isolated compound was subjected to in-vitro anti-cancer screenings against MCF 7, MDA MB 231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and DU 145 and PC 3 cell lines (androgen independent human prostate cancer cells). The virtual screenings reveals that isolated compound has shown favourable drug like properties. NCCL fraction having residual components induces more cell

  10. Pharmacokinetic based study on "lagged stimulation" of Curcumae Longae Rhizoma - Piper nigrum couplet in their main active components' metabolism using UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Sun, Dongmei; Bi, Xiaoli; Zeng, Xiaohui; Luo, Wenhui; Cai, Dake; Zeng, Qiaohuang; Xu, Aili

    2017-04-15

    Curcumae Longae Rhizoma is one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines, which has multiple biological activities such as relieving stagnation and stasis, pain alleviation, curing amenorrhea and wounds. However, its main active component-curcumin has poor absorption and very fast metabolism in body. To solve this problem, Piper nigrum was introduced for its ability to strengthen bioavailability of other compounds. In most cases of TCM couplets, all ingredients were prepared and taken simultaneously, which in our opinion did not take full advantage of their interactions. Therefore, order of administration should be adjusted according to pharmacokinetic parameters of the ingredients, which the ones act as supplement can first be taken, and main therapeutic components followed when the former reached its peak. the extract of Piper nigrum (containing at least 95% piperine) was taken by rats 6h before taking Curcumae Longae Rhizoma extract (containing at least 95% curcumin). Then, a UPLC-MS-MS method was developed to determine their content in plasma simultaneously. Determination was carried out by on a C18 column within 5min by isocratic elution using 0.2% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). Tandem mass detection was conducted by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) via electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive mode. Samples were pre-treated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and verapamil was used as internal standard (IS). For both curcumin and piperine, the proposed method had good linearity (r 2 =0.999) within the concentration range of 1-1000ng/ml, with good recovery, precision and stability. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1ng/ml. As pharmacokinetic data indicated, Maximum concentration (C max ) of curcumin increased significantly to 394.06; the time reach maximum concentration (T max ) and elimination half-life (T 1/2 ) were 0.5 and 0.67h, respectively; CONCLUSION: The results provide a good strategy for the investigation of

  11. Curcuma oil attenuates accelerated atherosclerosis and macrophage foam-cell formation by modulating genes involved in plaque stability, lipid homeostasis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishal; Rana, Minakshi; Jain, Manish; Singh, Niharika; Naqvi, Arshi; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-14

    In the present study, the anti-atherosclerotic effect and the underlying mechanism of curcuma oil (C. oil), a lipophilic fraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), was evaluated in a hamster model of accelerated atherosclerosis and in THP-1 macrophages. Male golden Syrian hamsters were subjected to partial carotid ligation (PCL) or FeCl3-induced arterial oxidative injury (Ox-injury) after 1 week of treatment with a high-cholesterol (HC) diet or HC diet plus C. oil (100 and 300 mg/kg, orally). Hamsters fed with the HC diet were analysed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks following carotid injury. The HC diet plus C. oil-fed group was analysed at 5 weeks. In hyperlipidaemic hamsters with PCL or Ox-injury, C. oil (300 mg/kg) reduced elevated plasma and aortic lipid levels, arterial macrophage accumulation, and stenosis when compared with those subjected to arterial injury alone. Similarly, elevated mRNA transcripts of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45), TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and IL-6 were reduced in atherosclerotic arteries, while those of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and IL-10 were increased after the C. oil treatment (300 mg/kg). The treatment with C. oil prevented HC diet- and oxidised LDL (OxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression of CD68 and CD36, and increased the mRNA expression of PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in both hyperlipidaemic hamster-derived peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. The administration of C. oil suppressed the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ and increased the expression of TGF-β in peritoneal macrophages. In THP-1 macrophages, C. oil supplementation prevented OxLDL-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased the levels of TGF-β. The present study shows that C. oil attenuates arterial injury-induced accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and macrophage foam-cell formation.

  12. Photodynamic inactivation of Listeria innocua biofilms with food-grade photosensitizers: a curcumin-rich extract of Curcuma longa vs commercial curcumin.

    PubMed

    Bonifácio, D; Martins, C; David, B; Lemos, C; Neves, M G P M S; Almeida, A; Pinto, D C G A; Faustino, M A F; Cunha, Â

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this work is to assess the potential of curcumin in the photosensitization of biofilms of Listeria. Biofilms of Listeria innocua, were irradiated with blue light in the presence of a curcumin-rich extract of Curcuma longa or commercial curcumin. Similar experiments were conducted with planktonic cells, for comparison. A reduction of 4·9 log in the concentration of viable biofilm cells was obtained with 3·7 mg l -1 of commercial curcumin. Planktonic cells were much more susceptible (6·1 log reduction). A tetracationic porphyrin, used as a reference photosensitizer (PS), caused a very modest inactivation of the biofilm (1·1 log) and complete inactivation of the planktonic form (>8 log). Curcumin is an effective PS for the photodynamic control of Listeria biofilms and the inactivation efficiency attained with this natural compound is higher than with the porphyrin. This result may point to a better performance of type I PSs against bacterial biofilms by circumventing the limitations to singlet-oxygen diffusion imposed by the extracellular matrix. Curcumin represents a promising alternative to the control of bacteria and bacterial biofilms in food products particularly in the case of meat products in which turmeric is used as spice. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. The in vitro protective effects of curcumin and demethoxycurcumin in Curcuma longa extract on advanced glycation end products-induced mesangial cell apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-ping; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Mao-mao; Wang, Ru-Shang; Zhang, Ming-hua; Hu, Shao-ying; Jia, Xiao-bin; Wu, Jin-Jie

    2012-11-01

    Curcuma longa L. (CLL), a traditional herbal medicine, has been widely used for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications in recent years. However, the protective effects of curcuminoids in CLL on the AGEs-induced damage to mesangial cell are not fully understood. In this present study, dihydroethidium, superoxide dismutase kit, malondialdehyde kit, and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining methods were used to evaluate the activities of curcumin and demethoxycurcumin (10(-11)-10(-9) M) on AGEs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, which were associated with the damage to mesangial cell. The results showed that these two compounds could significantly restore advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced apoptosis to normal levels (IC50 = 3.874 × 10(-11) M for curcumin and IC50 = 6.085 × 10(-11) M for demethoxycurcumin) and reduce remarkably reactive oxygen species generation in mesangial cell. Furthermore, curcumin and demethoxycurcumin dramatically elevated AGEs-decreased superoxide dismutase activity while significantly reducing AGEs-increased malondialdehyde content in cell culture supernatant. Our results suggest that both curcumin and demethoxycurcumin have a significant protective potential to the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  15. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.

  16. Germacrone and sesquiterpene-enriched extracts from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. increase skin penetration of minoxidil, a hair growth promoter.

    PubMed

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Waranuch, Neti; Tangsumranjit, Anothai; Khorana, Nantaka; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2018-02-01

    Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC. Skin penetration was measured ex vivo on Franz diffusion cells using full thickness human foreskin as membranes. The receiver solution was sampled hourly for 8 h after which the skin was removed, the stratum corneum separated, and minoxidil assayed in this and in the remaining viable skin layer by HPLC. Skin penetration of minoxidil with 0.2 and 2% extract was increased ~ 4-fold (accumulated amount in receiver + skin viable layer after 8 h). Furthermore, germacrone enhanced minoxidil flux by ~ 10-fold and C. aeruginosa essential oil by ~ 20-fold. This work suggests three clinical consequences: (i) minoxidil efficacy is promoted, (ii) lower doses of minoxidil suffice, and (iii) C. aeruginosa extract/essential oil or germacrone can supplement treatment outcomes by acting as anti-androgen, thereby introducing a more effective topical treatment strategy for androgenic alopecia.

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Eugenol in Syzygium aromaticum and Verification of Chemical Antagonistic Effect by the Combination with Curcuma aromatica Using Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Kim, Seong-Sil; Ha, Hyekyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to perform simultaneous determination of three reference compounds in Syzygium aromaticum (SA), gallic acid, ellagic acid, and eugenol, and to investigate the chemical antagonistic effect when combining Curcuma aromatica (CA) with SA, based on chromatographic analysis. The values of LODs and LOQs were 0.01–0.11 μg/mL and 0.03–0.36 μg/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were <3.0 of RSD values, and the recovery was in the range of 92.19–103.24%, with RSD values <3.0%. Repeatability and stability were 0.38–0.73% and 0.49–2.24%, respectively. Compared with the content of reference and relative peaks in SA and SA combined with CA (SAC), the amounts of gallic acid and eugenol were increased, while that of ellagic acid was decreased in SAC (compared with SA), and most of peak areas in SA were reduced in SAC. Regression analysis of the relative peak areas between SA and SAC showed r 2 values >0.87, indicating a linear relationship between SA and SAC. These results demonstrate that the components contained in CA could affect the extraction of components of SA mainly in a decreasing manner. The antagonistic effect of CA on SA was verified by chemical analysis. PMID:23878761

  18. Density functional theory calculations in stereochemical determination of terpecurcumins J-W, cytotoxic terpene-conjugated curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghao; Ji, Shuai; Qiao, Xue; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Ni; Dong, Yinhui; Huang, Yun; Guo, Dean; Tu, Pengfei; Ye, Min

    2013-12-06

    Fourteen novel terpene-conjugated curcuminoids, terpecurcumins J-W (1-14), have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. Among them, terpecurcumins J-Q and V represent four unprecedented skeletons featuring an unusual core of hydrobenzannulated[6,6]-spiroketal (1 and 2), bicyclo[2.2.2]octene (3-7), bicyclo[3.1.3]octene (8), and spiroepoxide (13), respectively. The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were established by electronic circular dichroism, vibrational circular dichroism, and (13)C NMR spectroscopic data analysis, together with density functional theory calculations. The structure and configuration of 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Cu Kα). The biogenetic pathways of 1-14 were proposed, involving Michael addition, condensation, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and electrophilic substitution reactions. Terpecurcumins showed more potent cytotoxic activities than curcumin and ar-/β-turmerone. Among them, terpecurcumin Q (8) exhibited IC50 of 3.9 μM against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis played an important role in the overall growth inhibition. Finally, LC/MS/MS quantitative analysis of five representative terpecurcumins indicated these novel compounds were present in C. longa at parts per million level.

  19. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  20. Antibacterial Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) or Curcuma longa (Turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis Compared with That of 5% Sodium Hypochlorite or 2% Chlorhexidine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; D S Nandha, Kanwar; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Prabha Tyagi, Shashi; Pratap Singh, Udai

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial properties of Azadirachta indica (neem) or Curcuma longa (turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis with those of 5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine as root canal irrigants in vitro. The activity of neem, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, or turmeric against E. faecalis was measured on agar plates using the agar diffusion method. The tube dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the irrigants used. Chlorhexidine or neem exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity when used as endodontic irrigants against E. faecalis, followed by sodium hypochlorite. No statistically significant difference was observed between neem, sodium hypochlorite, or chlorhexidine. The MIC of neem was 1: 128, which was similar to that of chlorhexidine. The MBC for each of these irrigants was 1: 16. Neem yielded antibacterial activity equivalent to 2% chlorhexidine or sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis, suggesting that it offers a promising alternative to the other root canal irrigants tested.

  1. Application of chemometrics in quality control of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) based on Ultra-violet, Fourier transform-infrared and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gad, Haidy A; Bouzabata, Amel

    2017-12-15

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae that is widely used as a spice in food preparations in addition to its biological activities. UV, FT-IR, 1 H NMR in addition to HPLC were applied to construct a metabolic fingerprint for Turmeric in an attempt to assess its quality. 30 samples were analyzed, and then principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were utilized to assess the differences and similarities between collected samples. PCA score plot based on both HPLC and UV spectroscopy showed the same discriminatory pattern, where the samples were segregated into four main groups depending on their total curcuminoids content. The results revealed that UV could be utilized as a simple and rapid alternative for HPLC. However, FT-IR failed to discriminate between the same species. By applying 1 H NMR, the metabolic variability between samples was more evident in the essential oils/fatty acid region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of curcuminoids identified in rhizomes of Curcuma longa on BACE-1 inhibitory and behavioral activity and lifespan of Alzheimer’s disease Drosophila models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of presenile and senile dementia. The human β-amyloid precursor cleavage enzyme (BACE-1) is a key enzyme responsible for amyloid plaque production, which implicates the progress and symptoms of AD. Here we assessed the anti-BACE-1 and behavioral activities of curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), diarylalkyls curcumin (CCN), demethoxycurcumin (DMCCN), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMCCN) against AD Drosophila melanogaster models. Methods Neuro-protective ability of the curcuminoids was assessed using Drosophila melanogaster model system overexpressing BACE-1 and its substrate APP in compound eyes and entire neurons. Feeding and climbing activity, lifespan, and morphostructural changes in fly eyes also were evaluated. Results BDMCCN has the strongest inhibitory activity toward BACE-1 with 17 μM IC50, which was 20 and 13 times lower than those of CCN and DMCCN respectively. Overexpression of APP/BACE-1 resulted in the progressive and measurable defects in morphology of eyes and locomotion. Remarkably, supplementing diet with either 1 mM BDMCCN or 1 mM CCN rescued APP/BACE1-expressing flies and kept them from developing both morphological and behavioral defects. Our results suggest that structural characteristics, such as degrees of saturation, types of carbon skeleton and functional group, and hydrophobicity appear to play a role in determining inhibitory potency of curcuminoids on BACE-1. Conclusion Further studies will warrant possible applications of curcuminoids as therapeutic BACE-1 blockers. PMID:24597901

  3. In Vitro Growth of Curcuma longa L. in Response to Five Mineral Elements and Plant Density in Fed-Batch Culture Systems

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F.; Bridges, William C.; Adelberg, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments’ macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes. PMID:25830292

  4. Exploring the role of curcumin containing ethanolic extract obtained from Curcuma longa (rhizomes) against retardation of wound healing process by aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Mandloi, Avinash Singh; Shaikh, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the curcumin containing ethanolic extract (EtOH) obtained from Curcuma longa (Cl) against retardation of wound healing by aspirin. Materials and Methods: Wound healing process was retarded by administering the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of aspirin orally for 9 days to observe the effect of EtOH obtained from Cl using excision and incision wound model in rats. The various parameters such as % wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline, tensile strength were observed at variant time intervals and histopathological study was also performed. Results: Curcumin containing 5% and 10% ethanolic extract ointment have shown significant (P < 0.01) wound healing activity against an aspirin (administered 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 9 days) retarded wound healing process. Topical application of ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) difference as compared to the control group. Histopathological studies also showed healing of the epidermis, increased collagen, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Cl ointment (EtOHCl) containing 10% curcumin displayed remarkable healing process against wound retardation by aspirin. PMID:25878374

  5. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, P. A. S. R.; Avanço, G. B.; Nerilo, S. B.; Marcelino, R. I. A.; Janeiro, V.; Valadares, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells. PMID:28042599

  6. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  7. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)-like Activities of Diarylheptanoid, a Phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa, in Breast Cancer Cells, Pre-osteoblast Cells, and Rat Uterine Tissues.

    PubMed

    Thongon, Natthakan; Boonmuen, Nittaya; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Wichit, Patsorn; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2017-05-03

    Diarylheptanoids from Curcuma comosa, of the Zingiberaceae family, exhibit diverse estrogenic activities. In this study we investigated the estrogenic activity of a major hydroxyl diarylheptanoid, 7-(3,4 -dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-heptene (compound 092) isolated from C. comosa. The compound elicited different transcriptional activities of estrogen agonist at low concentrations (0.1-1 μM) and antagonist at high concentrations (10-50 μM) using luciferase reporter gene assay in HEK-293T cells. In human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, compound 092 showed an anti-estrogenic activity by down-regulating ERα-signaling and suppressing estrogen-responsive genes, whereas it attenuated the uterotrophic effect of estrogen in immature ovariectomized rats. Of note, compound 092 promoted mouse pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cell differentiation and the related bone markers, indicating its positive osteogenic effect. Our findings highlight a new, nonsteroidal, estrogen agonist/antagonist of catechol diarylheptanoid from C. comosa, which is scientific evidence supporting its potential as a dietary supplement to prevent bone loss with low risk of breast and uterine cancers in postmenopausal women.

  8. Exploring the role of curcumin containing ethanolic extract obtained from Curcuma longa (rhizomes) against retardation of wound healing process by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Mandloi, Avinash Singh; Shaikh, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the curcumin containing ethanolic extract (EtOH) obtained from Curcuma longa (Cl) against retardation of wound healing by aspirin. Wound healing process was retarded by administering the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of aspirin orally for 9 days to observe the effect of EtOH obtained from Cl using excision and incision wound model in rats. The various parameters such as % wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline, tensile strength were observed at variant time intervals and histopathological study was also performed. Curcumin containing 5% and 10% ethanolic extract ointment have shown significant (P < 0.01) wound healing activity against an aspirin (administered 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 9 days) retarded wound healing process. Topical application of ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) difference as compared to the control group. Histopathological studies also showed healing of the epidermis, increased collagen, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Ethanolic extract of Cl ointment (EtOHCl) containing 10% curcumin displayed remarkable healing process against wound retardation by aspirin.

  9. Anti-fatty liver effects of oils from Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa on ethanol-induced fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Osunmadewa, Damilola Adeola; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the protective effects of oils from Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (turmeric) on acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in male Wistar rats. Ferric reducing antioxidant power activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the oils were evaluated ex vivo. Rats were pretreated for 28 d with standard drug (Livolin Forte) and oils from Z. officinale and C. longa before they were exposed to 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg) to induce acute fatty liver. Histological changes were observed and the degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Serum triglyceride (TG) level, total cholesterol (TC) level and the effects of both oils on reduced gluthatione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated. Oils from Z. officinale and C. longa at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, serum TG, serum TC and hepatic MDA, while they significantly restored the level of GSH as well as GST and SOD activities. Histological examination of rats tissues was related to the obtained results. From the results it may be concluded that oils from Z. officinale and C. longa (200 mg/kg) exhibited hepatoprotective activity in acute ethanol-induced fatty liver and Z. officinale oil was identified to have better effects than C. longa oil.

  10. In vitro growth of Curcuma longa L. in response to five mineral elements and plant density in fed-batch culture systems.

    PubMed

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Bridges, William C; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments' macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes.

  11. Investigation of the Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Curcumin, a Compound From Turmeric (Curcuma longa), in the Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Ceremuga, Tomás Eduardo; Helmrick, Katie; Kufahl, Zachary; Kelley, Jesse; Keller, Brian; Philippe, Fabiola; Golder, James; Padrón, Gina

    As the use of herbal medications continues to increase in America, the potential interaction between herbal and prescription medications necessitates the discovery of their mechanisms of action. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of curcumin, a compound from turmeric (Curcuma longa), and its effects on the benzodiazepine site of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABAA) receptor. Utilizing a prospective, between-subjects group design, 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of the 5 intraperitoneally injected treatment groups: vehicle, curcumin, curcumin + flumazenil, midazolam, and midazolam + curcumin. Behavioral testing was performed using the elevated plus maze, open field test, and forced swim test. A 2-tailed multivariate analysis of variance and least significant difference post hoc tests were used for data analysis. In our models, curcumin did not demonstrate anxiolytic effects or changes in behavioral despair. An interaction of curcumin at the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor was also not observed. Additional studies are recommended that examine the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of curcumin through alternate dosing regimens, modulation of other subunits on the GABAA receptor, and interactions with other central nervous system neurotransmitter systems.

  12. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa).

    PubMed

    Santos, P A S R; Avanço, G B; Nerilo, S B; Marcelino, R I A; Janeiro, V; Valadares, M C; Machinski, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro , using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC 50 obtained was 36.6  μ g/mL for CEO and 129.9  μ g/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81  μ g/mL of CEO and 32.12  μ g/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  13. Superior anticancer activity is demonstrated by total extract of Curcuma longa L. as opposed to individual curcuminoids separated by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Grabarska, Aneta; Łuszczki, Jarogniew; Czernicka, Lidia; Nowosadzka, Ewa; Gumbarewicz, Ewelina; Jarząb, Agata; Audo, Gregoire; Upadhyay, Shakti; Głowniak, Kazimierz; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    Three curcuminoids: bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and curcumin from turmeric were successfully separated by a high capacity solvent system composed of heptane: chloroform: methanol: water mixture (5: 6: 3: 2 v/v/v/v) tailored for centrifugal partition chromatographs at K-values of 0.504, 1.057, 1.644, respectively. These three ferulic acid derivatives obtained at a purity rate exceeding 95% were analysed by an HPLC-MS spectrometer. Turmeric extract inhibited the proliferation/viability of A549 human lung cancer, HT29 colon cancer, and T98G glioblastoma cell lines in (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT). Single curcuminoids significantly decreased the viability/proliferation of lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, total extract displayed the superior anticancer activity in the investigated cell lines. Crude extract in combination with cisplatin augmented the decrease in the viability of cancer cells compared with single compound treatment in A549 lung cancer cells. Total extract of Curcuma longa could be regarded as being more effective against lung cancer cells in vitro than its separated compounds. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Curcuma DMSO extracts and curcumin exhibit an anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effect on human intervertebral disc cells, possibly by influencing TLR2 expression and JNK activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a role in discogenic back pain, substances exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects on intervertebral disc cells may be used as minimal-invasive therapeutics for intradiscal/epidural injection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic potential of curcuma, which has been used in the Indian Ayurvedic medicine to treat multiple ailments for a long time. Methods Human disc cells were treated with IL-1β to induce an inflammatory/catabolic cascade. Different extracts of curcuma as well as curcumin (= a component selected based on results with curcuma extracts and HPLC/MS analysis) were tested for their ability to reduce mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes after 6 hours (real-time RT-PCR), followed by analysis of typical inflammatory signaling mechanisms such as NF-κB (Western Blot, Transcription Factor Assay), MAP kinases (Western Blot) and Toll-like receptors (real-time RT-PCR). Quantitative data was statistically analyzed using a Mann Whitney U test with a significance level of p < 0.05 (two-tailed). Results Results indicate that the curcuma DMSO extract significantly reduced levels of IL-6, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP13. The DMSO-soluble component curcumin, whose occurrence within the DMSO extract was verified by HPLC/MS, reduced levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP13 and both caused an up-regulation of TNF-α. Pathway analysis indicated that curcumin did not show involvement of NF-κB, but down-regulated TLR2 expression and inhibited the MAP kinase JNK while activating p38 and ERK. Conclusions Based on its anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects, intradiscal injection of curcumin may be an attractive treatment alternative. However, whether the anti-inflammatory properties in vitro lead to analgesia in vivo will need to be confirmed in an appropriate animal model. PMID:22909087

  16. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-ulcerogenic study of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Ashok, B K; Sharma, Parmeshwar P; Ravishankar, B

    2014-01-01

    Disorders like hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently now days because of a faulty lifestyle. Starches (Satwa) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely, Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used in folklore practice, as Tugaksheeree, for the treatment of the above-mentioned complaints. To assess the acute toxicity potential of the C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea along with their assessment for adaptogenic activity, by noting their effect on forced swimming-induced hypothermia and gastric ulceration in rats. For acute toxicity study, the effect of test drugs C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea rhizome starch were studied after a single administration of up to three dose levels, with 4400 mg/kg as the maximum dose. The animals were observed for 72 hours periodically and mortality was recorded up to seven days. The adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activities were assessed by determining and comparing the changes in rectal temperature, ponderal changes, ulcer index and histopathological parameters in the test drug group with that of stress control group. Both the drugs did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality even up to the maximum dose level of 4400 mg/kg. Both the test drugs significantly reversed the stress-induced gastric ulceration in comparison to stress-control rats. Starch from rhizome of C. angustifolia reversed forced swimming-induced hypothermia apparently, but not to a significant extent. However, the reversal of hypothermia found statistically significant in the rhizome starch of the M. arundinacea treated group. M. arundinacea had better anti-stress activity in comparision to C. angustifolia.

  17. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them.

  18. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract may prevent the deterioration of spatial memory and the deficit of estimated total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells of trimethyltin-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Yuliani, Sapto; Mustofa; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2018-01-01

    Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided randomly into six groups, i.e., a normal control group (N); Sn group, which was given TMT chloride; Sn-Cit group, which was treated with citicoline and TMT chloride; and three Sn-TE groups, which were treated with three different dosages of turmeric rhizome extract and TMT chloride. Morris water maze test was carried out to examine the spatial memory. The estimated total number of CA1 and CA2-CA3 pyramidal cells was calculated using a stereological method. The administration of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw has been shown to prevent the deficits in the spatial memory performance and partially inhibit the reduction of the number of CA2-CA3 regions pyramidal neurons. TMT-induced neurotoxic damage seemed to be mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Turmeric extract might act as anti inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant agent. The effects of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw seem to be comparable to those of citicoline.

  20. Combination treatment with Rhizoma Paridis and Rhizoma Curcuma longa extracts and 10-hydroxycamptothecin enhances the antitumor effect in H22 tumor model by increasing the plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Hongfa; Fan, Yaya; Liu, Yuanxue; Man, Shuli; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-10-01

    The combination of Western medicine and Chinese prescription is the most effective tumor therapy in China market. In our previous report, a new prescription composed by Rhizoma Paridis and Rhizoma Curcuma longa called LouHuang preparation (LH) shows good antitumor activity. 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) as a chemotherapy agent is used for treatment of solid tumors in clinical. In this study, we investigated the combination effect of LH and HCPT on H22 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro test, combination of LH and HCPT presented a synergistic effect on H22 cancer cells. Because of the toxicity of HCPT in normal dosage with intraperitoneal injection, we chose a low dose in the study. LH increased the tumor inhibition rate of HCPT in H22 tumor model from 39% to 55% and showed additive effect by the q value method. The concentration of HCPT in plasma was detected by HPLC-FLD method and increased from 60 to 75ng/mL when combined with LH. For the absorption research, LH significantly enhanced the absorption transport of HCPT from 7019.04 to 11569.02ng/cm 2 , while improved the permeation flux (F) and apparent permeability (P app ) of HCPT from 10.62 to 21.47 (ng/cm 2 min) and 9.92-20.07 (10 -6 cm/s), respectively. The study indicates that LH could boost the efficacy of HCPT by increasing the plasma concentration regardless of the formulation and combined administration of HCPT and LH might be used as an adjuvant drug for treatment of liver cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Bax and Bak genes are essential for maximum apoptotic response by curcumin, a polyphenolic compound and cancer chemopreventive agent derived from turmeric, Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2007-06-01

    Curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric (Curcuma longa), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but the sequence of events leading to cell death is poorly defined. The objective of this study was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which multidomain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak regulate curcumin-induced apoptosis using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in Bax, Bak or both genes. Curcumin treatment resulted an increase in the protein levels of both Bax and Bak, and mitochondrial translocation and activation of Bax in MEFs to trigger drop in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic release of apoptogenic molecules [cytochrome c and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac)/direct inhibitor of apoptosis protein-binding protein with low isoelectric point], activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and ultimately apoptosis. Furthermore, MEFs derived from Bax and Bak double-knockout (DKO) mice exhibited even greater protection against curcumin-induced release of cytochrome c and Smac, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and induction of apoptosis compared with wild-type MEFs or single-knockout Bax(-/-) or Bak(-/-) MEFs. Interestingly, curcumin treatment also caused an increase in the protein level of apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 in wild-type MEFs. Smac N7 peptide enhanced curcumin-induced apoptosis, whereas Smac siRNA inhibited the effects of curcumin on apoptosis. Mature form of Smac sensitized Bax and Bak DKO MEFs to undergo apoptosis by acting downstream of mitochondria. The present study demonstrates the role of Bax and Bak as a critical regulator of curcumin-induced apoptosis and over-expression of Smac as interventional approaches to deal with Bax- and/or Bak-deficient chemoresistant cancers for curcumin-based therapy.

  2. Curcumin, a Curcuma longa constituent, acts on MAPK p38 pathway modulating COX-2 and iNOS expression in chronic experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Barquero, Laura; Villegas, Isabel; Sánchez-Calvo, Juan Manuel; Talero, Elena; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Motilva, Virginia; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2007-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a nonspecific inflammatory disorder characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leucocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as the p38 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) modulate the transcription of many genes involved in the inflammatory process. Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to study the effects and mechanisms of action of curcumin, on chronic colitis in rats. Inflammation response was assessed by histology and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). We determined the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitrites in colon mucosa, as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase(COX)-1 and-2 by western blotting and inmmunohistochemistry. Finally, we studied the involvement of MAPKs signaling in the protective effect of curcumin in chronic colonic inflammation. Curcumin (50-100 mg/kg/day) were administered by oral gavage 24 h after trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) instillation, and daily during 2 weeks before sacrifice. Curcumin significantly attenuated the damage and caused substantial reductions of the rise in MPO activity and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-alpha. Also curcumine was able to reduce nitrites colonic levels and induced down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS expression, and a reduction in the activation of p38 MAPK; however, no changes in the activation of JNK could be observed. In conclusion, we suggest that inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling by curcumin could explain the reduced COX-2 and iNOS immunosignals and the nitrite production in colonic mucosa reducing the development of chronic experimental colitis.

  3. A comparative evaluation of antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, Curcuma longa, and Camellia sinensis as irrigating solutions on isolated anaerobic bacteria from infected primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Dhariwal, Neha Shashikant; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Harakuni, Sheetal; Sogi, Suma; Assudani, Harsha G; Mistry, Laresh Naresh

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, most of the commercial intra-canal medicaments have cytotoxic reactions and because of their inability to eliminate bacteria from dentinal tubules, recent medicine has turned its attention to the usage of biologic medication prepared from natural plants. The literature to testify the efficacy of natural alternatives in primary teeth is meagre and its effects as irrigating solutions need to be evaluated. To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite, ethanolic extracts of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Camellia sinensis (green tea) as irrigating solutions against the anaerobic bacteria isolated from the root canals of infected primary teeth. Thirty patients were selected based on the selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Preoperative radiographs were taken. Rubber dam isolation and working length estimation were done, following which thirty samples were taken from the root canals of infected primary teeth using sterile absorbent paper points and transferred to tubes containing thioglycolate transport medium. The bacteria were then isolated using standard microbiological protocols and were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using the three test irrigants. SPSS 18 software using Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The most commonly isolated bacteria included Porphyromonas sp., Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sodium hypochlorite and C. longa (turmeric) showed good antibacterial effect and were effective against most of the isolated bacteria. There was statistically significant difference in the antibacterial effect among the three tested groups (P < 0.001). The least effective was C. sinensis (green tea). The infected primary teeth almost always present with a polymicrobial structure with a wide variety of anaerobic bacteria. The chemo-mechanical preparation plays an important role in eradicating the population of predominant micro-organisms in treating these teeth with

  4. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Results: Total and most differential WBC count, NO2, NO3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls (P<0.001). Total WBC, NO2 and NO3 were significantly reduced in treated groups with dexamethasone and all concentrations of C. longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group (P<0.001 for all cases). MDA was significantly decreased, but SOD, CAT and thiol increased in treated asthma animals with dexamethasone and two higher concentrations of C. longa and curcumin (P<0.01 to P<0.001). There were significant improvement in eosinophil percentage due to treatment of highest concentration of the extract and curcumin, neutrophil and monocyte due to highest concentration of curcumin and lymphocyte due to highest concentration of the extract and two higher concentrations of curcumin compared to asthmatic group (P<0.01 to P<0.001). Dexamethasone treatment improved monocyte (P<0.001) and lymphocyte (P<0.01) percentages. Conclusion: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of C. longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma. PMID:28293392

  5. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  6. Fast analysis of curcuminoids from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fused-core column.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Tobón, J Felipe; Carvalho, Pedro I N; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Nogueira, Gislaine Chrystina; Rostagno, Mauricio Ariel; Meireles, Maria Angela de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    The recent development of fused-core technology in HPLC columns is enabling faster and highly efficient separations. This technology was evaluated for the development of a fast method for the analysis of main curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) present in extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). A step-by-step strategy was used to optimize temperature (40-55 °C), flow rate (1.0-2.5 mL min(-1)), mobile phase composition and equilibration time (1-5 min). A gradient method was developed using acidified water and acetonitrile combined with high column temperature (55 °C) and flow rate (2.5 mL min(-1)). Optimized conditions provided a method for the separation of these three curcuminoids in approximately 1.3 min with a total analysis time (sample-to-sample) of 7 min, including the clean-up and the re-equilibration of the column. Evaluation of chromatographic performance revealed excellent intraday and interday reproducibility (>99%), resolution (>2.23), selectivity (>1.12), peak symmetry (1.24-1.42) while presenting low limits of detection (<0.40 mg L(-1)) and quantification (<1.34 mg L(-1)). The robustness of the method was calculated according to the concentration/dilution of the sample and the injection volume. Several combinations of methanol and ethanol with water as sample solvents were evaluated and the best chromatographic results and extraction rate were obtained using 100% methanol. Finally, the developed method was validated with different extracts of turmeric rhizome and products that use turmeric in their formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Curcuma longa extract reduces inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in osteoarthritis of knee: a four-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shobhit; Saksena, Anil K; Khattri, Sanjay; Kumar, Santosh; Dagur, Raghubendra Singh

    2016-12-01

    Curcuma longa L. (CL), an Indian herb, has been used to treat many disorders because of its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. It has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and is being used as herbal remedy since ancient times. Osteoarthritis of knee (KOA) is a chronic painful disorder in which prolong use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or steroids may result into many serious side effects; hence, there is a need to develop herbal drugs, having good analgesia without side effects. Therefore, we planned to evaluate the efficacy of CL in KOA. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients of KOA. After obtaining ethical clearance and written informed consent, a total of 160 patients of KOA were randomly enrolled into two groups to receive either CL extract or placebo along with the standard drug regimen. The patients were assessed on day 0, day 60, and day 120. On the days of their visit, the clinical prognosis was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis index. On these days, the radiographs were also taken for Kellgren and Lawrence grading and blood samples were collected for assessing the changes in levels of IL-1β and biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA). Over all significant improvement was observed in the patients of CL extract group as compared to placebo group. Clinically, the VAS and WOMAC scores became better, and simultaneously, the levels of biomarkers, viz., IL-1β, ROS, and MDA, were also significantly (p < 0.05) improved. It may be concluded that on chronic administration, CL suppresses inflammation and brings clinical improvement in patients of KOA, which may be observed by decreased level of IL-1β and VAS/WOMAC scores, respectively. At the same time, CL decreases the oxidative stress also.

  8. Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Mirbod, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Samie, Abdol-Hossein; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-03-01

    High-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg -1 CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg -1 CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05). An improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Synergistic effects of Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Seol, In-Chan; Im, Hwi-Jin; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-09-15

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix are both used to treat hyperlipidemia in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of the 30% ethanol extracts of A. iwayomogi (AI), C. longa (CL), and the mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE), using a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia model. Six of seven groups of C57BL/6N male mice (i.e., not including the naïve group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Of these six groups, five (i.e., not including the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with AI (100mg/kg), CL (100mg/kg), ACE (50 or 100mg/kg), or Lipitor (20mg/kg). Serum lipid profiles, obesity-related markers, hepatic steatosis, hepatic gene expression, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. AI, CL, and ACE were associated with significant effects on serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC] and triglyceride), body, liver and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers. ACE at 100mg/kg was associated with significantly greater improvements in serum TC and triglyceride, hepatic triglyceride, epididymal adipocyte size, and oxidative stress biomarkers, compared with AI and CL. AI, CL and ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expression (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha). ACE exhibits anti-hyperlipidemia properties and is associated with partially synergistic effects compared with AI or CL alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential expression of CURS gene during various growth stages, climatic condition and soil nutrients in turmeric (Curcuma longa): Towards site specific cultivation for high curcumin yield.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, I Sriram; Das, Suryasnata; Nasim, Noohi; Mishra, Antaryami; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sujata

    2017-09-01

    Curcuma longa L., accumulates substantial amount of curcumin and essential oil. Little is known about the differential expression of curcumin synthase (CURS) gene and consequent curcumin content variations at different agroclimatic zones. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of climate, soil and harvesting phase on expression of CURS gene for curcumin yield in two high yielding turmeric cultivars. Expression of CURS gene at different experimental zones as well as at different harvesting phase was studied through transcriptional analysis by qRT-PCR. Curcumin varied from 1.5 to 5% and 1.4-5% in Surama and Roma respectively. The expression of CURS also varied from 0.402 to 5.584 fold in Surama and 0.856-5.217 fold in Roma. Difference in curcumin content at a particular zone varied among different harvesting period from 3.95 to 4.31% in Surama and 3.57-3.83% in Roma. Expression of CURS gene was also effected by harvesting time of the rhizome which varied from 7.389 to 16.882 fold in Surama and 4.41-8.342 fold in Roma. The CURS gene expression was found regardless of variations in curcumin content at different experimental zones. This may be due to the effects of soil and environmental variables. Expression was positively correlated with curcumin content with different harvesting time at a particular zone. This find indicates effect of soil and environment on molecular and biochemical dynamics of curcumin biosynthesis and could be useful in genetic improvement of turmeric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P <0.001). Total WBC, NO 2 and NO 3 were significantly reduced in treated groups with dexamethasone and all concentrations of C. longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P <0.001 for all cases). MDA was significantly decreased, but SOD, CAT and thiol increased in treated asthma animals with dexamethasone and two higher concentrations of C. longa and curcumin ( P <0.01 to P<0.001). There were significant improvement in eosinophil percentage due to treatment of highest concentration of the extract and curcumin, neutrophil and monocyte due to highest concentration of curcumin and lymphocyte due to highest concentration of the extract and two higher concentrations of curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P <0.01 to P<0.001). Dexamethasone treatment improved monocyte ( P <0.001) and lymphocyte ( P <0.01) percentages. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of C. longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a botanical composite containing standardized extracts of Curcuma longa and Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Though the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share the prime complaints of the disease, pain. Here the authors assessed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a composite that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba, on rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. A plant library was screened for bradykinin receptor antagonists. In vivo, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the standardized composite, UP1304, were evaluated in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema using oral dose ranges of 100-400 mg/kg. Ibuprofen, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, was used as a reference compound. In vitro, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were performed to evaluate the degree of inflammation. Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance and paw edema suppression were observed in animals treated with UP1304, when compared to vehicle-treated rats. Results from the highest dose of UP1304 (400 mg/kg) were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment at 200 mg/kg. In vitro, UP1304 showed dose-dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activities of COX and LOX. A half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.6 μg/mL for bradykinin B1 inhibition was calculated for the organic extract of C. longa. Curcumin showed Ki values of 2.73 and 58 μg/mL for bradykinin receptors B1 and B2, respectively. Data presented here suggest that UP1304, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin, acted as a bradykinin receptor B1 and B2 antagonist, and inhibited COX and LOX enzyme activities. This compound should be considered for the management of symptoms associated with arthritis.

  13. Adriamycin-induced oxidative stress is prevented by mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Mohebbati, Reza; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Mohammadian Roshan, Noema; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseinian, Sara; Karimi, Sareh; Beheshti, Farimah

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress is considered to have a crucial role in induction of nephropathy. Curcuma longa (C. longa) and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of N.sativa and C. longa on the oxidative stress induced by Adriamycin (ADR) in rat kidney. The animals were divided into 6 groups: control (CO), ADR, Adriamycin+ Vitamin C (ADR+VIT C), C. longa extract+ Adriamycin (C.LE+ADR), N. sativa extract+ Adriamycin (N.SE+ADR) and C. longa extract+ N. sativa extract + Adriamycin (N.S+C.L+ADR). ADR (5mg/kg) was injected intravenously, whereas VITC (100mg/kg) and extract of C. longa (1000mg/kg) and N. sativa (200mg/kg) were administrated orally. Finally, the renal tissue, urine and blood samples were collected and submitted to measure of redox markers, osmolarity and renal index. The renal content of total thiol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased in Adriamycin group compared to control group. The renal content of total thiol and SOD activity significantly enhanced and MDA concentration reduced in treated-mixed extract of C. longa and N. sativa along with ADR group compared to ADR group. The mixed extract did not restore increased renal index percentage induced by ADR. There also was no significant difference in urine and serum osmolarity between the groups. hydro-alcoholic extracts of N.sativa and C.longa led to an improvement in ADR-induced oxidative stress and mixed administration of the extracts enhanced the aforementioned therapeutic effect.

  14. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  15. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    PubMed

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  16. Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Several Indonesian Plants Typically Used in Jamu.

    PubMed

    Widyowati, Retno; Agil, Mangestuti

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the chemical constituents and bioactivities of several Indonesian plants typically used in Jamu prescriptions in Indonesia. Jamu is Indonesia traditional medicine: it consists of either a single ingredient or a mixture of several medicinal plants. One plant family always used in Jamu is Zingiberaceae (ginger), such as Curcuma domestica/C. longa, C. xanthorrhizae, C. heyneana, C. zedoaria, C. aeruginosa, Zingiber aromaticum, Alpinia galanga. We also report other commonly used plant families such as Justicia gendarussa and Cassia siamea, whose activities have been extensively explored by our department.

  17. Jueming prescription and its ingredients, semen cassiae and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, stimulate lipolysis and enhance the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase in cultured rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiaojiao; Wen, Xiuying

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of jueming prescription (JMP) and its ingredients, semen cassiae (SC) and Rhizoma Curcumae Longae (RCL), on lipolysis, and to examine their effect on the phosphorylation of hormone‑sensitive lipase (HSL) in cultured rat white adipose tissue (WAT). Retroperitoneal WAT was aseptically excised from adult male Sprague‑Dawley rats, minced into uniform sections and subjected to ex vivo culture for 24 h. The tissue sections were then distributed into a 24‑well culture plate and treated with normal saline (vehicle), isoproterenol (ISO), JMP, SC and RCL. Non‑esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol release from the intact WAT explants were determined as a measurement of lipolysis, which were measured using NEFA and glycerol assay kits. The phosphorylation of HSL at Ser563 (P‑HSL S563) and 660 residues (P‑HSL S660) were determined using western blot analysis. The size of the adipocytes was visualized using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It was found that JMP‑, SC‑ and RCL‑stimulated lipolysis was responsible for increasing the release of NEFAs and glycerol from the intact WAT in vitro. In addition, JMP, SC and RCL increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser563: JMP water (JW) extract, 3.52‑fold; JMP ethanol (JE) extract, 3.38‑fold; SC water (SW) extract, 4.60‑fold; SC ethanol (SE) extract, 4.20‑fold; RCL water (RW) extract, 6.98‑fold; RCL ethanol (RE) extract, 6.60‑fold. JMP, SC and RCL also increased the levels of P‑HSL Ser660: JW extract, 3.16‑fold; JE extract, 2.92‑fold; SW extract, 4.57‑fold; SE extract, 4.13‑fold; RW extract, 5.41‑fold; RE 4.96‑fold) in the WAT. The RW extract had the most marked effect. The HE staining revealed that JMP, SC and RCL reduced the size of adipocytes in the WAT. In conclusion, JMP and its ingredients, SC and RC, stimulated lipolysis and reduced the size of adipocytes, possibly via the phosphorylation of HSL in cultured rat WAT.

  18. Chemical variability along the value chains of turmeric (Curcuma longa): a comparison of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance thin layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Booker, Anthony; Frommenwiler, Debora; Johnston, Deborah; Umealajekwu, Chinenye; Reich, Eike; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Herbal medicine value chains have generally been overlooked compared with food commodities. Not surprisingly, revenue generation tends to be weighted towards the end of the chain and consequently the farmers and producers are the lowest paid beneficiaries. Value chains have an impact both on the livelihood of producers and on the composition and quality of products commonly sold locally and globally and consequently on the consumers. In order to understand the impact of value chains on the composition of products, we studied the production conditions for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and the metabolomic composition of products derived from it. We aimed at integrating these two components in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of different value chains on the livelihoods of some producers. This interdisciplinary project uses a mixed methods approach. Case studies were undertaken on two separate sites in India. Data was initially gathered on herbal medicine value chains by means of semi-structured interviews and non-participant observations. Samples were collected from locations in India, Europe and the USA and analysed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and with high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). We investigate medicinal plant value chains and interpret the impact different value chains have on some aspects of the livelihoods of producers in India and, for the first time, analytically assess the chemical variability and quality implications that different value chains may have on the products available to end users in Europe. There are benefits to farmers that belonged to an integrated chain and the resulting products were subject to a higher standard of processing and storage. By using analytical methods, including HPTLC and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, it has been possible to correlate some variations in product composition for selected producers and identify strengths and weaknesses of some types of value

  19. Comparative analysis of multiple representative components in the herb pair Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma and its single herbs by UPLC-QQQ-MS.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Cheng, Xiaolan; Tao, Weiwei; Dong, Yu; Bian, Yong; Zang, Wenhua; Tang, Decai

    2018-01-30

    The herb-pair, Astragali Radix (AR) and Curcumae Rhizoma (CR), often occurs in traditional herbal prescriptions used for cancer treatment in Asian areas. In clinical application, the AR-CR herb pair was often produced by different preparation methods or with raw materials from different sources, which raised a challenge for quality control of the herb-pair medicines. In this paper, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-QQQ-MS) was applied for the first time to simultaneously determine 17 main bioactive components for quality control of AR-CR herb pair. The chromatographic separation was studied on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile using a gradient elution in 12min. The proposed method was optimized and validated by good linearity (r 2 >0.9970), limit of detection (0.33-10.78ng/mL), limit of quantification (0.81-2.54ng/mL), intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD≤3.64%, RSD≤5.68%), stability (RSD≤4.29%), repeatability (RSD≤5.98%), recovery (90.20-107.60%). The established method was successfully applied to comparative analysis of main bioactive components in AR-CR herb pair and its single herbs, and quality evaluation of different batches of clinical dispensing granules. Compared to the single herb, the content of most liposoluble constituents such as curcumenol, curdione, isocurcumenol, furanodienone, curcumol, and germacrone were remarkable increased in their herb pair, suggesting mixed preparation produced synergistic effects on promoting the extraction of bioactive ingredients. This study is the first time to report the rapid and simultaneous analysis of 17 compounds in AR-CR herb pair by UPLC-QQQ-MS, and provides a feasible method for holistic quality control of preparations containing AR-CR herb-pair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Carla Caroline Cunha; Ávila, Paulo Henrique Marcelino de; Filho, Edvande Xavier Dos Santos; Ávila, Renato Ivan de; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves; Lima, Eliana Martins; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco de; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2016-01-01

    Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) (BP) and curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) (CL) on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluoruoacil (5-FU) in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction of 60.3 and 42.4% in villi and crypts size, respectively, when compared to control. On the other hand, the proposed therapeutic/prophylactic treatment with mucoadhesive formulations managed to reduce histopathologic changes in mice bearing mucositis, especially at 125 mg/kg BP + 15 mg/kg CL dose. The formulation promoted an increase of 275.5% and 148.7% for villi and crypts size, respectively. Moreover, chemotherapy-related weight loss was reduced by 7.4% following the treatment. In addition, an increase of 10 and 30.5% in red and white blood cells was observed when compared to 5-FU group. Furthermore, treatments with the mucoadhesive formulation containing BP/CL up modulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression while reduced pro-apoptotic regulator Bax. The formulation also modulated inflammatory response triggered by 5-FU through reduction of 68% of myeloperoxidase activity and a 4-fold increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. In parallel, the oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was reduced as indicated by decrease of 63% of malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, the new formulation presented low acute oral systemic toxicity, being classified in the category 5 (2000 mg/kg < LD 50  < 5000 mg/kg) of the Globally Harmonized Classification System. This study showed an interesting

  1. Larvicidal and Biting Deterrent Activity of Essential Oils of Curcuma longa, Ar-turmerone, and Curcuminoids Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Culicidae: Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils and extract of Curcuma longa, ar-turmerone, and curcuminoids were evaluated for their larvicidal and deterrent activity against mosquitoes. Ar-turmerone and curcuminoids constituted 36.9, 24.9 and 50.6% of rhizome oil, leaf oil, and rhizome extract, respectively. Ar-turmerone was the major compound of the rhizome oil (36.9%) and leaf oil (24.9%). The ethanolic extract had 15.4% ar-turmerone with 6.6% bisdesmethoxycurcumin, 6.1% desmethoxycurcumin, and 22.6% curcumin. In in vitro studies, essential oils of the leaf (biting deterrence index [BDI] = 0.98), rhizome (BDI = 0.98), and rhizome ethanolic extract (BDI = 0.96) at 10 µg/cm(2) showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Aedes aegypti L. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone (BDI = 1.15) showed the biting deterrent activity higher than DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) whereas the activity of other compounds was lower than DEET. In Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, only ar-turmerone showed deterrent activity similar to DEET. In dose-response bioassay, ar-turmerone showed significantly higher biting deterrence than DEET at all the dosages. Ar-turmerone, at 15 nmol/cm(2), showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) and activity at 5 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET at 20 and 15 nmol/cm(2). Leaf essential oil with LC(50) values of 1.8 and 8.9 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, showed highest toxicity followed by rhizome oil and ethanolic extract. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone with LC(50) values of 2.8 and 2.5 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, was most toxic followed by bisdesmethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Oxidative and biochemical responses in Brycon amazonicus anesthetized and sedated with Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey.) DC. and Curcuma longa L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Saccol, Etiane M H; Londero, Érika P; Bressan, Caroline A; Salbego, Joseânia; Gressler, Luciane T; Silva, Lenise V F; Mourão, Rosa H V; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Llesuy, Susana F; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Pavanato, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of rapid anesthesia and long-term sedation with the essential oils (EOs) of Myrcia sylvatica (EOMS) and Curcuma longa (EOCL) on biochemical and oxidative parameters in matrinxã. Prospective, randomized, laboratory experiment. A total of 72 matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) adults weighing 404.8 ± 27.9 g were divided into eight groups of nine fish. Biochemical and oxidative effects were investigated in plasma and tissues of matrinxã subjected to rapid anesthesia (5 minutes) or long-term sedation (360 minutes, simulating the practice of transport) with EOMS (200 μL L -1 and 10 μL L -1 , respectively) and EOCL (500 μL L -1 and 40 μL L -1 , respectively). Transport simulation without sedation or anesthesia increased lipid peroxidation levels in the gills and kidney of fish in the control group. Anesthesia and sedation with EOs decreased cortisol concentrations and increased lactate concentrations compared with controls. Lipid peroxidation was lower in the brain, gills, liver and kidney of sedated and anesthetized fish, than in the control group. Anesthesia with EOs increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase in the brain, and catalase in the liver and gills, compared with controls. Long-term sedation with EOs increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the brain, catalase in the liver, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the gills and superoxide dismutase in the kidney. In general, nonprotein thiols content and total reactive antioxidant potential of tissues were higher after anesthesia and sedation with EOs compared with the control group. The concentrations of EOMS and EOCL used were effective at preventing a stress response and excess of reactive oxygen species formation. For these reasons, these substances may be recommended for use in the transportation of fish to improve survival and animal welfare. Copyright © 2017

  3. Gastroprotective effects of combination of hot water extracts of turmeric (Curcuma domestica L.), cardamom pods (Ammomum compactum S.) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera DC.) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of the combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) on gastric mucosa in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into 6 groups. Four groups were administered with the hot water extracts combination consisted of cardamom pods 36.6 mg/200 g body weight and sembung leaf 91.5 mg/200 g body weight (fixed doses). The herbal extracts combination were also consisted of turmeric in various doses i.e. 10 mg/200 g body weight in the second group, 30 mg/200 g body weight in the first and third groups, and 50 mg/200 g body weight in the fourth group. The fifth group rats received sucralfate 72 mg /200 g body weight. Ten minutes after receiving herbal extracts combinations or sucralfate, the rats were induced with aspirin 90 mg/200 g body weight except the first group. Another group (sixth group) only received aspirin without any protective agent. All treatments were adsministered orally for seven days. The number and area of the gastric ulcers were counted and measured macroscopically. Score of mucosal damage and the number of eosinophils as well as the number of mast cells were observed in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin eosin and toluidine blue, respectively. Results The groups receiving herbal infuse combination exhibited less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers as well as smaller score of mucosal damage in comparison to those of aspirin group (P<0.05). The number of mast cells and eosinophil of herbal groups were also smaller than that of aspirin group. Conclusions The herbal extracts combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) has potential gastroprotective effects. PMID:25183139

  4. Gastroprotective effects of combination of hot water extracts of turmeric (Curcuma domestica L.), cardamom pods (Ammomum compactum S.) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera DC.) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats.

    PubMed

    Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the protective effect of the combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) on gastric mucosa in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into 6 groups. Four groups were administered with the hot water extracts combination consisted of cardamom pods 36.6 mg/200 g body weight and sembung leaf 91.5 mg/200 g body weight (fixed doses). The herbal extracts combination were also consisted of turmeric in various doses i.e. 10 mg/200 g body weight in the second group, 30 mg/200 g body weight in the first and third groups, and 50 mg/200 g body weight in the fourth group. The fifth group rats received sucralfate 72 mg /200 g body weight. Ten minutes after receiving herbal extracts combinations or sucralfate, the rats were induced with aspirin 90 mg/200 g body weight except the first group. Another group (sixth group) only received aspirin without any protective agent. All treatments were adsministered orally for seven days. The number and area of the gastric ulcers were counted and measured macroscopically. Score of mucosal damage and the number of eosinophils as well as the number of mast cells were observed in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin eosin and toluidine blue, respectively. The groups receiving herbal infuse combination exhibited less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers as well as smaller score of mucosal damage in comparison to those of aspirin group (P<0.05). The number of mast cells and eosinophil of herbal groups were also smaller than that of aspirin group. The herbal extracts combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) has potential gastroprotective effects.

  5. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong Sung; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Park, Sun Dong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2015-08-02

    Adipocyte lipid accumulation due to impaired fatty acid oxidation causes adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue increment, leading to obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity effects of the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)) composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata. The effects of GGH(4) and the individual components on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and body weight gain in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were examined using Oil red O staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. GGH(4), individual components, and an active principle of Curcuma longa curcumin inhibited lipid accumulation and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with control cells. Treatment with GGH(4), the individual components or curcmumin increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial (CPT-1, MCAD, and VLCAD) and peroxisomal (ACOX and thiolase) PPARα target genes. GGH(4) and the individual components also increased PPARα reporter gene expression compared with control cells. These effects were most prominent in GGH(4)-treated cells. However, the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on adipogenesis. An in vivo study showed that GGH(4) decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and visceral adipocyte size with increasing mRNA levels of adipose tissue PPARα target genes in OLETF rats. These results demonstrate that GGH(4) has an antiobesity effects through the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation, and this process may be mediated in part through adipose PPARα activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescent ligand fishing combination with in-situ imaging and characterizing to screen Hsp 90 inhibitors from Curcuma longa L. based on InP/ZnS quantum dots embedded mesoporous nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Fu, Anchen; Miao, Zhaoyi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Tianlin; Kang, An; Shan, Jinjun; Zhu, Dong; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Although ligand fishing has been shown to be an efficient technique for the identification of bioactive components from complex mixtures such as natural products, it cannot be applied to biomedical image processing. Herein, a specific fluorescent ligand fishing combined with in situ imaging approach is presented for the identification of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp 90) inhibitors from complex matrixes, Curcuma longa L., using N-terminus immobilized Hsp 90α functionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots embedded mesoporous nanoparticles (i.e. Hsp 90α (NT)-FQDNs) as extraction sorbents and fluorescent tracer. The fished ligands were identified by liquid chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, in situ imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied for evaluating the effect of fished-ligands on bioactivity-induced apoptosis morphologically in HeLa cells. MTT assay verified the bioactivity of the ligands and molecular docking results further provided convincing information to verify the feasible binding mode between ligands and protein. Twelve ligands as potential Hsp 90 inhibitors were ultimately fished and identified from Curcuma longa L. crude extracts. The proposed approach based on Hsp 90α functionalized nanocomposites is superior in the combination of highly specific screening efficiency and concurrent visual in situ imaging, which could have great promise for the development of other plant-derived Hsp 90 inhibitors, and providing a rapid and reliable platform for discovering biologically active molecules in natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

    2012-07-01

    Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.

  8. Detection of plant-based adulterants in turmeric powder using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Parvathy, V A; Swetha, V P; Sheeja, T E; Sasikumar, B

    2015-01-01

    In its powdered form, turmeric [Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)], a spice of medical importance, is often adulterated lowering its quality. The study sought to detect plant-based adulterants in traded turmeric powder using DNA barcoding. Accessions of Curcuma longa L., Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. (Zingiberaceae), and cassava starch served as reference samples. Three barcoding loci, namely ITS, rbcL, and matK, were used for PCR amplification of the reference samples and commercial samples representing 10 different companies. PCR success rate, sequencing efficiency, occurrence of SNPs, and BLAST analysis were used to assess the potential of the barcoding loci in authenticating the traded samples of turmeric. The PCR and sequencing success of the loci rbcL and ITS were found to be 100%, whereas matK showed no amplification. ITS proved to be the ideal locus because it showed greater variability than rbcL in discriminating the Curcuma species. The presence of C. zedoaria could be detected in one of the samples whereas cassava starch, wheat, barley, and rye in other two samples although the label claimed nothing other than turmeric powder in the samples. Unlabeled materials in turmeric powder are considered as adulterants or fillers, added to increase the bulk weight and starch content of the commodity for economic gains. These adulterants pose potential health hazards to consumers who are allergic to these plants, lowering the product's medicinal value and belying the claim that the product is gluten free. The study proved DNA barcoding as an efficient tool for testing the integrity and the authenticity of commercial products of turmeric.

  9. The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 2-1. Sample Case.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    X X — !*• » X X r*- ro H •1 ^ X IN UJ ** "O r Jul%9 c a 2 O J M X UJ .. 3 U — CO PH 4 X 3C t- L3 u • • 1C U. U3 H tD UJ UJ a...3 •-ooaooao-n »-030300030331 »-oooooooooox» »-00 3303000am i-a a 3 x •- ua 1-0 tO •- L3 2 •-• -3 ^ IU Q JaJ J...O C3 nuuv) tD CO CD 2 IftJ UJ •- I J J J M Iß Ifl li. WCJUCO o o (BfDIDZiiituHlO • • Z CO x 3 OCM

  10. The ROSCOE MANUAL. Volume 27. Natural Background Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    159 cloud configurations in the statistical cloud model, this distribution function has 160 members for nighttime and 161 mem - bers for daytime: 159...COWA - SIN( ON+DETLAT ) RINOUT 1A5 Q14P - A8S( OETLOW-POSLOW RI NO, T 146 1Ff QNP.GE.PI ) OHP - TWOPI-QNP RINOU!T 1,47 SINOMP -SIN’ ONP ) QRIWfoUT

  11. The ROSCOE Manual. Volume I-1. Program Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    CA’ CACcc C-’ c-c--c ~cc CCC) - CD Z I n -. cc - cx ccan,- C.) CC a - ~’, Zn cc-a U - -. a cc Zc- *0 F-U- CD~ cx no Ch cc a a I CACAO U) c--C Ccx c...dataset is de - noted by E8. Every dataset is tied t6 the basic dataset along with some important lists such as the object list, the radar list, and the...used for the track initiation and track functions are shown next. Most of these parameters are well de - fined, with the exception of the range gate

  12. Improving pork burgers quality using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder (ginger).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simone; Paci, Gisella; Fratini, Filippo; Torracca, Beatrice; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Preziuso, Giovanna

    2017-07-01

    Pork burgers were evaluated for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity, microbiological growth and sensory evaluation during storage time of seven days at 4°C as function of three formulations as only meat (control, B) and meat added with ginger powder at the percentage of 1 and 2% (BG1 and BG2). BG1 and BG2 were less redness than control ones with incremented yellow hue. These modifications in color parameters did not modify sensory characteristics of burgers. PUFA were incremented (both PUFAω3 and PUFAω6) by the addition of ginger. Furthermore, BG1 and BG2 burgers showed to be less sensitive to lipid oxidation and to possess an increase in antioxidant capacity. Microbial growth evaluation of total aerobic count and Pseudomonas spp. showed that ginger powder delayed in time the bacterial contamination. Results highlighted that the presence of ginger led to an enhanced shelf life and health characteristics of burgers (increasing peroxidisability, ratio hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic and ratio ω3/ω6; reducing atherogenicity and thrombogenicity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract on the functionality of the solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    McCann, Mark J; Johnston, Sarah; Reilly, Kerri; Men, Xuejing; Burgess, Elaine J; Perry, Nigel B; Roy, Nicole C

    2014-10-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual's capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, -1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions.

  14. The Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Extract on the Functionality of the Solute Carrier Protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Variants Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Mark J.; Johnston, Sarah; Reilly, Kerri; Men, Xuejing; Burgess, Elaine J.; Perry, Nigel B.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disease. Genetic predisposition to the disease reduces an individual’s capacity to respond appropriately to environmental challenges in the intestine leading to inappropriate inflammation. IBD patients often modify their diet to mitigate or reduce the severity of inflammation. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has historically been used in Chinese, Hindu, and Ayurvedic medicine over several centuries to treat inflammatory disorders. To understand how turmeric may influence the consequences of a genetic predisposition to inappropriate inflammation, we used HEK293 cells to examine the in vitro capacity of turmeric extract and fractions to affect the functionality of two gene variants, solute carrier protein 22 A4 (SLC22A4, rs1050152) and interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1800896) associated with IBD. We found that a turmeric extract and several chromatographically separated fractions beneficially affected the variants of SLC22A4 and IL-10 associated with IBD, by reducing inappropriate epithelial cell transport (SLC22A4, 503F) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine gene promoter activity (IL-10, −1082A). The effect of turmeric on the IL-10 variant was strongly associated with the curcumin content of the extract and its fractions. PMID:25314644

  15. Effects of Curcumin (Curcuma longa) on Learning and Spatial Memory as Well as Cell Proliferation and Neuroblast Differentiation in Adult and Aged Mice by Upregulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and CREB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sung Min; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Chul Jung; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aging is a progressive process, and it may lead to the initiation of neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of wild Indian Curcuma longa using a Morris water maze paradigm on learning and spatial memory in adult and D-galactose-induced aged mice. In addition, the effects on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were assessed by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) respectively. The aging model in mice was induced through the subcutaneous administration of D-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. C. longa (300 mg/kg) or its vehicle (physiological saline) was administered orally to adult and D-galactose-treated mice for the last three weeks before sacrifice. The administration of C. longa significantly shortened the escape latency in both adult and D-galactose-induced aged mice and significantly ameliorated D-galactose-induced reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of hippocampal dentate gyrus. In addition, the administration of C. longa significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus. These results indicate that C. longa mitigates D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, associated with decreased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, by activating CREB signaling in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. PMID:24712702

  16. Termitarium-inhabiting Bacillus endophyticus TSH42 and Bacillus cereus TSH77 colonizing Curcuma longa L.: isolation, characterization, and evaluation of their biocontrol and plant-growth-promoting activities.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ankit Kumar; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Kim, Kangmin; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2016-10-01

    Bacillus strains were isolated from termitarium soil and screened for their antifungal activity through the production of diffusible and volatile metabolites. Further, the bacterial strains that showed antifungal activity were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on the basis of their plant-growth-promoting attributes. Termitarium-inhabiting Bacillus strains TSH42 and TSH77 significantly reduced the growth of pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani, controlled the symptoms of rhizome rot in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and demonstrated various plant-growth-promoting traits in different in vitro assays. On the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and 16S rDNA characteristics, isolates TSH42 and TSH77 were identified as Bacillus endophyticus (KT379993) and Bacillus cereus (KT379994), respectively. Through liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis, acidified cell-free culture filtrate (CFCF) of B. cereus TSH77 was shown to contain surfactin and fengycin, while CFCF of B. endophyticus TSH42 contained iturin in addition to surfactin and fengycin. Treatment of the turmeric (C. longa L.) plants with TSH42 and TSH77 significantly reduced the percentage incidence of rhizome rot disease caused by F. solani. The same treatment also increased the fresh rhizome biomass and plant growth in greenhouse conditions.

  17. Concurrent suppression of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and reactive oxygen species formation underlies the effect of a novel compound isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in LPS-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Jiamvoraphong, Nittaya; Jantaratnotai, Nattinee; Sanvarinda, Pantip; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Sanvarinda, Pimtip

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, also known as compound 092, isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated highly aggressive proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cell lines. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess reaction, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Western blotting was used to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and their related upstream proteins. Compound 092 suppressed NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated HAPI cells. These effects originated from the ability of compound 092 to attenuate the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as determined by the reduction in p-NF-κB and p-IκB kinase (IKK) protein levels. Compound 092 also significantly lowered LPS-activated intracellular reactive oxygen species production and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Compound 092 suppresses microglial activation through attenuation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Compound 092 thus holds the potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Effects of curcumin (Curcuma longa) on learning and spatial memory as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in adult and aged mice by upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Min; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Chul Jung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a progressive process, and it may lead to the initiation of neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of wild Indian Curcuma longa using a Morris water maze paradigm on learning and spatial memory in adult and D-galactose-induced aged mice. In addition, the effects on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were assessed by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) respectively. The aging model in mice was induced through the subcutaneous administration of D-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. C. longa (300 mg/kg) or its vehicle (physiological saline) was administered orally to adult and D-galactose-treated mice for the last three weeks before sacrifice. The administration of C. longa significantly shortened the escape latency in both adult and D-galactose-induced aged mice and significantly ameliorated D-galactose-induced reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of hippocampal dentate gyrus. In addition, the administration of C. longa significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus. These results indicate that C. longa mitigates D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, associated with decreased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, by activating CREB signaling in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

  19. Global Profiling and Novel Structure Discovery Using Multiple Neutral Loss/Precursor Ion Scanning Combined with Substructure Recognition and Statistical Analysis (MNPSS): Characterization of Terpene-Conjugated Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Lin, Xiong-hao; Ji, Shuai; Zhang, Zheng-xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-01-05

    To fully understand the chemical diversity of an herbal medicine is challenging. In this work, we describe a new approach to globally profile and discover novel compounds from an herbal extract using multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning combined with substructure recognition and statistical analysis. Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.) was used as an example. This approach consists of three steps: (i) multiple neutral loss/precursor ion scanning to obtain substructure information; (ii) targeted identification of new compounds by extracted ion current and substructure recognition; and (iii) untargeted identification using total ion current and multivariate statistical analysis to discover novel structures. Using this approach, 846 terpecurcumins (terpene-conjugated curcuminoids) were discovered from turmeric, including a number of potentially novel compounds. Furthermore, two unprecedented compounds (terpecurcumins X and Y) were purified, and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. This study extended the application of mass spectrometry to global profiling of natural products in herbal medicines and could help chemists to rapidly discover novel compounds from a complex matrix.

  20. Effect of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, and Curcuma longa L. on Th1- and Th2-cytokine responses and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of septic patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huang-Pin; Lin, Yin-Ku

    2018-05-10

    Many traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), such as Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, and Curcuma longa L., have been reported to have various immune-modulatory effects. To determine the effects of extracts from these three TCM on type 1 T help (Th1)- and Th2-cytokine responses and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from septic patients. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs of healthy controls and septic patients were cultured for 48 hs with or without 0.05/0.1 mg/ml of TCM extract. HLA-DR expression in monocytes was detected using flow cytofluorimetry. The interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin (IL)- 2, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 levels in supernatants were measured with a human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with either 0.05 or 0.1 mg/ml of C. longa L. extract significantly restored the percentage of HLA-DR-positive monocytes, which was decreased by LPS in control and patient groups. Treatment with 0.05 or 0.1 mg/ml E. ulmoides Oliv. and C.longa L. extract decreased IL-10 production from LPS-stimulated PBMCs of controls and patients. In patients with sepsis, C. longa L. extract decreased IL-10 production to a greater degree than did E. ulmoides Oliv extract. Although IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-13 productions from LPS-stimulated PBMCs were influenced by E. ulmoides Oliv., G. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, or C. longa L. in control or sepsis groups in this study, only the influence of IL-10 was consistent in both control and sepsis groups. By enhancing monocyte HLA-DR expression and decreasing IL-10 production, C. longa L. might help restore inflammatory responses in septic patients to eradicate pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J

    2015-02-01

    The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Development and validation of an analytical method for the separation and determination of major bioactive curcuminoids in Curcuma longa rhizomes and herbal products using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Anubala, S; Sekar, R; Nagaiah, K

    2014-06-01

    A simple, fast and efficient non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major bioactive curcuminoids (CMNs) in Curcuma longa rhizomes and its herbal products. Good separation, resolution and reproducibility were achieved with the background electrolyte (BGE) consisting a mixture of 15.0 mM sodium tetraborate and 7.4 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 2:10:15 (v/v/v) of water, 1-propanol, and methanol. The influences of background electrolyte, sodium hydroxide, water, sodium dodecyl sulfate and hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin on separations were investigated. The separation was carried out in a fused-silica capillary tube with reverse polarity. Hydrodynamic injection of 25mbar for 12s was used for injecting samples and a voltage of 28 kV was applied for separation. The ultrasonication method was used for the extraction of CMNs from the turmeric herbal products and the extract was filtered and directly injected without any further treatments. The limits of detection and quantification were less than 5.0 and 14.6 µg/ml respectively for all CMNs. The percentage recoveries for CMNs were >97.2% (%RSD, <2.62). The results obtained by the method were compared with existing spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The related compounds in the extract did not interfere in the determination of CMNs. The proposed NACE method is better than existing chromatographic and electrophoretic methods in terms of simple electrophoretic medium, fast analysis and good resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of a plant product consisting of green tea and curcuma extract on milk production and the expression of hepatic genes involved in endoplasmic stress response and inflammation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Anne; Gessner, Denise K; Koch, Christian; Romberg, Franz-Josef; Dusel, Georg; Herzog, Eva; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been proposed that inflammation associated with the induction of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, the hypothesis that supplementation of dairy cows with a plant product consisting of green tea (95%) and curcuma extract (5%) rich in polyphenols attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver during early lactation was investigated. Twenty-seven cows were assigned to two groups, either a control group (n=14) or a treatment group (n=13). Both groups of cows received a total mixed ration, and the ration of the treatment group was supplemented with 0.175 g of the plant product per kg dry matter from week 3 prepartum to week 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake and energy balance during week 2 to week 9 postpartum were not different between the two groups. However, cows supplemented with the plant product had a greater amount of energy-corrected milk during week 2 to week 9 postpartum and lower concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in the liver in week 1 and week 3 postpartum than cows of the control group (p<0.05). Cows supplemented with the plant product showed a trend towards a reduced mRNA concentration of haptoglobin (p<0.10), while relative mRNA concentrations of eight genes of the unfolded protein response considered in the liver were not different between the two groups of cows. Relative hepatic mRNA concentration of fibroblast growth factor, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, was reduced at week 1 and week 3 postpartum in cows supplemented with the plant product (p<0.05). Overall, the data of this study suggest that--although there were only minor effects on the occurrence of ER stress and inflammation--a supplementation of polyphenols might be useful to improve milk yield and prevent fatty liver syndrome in dairy cows.

  4. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  5. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  6. The Effects of Curcuma longa L., Purple Sweet Potato, and Mixtures of the Two on Immunomodulation in C57BL/6J Mice Infected with LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jeung; Lee, Dasom; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Han-Ol; Kim, Hyesook; Park, Jeongjin; Jeon, Woojin; Cha, Minseok; Jun, Suhwa; Park, Kwangjin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2018-06-04

    The immune response is stimulated to protect the body from external antigens and is controlled by several types of immune cells. In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of Curcuma longa L., purple sweet potato, and mixtures of the two (CPM) were investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Mice were divided into seven groups as follows: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of C. longa L. (C; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of C 189 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of purple sweet potato (P; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of P 1811 mg/kg body weight), CPM Low (CPL; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 2 g/kg body weight), and CPM High (CPH; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 5 g/kg body weight). Dietary supplementation lasted for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of CPM inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly and inhibited reduction of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II. Moreover, CPM reduced the decrease in T- and B cell proliferation, reduced the population of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, and remedied the unbalanced production of T helper-1 (Th1)/T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. In addition, CPM inhibited reduction of phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). These results suggest that CPM had a positive effect on immunomodulation in C57BL/6 mice induced by LP-BM5 leukemia retrovirus infection.

  7. Combination Efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus and Curcuma wenyujin at Different Stages of Tumor Progression in an Imageable Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer Expressing Red Fluorescent Protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Tang, Decai; Dai, Jianguo; Liu, Min; Wu, Mianhua; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Guo, Xiuxia

    2015-06-01

    The present study determined the efficacy of extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW), a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture, at different tumor stages of an orthotopic nude mouse model of human ovarian cancer expressing red fluorescent protein. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with cisplatinum (CDDP), AM, CW, or a combination of AM and CW in each of three tumor stages, using the same regimen. Group 1 received saline as negative control. Group 2 received CDDP i.p. as positive control with a dose of 2 mg/kg, every three days. Group 3 received AM daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 9120 mg/kg. Group 4 received CW daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 4560 mg/kg. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received combinations of AM and CW daily via oral gavage at low (AM, 2280 mg/kg; CW, 1140 mg/kg), medium (AM, 4560 mg/kg; CW 2280 mg/kg), and high (AM, 9120 mg/kg; CW, 4560 mg/kg) doses. The expression of angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2), and by polymerase chain reaction for MMP-2, FGF-2 and Bcl-2. CDDP, AM, and its combination with CW-induced significant growth inhibition of Stage I tumors. Strong efficacy of the combination of AM and CW at high dose was observed. Monotherapy with CDDP, AM, CW, and the combination treatments did not significantly inhibit Stage II and III tumors. The expression of MMP-2, VEGF, FGF-2, and Cox-2 was significantly reduced in Stage I tumors treated with AM, CW, and their combination, suggesting a possible role of these angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the observed efficacy of the agents tested. This study is the first report on the efficacy of anticancer agents at different stages of ovarian cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. As the tumor progressed, it became treatment

  8. The protective effect of fermented Curcuma longa L. on memory dysfunction in oxidative stress-induced C6 gliomal cells, proinflammatory-activated BV2 microglial cells, and scopolamine-induced amnesia model in mice.

    PubMed

    Eun, Cheong-Su; Lim, Jong-Soon; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Sam-Pin; Yang, Seun-Ah

    2017-07-17

    Curcuma longa L. is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for its anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effect of fermented C. longa (FCL) has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the effectiveness of FCL for the regulation of memory dysfunction was investigated in two brain cell lines (rat glioma C6 and murine microglia BV2) and scopolamine-treated mice. C. longa powder was fermented by 5% Lactobacillus plantarum K154 containing 2% (w/v) yeast extract at 30 °C for 72 h followed by sterilization at 121 °C for 15 min. The protective effects of fermented C. longa (FCL) on oxidative stress induced cell death were analyzed by MTT assay in C6 cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of FCL were investigated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) as well as the expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The step-through passive avoidance test, Morris water maze test, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were employed to determine the effects of FCL on scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice. The contents of curcuminoids were analyzed through LC/MS. Pretreatment with FCL effectively prevented the cell death induced by oxidative stress in C6 cells. Moreover, FCL inhibited the production NO and PGE 2 via the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression in BV2 cells. FCL significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and prevented scopolamine-induced AChE activity in the hippocampus. Additionally, FCL reversed the reduction of CREB and BDNF expression. The curcuminoids content in FCL was 1.44%. FCL pretreatment could alleviate scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in C6 and BV2 cells, respectively. Thus, FCL might be a

  9. Repellency of essential oils extracted from Thai native plants against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Phukerd, Ubol; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Repellent activity of essential oils derived from 10 Thai native plants, belonging to three families were evaluated against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and to compare them with a commercial chemical repellents (DEET; N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield). Each test repellent was applied at 1, 5, and 10% concentrations for testing by arm in cage method. The results showed significant differences in repellency among the repellents by mosquito species. The protection time of the essential oils against Ae. aegypti ranged from 3 to 30 min. According to the Culex mosquito, it showed the protection time ranged from 3 to 260 min. 10 % Boesenbergia rotunda essential oil provided the best efficiency, in which protection time was 4.3 h as equal as DEET. The essential oils which exhibited protection time more than 2 h were those of 10% Zingiber zerumbet, Litsea petiolata, Curcuma zedoaria, and Zingiber cassumunar essential oils (3.1, 2.8, 2.6, and 2.3 h, respectively). The biting percentage ranged from 0.9 to 18.0% and 0.8 to 3.6% against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results revealed that the potential of essential oil extracted from B. rotunda, Z. zerumbet, L. petiolata, C. zedoaria, and Z. cassumunar had attributes of good repellent and deterred biting. We recommend the five essential oils for further study to develop as commercial repellents.

  10. ROSCOE Manual, Volume 14A-1 - Ambient Atmosphere (Major and Minor Neutral Species and Ionosphere).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-30

    height EDDSCH 100 - 300 Parabola, determined by data-point values EBOTD and EF2MXD at altitudes HEBOTD and HF2MXD and vertical slope at altitude HF2MXD...Ionosphere) c Science Applications, Inc. P.O. Box 2351 La Jolla, California 92038 30 June 1979 Final Report for Period 1 January 1976-30 June 1979...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Science Applications, Inc. V/ AREA 6 WORK U NIT NUMBERS P.O. Box 2351 Subtask S99QAXHCO62-37 La

  11. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  12. Effect of combined administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and atorvastatin on the liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Heeba, Gehan H; Abd-Elghany, Manal I

    2010-12-01

    Ginger is known to possess hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Combination therapy often takes advantage of complementary effects of different agents. This study investigated the combined effect of ginger extract (GE) and atorvastatin on lipid profile and on atorvastatin-induced hepatic injury. Rats were randomized into: control; GE (400 mg/kg); atorvastatin (20 mg/kg) alone or with GE or vitamin E, and atorvastatin (80 mg/kg) alone or with GE or vitamin E. Administration of 80 mg/kg atorvastatin for 4 weeks had major hepatotoxic effect whereas the lower dose (20 mg/kg) seems to cause mild liver injury. Besides lowering serum total cholesterol and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), atorvastatin significantly increased serum aminotransferases, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Concurrent administration of GE and atorvastatin had the opposite effect. Histopathological study revealed that GE reduced liver lesions induced by atorvastatin. The results indicate that the ability of ginger to lower serum cholesterol and to decrease aminotransferases, MDA and NO is clinically important, because its chronic administration will neither lead to side-effects nor to hepatic changes as occurs with high atorvastatin doses. Therefore, combination regimens containing GE and low dose of statins could be advantageous in treating hypercholesterolemic patients which are susceptible to liver function abnormalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Hema, U; Aswathy, M S

    2007-11-01

    A large number of xenobiotics are reported to be potentially hepatotoxic. Free radicals generated from the xenobiotic metabolism can induce lesions of the liver and react with the basic cellular constituents - proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (3g/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in rat. Aqueous extract of Z. officinale significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and ALP activities were significantly (p<0.01) elevated in the acetaminophen alone treated animals. Antioxidant status in liver such as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a phase II enzyme, and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were declined significantly (p<0.01) in the acetaminophen alone treated animals (control group). Hepatic lipid peroxidation was enhanced significantly (p<0.01) in the control group. Administration of single dose of aqueous extract of Z. officinale (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) prior to acetaminophen significantly declines the activities of serum transaminases and ALP. Further the hepatic antioxidant status was enhanced in the Z. officinale plus acetaminophen treated group than the control group. The results of the present study concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity is mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or due to its direct radical scavenging capacity.

  14. Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd; Mallick, N

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard's similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd.; Mallick, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard’s similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program. PMID:24600309

  16. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Zingiber officinale Roscoe ameliorates anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Hema, Unnikrishnan; Aswathi, Sreedharan

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested in the cardiotoxicity induced by anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin (DXN). The cardioprotective effects of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against DXN-induced acute cardiac damage in rat. The results of the study demonstrated that Z. officinale significantly and dose dependently protected the cardiotoxicity induced by DXN. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the DXN alone treated group of animals were significantly (p<0.01) elevated when compared to normal animals. The activities were reduced in the Z. officinale (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) plus DXN treated groups. The cardiac malondialdehyde was elevated in the DXN alone treated group and declined significantly in the Z. officinale (400 mg/kg) plus DXN treated group. The results concluded that aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale ameliorated DXN-induced cardiotoxicity. The protection can be ascribed to the free radical scavenging activity of Z. officinale. This protective effect may suggest the adjuvant role of Z. officinale against OS induced by cancer chemotherapeutants, which warrant further research. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  18. Attenuation of Sulfite-Induced Testicular Injury in Rats by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Afkhami Fathabad, Akbar; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Hoseini, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Zahra

    2017-08-18

    Sulfite salts, including sodium metabisulfte, are widely used as preservatives in foods and pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mediator of testicular injury. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of exposure to sodium metabisulfite by gavage without or with Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract on the rat testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ginger-treated (500 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite- (SMB-) treated (260 mg/kg/day), and SMB + ginger- (SZ-) treated groups. After 28 days, the rats were anesthetized by ether and, after laparotomy, blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then left testes and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for histological examination and sperm analysis, and right testes were removed for assessing lipid peroxidation (indexed by malondialdehyde [MDA]) and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that spermatogenesis, epididymal morphometry, and sperm parameters were affected by SMB. There was a significant increase in MDA level and a significant reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) in the SMB-treated rats compared to the control. Ginger treatment of SMB-exposed rats significantly increased testosterone level and the number of different spermatogenic cells. The level of MDA reversed to the control levels and the activities of GPx and GR were significantly increased when SMB was coadministered with ginger extract. It is concluded that coadministration of ginger, through its antioxidant and androgenic properties, exerts a protective effect against SMB-induced testicular oxidative stress.

  19. Toxicity prediction of compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Chempakam, B

    2010-10-01

    Turmeric belongs to the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Currently, cheminformatics approaches are not employed in any of the spices to study the medicinal properties traditionally attributed to them. The aim of this study is to find the most efficacious molecule which does not have any toxic effects. In the present study, toxicity of 200 chemical compounds from turmeric were predicted (includes bacterial mutagenicity, rodent carcinogenicity and human hepatotoxicity). The study shows out of 200 compounds, 184 compounds were predicted as toxigenic, 136 compounds are mutagenic, 153 compounds are carcinogenic and 64 compounds are hepatotoxic. To cross validate our results, we have chosen the popular curcumin and found that curcumin and its derivatives may cause dose dependent hepatotoxicity. The results of these studies indicate that, in contrast to curcumin, few other compounds in turmeric which are non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non-hepatotoxic, and do not have any side-effects. Hence, the cost-effective approach presented in this paper could be used to filter toxic compounds from the drug discovery lifecycle. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.

  1. Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    An, Kejing; Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Zhengfu; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2016-04-15

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges in preserving better quality of fruit and vegetable products after processing. Recently, many attentions have been drawn to ginger rhizome processing due to its numerous health promoting properties. In our study, ginger rhizome slices were subjected to air-drying (AD), freeze drying (FD), infrared drying (IR), microwave drying (MD) and intermittent microwave & convective drying (IM&CD). Quality attributes of the dried samples were compared in terms of volatile compounds, 6, 8, 10-gingerols, 6-shogaol, antioxidant activities and microstructure. Results showed that AD and IR were good drying methods to preserve volatiles. FD, IR and IM&CD led to higher retention of gingerols, TPC, TFC and better antioxidant activities. However, FD and IR had relative high energy consumption and drying time. Therefore, considering about the quality retention and energy consumption, IM&CD would be very promising for thermo sensitive material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the Gingerols Inhibit the Growth of Cag A+ Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Gail B.; Pendland, Susan L.; Yun, Gina S.; Lu, Zhi-Zhen; Stoia, Adina

    2013-01-01

    Background Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) has been used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments such as motion sickness, dyspepsia and hyperemesis gravidarum, and is also reported to have chemopreventative activity in animal models. The gingerols are a group of structurally related polyphenolic compounds isolated from ginger and known to be the active constituents. Since Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the primary etiological agent associated with dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease and the development of gastric and colon cancer, the anti-HP effects of ginger and its constituents were tested in vitro. Materials and Methods A methanol extract of the dried powdered ginger rhizome, fractions of the extract and the isolated constituents, 6-,8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogoal, were tested against 19 strains of HP, including 5 CagA+ strains. Results The methanol extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of all 19 strains in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 6.25–50 µg/ml. One fraction of the crude extract, containing the gingerols, was active and inhibited the growth of all HP strains with an MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 µg/ml and with significant activity against the CagA+ strains. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ginger root extracts containing the gingerols inhibit the growth of H. pylori CagA+ strains in vitro and this activity may contribute to its chemopreventative effects. PMID:14666666

  3. Effect of CO2 Enrichment on Synthesis of Some Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol−1) on the photosynthesis rate, primary and secondary metabolite syntheses and the antioxidant activities of the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. High photosynthesis rate (10.05 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (83.4 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 800 μmol mol−1 CO2. Stomatal conductance decreased and water use efficiency increased with elevated CO2 concentration. Total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), starch and plant biomass increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in all parts of the ginger varieties under elevated CO2 (800 μmol mol−1). The order of the TF and TP increment in the parts of the plant was rhizomes > stems > leaves. More specifically, Halia Bara had a greater increase of TF (2.05 mg/g dry weight) and TP (14.31 mg/g dry weight) compared to Halia Bentong (TF: 1.42 mg/g dry weight; TP: 9.11 mg/g dry weight) in average over the whole plant. Furthermore, plants with the highest rate of photosynthesis had the highest TSC and phenolics content. Significant differences between treatments and species were observed for TF and TP production. Correlation coefficient showed that TSC and TP content are positively correlated in both varieties. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased in young ginger grown under elevated CO2. The FRAP values for the leaves, rhizomes and stems extracts of both varieties grown under two different CO2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol−1) were significantly lower than those of vitamin C (3107.28 μmol Fe (II)/g) and α-tocopherol (953 μmol Fe (II)/g), but higher than that of BHT (74.31 μmol Fe (II)/g). These results indicate that the plant biomass, primary and secondary metabolite synthesis, and following that, antioxidant activities of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced through controlled environment (CE) and CO2 enrichment. PMID:21541046

  4. Mining and characterization of EST-SSR markers for Zingiber officinale Roscoe with transferability to other species of Zingiberaceae.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Praveen; Singh, Ashish; Sheikh, Gulfam; Mahajan, Vidushi; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Gupta, Suphla; Bedi, Yashbir S; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2017-10-01

    Zingiber officinale is a model spice herb, well known for its medicinal value. It is primarily a vegetatively propagated commercial crop. However, considerable diversity in its morphology, fiber content and chemoprofiles has been reported. The present study explores the utility of EST-derived markers in studying genetic diversity in different accessions of Z. officinale and their cross transferability within the Zingiberaceae family. A total of 38,115 ESTs sequences were assembled to generate 7850 contigs and 10,762 singletons. SSRs were searched in the unigenes and 515 SSR-containing ESTs were identified with a frequency of 1 SSR per 25.21 kb of the genome. These ESTs were also annotated using BLAST2GO. Primers were designed for 349 EST-SSRs and 25 primer pairs were randomly picked for EST SSR study. Out of these, 16 primer pairs could be optimized for amplification in different accessions of Z. officinale as well as other species belonging to Zingiberaceae. GES454, GES466, GES480 and GES486 markers were found to exhibit 100% cross-transferability among different members of Zingiberaceae.

  5. The Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) on Ethanol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Abolfazl; Nasiri, Khadijeh; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Iraji, Aida

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated daily for 28 days as follows: control, control-ginger (1 g/kg of body weight [BW]/day by gavage), ethanol group (ethanol 4 g/kg of BW/day by gavage), and ginger-ethanol group. At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of the total homocysteine (tHcy), trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results in the ethanol group indicate that ethanol decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA and tHcy compared with the control groups ( P < .05). In ginger-ethanol group, ginger improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced tHcy and MDA compared to ethanol group ( P < .05). It can be concluded that ginger protects the ethanol-induced testicular damage and improves the hormonal levels, trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and decreases tHcy and MDA.

  6. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqing; Wisniewski, Michael; Kennedy, John F; Jiang, Yusong; Tang, Jianmin; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-20

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, with the best control at 5g/L. Chitosan and oligochitosan applied at 5g/L also reduced weight loss, measured as a decrease in fresh weight, but did not affect soluble solids content or titratable acidity of rhizomes. The two compounds applied at 5g/L induced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes, as well as the total phenolic compounds in rhizome tissues. Therefore, the ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to reduce rot in stored rhizomes may be associated with their ability to induce defense responses in ginger. These results have practical implications for the application of chitosan and oligochitosan to harvested ginger rhizomes to reduce postharvest losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  8. Identification of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Volatiles and Localization of Aroma-Active Constituents by GC-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xueli; Cao, Jianmin; Wang, Dabin; Qiu, Jun; Kong, Fanyu

    2017-05-24

    For the characterization of chemical components contributing to the aroma of ginger, which could benefit the development of deep-processed ginger products, volatile extracts were isolated by a combination of direct solvent extraction-solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and static headspace analysis. Aroma-impact components were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry, and the most potent odorants were further screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA). The AEDA results revealed that geranial, eucalyptol, β-linalool, and bornyl acetate were the most potent odorants, exhibiting the highest flavor dilution factor (FD factor) of 2187. SHDA indicated that the predominant headspace odorants were α-pinene and eucalyptol. In addition, odorants exhibiting a high FD factor in SHDA were estimated to be potent aroma contributors in AEDA. The predominant odorants were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, as along with their oxygenated derivatives, providing minty, lemon-like, herbal, and woody aromas. On the other hand, three highly volatile compounds detected by SHDA were not detected by AEDA, whereas 34 high-polarity, low-volatility compounds were identified only by AEDA, demonstrating the complementary natures of SHDA and AEDA and the necessity of utilizing both techniques to accurately characterize the aroma of ginger.

  9. Comparative analysis of procoagulant and fibrinogenolytic activity of crude protease fractions of turmeric species.

    PubMed

    Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Nafeesa, Zohara; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-08-22

    Turmeric rhizome is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been widely used as a remedy to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and for wound healing by the rural and tribal population of India. To validate scientific and therapeutic application of turmeric rhizomes to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and its role in wound healing process. The water extracts of thoroughly scrubbed and washed turmeric rhizomes viz., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. were subjected to salting out and dialysis. The dialyzed crude enzyme fractions (CEFs) were assessed for proteolytic activity using casein as substrate and were also confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. Its coagulant activity and fibrinogenolytic activity were assessed using human citrated plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The type of protease(s) in CEFs was confirmed by inhibition studies using specific protease inhibitors. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed 1.89, 1.21 and 1.07 folds higher proteolytic activity, respectively, compared to papain. In contrast to these, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited moderate proteolytic activity. CEFs showed low proteolytic activities compared to trypsin. The proteolytic activities of CEFs were confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. The CEFs of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. caesia showed complete hydrolysis of Aα, Bβ and γ subunits of human fibrinogen, while C. amada and C. zedoria showed partial hydrolysis. The CEFs viz., C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia, C. amada and C. zedoria exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time from 172s (Control) to 66s, 84s 88s, 78s and 90s, respectively. The proteolytic activity of C. aromatica, C. longa, C. caesia and C. amada was inhibited (>82%) by PMSF, suggesting the possible presence of a serine protease(s). However, C. zedoria showed significant inhibition (60%) against IAA and moderate inhibition (30

  10. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum metabolites, gut morphology, and microflora of growing guinea fowl.

    PubMed

    Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Awe, Abdul Wahab; Awosoga, Fiyinfunjesu Gedion; Bello, Foyeke A; Akinfenwa, Taiwo A; Ogunremi, Emmanuel Babatunde

    2013-11-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of dried ginger meal (DGM) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum parameters, gut morphology, and microflora of growing helmeted guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris). One hundred sixty 28-day-old male keets were assigned to four dietary treatments. There were 40 birds per treatment replicated four times with 10 keets each. The experimental diets consisted of the basal diet (control), ginger-supplemented diets containing 20, 40, and 60 g/kg DGM, respectively. Guinea fowls fed diet supplemented with DGM had higher (P <0.05) final body weight, body weight gain and lower (P <0.05) feed intake. Optimum weight gain was obtained with supplementation level of 36.15-g DGM (R (2) = 0.923). Guinea fowls fed diet supplemented with 40 g/kg DGM recorded the highest (P <0.05) coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, ether extract and longest (P <0.05) duodenal and ileal villus heights. The crypt depth of the duodenum and ileum reduced (P <0.05) with increasing level of dietary supplementation of DGM. Dietary supplementation of DGM resulted in increased (P <0.05) total serum protein, serum albumin and low (P <0.05) serum cholesterol concentration. Ileum content of birds fed diet supplemented with 40 g/kg DGM recorded the highest (P <0.05) lactobacillus count. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of 40-g DGM per kilogram diet is hereby recommended for improved growth, apparent nutrient digestibility, gut morphology, serum chemistry, and stimulation of balanced intestinal microflora in growing guinea fowl.

  11. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  12. Evaluation of the total MBL confirm kit (ROSCO) for detection of metallo-β-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frank; Hammerum, Anette M; Skov, Robert; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Samuelsen, Orjan

    2014-08-01

    Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii have been associated with unspecific metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) inhibitor activity in synergy tests and low positive predictive value. In this study, a collection of well-characterized P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates was used to evaluate the inhibitor-based Total MBL Confirm Kit and the MBL Etest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of different light intensities on total phenolics and flavonoids synthesis and anti-oxidant activities in young ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-10-12

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.

  14. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Fábio Ricardo; Schmidt, Gustavo; Romero, Adriano Lopez; Sartoretto, Juliano Luiz; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), sage, Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae), essential oils were evaluated by studying humor- and cell-mediated immune responses. Essential oils were administered to mice (once a day, orally, for a week) previously immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Clove essential oil increased the total white blood cell (WBC) count and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice. Moreover, it restored cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Ginger essential oil recovered the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Contrary to the ginger essential oil response, sage essential oil did not show any immunomodulatory activity. Our findings establish that the immunostimulatory activity found in mice treated with clove essential oil is due to improvement in humor- and cell-mediated immune response mechanisms.

  15. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians. PMID:24367390

  16. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  17. SNP in Chalcone Synthase gene is associated with variation of 6-gingerol content in contrasting landraces of Zingiber officinale.Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Mandi, Swati Sen

    2015-07-25

    Zingiber officinale, medicinally the most important species within Zingiber genus, contains 6-gingerol as the active principle. This compound obtained from rhizomes of Z.officinale, has immense medicinal importance and is used in various herbal drug formulations. Our record of variation in content of this active principle, viz. 6-gingerol, in land races of this drug plant collected from different locations correlated with our Gene expression studies exhibiting high Chalcone Synthase gene (Chalcone Synthase is the rate limiting enzyme of 6-gingerol biosynthesis pathway) expression in high 6-gingerol containing landraces than in the low 6-gingerol containing landraces. Sequencing of Chalcone Synthase cDNA and subsequent multiple sequence alignment revealed seven SNPs between these contrasting genotypes. Converting this nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence, alteration of two amino acids becomes evident; one amino acid change (asparagine to serine at position 336) is associated with base change (A→G) and another change (serine to leucine at position 142) is associated with the base change (C→T). Since asparagine at position 336 is one of the critical amino acids of the catalytic triad of Chalcone Synthase enzyme, responsible for substrate binding, our study suggests that landraces with a specific amino acid change viz. Asparagine (found in high 6-gingerol containing landraces) to serine causes low 6-gingerol content. This is probably due to a weak enzyme substrate association caused by the absence of asparagine in the catalytic triad. Detailed study of this finding could also help to understand molecular mechanism associated with variation in 6-gingerol content in Z.officinale genotypes and thereby strategies for developing elite genotypes containing high 6-gingerol content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  19. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops.

  20. Fabrication and vibration characterization of curcumin extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes of the northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Nong, Hoang; Hung, Le Xuan; Thang, Pham Nam; Chinh, Vu Duc; Vu, Le Van; Dung, Phan Tien; Van Trung, Tran; Nga, Pham Thu

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present the research results on using the conventional method and microwave technology to extract curcuminoid from turmeric roots originated in different regions of Northern Vietnam. This method is simple, yet economical, non-toxic and still able to achieve high extraction performance to get curcuminoid from turmeric roots. The detailed results on the Raman vibration spectra combined with X-ray powder diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry allowed the evaluation of each batch of curcumin crystalline powder sample received, under the conditions of applied fabrication technology. Also, the absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies of the samples are presented in the paper. The information to be presented in this paper: absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies of the samples; new experimental study results on applied technology to mass-produce curcumin from turmeric rhizomes; comparative study results between fabricated samples and marketing curcumin products-to state the complexity of co-existing crystalline phase in curcumin powder samples. We noticed that, it is possible to use the vibration line at ~959 cm(-1)-characteristic of the ν C=O vibration, and the ~1625 cm(-1) line-characteristic of the ν C=O and ν C=C vibration in curcumin molecules, for preliminary quality assessment of naturally originated curcumin crystalline powder samples. Data on these new optical spectra will contribute to the bringing of detailed information on natural curcumin in Vietnam, serving research purposes and applications of natural curcumin powder and nanocurcumin in Vietnam, as well as being initial materials for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics or functional food industries.

  1. High performance curcumin subcritical water extraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Mohammad; Najafpour-Darzi, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric rhizome, which consists about 2-5% of the total rhizome content and is a more valuable component of turmeric. For reducing the drawbacks of conventional extraction (using organic solvents) of curcumin, the water as a clean solvent was used for extracting curcumin. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) experimental setup was fabricated in a laboratory scale and the influences of some parameters (e.g. extraction temperature, particle size, retention time and pressure) on the yield of extraction were investigated. Optimum extraction conditions such as SWE pressure of 10bar, extractive temperature of 140°C, particle size of 0.71mm and retention time of 14min were defined. The maximum amount of curcumin extracted at the optimum condition was 3.8wt%. The yield of curcumin extraction was more than 76wt% with regards to the maximum possible curcumin content of turmeric, as known to be 5%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the outer surface of turmeric, before and after extraction, clearly demonstrated the effect of each parameter; changes in porosity and hardness of turmeric that is directly related to the amount of extracted curcumin in process optimization of the extraction parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of Curcuma longa extracted (curcumin) on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of curcumin needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Semen samples (n = 9) were collected from nine Duroc boars which having proven fertility were used for routine artificial insemination. Semen samples were collected and divided into six groups (groups A-F) according to various concentrations of curcumin in freezing extender (i.e. 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). The semen was frozen by traditional liquid nitrogen vapor method and stored at -196°C in the liquid nitrogen tank. After storage, frozen semen samples were thawed at 50°C for 12 s and evaluated for progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity. The present results indicated that the addition of curcumin at 0.25 (group C) or 0.50 mmol/L curcumin (group D) yielded the higher percentage of progressive motility (33.3 and 36.1%, respectively) (P < 0.001). A significantly higher percentage of acrosome integrity was found in groups B (29.7%), C (31.1%) and D (30.2%) than in the other groups (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in percentage of viability among groups. In conclusion, addition to the freezing extender of curcumin during cryopreservation at a concentration of 0.25 or 0.50 mmol/L is the optimal concentration of curcumin for improving the quality (i.e. increased progressive motility and acrosome integrity) of cryopreserved boar semen. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Protective effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa) against D-galactose-induced senescence in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Dogra, Samrita

    2011-01-01

    Brain senescence plays an important role in cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorders. Curcumin was reported to have beneficial effect against several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the present study was conducted in order to explore the possible role of curcumin against D-galactose-induced cognitive dysfunction, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Chronic administration of D-galactose for 6 weeks significantly impaired cognitive function (both in Morris water maze and elevated plus maze), locomotor activity, oxidative defense (raised lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity), and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II, and III) as compared to vehicle treated group. Curcumin (15 and 30 mg/kg) and galantamine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 6 weeks significantly improved cognitive tasks, locomotor activity, oxidative defense, and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activity as compared to control (D-galactose). Chronic D-galactose treatment also significantly increased acetylcholine esterase activity that was attenuated by curcumin (15 and 30 mg/kg) and galantamine (5 mg/kg) treatment. In conclusion, the present study highlights the therapeutic potential of curcumin against d-galactose induced senescence in mice.

  4. Curcuma longa (curcumin) decreases in vivo cisplatin-induced ototoxicity through heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Fetoni, Anna R; Eramo, Sara L M; Paciello, Fabiola; Rolesi, Rolando; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Troiani, Diana; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether curcumin may have in vivo protective effects against cisplatin ototoxicity by its direct scavenger activity and/or by curcumin-mediated upregulation of HO-1. Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is a major dose-limiting side effect in anticancer chemotherapy. A protective approach to decrease cis