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Sample records for curcumin decreased oxidative

  1. Curcumin prevents cisplatin-induced decrease in the tight and adherens junctions: relation to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Joyce; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Reyes, José Luis; Loredo, María L; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana; Pinzón, Enrique; Rodríguez-Rangel, Daniela Saraí; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol and cisplatin is an antineoplastic agent that induces nephrotoxicity associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrosis and decrease in renal tight junction (TJ) proteins. The potential effect of curcumin against alterations in TJ structure and function has not been evaluated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The present study explored whether curcumin is able to prevent the cisplatin-induced fibrosis and decreased expression of the TJ and adherens junction (AJ) proteins occludin, claudin-2 and E-cadherin in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin (200 mg kg(-1)) was administered in three doses, and rats were sacrificed 72 h after cisplatin administration. Curcumin was able to scavenge, in a concentration-dependent way, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite anion, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Cisplatin-induced renal damage was associated with alterations in plasma creatinine, expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and of kidney injury molecule-1, histological damage, increase in apoptosis, fibrosis (evaluated by transforming growth factor β1, collagen I and IV and α-smooth muscle actin expressions), increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress (evaluated by Hsp70/72 expression, protein tyrosine nitration, superoxide anion production in isolated glomeruli and proximal tubules, and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox), protein kinase C β2, and Nrf2) as well as by decreased expression of occludin, claudin-2, β-catenin and E-cadherin. Curcumin treatment prevented all the above-described alterations. The protective effect of curcumin against cisplatin-induced fibrosis and decreased proteins of the TJ and AJ was associated with the prevention of glomerular and proximal tubular superoxide anion production induced by NADPH oxidase activity.

  2. Curcumin Reduces Amyloid Fibrillation of Prion Protein and Decreases Reactive Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Fen; Yu, Kun-Hua; Jheng, Cheng-Ping; Chung, Raymond; Lee, Cheng-I

    2013-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation into amyloids of the prion protein (PrP) is responsible for the development of fatal transmissible neurodegenerative diseases. Various studies on curcumin demonstrate promise for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and inhibition of PrPres accumulation. To evaluate the effect of curcumin on amyloid fibrillation of prion protein, we first investigated the effect of curcumin on mouse prion protein (mPrP) in a cell-free system. Curcumin reduced the prion fibril formation significantly. Furthermore, we monitored the change in apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level upon curcumin treatment in mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a). Curcumin effectively rescues the cells from apoptosis and decreases the ROS level caused by subsequent co-incubation with prion amyloid fibrils. The assays in cell-free mPrP and in N2a cells of this work verified the promising effect of curcumin on the prevention of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25437204

  3. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause.

  4. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause. PMID:26640615

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Ambar K; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  6. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  7. Intrathecal curcumin attenuates pain hypersensitivity and decreases spinal neuroinflammation in rat model of monoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Dai, Lin; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Xiang; Cao, Su; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a major component of turmeric and reportedly has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Neuroinflammation has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases in the central nervous system. Here we investigated the anti-nociceptive and anti-neuroinflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic pain in rats. We found that repeated oral treatment with curcumin, either before or after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection, dose-dependently attenuated CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect on joint edema. Repeated intrathecal injection of curcumin reversed CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, such a curcumin treatment reduced CFA-induced activation of glial cells and production of inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and monocyte inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α)] in the spinal cord. Curcumin also decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, MCP-1, and MIP-1α in cultured astrocytes and microglia. Our results suggest that intrathecal curcumin attenuates arthritic pain by inhibiting glial activation and the production of inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord, suggesting a new application of curcumin for the treatment of arthritic pain. PMID:25988362

  8. Intrathecal curcumin attenuates pain hypersensitivity and decreases spinal neuroinflammation in rat model of monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Dai, Lin; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Xiang; Cao, Su; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a major component of turmeric and reportedly has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Neuroinflammation has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases in the central nervous system. Here we investigated the anti-nociceptive and anti-neuroinflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic pain in rats. We found that repeated oral treatment with curcumin, either before or after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection, dose-dependently attenuated CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect on joint edema. Repeated intrathecal injection of curcumin reversed CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, such a curcumin treatment reduced CFA-induced activation of glial cells and production of inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and monocyte inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α)] in the spinal cord. Curcumin also decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, MCP-1, and MIP-1α in cultured astrocytes and microglia. Our results suggest that intrathecal curcumin attenuates arthritic pain by inhibiting glial activation and the production of inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord, suggesting a new application of curcumin for the treatment of arthritic pain. PMID:25988362

  9. Curcumin targeting the thioredoxin system elevates oxidative stress in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Wenqing; Zhang, Baoxin; Duan, Dongzhu; Wu, Jincai; Fang, Jianguo

    2012-08-01

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thioredoxin (Trx), and NADPH, is ubiquitous in all cells and involved in many redox-dependent signaling pathways. Curcumin, a naturally occurring pigment that gives a specific yellow color in curry food, is consumed in normal diet up to 100 mg per day. This molecule has also been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Curcumin has numerous biological functions, and many of these functions are related to induction of oxidative stress. However, how curcumin elicits oxidative stress in cells is unclear. Our previous work has demonstrated the way by which curcumin interacts with recombinant TrxR1 and alters the antioxidant enzyme into a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in vitro. Herein we reported that curcumin can target the cytosolic/nuclear thioredoxin system to eventually elevate oxidative stress in HeLa cells. Curcumin-modified TrxR1 dose-dependently and quantitatively transfers electrons from NADPH to oxygen with the production of ROS. Also, curcumin can drastically down-regulate Trx1 protein level as well as its enzyme activity in HeLa cells, which in turn remarkably decreases intracellular free thiols, shifting the intracellular redox balance to a more oxidative state, and subsequently induces DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, curcumin-pretreated HeLa cells are more sensitive to oxidative stress. Knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes HeLa cells to curcumin cytotoxicity, highlighting the physiological significance of targeting TrxR1 by curcumin. Taken together, our data disclose a previously unrecognized prooxidant mechanism of curcumin in cells, and provide a deep insight in understanding how curcumin works in vivo. -- Highlights: ► Curcumin induces oxidative stress by targeting the thioredoxin system. ► Curcumin-modified TrxR quantitatively oxidizes NADPH to generate ROS. ► Knockdown of TrxR1 augments curcumin's cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. ► Curcumin

  10. Curcumin reduces oxidative and nitrative DNA damage through balancing of oxidant-antioxidant status in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini.

    PubMed

    Pinlaor, Somchai; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Prakobwong, Suksanti; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2009-10-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection is endemic in northeastern Thailand. We have previously reported that OV infection induces oxidative and nitrative DNA damage via chronic inflammation, which contributes to the disease and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Here, we examined the effect of curcumin, an antioxidant, on pathogenesis in OV-infected hamsters. DNA lesions were detected by double immunofluorescence and the hepatic expression of oxidant-generating and antioxidant genes was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Dietary 1.0% curcumin significantly decreased OV-induced accumulation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), an oxidative DNA lesion, and 8-nitroguanine, a nitrative DNA lesion, in the nucleus of bile duct epithelial and inflammatory cells. Expression of oxidant-generating genes (inducible nitric oxide synthase; iNOS, its nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-kappaB, and cyclooxygenase-2), and plasma levels of nitrate, malondialdehyde, and alanine aminotransferase, were also decreased in curcumin-treated group. In contrast, curcumin increased the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase), and ferric-reducing anti-oxidant power in the plasma. In conclusion, curcumin reduced oxidative and nitrative DNA damage by suppression of oxidant-generating genes and enhancement of antioxidant genes, leading to inhibition of oxidative and nitrative stress. Therefore, curcumin may be used as a chemopreventive agent to reduce the severity of OV-associated diseases and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).

  11. The involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the anti-epileptic action of curcumin on pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Su, Jing; Liu, Jing; Jiang, Changbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated whether a NO signaling pathway is involved in the anti-epileptic effect of curcumin on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled rats. PTZ-kindled rats received different doses of curcumin that were administered intraperitoneally for 24 days. Either a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)), a selective inhibitor of neuronal NOS (7-Nitroindazole (7-NI)), a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (aminoguanidine (AG)), or a NO precursor (L-arginine (L-ARG)) was administered chronically to evaluate the role of NO in curcumin's anti-seizure effect. A chronic administration of curcumin (200 mg/kg) was most effective for decreasing the mean frequency of epileptiform discharge. Furthermore, a pretreatment with L-NAME or 7-NI augmented the anti-epileptic effect of curcumin. In contrast, AG failed to significantly alter the anti-epileptic effect of curcumin. A pretreatment with L-ARG temporally reversed the anti-epileptic effect of curcumin in the early stage, but in the late stage, it potentiated curcumin's anti-epileptic effect. These findings suggest that the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway may be involved in the anti-epileptic properties of curcumin, and that the role of nNOS (and not iNOS) is prominent in this neuroprotective feature. PMID:26406082

  12. Therapeutic effects of curcumin on the functional disturbances and oxidative stress induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Houshang; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Sayedzadeh, Sayed Abolhasan; Mohamadi yarijani, Zeynab; Fakhri, Sajad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocyte infiltration induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly divided into 9 groups. The groups with 24-h reperfusion consisted of sham-24h, I/R-24h, and three I/R groups treated with curcumin at 10, 20, or 30 mg kg-1, i.p. after the ischemic period. The 72-h reperfusion groups also included Sham-72h, I/R-72h, I/R treated with curcumin at single dose of 20 mg kg-1, i.p., and I/R group which received three doses of curcumin at 20 mg kg-1, i.p., consecutively. Renal functional injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations. Oxidative stress was evaluated by assessment tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) levels. Moreover, renal tissue leukocyte infiltration was measured by histopathology examination. Results: Ischemia/reperfusion resulted in a significant increase in serum concentration of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, tissue MDA level, and leukocytes infiltration as well as reduced FRAP level. Treatment with curcumin in 24-h reperfusion groups could only lead to a significant change in the levels of MDA and FRAP. However, in 72-h reperfusion groups, curcumin was able to correct all functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocytes infiltration with more effectiveness in groups that received three doses of curcumin. Conclusion: The administration of curcumin during 72-h reperfusion following 30 minutes of ischemia can decrease renal oxidative stress and leukocytes infiltration as well as improve kidney function. However, during first 24-h reperfusion, curcumin only decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26693415

  13. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  14. Effect of curcumin on LDL oxidation in vitro, and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Mohamedain M; Zhou, Qi; Kummerow, Fred A

    2011-11-01

    In this study we examined the antioxidant effect of curcumin on lipid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, curcumin at 5 microgM concentration completely prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by CuS0(4), indicating that curcumin is an effective antioxidant in vitro. In vivo, feeding a pure cholesterol (PC)-rich diet to rabbits significantly increased the plasma and liver lipids as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Addition of curcumin to the PC diet did not show any effect on either plasma lipid and TBARS or liver lipids. Liver TBARS tended to decrease but that decrease was not significant. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly decreased while catalase activity was significantly increased in rabbits fed a PC diet. The addition of curcumin to a PC diet did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte enzyme activities compared to the rabbits fed a PC diet. The liver GSH-Px and catalase activities were significantly decreased in rabbits fed a PC diet, but the addition of curcumin to the PC diet enhanced the liver GSH-Px activity, which became nonsignificantly different from the control group. These results were discussed considering that curcumin may not be well absorbed and it did not reach a level high enough in vivo to overcome the severe hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress produced by the PC-rich diet.

  15. Curcumin improves wound healing by modulating collagen and decreasing reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Miriyala, Sumitra; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Suguna, Lonchin

    2006-10-01

    Wound healing consists of an orderly progression of events that re-establish the integrity of the damaged tissue. Several natural products have been shown to accelerate the healing process. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the role of curcumin on changes in collagen characteristics and antioxidant property during cutaneous wound healing in rats. Full-thickness excision wounds were made on the back of rat and curcumin was administered topically. The wound tissues removed on 4th, 8th and 12th day (post-wound) were used to analyse biochemical and pathological changes. Curcumin increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and type III collagen content of wound tissues. Curcumin treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialisation, wound contraction and increased tensile strength which were also confirmed by histopathological examinations. Curcumin treatment was shown to decrease the levels of lipid peroxides (LPs), while the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), activities were significantly increased exhibiting the antioxidant properties of curcumin in accelerating wound healing. Better maturation and cross linking of collagen were observed in the curcumin treated rats, by increased stability of acid-soluble collagen, aldehyde content, shrinkage temperature and tensile strength. The results clearly substantiate the beneficial effects of the topical application of curcumin in the acceleration of wound healing and its antioxidant effect. PMID:16770527

  16. Protective effects of curcumin against oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in the livers and kidneys of rats with biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Tokaç, Mehmet; Taner, Gökçe; Aydın, Sevtap; Ozkardeş, Alper Bilal; Dündar, Halit Ziya; Taşlıpınar, Mine Yavuz; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Kılıç, Mehmet; Başaran, Arif Ahmet; Basaran, Nursen

    2013-11-01

    Curcumin, a most active antioxidant compound, has been suggested to have potential beneficial effects against most metabolic and psychological disorders, including cholestasis. In the present study, the effects of curcumin against oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in Wistar albino rats for 14 days were investigated. The rats were divided into three following groups: Sham group, the BDL group and the BDL+curcumin group. A daily dose of 50mg/kg curcumin was given to the BDL+curcumin group intragastrically for 14 days. The biomarkers of hepatocellular damage were decreased in the BDL+curcumin group compared to the BDL group, indicating that curcumin recovered the liver functions. DNA damage as assessed by the alkaline comet assay was also found to be low in the BDL+curcumin group. Curcumin significantly reduced malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, and enchanced reduced glutathione levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase enzymes activities in the livers and kidneys of BDL group. Curcumin treatment in BDL group was found to decrease tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in the livers of rats. These results suggest that curcumin might have protective effects on the cholestasis-induced injuries in the liver and kidney tissues of rats.

  17. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Lim, G P; Chu, T; Yang, F; Beech, W; Frautschy, S A; Cole, G M

    2001-11-01

    Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is characterized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemiological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase I can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and renal toxicity. One alternative NSAID is curcumin, derived from the curry spice turmeric. Curcumin has an extensive history as a food additive and herbal medicine in India and is also a potent polyphenolic antioxidant. To evaluate whether it could affect Alzheimer-like pathology in the APPSw mice, we tested a low (160 ppm) and a high dose of dietary curcumin (5000 ppm) on inflammation, oxidative damage, and plaque pathology. Low and high doses of curcumin significantly lowered oxidized proteins and interleukin-1beta, a proinflammatory cytokine elevated in the brains of these mice. With low-dose but not high-dose curcumin treatment, the astrocytic marker GFAP was reduced, and insoluble beta-amyloid (Abeta), soluble Abeta, and plaque burden were significantly decreased by 43-50%. However, levels of amyloid precursor (APP) in the membrane fraction were not reduced. Microgliosis was also suppressed in neuronal layers but not adjacent to plaques. In view of its efficacy and apparent low toxicity, this Indian spice component shows promise for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:11606625

  18. Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin on Lindane-induced Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, is recognized as a major public health concern because of its potential toxic effects on human health. Its persistence in the body fluids may lead to continuous blood circulation, liver exposure and hepatotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective role of curcumin on lindane-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty-two healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each. Group I was given dimethylsulfoxide. A single dose of lindane (60 mg/kg bw) was given to group II. Lindane (30 mg/kg bw) was given daily to group III for 14 days. Treatment with curcumin (100 and 200 mg/kg) was given to groups IV and V before (pretreatment) and to groups VI and VII after (post-treatment) 14 days exposure of lindane. Oxidative stress parameters and antioxidative enzymes were investigated in the liver of exposed and treated rats. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and decrease in glutathione level, Superoxide dismutase catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and NADPH quinine reductase activities was observed in liver of rats exposed to lindane. Curcumin (Pre- and post-treatment) nearly normalized all these parameters. Histological alterations were also observed in the liver tissue after lindane exposure. Treatment with curcumin significantly prevented the lindane-induced histological alterations. In conclusion, curcumin has protective effect over lindane-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. PMID:21976817

  19. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis, and Decreases Hormone Levels and Secretion in Pituitary Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on pituitary tumor cell proliferation has not been determined. Our objectives were to: 1) determine whether curcumin inhibits proliferation of pituitary tumor cell lines; 2) identify the signaling intermediaries that mediate the effect of curcumin; 3) examine whether curcumin inhibited pituitary hormone production and release; and 4) examine whether curcumin could enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine. Using rat lactotroph cell lines, GH3 and MMQ cells, we report that curcumin had a robust dose and time-dependent inhibitory effect on GH3 and MMQ cell proliferation. Inhibitory effects of curcumin persisted, even on removal of curcumin, and curcumin also blocked colony formation ability of pituitary tumor cells. The growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D3 and ser 780 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, curcumin also induced apoptosis in both GH3 and MMQ cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses intracellular levels and release of both prolactin and GH. Finally, we show that low concentrations of curcumin enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MMQ cell proliferation. Taken together we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits pituitary tumor cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone production and release, and thus, we propose developing curcumin as a novel therapeutic tool in the management of prolactinomas. PMID:18450960

  20. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone levels and secretion in pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-08-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on pituitary tumor cell proliferation has not been determined. Our objectives were to: 1) determine whether curcumin inhibits proliferation of pituitary tumor cell lines; 2) identify the signaling intermediaries that mediate the effect of curcumin; 3) examine whether curcumin inhibited pituitary hormone production and release; and 4) examine whether curcumin could enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine. Using rat lactotroph cell lines, GH3 and MMQ cells, we report that curcumin had a robust dose and time-dependent inhibitory effect on GH3 and MMQ cell proliferation. Inhibitory effects of curcumin persisted, even on removal of curcumin, and curcumin also blocked colony formation ability of pituitary tumor cells. The growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D3 and ser 780 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, curcumin also induced apoptosis in both GH3 and MMQ cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses intracellular levels and release of both prolactin and GH. Finally, we show that low concentrations of curcumin enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MMQ cell proliferation. Taken together we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits pituitary tumor cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone production and release, and thus, we propose developing curcumin as a novel therapeutic tool in the management of prolactinomas.

  1. Curcumin Attenuates Iron Accumulation and Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Spleen of Chronic Iron-Overloaded Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badria, Farid A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; Badria, Adel F.; Elmarakby, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Iron overload is now recognized as a health problem in industrialized countries, as excessive iron is highly toxic for liver and spleen. The potential use of curcumin as an iron chelator has not been clearly identified experimentally in iron overload condition. Here, we evaluate the efficacy of curcumin to alleviate iron overload-induced hepatic and splenic abnormalities and to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Design and Methods Three groups of male adult rats were treated as follows: control rats, rats treated with iron in a drinking water for 2 months followed by either vehicle or curcumin treatment for 2 more months. Thereafter, we studied the effects of curcumin on iron overload-induced lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant depletion. Results Treatment of iron-overloaded rats with curcumin resulted in marked decreases in iron accumulation within liver and spleen. Iron-overloaded rats had significant increases in malonyldialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO) in liver and spleen when compared to control group. The effects of iron overload on lipid peroxidation and NO levels were significantly reduced by the intervention treatment with curcumin (P<0.05). Furthermore, the endogenous anti-oxidant activities/levels in liver and spleen were also significantly decreased in chronic iron overload and administration of curcumin restored the decrease in the hepatic and splenic antioxidant activities/levels. Conclusion Our study suggests that curcumin may represent a new horizon in managing iron overload-induced toxicity as well as in pathological diseases characterized by hepatic iron accumulation such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes possibly via iron chelation, reduced oxidative stress derived lipid peroxidation and improving the body endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism. PMID:26230491

  2. Curcumin-reduced graphene oxide sheets and their effects on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hatamie, Shadie; Akhavan, Omid; Sadrnezhaad, Sayed Khatiboleslam; Ahadian, Mohammad Mahdi; Shirolkar, Mandar M; Wang, Haiqian Q

    2015-10-01

    Curcumin (as a natural reductant material) was utilized for green reduction and functionalization of chemically exfoliated graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The π-π attachment of the curcumin molecules onto the curcumin-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets was confirmed by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. Zeta potential of the GO sheets decreased from about -40 mV to -20 mV, after the green reduction and functionalization. The probable cytotoxicity of the curcumin-rGO sheets was studied through their interactions with two human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 cell lines) and a normal cell line (mouse fibroblast L929 cell line). The curcumin-rGO sheet with concentrations <70 μg/mL in the cell culture medium, not only exhibited no significant toxicity and/or cell morphological changes, but also caused some cell growths (~25% after 48 h incubation time). Nevertheless, at 70 μg/mL, initiation of some cell morphological changes was observed. At higher concentrations (e.g., 100 μg/mL), some slight cytotoxic effects (resulting in ~15-25% cell destruction) were detected by MTT assay. In addition, the interaction of the rGO sheets and cells resulted in apoptosis as well as morphological transformation of the cells (from elongated to roundup morphology). These results indicated the concentration-dependent toxicity of functionalized-rGO nanomaterials (here, curcumin-rGO) at the threshold concentration of ~100 μg/mL.

  3. Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Soham P.; Tam, Alison Y.; Barr, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are used by thousands of patients all over the world. However, they can often cause adverse effects. Turmeric, made from the root of Curcuma, longa, is a yellow spice used throughout South Asia for its flavor as well as for its medicinal properties. Curcumin is the main ingredient in turmeric. It is known for downregulating the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines and has been studied for its antiinflammatory mechanism. However, it has also been reported to cause contact dermatitis. Kumkum, a turmeric-based powder applied by Hindu women on their foreheads, has also been found as an allergen. Objective: The authors have reviewed the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin and reports of contact dermatitis to understand the possible harmful effects of this commonly used spice, while also examining its beneficial role in dermatologic conditions. They aim to increase awareness regarding this common herb and its prevalent use not only in South Asia, but also in North America. Methods: A thorough literature search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify studies that examined the antiinflammatory role of curcumin and its role in contact dermatitis. Results: Eleven studies demonstrate that although curcumin does have antiinflammatory properties, it is an allergen. Conclusion: Curcumin has many valuable properties that can be exploited to treat dermatologic conditions. However, patients and dermatologists must be keen of possible allergic reactions. Further studies are needed to completely understand this widely used herb and its efficacy in dermatology. PMID:26705440

  4. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications.

  5. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications. PMID:26713546

  6. Redox nanoparticles inhibit curcumin oxidative degradation and enhance its therapeutic effect on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Sindhu; Yoshitomi, Toru; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-07-10

    Curcumin is a phytochemical with diverse molecular targets and is well known for its anti-tumor potential. However, it has limited application in cancer therapy because curcumin undergoes rapid oxidative degradation at physiological conditions resulting in poor stability and bio-availability. In this study, we were able to suppress curcumin's oxidative degradation by encapsulating it in a nanoparticle that also acts as a radical scavenger. We prepared curcumin-loaded pH-sensitive redox nanoparticles (RNP(N)) by self-assembling amphiphilic block copolymers conjugated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging nitroxide radicals to ensure the delivery of minimally degraded curcumin to target regions. In vitro analysis confirmed that the entrapment of both curcumin and nitroxide radicals in the hydrophobic core of RNP(N) suppressed curcumin degradation in conditions mimicking the physiological environment. Evaluation of apoptosis-related molecules in the cells, such as ceramides, caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor, and acid ceramidase revealed that curcumin loaded RNP(N) induced strong apoptosis compared to free curcumin. Lastly, intravenous injection of curcumin loaded RNP(N) suppressed tumor growth in vivo, which is due to the increased bio-availability and significant ROS scavenging at tumor sites. These results demonstrated that RNP(N) is a promising drug carrier with unique ROS-scavenging abilities, and it is able to overcome the crucial hurdle of curcumin's limitations to enhance its therapeutic potential.

  7. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin can chelate metal ions, forming metallocomplexes. We compared the effects of Zn(II)-curcumin with curcumin against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-induced elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reductions in glutathione level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Zn(II)-curcumin also inhibited ethanol-induced liver injury. Additionally, Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently inhibited hemorheological abnormalities, including the ethanol-induced elevation of whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity at corrected hematocrit (45%), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index and hematocrit. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively elevated SOD activity, ameliorated liver injury and improved hemorheological variables. These results suggest that Zn(II)-curcumin protected the rats from ethanol-induced liver injury and hemorheological abnormalities via the synergistic effect of curcumin and zinc.

  8. Vesicular (liposomal and nanoparticulated) delivery of curcumin: a comparative study on carbon tetrachloride–mediated oxidative hepatocellular damage in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Das, Nirmalendu; Ghosh, Swarupa; Ghosh, Debasree; Chakraborty, Somsuta; Ali, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    The liver plays a vital role in biotransforming and extricating xenobiotics and is thus prone to their toxicities. Short-term administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) causes hepatic inflammation by enhancing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, promoting mitochondrial dysfunction, and inducing cellular apoptosis. Curcumin is well accepted for its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and can be considered as an effective therapeutic agent against hepatotoxicity. However, its therapeutic efficacy is compromised due to its insolubility in water. Vesicular delivery of curcumin can address this limitation and thereby enhance its effectiveness. In this study, it was observed that both liposomal and nanoparticulated formulations of curcumin could increase its efficacy significantly against hepatotoxicity by preventing cellular oxidative stress. However, the best protection could be obtained through the polymeric nanoparticle-mediated delivery of curcumin. Mitochondria have a pivotal role in ROS homeostasis and cell survivability. Along with the maintenance of cellular ROS levels, nanoparticulated curcumin also significantly (P<0.0001) increased cellular antioxidant enzymes, averted excessive mitochondrial destruction, and prevented total liver damage in CCl4-treated rats. The therapy not only prevented cells from oxidative damage but also arrested the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, it also decreased the fatty changes in hepatocytes, centrizonal necrosis, and portal inflammation evident from the histopathological analysis. To conclude, curcumin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles are more effective in comparison to liposomal curcumin in preventing CCl4-induced oxidative stress–mediated hepatocellular damage and thereby can be considered as an effective therapeutic strategy. PMID:27274242

  9. Protective Role of Dietary Curcumin in the Prevention of the Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Alcohol with respect to Hepatic Injury and Antiatherogenic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Varatharajalu, Ravi; Garige, Mamatha; Leckey, Leslie C.; Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Lakshman, M. Raj

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, an antioxidant compound found in Asian spices, was evaluated for its protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis, liver injury, antiatherogenic markers, and antioxidant status in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli low menhaden (2.7% of total calories from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)) and Lieber-deCarli high menhaden (13.8% of total calories from ω-3 PUFA) alcohol-liquid (5%) diets supplemented with or without curcumin (150 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Treatment with curcumin protected against high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and increase in liver injury markers, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Curcumin upregulated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) mRNA and caused significant increase in serum PON1 and homocysteine thiolactonase activities as compared to high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol group. Moreover, treatment with curcumin protected against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant glutathione and decreasing the lipid peroxidation adduct 4-hydroxynonenal. These results strongly suggest that chronic ethanol in combination with high ω-3 PUFA exacerbated hepatosteatosis and liver injury and adversely decreases antiatherogenic markers due to increased oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione. Curcumin supplementation significantly prevented these deleterious actions of chronic ethanol and high ω-3 PUFA. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin may have therapeutic potential to protect against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury and atherosclerosis. PMID:26881029

  10. Curcumin Mitigates Accelerated Aging after Irradiation in Drosophila by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mira; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, belonging to a class of natural phenol compounds, has been extensively studied due to its antioxidative, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative effects. Recently, it has been shown to exert dual activities after irradiation, radioprotection, and radiosensitization. Here, we investigated the protective effect of curcumin against radiation damage using D. melanogaster. Pretreatment with curcumin (100 μM) recovered the shortened lifespan caused by irradiation and increased eclosion rate. Flies subjected to high-dose irradiation showed a mutant phenotype of outstretched wings, whereas curcumin pretreatment reduced incidence of the mutant phenotype. Protein carbonylation and formation of γH2Ax foci both increased following high-dose irradiation most likely due to generation of reactive oxygen species. Curcumin pretreatment reduced the amount of protein carbonylation as well as formation of γH2Ax foci. Therefore, we suggest that curcumin acts as an oxidative stress reducer as well as an effective protective agent against radiation damage. PMID:25815315

  11. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Jozi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO) are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur) against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold), ALT (2.7-fold) and ALP (1.97-fold) activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01). NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01). Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%), increased SOD (156%) and GPx (26%) activities, and attenuated ALT (47%), AST (41%) and ALP (30%) activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  12. Curcumin Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Activation of Redox-Sensitive Kinases in High Fructose- and High-Fat-Fed Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Maithili Karpaga Selvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and redox-sensitive kinases in high fructose- and high-fat-fed rats. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups with ten animals each. Rats were fed with a standard rodent diet, high fructose diet (60%), and high-fat diet (30%). Curcumin was administered to control, high fructose and high fat diet groups for ten weeks. At the end of the study, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. The antioxidant enzymes GSH (reduced glutathione), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), and catalase activities were estimated in the blood. MDA, TAS, and TOS were estimated in the plasma, liver, and kidney. Curcumin treatment decreased body weight and blood glucose levels in the rats fed with fructose and high-fat diet. Antioxidant enzymes and plasma TAS were significantly improved by curcumin treatment in high fructose-fed rats, whereas in high-fat-fed rats, there was an increase only in the GPx activity. Curcumin significantly attenuated the elevation of plasma MDA and TOS in both diet groups. Hepatic MDA and TOS were found to be decreased upon curcumin supplementation in both diet groups, whereas a decrease in the renal MDA levels was observed only in fructose-treated rats, not in fat-fed rats. Curcumin treatment elevated liver TAS in rats fed only with the fructose-rich diet. Curcumin showed a significant decrease in the oxidative stress index (OSI) in plasma, liver, and kidney tissues in both diet groups. ERK phosphorylation was significantly decreased in both diet groups by curcumin treatment. Similarly, curcumin reduced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK only in the high fructose-fed rats, not in the high-fat-fed rats. No significant changes were found in JNK phosphorylation in both diet groups. Thus, curcumin may be effective in the management of diet-induced oxidative stress and could be explored as a therapeutic adjuvant against complications associated with obesity and

  13. Relief of Oxidative Stress Using Curcumin and Glutathione Functionalized ZnO Nanoparticles in HEK-293 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Zafaryab, Md; Umar, Ahmad; Rizvi, M M A; Fouad, H; Ansari, Z A; Ansari, S G

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) with different surface modifications in relieving the oxidative stress in cultured human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) following investigation was performed. Oxidative stress was artificially induced by hydrogen peroxide in HEK-293 cell culture and its management was studied. Alkyl amines modified ZnO-NPs with curcumin and reduced glutathione (GSH) functionalization was used in managing oxidative stress and had shown promising results. ZnO-NPs used in this study were synthesized via non-aqueous sol-gel method and FESEM characterisation showed them of spherical shape of about 20-50 nm size with amine, curcumin and GSH functionalization. UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopic characterizations confirmed functionalization of ZnO-NPs. Decrease in oxidative stress was found with the dose-dependent culture of HEK-293 cells with these functionalized ZnO-NPs. Cell viability and morphology, as observed using AFM and inverted microscope, was retained with the prescribed dosages of the functionalized nanoparticles while at higher dosages they caused cytotoxicity and death. Diethylamine (DEA) modified ZnO-NPs and their functionalization with GSH and curcumin were found more effective in managing oxidative stress in cells. Present study could help in designing economical and bio-compatible functionalized non-toxic nanoparticles designed for managing oxidative stress leading to possible therapeutical and medicinal uses. PMID:26554152

  14. Effects of local curcumin on oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Al-Rubaei, Z M Malik; Mohammad, Taghreed U; Ali, Layla Karim

    2014-12-01

    Plants have been one of the important sources of medicine even since the-dawn of human civilization. Curcumin has been found to possess tremendous therapeutic potency as antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The present study was designed to examine possible potential therapeutic and protective effect of curcumin from oxidative stress and on total antioxidant capacity in liver damage. The study was conducted using H2O2 as inducing agent of oxidative stress in vivo. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, where n = 20 for each group. Group 1 (G1) rats served as control group. Group 2 (G2) rats subjected to experimentally induced oxidative stress by the ad libitum supply of drinking water containing 0.5% H2O2(v/v) was prepared daily over entire 60 days. Group 3 (G3) rats received H2O2 for sixty days followed by giving 200 mg kg(-1) of curcumin for 30 days. Group 4 (G4) was simultaneously given curcumin (200 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days then followed by receiving H2O2 with curcumin for sixty days. Group 5 (G5) rats was received H2O2 for sixty days followed by giving 200 mg kg(-1) of N-acetyl 1-cystine as standard drug for 30 days. Levels of marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), uric acid, Total Protein (TP) and tumor necrosis factor (α-TNF) were assessed in serum for all studied groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguinosine, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) were assayed in liver homogenates for all studied groups. The results revealed significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, uric acid and α-TNF while there are significant decrease (p < 0.05) in levels of TP in G2 comparing to G1. Also there are significant differences (p < 0.05) between G3 and G4 comparing to G2 and between G3, G4 and G5 which curcumin elicited a significant hepatoprotective activity by lowering the levels of serum marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation. The results also revealed a

  15. Piperine potentiates the protective effects of curcumin against chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Rinwa, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Life event stressors are the major vulnerability factors for the development of cognitive disorders. A vital therapeutic for stress related disorders is curcumin, derived from curry spice turmeric. Dietary phytochemicals are currently used as an adjuvant therapy to accelerate their therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin and its co-administration with piperine against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in mice. Male Laca mice were subjected to undergo a battery of stressors for a period of 28 days. Vehicle/drugs were administered daily 30mins before CUS procedure. Chronic stress significantly impaired memory performance (delayed latency time to reach platform in Morris water maze as well as to reach closed arm in elevated plus maze test) and decreased locomotor activity along with sucrose consumption. Further, there was a significant impairment in oxidative parameters (elevated malondialdehyde, nitrite concentration and decreased reduced glutathione, catalase levels) and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, along with raised acetylcholinesterase and serum corticosterone levels. Chronic treatment with curcumin (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) significantly improved these behavioral and biochemical alterations, restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities and attenuated increased acetylcholinesterase and serum corticosterone levels. In addition, co-administration of piperine (20mg/kg; p.o.) with curcumin (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) significantly elevated the protective effect as compared to their effects alone. The results clearly suggest that piperine enhanced the bioavailability of curcumin and potentiated its protective effects against CUS induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage in mice.

  16. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon. PMID:19444642

  17. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon.

  18. Controlled curcumin release via conjugation into PBAE nanogels enhances mitochondrial protection against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prachi; Jordan, Carolyn T; Mitov, Mihail I; Butterfield, D Allan; Hilt, J Zach; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2016-09-25

    Mitochondria are considered to be the "power plants" of the cell, but can also initiate and execute cell death, stimulated by oxidative stress (OS). OS induced mitochondrial dysfunction is characterized by a loss in oxygen consumption and reduced ATP production. Curcumin, as a potential therapeutic, has been explored as a candidate for mitochondrial OS suppression, but rapid metabolism and aqueous insolubility has prevented it from being effective. Further, efficient delivery of curcumin via the incorporation into nanocarriers has again been limited due to low drug loading capacities and/or significant burst release, resulting in acute cytotoxicity. Hence, to increase the therapeutic potential and reduce the toxic effects of curcumin, curcumin conjugated poly(β-amino ester) nanogels (CNGs) were synthesized using Michael addition chemistry. This approach provided easy control over the nanogel size, with CNGs showing a uniform release of active curcumin over 48h with no burst release. This controlled release system significantly increased the safety limit for curcumin, with a ten fold increase in the cytotoxic threshold, as compared to free curcumin. Further, real-time mitochondrial response analysis with the Seahorse XF96 showed effective and prolonged suppression of H2O2 induced mitochondrial oxidative stress upon pre-treating endothelial cells with CNGs and this potential of nanogels was studied at different pre-treatment times prior to H2O2 exposure. PMID:27492022

  19. Antifungal curcumin promotes chitin accumulation associated with decreased virulence of Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lilin; Zhang, Jing; Song, Tianzhang; Yuan, Liyan; Zhou, Junjie; Yin, Hongling; He, Tailong; Gao, Wenchao; Sun, Yao; Hu, Xuchu; Huang, Huaiqiu

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin, a yellow polyphenol compound, is known to possess antifungal activity for a range of pathogenic fungi. However, the fungicidal mechanism of curcumin (CUR) has not been identified. We have occasionally found that chitin redistributes to the cell wall outer layer of Sporothrix schenckii (S. schenckii) upon sublethal CUR treatment. Whether CUR can affect chitin synthesis via the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway has not been investigated. This study describes a direct fungicidal activity of CUR against S. schenckii demonstrated by the results of a checkerboard microdilution assay and, for the first time, a synergistic effect of CUR with terbinafine (TRB). Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR showed that sublethal CUR upregulated the transcription of PKC, chitin synthase1 (CHS1), and chitin synthase3 (CHS3) in S. schenckii. The fluorescence staining results using wheat germ agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (WGA-FITC) and calcofluor white (CFW) consistently showed that chitin exposure and total chitin content were increased on the conidial cell wall of S. schenckii by sublethal CUR treatment. A histopathological analysis of mice infected with CUR-treated conidia showed dampened inflammation in the local lesion and a reduced fungal burden. The ELISA results showed proinflammatory cytokine secretion at an early stage from macrophages stimulated by the CUR-treated conidia. The present data led to the conclusion that CUR is a potential antifungal agent and that its fungicidal mechanism may involve chitin accumulation on the cell wall of S. schenckii, which is associated with decreased virulence in infected mice.

  20. Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of superoxide dismutase expression in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum by PTU-induced hypothyroidism and its reversal by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Jena, Srikanta; Anand, Chinmay; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effectiveness of curcumin in ameliorating the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rat brain under 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism. Induction of hypothyroidism in adult rats by PTU resulted in augmentation of lipid peroxidation (LPx), an index of oxidative stress in cerebellum but not in cerebral cortex. Curcumin-supplementation to PTU-treated (hypothyroid) rats showed significant reduction in the level of LPx in both the regions of brain. The decreased translated products (SOD1 and SOD2) and the unchanged activity of SOD in cerebral cortex of PTU-treated rats were increased on supplementation of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Declined translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats were alleviated on administration of curcumin to hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, the decreased activity of SOD in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats was further declined on administration of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Results of the present investigation indicate that curcumin differentially modulates the expression of superoxide dismutase in rat brain cortex and cerebellum under PTU-induced hypothyroidism.

  1. Curcumin reduces oxidative damage by increasing reduced glutathione and preventing membrane permeability transition in isolated brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jat, D; Parihar, P; Kothari, S C; Parihar, M S

    2013-12-31

    Mitochondria are critical regulators of energy metabolism and programmed cell death pathways. Mitochondria are also the major site for the production of reactive oxygen species which make this organelle more susceptible to oxidative damage and impairments of mitochondrial functions. Antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success to ameliorate the toxic effects of oxidative stress in mitochondria. One reason may be the inability of mitochondria to selectively take up antioxidants. In the present study we synthesized mitochondrially targeted curcumin with an aim of delivering this polyphenolic compound to isolated mitochondria. Our observations show the strong anti-oxidative effects of curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin against the lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial permeability transition induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Both curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin significantly enhanced endogenous reduced glutathione level in the mitochondria thus preserving mitochondrial defense system against oxidative stress. We concluded that curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin protected mitochondria against tert-butylhydroperoxide by lowering the oxidative damage, increasing the availability of endogenous reduced glutathione and preserving the mitochondrial integrity. Importantly, mitochondrially targeted curcumin was found most effective in ameliorating oxidative stress and preserving mitochondrial integrity than curcumin.

  2. Novel curcumin analogue 14p protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through Nrf2-activating anti-oxidative activity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weixin; Wu, Mingchai; Tang, Longguang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Zhiguo; Zeng, Chunlai; Wang, Jingying; Wei, Tiemin; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-15

    Background: Alleviating the oxidant stress associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion has been demonstrated as a potential therapeutic approach to limit ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac damage. Curcumin, a natural compound with anti-oxidative activity, exerts beneficial effect against cardiac I/R injury, but poor chemical and metabolic stability. Previously, we have designed and synthesized a series of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin (MACs) with high stability. This study aims to find new anti-oxidant MACs and to demonstrate their effects and mechanisms against I/R-induced heart injury. Methods: H9c2 cells challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or TBHP were used for in vitro bio-screening and mechanistic studies. The MDA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and SOD levels in H9C2 cells were determined, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Myocardial I/R mouse models administrated with or without the compound were used for in vivo studies. Results: The in vitro cell-based screening showed that curcumin analogues 8d and 14p exhibited strong anti-oxidative effects. Pre-treatment of H9c2 cells with 14p activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-increased MDA and SOD level, followed by the inhibition of TBHP-induced cell death and Bax/Bcl-2–caspase-3 pathway activation. Silencing Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of 14p. In in vivo animal model of myocardial I/R, administration of low dose 14p (10 mg/kg) reduced infarct size and myocardial apoptosis to the same extent as the high dose curcumin (100 mg/kg). Conclusion: These data support the novel curcumin analogue 14p as a promising antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress and limit myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating Nrf2. - Highlights: • Mono-carbonyl analogue of curcumin, 14p, exhibited better chemical stability. • Compound 14p inhibited TBHP-induced apoptosis through activating Nrf2 in vitro. • Compound 14p limited myocardial ischemia

  3. Electrospun composite nanofibers of poly vinyl pyrrolidone and zinc oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical detection of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Moslem; Mostafavi, Ali; Shamspur, Tayebeh

    2016-11-01

    A simple and novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode was developed to determine curcumin in a phosphate buffer solution at pH=8. ZnO nanoparticles were produced via a sonochemical process and composite nanofibers of PVP/ZnO were prepared by electrospinning. The characterization was performed by SEM, XRD and IR. The results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers having a large surface area promote electron transfer for the oxidation of curcumin and hence the FCNFCPE exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and performs well in regard to the oxidation of curcumin. The proposed method was successfully applied for measurement of curcumin in urine and turmeric as real samples.

  4. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by curcumin: Implication of its cellular mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Han Wern; Lim, Hwee Ying; Wong, Kim Ping

    2009-11-06

    Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from the rhizome of turmeric. Recent reports have shown curcumin to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties as well as affecting the 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), mTOR and STAT-3 signaling pathways. We provide evidence that curcumin acts as an uncoupler. Well-established biochemical techniques were performed on isolated rat liver mitochondria in measuring oxygen consumption, F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase activity and ATP biosynthesis. Curcumin displays all the characteristics typical of classical uncouplers like fccP and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, at concentrations higher than 50 {mu}M, curcumin was found to inhibit mitochondrial respiration which is a characteristic feature of inhibitory uncouplers. As a protonophoric uncoupler and as an activator of F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, curcumin causes a decrease in ATP biosynthesis in rat liver mitochondria. The resulting change in ATP:AMP could disrupt the phosphorylation status of the cell; this provides a possible mechanism for its activation of AMPK and its downstream mTOR and STAT-3 signaling.

  5. Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Ashish; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Bechan

    2016-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight). The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin. PMID:27213055

  6. Polymerized nano-curcumin attenuates neurological symptoms in EAE model of multiple sclerosis through down regulation of inflammatory and oxidative processes and enhancing neuroprotection and myelin repair.

    PubMed

    Mohajeri, Maryam; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Najafi, Farhood; Javan, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of central nervous system (CNS). Polyphenol curcumin has been used in traditional medicine as an effective drug for a variety of diseases. Different formulations of curcumin are introduced to increase its stability and effectiveness. Here we have examined the effect of polymerized form of nano-curcumin (PNC) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as an animal model of MS. EAE was induced in female Lewis rats and PNC or curcumin was daily administrated intraperitonealy from day 12-29 post immunization. When the prophylactic effect of PNC was under investigation, rats received PNC from the first day of immunization. Treatment with PNC resulted in decreased scores of disease in therapeutic and prophylactic administration when compared with control group. Staining by luxol fast blue and H&E and immuno-staining of lumbar spinal cord cross sections, confirmed a significant decrease in the amounts of demyelination, inflammation and BBB breaking down. Gene expression studies in lumbar spinal cord showed a corrected balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes expression, decreased oxidative stress, improved remyelination and increased progenitor cell markers after treatment with PNC. Our results demonstrated an efficient therapeutic effect of PNC as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress agent, with significant effects on the EAE scores and myelin repair mechanisms.

  7. Curcumin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanofibres: diabetic wound dressing with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Jonathan G; McLaughlin, Shaun W; Tie, Lu; Laurencin, Cato T; Chen, Alex F; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2009-12-01

    1. Curcumin is a naturally occurring poly-phenolic compound with a broad range of favourable biological functions, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The low bioavailability and in vivo stability of curcumin require the development of suitable carrier vehicles to deliver the molecule in a sustained manner at therapeutic levels. 2. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility and potential of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibres as a delivery vehicle for curcumin for wound healing applications. By optimizing the electrospinning parameters, bead-free curcumin-loaded PCL nanofibres were developed. 3. The fibres showed sustained release of curcumin for 72 h and could be made to deliver a dose much lower than the reported cytotoxic concentration while remaining bioactive. Human foreskin fibroblast cells (HFF-1) showed more than 70% viability on curcumin-loaded nanofibres. 4. The anti-oxidant activity of curcumin-loaded nanofibres was demonstrated using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and by the ability of the fibres to maintain the viability of HFF-1 cells under conditions of oxidative stress. 5. The curcumin-loaded nanofibres also reduced inflammatory induction, as evidenced by low levels of interleukin-6 release from mouse monocyte-macrophages seeded onto the fibres following stimulation by Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide. 6. The in vivo wound healing capability of the curcumin loaded PCL nanofibres was demonstrated by an increased rate of wound closure in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model. 7. These results demonstrate that the curcumin-loaded PCL nanofibre matrix is bioactive and has potential as a wound dressing with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. A Newly Designed Curcumin Analog Y20 Mitigates Cardiac Injury via Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Actions in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dandan; Xu, Zheng; Skibba, Melissa; Zeng, Chunlai; Li, Xiaokun; Wei, Tiemin; Wu, Lianpin; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the cause of structural and functional changes of the heart in both human and animal models. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced cardiac disorders. Curcumin is a natural product from Curcuma Longa with multiple bioactivities. In our previous study, in order to reach better anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dual activities, we designed a new mono-carbonyl curcumin analog, Y20, via the structural modification with both trifluoromethyl and bromine. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Y20 on obesity-induced cardiac injury and its underlying mechanisms. In high fat diet–fed rats, oral administration of Y20 at 20 mg/kg or curcumin at 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress and eventually improved the cardiac remodeling by mitigating cardiac disorganization, hypertrophy, fibrosis and apoptosis. Y20 at 20 mg/kg showed comparable and even stronger bioactivities than curcumin at 50 mg/kg. The beneficial actions of Y20 are closely associated with its ability to increase Nrf2 expression and inhibit NF-κB activation. Taken together, these results suggest that Y20 may have a great therapeutic potential in the treatment of obesity-induced cardiac injury using Nrf2 and NF-κB as the therapeutic targets for treating obesity-related disorders. PMID:25786209

  9. Curcumin ameliorates oxidative stress during nicotine-induced lung toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Chandran; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2004-07-01

    Nicotine, a major toxic component of cigarette smoke has been identified as a major risk factor for lung related diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of curcumin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of nicotine treated Wistar rats. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks) and curcumin (80 mg/kg body weight) was given simultaneously by intragastric intubation for 22 weeks. Measurement of biochemical marker enzymes: alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were used to monitor the antiperoxidative effects of curcumin. The increased biochemical marker enzymes as well as lipid peroxides in BALF and BAL of nicotine treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Administration of curcumin significantly lowered the biochemical marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin exert its protective effect against nicotine-induced lung toxicity by modulating the biochemical marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system. PMID:15646012

  10. Investigating the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes on the structure, function and oxidative stability of the peroxidase enzyme and their anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Jahangoshaei, Parisa; Hassani, Leila; Mohammadi, Fakhrossadat; Hamidi, Akram; Mohammadi, Khosro

    2015-10-01

    Curcumin has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Complexation of curcumin with metals has gained attention in recent years for improvement of its stability. In this study, the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin on the structure, function and oxidative stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme were evaluated by spectroscopic techniques. In addition to the enzymatic investigation, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes was assessed on bladder, MCF-7 breast cancer and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cell lines by MTT assay. Furthermore, antibacterial activity of the complexes against S. aureus and E. coli was explored by dilution test method. The results showed that the complexes improve activity of HRP and also increase its tolerance against the oxidative condition. After addition of the complexes, affinity of HRP for hydrogen peroxide substrate decreases, while the affinity increases for phenol substrate. Circular dichroism, intrinsic and synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the enzyme structure around the catalytic heme group becomes less compact and also the distance between the heme group and tryptophan residues increases due to binding of the complexes to HRP. On the whole, it can be concluded that the change in the enzyme structure upon binding to the gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes results in an increase in the antioxidant efficiency and activity of the peroxidise enzyme. The result of anticancer and antibacterial activities suggested that the complexes exhibit the potential for cancer treatment, but they have no significant antibacterial activity.

  11. Investigating the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes on the structure, function and oxidative stability of the peroxidase enzyme and their anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Jahangoshaei, Parisa; Hassani, Leila; Mohammadi, Fakhrossadat; Hamidi, Akram; Mohammadi, Khosro

    2015-10-01

    Curcumin has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Complexation of curcumin with metals has gained attention in recent years for improvement of its stability. In this study, the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin on the structure, function and oxidative stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme were evaluated by spectroscopic techniques. In addition to the enzymatic investigation, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes was assessed on bladder, MCF-7 breast cancer and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cell lines by MTT assay. Furthermore, antibacterial activity of the complexes against S. aureus and E. coli was explored by dilution test method. The results showed that the complexes improve activity of HRP and also increase its tolerance against the oxidative condition. After addition of the complexes, affinity of HRP for hydrogen peroxide substrate decreases, while the affinity increases for phenol substrate. Circular dichroism, intrinsic and synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the enzyme structure around the catalytic heme group becomes less compact and also the distance between the heme group and tryptophan residues increases due to binding of the complexes to HRP. On the whole, it can be concluded that the change in the enzyme structure upon binding to the gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes results in an increase in the antioxidant efficiency and activity of the peroxidise enzyme. The result of anticancer and antibacterial activities suggested that the complexes exhibit the potential for cancer treatment, but they have no significant antibacterial activity. PMID:26369539

  12. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2016-04-01

    The color of turmeric ( jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  13. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    The color of turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  14. Electrospun composite nanofibers of poly vinyl pyrrolidone and zinc oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical detection of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Moslem; Mostafavi, Ali; Shamspur, Tayebeh

    2016-11-01

    A simple and novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode was developed to determine curcumin in a phosphate buffer solution at pH=8. ZnO nanoparticles were produced via a sonochemical process and composite nanofibers of PVP/ZnO were prepared by electrospinning. The characterization was performed by SEM, XRD and IR. The results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers having a large surface area promote electron transfer for the oxidation of curcumin and hence the FCNFCPE exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and performs well in regard to the oxidation of curcumin. The proposed method was successfully applied for measurement of curcumin in urine and turmeric as real samples. PMID:27524081

  15. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Okunieff, Paul . E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, and lymphotoxin-{beta}) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-{beta}) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-{alpha}, and lymphotoxin-{beta}) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-{beta}, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy.

  16. The in vitro protective effects of curcumin and demethoxycurcumin in Curcuma longa extract on advanced glycation end products-induced mesangial cell apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-ping; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Mao-mao; Wang, Ru-Shang; Zhang, Ming-hua; Hu, Shao-ying; Jia, Xiao-bin; Wu, Jin-Jie

    2012-11-01

    Curcuma longa L. (CLL), a traditional herbal medicine, has been widely used for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications in recent years. However, the protective effects of curcuminoids in CLL on the AGEs-induced damage to mesangial cell are not fully understood. In this present study, dihydroethidium, superoxide dismutase kit, malondialdehyde kit, and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining methods were used to evaluate the activities of curcumin and demethoxycurcumin (10(-11)-10(-9) M) on AGEs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, which were associated with the damage to mesangial cell. The results showed that these two compounds could significantly restore advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced apoptosis to normal levels (IC50 = 3.874 × 10(-11) M for curcumin and IC50 = 6.085 × 10(-11) M for demethoxycurcumin) and reduce remarkably reactive oxygen species generation in mesangial cell. Furthermore, curcumin and demethoxycurcumin dramatically elevated AGEs-decreased superoxide dismutase activity while significantly reducing AGEs-increased malondialdehyde content in cell culture supernatant. Our results suggest that both curcumin and demethoxycurcumin have a significant protective potential to the prevention of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Protective effects of curcumin and vitamin E against chlorpyrifos-induced lung oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Hassani, S; Sepand, M R; Jafari, A; Jaafari, J; Rezaee, R; Zeinali, M; Tavakoli, F; Razavi-Azarkhiavi, K

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on human health. Curcumin (CUR) is a yellow pigment isolated from turmeric ground rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn., which has been identified as an antioxidant agent. This study was designed to examine the protective effect of CUR and vitamin E (Vit E) on CPF-induced lung toxicity. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, CPF (13.5 mg/kg, orally), CPF + CUR (100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, orally), CPF + α-tocopherol (Vit E, 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), CPF and CUR (100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) in combination with α-tocopherol. The regimens were administered once daily for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, lungs were collected for evaluation of oxidative factors and histopathological parameters. CUR and Vit E led to a decrease in lipid peroxidation in the lungs of the CPF-injected animals (48% and 51%, respectively). Glutathione peroxidase inhibited by CPF (91.9 nmol/min/mg protein) was induced again by CUR and Vit E (167.1 and 171.8 nmol/min/mg protein). CUR and Vit E caused a significant induction of superoxide dismutase (103.4 U/mg protein). Catalase activity almost returned to normalcy in CPF-intoxicated rats subjected to CUR + Vit E treatment (p < 0.001). Lung sections from CPF-treated rats displayed histopathological damages, while coadministration of CUR and Vit E resulted in apparently normal morphology with a significant decrease in injuries (p < 0.05). Our findings revealed that coadministration of Vit E and CUR to CPF-treated animals prevents the oxidative damages in the lung tissues. PMID:25233897

  18. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The TOS activity levels in blood samples were significantly higher in Control group and than the other groups (p <  0.01 for all comparison). The OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in the sham, CUR, DEX, and CUR-DEX groups, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion causes histopathological changes in the kidneys. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and renal histopathologic injury in an acute hind limb I/R rat model. PMID:26983591

  19. Acute effects of diesel exhaust particles and cisplatin on oxidative stress in cultured human kidney (HEK 293) cells, and the influence of curcumin thereon.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Badreldin H; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2013-12-01

    Particulate air pollution with particle diameters less than 2.5μm contribute to respiratory and extra-respiratory morbidity and mortality. We have recently reported the first in vivo experimental evidence that Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the lung aggravated the renal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of cisplatin (CP)-induced acute renal failure in rats. This in vitro study sought to determine whether and to what extent does DEP exposure exacerbate the effects of CP-induced oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and to examine if these effects could be mitigated/prevented with curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric). Cells viability, cysteine uptake and oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase)] were evaluated in all study groups. DEP aggravated the CP- induced HEK-293 cells toxicity, as evidenced by decreasing cell viability and by inducing oxidative stress (GSH depletion, TAC impairment, and antioxidant enzymes inhibition). DEP, but not CP, significantly reduced cysteine uptake. Curcumin prevented the observed DEP and CP-induced cellular insults. These findings suggest that DEP augmented the CP-induced toxicity in HEK-293 cells. Curcumin exhibited a strong potential for protection against DEP and CP-induced cytotoxicity.

  20. Oxidative Stress Induced by Zearalenone in Porcine Granulosa Cells and Its Rescue by Curcumin In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xunsi; Cao, Mingjun; Lai, Fangnong; Yang, Fan; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Xifeng; Cheng, Shunfeng; Sun, Xiaofeng; Qin, Guoqing; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), as a signal of aberrant intracellular mechanisms, plays key roles in maintaining homeostasis for organisms. The occurrence of OS due to the disorder of normal cellular redox balance indicates the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or deficiency of antioxidants. Once the balance is broken down, repression of oxidative stress is one of the most effective ways to alleviate it. Ongoing studies provide remarkable evidence that oxidative stress is involved in reproductive toxicity induced by various stimuli, such as environmental toxicants and food toxicity. Zearalenone (ZEA), as a toxic compound existing in contaminated food products, is found to induce mycotoxicosis that has a significant impact on the reproduction of domestic animals, especially pigs. However, there is no information about how ROS and oxidative stress is involved in the influence of ZEA on porcine granulosa cells, or whether the stress can be rescued by curcumin. In this study, ZEA-induced effect on porcine granulosa cells was investigated at low concentrations (15 μM, 30 μM and 60 μM). In vitro ROS levels, the mRNA level and activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were obtained. The results showed that in comparison with negative control, ZEA increased oxidative stress with higher ROS levels, reduced the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes, increased the intensity of fluorogenic probes 2’, 7’-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium in flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Meanwhile, the activity of glutathione (GSH) did not change obviously following 60 μM ZEA treatment. Furthermore, the underlying protective mechanisms of curcumin on the ZEA-treated porcine granulosa cells were investigated. The data revealed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly suppressed ZEA-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, porcine granulosa cells were sensitive to ZEA, which may induce oxidative

  1. Inhibition of nicotine-induced toxicity by curcumin and curcumin analog: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, C; Menon, Venugopal P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of curcumin and curcumin analog on blood oxidant-antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks). The enhanced circulatory lipid peroxides in nicotine-treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. There was a reduction in the levels of zinc with an elevation of copper and ferritin in nicotine-treated rats. Administration of curcumin and curcumin analog significantly lowered the lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status with modulation in the levels of zinc, copper, and ferritin. However, the effect was more significant in curcumin analog-treated rats than in curcumin-treated rats. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin and curcumin analog exert their protective effects by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:15671691

  2. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably.

  3. Curcumin prevents and reverses cirrhosis induced by bile duct obstruction or CCl4 in rats: role of TGF-beta modulation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Segovia, José; Shibayama, Mineko; Tsutsumi, Victor; Vergara, Paula; Moreno, Mario G; Muriel, Pablo

    2008-08-01

    Curcumin is a phytophenolic compound, which is highly efficacious for treating several inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in preventing or reversing liver cirrhosis. A 4-week bile duct ligation (BDL) rat model was used to test the ability of curcumin (100 mg/kg, p.o., daily) to prevent cirrhosis. To reverse cirrhosis, CCl(4) was administered chronically for 3 months, and then it was withdrawn and curcumin administered for 2 months. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, liver histopathology, bilirubin, glycogen, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and TGF-beta (mRNA and protein) levels were assessed. Curcumin preserved normal values of markers of liver damage in BDL rats. Fibrosis, assessed by measuring hydroxyproline levels and histopathology, increased nearly fivefold after BDL and this effect was partially but significantly prevented by curcumin. BDL increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) levels (mRNA and proteins), while curcumin partially suppressed this mediator of fibrosis. Curcumin also partially reversed the fibrosis induced by CCl(4). Curcumin was effective in preventing and reversing cirrhosis, probably by its ability of reducing TGF-beta expression. These data suggest that curcumin might be an effective antifibrotic and fibrolitic drug in the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Dysfunction Associated with Cadmium Exposure: Beneficial Effects of Curcumin and Tetrahydrocurcumin.

    PubMed

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Apaijit, Kwanjit; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal with high toxicity potential. Humans are exposed to Cd present in diet, polluted air, and cigarette smoke. Cd exposure has been associated with increased risk of chronic diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and nephropathy, all of which could be attributable to dysfunctional endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Cd toxicity is correlated with increased reactive oxygen formation and depletion of antioxidants, resulting in an oxidative stress. Chelation of Cd has proved useful in the removal of the Cd burden. However, several chelating agents cause side effects in clinical usage. Recent studies have shown that the antioxidant compounds curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin can alleviate vascular dysfunction and high blood pressure caused by Cd toxicity. In chronic Cd exposure, these antioxidants protect vascular endothelium by increasing nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability and improving vascular function. Antioxidant activity against Cd intoxication results directly and/or indirectly through free radical scavenging, metal chelation, enhanced expression of the antioxidant defense system, regulation of inflammatory enzymes, increase in NO• bioavailability, and reduction of gastrointestinal absorption and tissue Cd accumulation. This review summarizes current knowledge of Cd-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction and a possible protective effect conferred by the antioxidants curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Dysfunction Associated with Cadmium Exposure: Beneficial Effects of Curcumin and Tetrahydrocurcumin.

    PubMed

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Apaijit, Kwanjit; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal with high toxicity potential. Humans are exposed to Cd present in diet, polluted air, and cigarette smoke. Cd exposure has been associated with increased risk of chronic diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and nephropathy, all of which could be attributable to dysfunctional endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Cd toxicity is correlated with increased reactive oxygen formation and depletion of antioxidants, resulting in an oxidative stress. Chelation of Cd has proved useful in the removal of the Cd burden. However, several chelating agents cause side effects in clinical usage. Recent studies have shown that the antioxidant compounds curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin can alleviate vascular dysfunction and high blood pressure caused by Cd toxicity. In chronic Cd exposure, these antioxidants protect vascular endothelium by increasing nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability and improving vascular function. Antioxidant activity against Cd intoxication results directly and/or indirectly through free radical scavenging, metal chelation, enhanced expression of the antioxidant defense system, regulation of inflammatory enzymes, increase in NO• bioavailability, and reduction of gastrointestinal absorption and tissue Cd accumulation. This review summarizes current knowledge of Cd-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction and a possible protective effect conferred by the antioxidants curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin. PMID:27151191

  6. Cardioprotective effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Rengarajulu, Puvanakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, is extracted from the powdered dry rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae) and it has been used for centuries in indigenous medicine. We have shown that curcumin has a protective role against myocardial necrosis in rats. The antioxidant activity of curcumin could be attributed to the phenolic and methoxy groups in conjunction with the 1,3-diketone-conjugated diene system, for scavenging of the oxygen radicals. In addition, curcumin is shown to enhance the activities of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase in vivo. We have also shown that oxygen free radicals exacerbate cardiac damage and curcumin induces cardioprotective effect and it also inhibits free-radical generation in myocardial ischemia in rats. This chapter on the cardioprotective effects of curcumin covers the following aspects: (1) the history of curcumin and its discovery as a potent drug with relevance to cardiovascular diseases; (2) mechanistic role of curcumin in vitro, emphasizing the antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects; (3) cardiovascular properties of curcumin; (4) application of curcumin in different animal models (viz. myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia in vitro and in vivo); (5) curcumin free-radical scavenging activity, particularly against O2 radical and depletion of the oxidative stress. PMID:17569220

  7. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them.

  8. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them. PMID:25629268

  9. Curcumin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy partially by inhibition of NADPH oxidase mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Liao, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Xuan; He, Wan-You; Wang, Han-Bing; Yang, Cheng-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are the main enzymes that produce oxidative stress, which plays an important role in painful diabetic neuropathy. Curcumin has been reported to exert an antinociceptive effect in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy by suppressing oxidative stress in the spinal cord. However, it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which curcumin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy can be attributed to spinal NADPH oxidases. This study was designed to determine the effect of curcumin on diabetic neuropathy and to investigate its precise mechanism in relation to NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord. Diabetic neuropathy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with 1% streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). After the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a subset of the diabetic rats received daily intragastric administrations of curcumin (200mg/kg) or intraperitoneal injections of apocynin (2.5mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, whereas other diabetic rats received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS). STZ resulted in diabetic neuropathy with hyperglycemia and a lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), accompanied by elevations in the expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox) and in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05) in the spinal cord. Both curcumin and apocynin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain in diabetic rats, at least partly by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

  10. Curcumin eliminates oxidized LDL roles in activating hepatic stellate cells by suppressing gene expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qiaohua; Chen, Anping

    2009-11-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often accompanied by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and associated with hypercholesterolemia, that is, increased levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Approximately one-third of NASH develops hepatic fibrosis. The role of hypercholesterolemia in T2DM and NASH-associated hepatic fibrogenesis remains obscure. We previously reported that the phytochemical curcumin inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the major effector cells during hepatic fibrogenesis, and protected the liver from fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The aims of this study are to evaluate the role of ox-LDL in activation of HSCs, to assess curcumin effects on eliminating the role of ox-LDL, and to further explore the underlying mechanisms. In this report, we observe that ox-LDL alters the expression of genes closely relevant to HSC activation, which is eliminated by curcumin. Curcumin suppresses gene expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), leading to the blockade of the transport of extracellular ox-LDL into cells. This suppressive effect of curcumin results from the interruption of Wnt signaling and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). In conclusion, these results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that ox-LDL stimulates HSC activation, which is eliminated by curcumin by suppressing lox-1 expression by interrupting Wnt signaling and stimulating PPARgamma activity. These results provide novel insights into the role of ox-LDL in T2DM and NASH-associated hepatic fibrogenesis and mechanisms by which curcumin suppresses ox-LDL-induced HSC activation, as well as the implication of curcumin in the treatment of T2DM and NASH-associated hepatic fibrosis. PMID:19736547

  11. Decrease of a specific biomarker of collagen degradation in osteoarthritis, Coll2-1, by treatment with highly bioavailable curcumin during an exploratory clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The management of osteoarthritis (OA) remains a challenge. There is a need not only for safe and efficient treatments but also for accurate and reliable biomarkers that would help diagnosis and monitoring both disease activity and treatment efficacy. Curcumin is basically a spice that is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. In vitro studies suggest that curcumin could be beneficial for cartilage in OA. The aim of this exploratory, non-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of bio-optimized curcumin in knee OA patients on the serum levels of specific biomarkers of OA and on the evaluation of pain. Methods Twenty two patients with knee OA were asked to take 2x3 caps/day of bio-optimized curcumin (Flexofytol®) for 3 months. They were monitored after 7, 14, 28 and 84 days of treatment. Pain over the last 24 hours and global assessment of disease activity by the patient were evaluated using a visual analog scale (100 mm). The serum levels of Coll-2-1, Coll-2-1NO2, Fib3-1, Fib3-2, CRP, CTX-II and MPO were determined before and after 14 and 84 days of treatment. Results The treatment with curcumin was globally well tolerated. It significantly reduced the serum level of Coll2-1 (p < 0.002) and tended to decrease CRP. No other significant difference was observed with the other biomarkers. In addition, curcumin significantly reduced the global assessment of disease activity by the patient. Conclusion This study highlighted the potential effect of curcumin in knee OA patient. This effect was reflected by the variation of a cartilage specific biomarker, Coll2-1 that was rapidly affected by the treatment. These results are encouraging for the qualification of Coll2-1 as a biomarker for the evaluation of curcumin in OA treatment. Trial registration NCT01909037 at clinicaltrials.gov PMID:24886572

  12. Comparison of the effects of curcumin and curcumin glucuronide in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Motomu; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Watanabe, Akio; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Teiko; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-05-15

    Curcumin is a yellow pigment found in turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.), and is reported, in recent studies, to have several pharmacological effects, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and lipid-lowering properties. However, as most curcumin is conjugated when absorbed through the intestine, free curcumin is present at extremely low levels inside the body. Therefore, curcumin metabolites have been presumed to be responsible for the curcumin bioactivity. In this study, we first confirmed that curcumin glucuronide is the major metabolite of curcumin found in the plasma after oral administration of curcumin in rats. Next, we synthesised curcumin glucuronide and compared the effects of curcumin and curcumin glucuronide on gene expression in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). We found that the effects of curcumin glucuronide are weaker than those of curcumin and that this difference is related to relative absorption rates of curcumin and curcumin glucuronide into HepG2 cells.

  13. Effect of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Meng, Yi-Fang; Wang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Ming; Tao, Jian-Jun; Lu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is now one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly population. The antioxidative effects of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are still unclear. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate the effects of curcumin on aging RPE cells. A pulsed H2O2 exposure aging model was adopted. Aging RPE cells were treated with curcumin 20 µM, 40 µM, and 80 µM. Apoptosis of RPE cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration was detected using a specific probe and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by Western blot. Expression of oxidative biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, maleic dialdehyde, and glutathione, was detected commercially available assay kits. Compared with normal cells, lower cell viability, higher apoptosis rates, and more severe oxidation status were identified in the aging RPE cell model. Curcumin improved cell viability and decreased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Further, curcumin had a significant influence on expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and oxidative stress biomarkers. In conclusion, treatment with curcumin was able to regulate proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in aging RPE cells. Accordingly, application of curcumin may be a novel strategy to protect against age-related change in AMD.

  14. Curcumin attenuates hyperglycaemia-mediated AMPK activation and oxidative stress in cerebrum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Watanabe, Kenichi; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Sari, Flori R; Meilei, Harima; Soetikno, Vivian; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Numerous studies have demonstrated a close relationship between oxidative stress and AMPK activation in various disorders, including diabetes-related brain disorders. Since curcumin has powerful antioxidant properties, this study investigated its effects on hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and AMPK activation in rats with DE. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ-55 mg/kg BW). The diabetic rats were then orally administered curcumin (100 mg/kg BW) or vehicle for 8 weeks. The cerebra of the diabetic rats displayed upregulated protein expression of AdipoR1, p-AMPKα1, Tak1, GLUT4, NADPH oxidase sub-units, caspase-12 and 3-NT and increased lipid peroxidation in comparison with the controls and all of these effects were significantly attenuated with curcumin treatment, except for the increase in AdipoR1 expressions. These results provide a new insight into the beneficial effects of curcumin on hyperglycaemia-mediated DE, which are produced through the down-regulation of AMPK-mediated gluconeogenesis associated with its anti-oxidant property.

  15. Curcumin protects against cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of quartz particles but causes oxidative DNA damage in a rat lung epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui; Berlo, Damien van; Shi Tingming; Speit, Guenter; Knaapen, Ad M.; Borm, Paul J.A.; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P.F.

    2008-02-15

    Chronic inhalation of high concentrations of respirable quartz particles has been implicated in various lung diseases including lung fibrosis and cancer. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress is considered a major mechanism of quartz toxicity. Curcumin, a yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, has been considered as nutraceutical because of its strong anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant properties. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether curcumin can protect lung epithelial cells from the cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory effects associated with quartz (DQ12) exposure. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements using the spin-trap DMPO demonstrated that curcumin reduces hydrogen peroxide-dependent hydroxyl-radical formation by quartz. Curcumin was also found to reduce quartz-induced cytotoxicity and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in RLE-6TN rat lung epithelial cells (RLE). Curcumin also inhibited the release of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) from RLE cells as observed upon treatment with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1{beta}) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF{alpha}). However, curcumin failed to protect the RLE cells from oxidative DNA damage induced by quartz, as shown by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)-modified comet assay and by immunocytochemistry for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. In contrast, curcumin was found to be a strong inducer of oxidative DNA damage itself at non-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory concentrations. In line with this, curcumin also enhanced the mRNA expression of the oxidative stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1). Curcumin also caused oxidative DNA damage in NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages and A549 human lung epithelial cells. Taken together, these observations indicate that one should be cautious in considering the potential use of curcumin in the prevention or treatment of lung diseases associated with quartz exposure.

  16. Curcumin has protective and antioxidant properties on bull spermatozoa subjected to induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tvrdá, Eva; Tušimová, Eva; Kováčik, Anton; Paál, Dušan; Greifová, Hana; Abdramanov, Abzal; Lukáč, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decades, there has been an emphasis on assessment of the use of natural compounds in the prevention or repair of oxidative injury to spermatozoa. Curcumin (CUR) is a natural phenol with powerful antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine if CUR could reverse reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated alterations to the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bull spermatozoa subjected to a prooxidant (i.e., ferrous ascorbate - FeAA). Spermatozoa were washed from recently collected semen samples, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to CUR treatment (5, 10, 25 and 50μmol/L) in the presence or absence of FeAA (150μmol/L FeSO4 and 750μmol/L ascorbic acid) during a 6h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility characteristics were assessed using the SpermVision computer-aided spermatozoa analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, ROS generation was quantified using luminometry and the nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) test was used to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the culture to assess the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with FeAA led to a reduced spermatozoa motility (P<0.001), viability (P<0.001) and decreased the antioxidant characteristics of the samples (P<0.001) but increased the ROS generation (P<0.001), superoxide production (P<0.001) and lipid peroxidation (P<0.001). The CUR treatment led to a preservation of spermatozoa motion (P<0.001), mitochondrial activity (P<0.001) and antioxidant characteristics (P<0.05 with SOD and GSH; P<0.01 with CAT and GPx), revealing the concentration range of 25-50μmol/L CUR to be the most effective for sustaining spermatozoa viability. Data from the present study suggest that CUR exhibits significant

  17. Curcumin prevents maleate-induced nephrotoxicity: relation to hemodynamic alterations, oxidative stress, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and activity of respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Tapia, E; Sánchez-Lozada, L G; García-Niño, W R; García, E; Cerecedo, A; García-Arroyo, F E; Osorio, H; Arellano, A; Cristóbal-García, M; Loredo, M L; Molina-Jijón, E; Hernández-Damián, J; Negrette-Guzmán, M; Zazueta, C; Huerta-Yepez, S; Reyes, J L; Madero, M; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J

    2014-11-01

    The potential protective effect of the dietary antioxidant curcumin (120 mg/Kg/day for 6 days) against the renal injury induced by maleate was evaluated. Tubular proteinuria and oxidative stress were induced by a single injection of maleate (400 mg/kg) in rats. Maleate-induced renal injury included increase in renal vascular resistance and in the urinary excretion of total protein, glucose, sodium, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and N-acetyl β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), upregulation of kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, decrease in renal blood flow and claudin-2 expression besides of necrosis and apoptosis of tubular cells on 24 h. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the oxidation of lipids and proteins and diminution in renal Nrf2 levels. Studies were also conducted in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells and in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of all the experimental groups. Maleate induced cell damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in LLC-PK1 cells in culture. In addition, maleate treatment reduced oxygen consumption in ADP-stimulated mitochondria and diminished respiratory control index when using malate/glutamate as substrate. The activities of both complex I and aconitase were also diminished. All the above-described alterations were prevented by curcumin. It is concluded that curcumin is able to attenuate in vivo maleate-induced nephropathy and in vitro cell damage. The in vivo protection was associated to the prevention of oxidative stress and preservation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and activity of respiratory complex I, and the in vitro protection was associated to the prevention of ROS production.

  18. Protective Effects of Curcumin on Renal Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Hwan; Lee, Eun Soo; Choi, Ran; Nawaboot, Jarinyaporn; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and delaying the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus is very important. In this study, we investigated inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism to assess whether curcumin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Methods Animals were divided into three groups: Long-Evans-Tokushima-Otsuka rats for normal controls, Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for the diabetic group, and curcumin-treated (100 mg/kg/day) OLETF rats. We measured body and epididymal fat weights, and examined plasma glucose, adiponectin, and lipid profiles at 45 weeks. To confirm renal damage, we measured albumin-creatinine ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in urine samples. Glomerular basement membrane thickness and slit pore density were evaluated in the renal cortex tissue of rats. Furthermore, we conducted adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and oxidative stress-related nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling to investigate mechanisms of lipotoxicity in kidneys. Results Curcumin ameliorated albuminuria, pathophysiologic changes on the glomerulus, urinary MDA, and urinary SOD related with elevated Nrf2 signaling, as well as serum lipid-related index and ectopic lipid accumulation through activation of AMPK signaling. Conclusion Collectively, these findings indicate that curcumin exerts renoprotective effects by inhibiting renal lipid accumulation and oxidative stress through AMPK and Nrf2 signaling pathway. PMID:26996567

  19. Curcumin attenuates arsenic-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress in experimental mice through activation of Nrf2 pathway, promotion of arsenic methylation and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xin; Dong, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Li, Xin; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties. What's more, curcumin is recently proved to exert its chemopreventive effects partly through the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 (Nrf2) and its antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. In vivo, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that arsenic-induced elevation of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, augmentation of hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA), as well as the reduction of blood and hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, were all consistently relieved by curcumin. We also observed the involvement of curcumin in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Furthermore, both the hepatic Nrf2 protein and two typically recognized Nrf2 downstream genes, NADP(H) quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were consistently up-regulated in curcumin-treated mice. Our study confirmed the antagonistic roles of curcumin to counteract inorganic arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in vivo, and suggested that the potent Nrf2 activation capability might be valuable for the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic intoxication. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations. PMID:23871787

  20. Curcumin attenuates arsenic-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress in experimental mice through activation of Nrf2 pathway, promotion of arsenic methylation and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Duan, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xin; Dong, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Li, Xin; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties. What's more, curcumin is recently proved to exert its chemopreventive effects partly through the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 related) factor 2 (Nrf2) and its antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. In vivo, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries. Our results showed that arsenic-induced elevation of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, augmentation of hepatic malonaldehyde (MDA), as well as the reduction of blood and hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, were all consistently relieved by curcumin. We also observed the involvement of curcumin in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Furthermore, both the hepatic Nrf2 protein and two typically recognized Nrf2 downstream genes, NADP(H) quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were consistently up-regulated in curcumin-treated mice. Our study confirmed the antagonistic roles of curcumin to counteract inorganic arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in vivo, and suggested that the potent Nrf2 activation capability might be valuable for the protective effects of curcumin against arsenic intoxication. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations.

  1. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  2. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b 5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  3. Curcumin protects against gallic acid-induced oxidative stress, suppression of glutathione antioxidant defenses, hepatic and renal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, Sunny O; Durojaiye, Mojisola; Alabi, Adenike; Asonye, Bede; Akiri, Oghenetega

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) and gallic acid (Gal) are major food additives. Cur has well-known antioxidant properties, whereas Gal has both antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of oral administration of Gal with or without Cur on antioxidant enzymes activities, glutathione (GSH) and the enzymes in its metabolism in rat liver in vivo and markers of tissue damage in the serum. Results showed that the increase in serum creatinine level, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities by Gal treatment were inhibited by combined administration of Gal and Cur. The decrease in GSH-peroxidase, GSH-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and GSH-reductase activities by Gal treatment were inhibited when both Gal and Cur were administered together. The malondialdehyde concentration and catalase activity were significantly increased following administration of Gal but not when the administration of Gal was combined with Cur. Finally, the increase in GSH level was seen following administration of Cur alone or in combination with Gal but not with Gal alone. These results suggest that Gal might induce oxidative stress in the rat liver and affect renal function that can be inhibited by the combined administration of Gal and Cur. PMID:26707166

  4. The protective role of curcumin in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Phrommintikul, Arintaya

    2009-04-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the curry spice turmeric. It has been used in a variety of diseases in traditional medicine. Modern scientific research has demonstrated its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this review, we focused mainly on the effects of curcumin on the cardiovascular system. The antioxidant effects of curcumin have been shown to attenuate adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and may prevent diabetic cardiovascular complications. The anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and the effect of curcumin in decreasing the serum cholesterol level may protect against the pathological changes occurring with atherosclerosis. The p300-HAT inhibitory effects of curcumin have been demonstrated to ameliorate the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in animal models. The inflammatory effects of curcumin may have the possibility of preventing atrial arrhythmias and the possible effect of curcumin for correcting the Ca(2+) homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of some ventricular arrhythmias. The preclinical studies from animal to clinical data in human are discussed.

  5. In situ injectable nano-composite hydrogel composed of curcumin, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and oxidized alginate for wound healing application.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingyi; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Binjun; Li, Mei; Diao, Kai; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Li, Jie; Xu, Yu; Wang, Xianhuo; Chen, Hao

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, an in situ injectable nano-composite hydrogel composed of curcumin, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and oxidized alginate as a novel wound dressing was successfully developed for the dermal wound repair application. Nano-curcumin with improved stability and similar antioxidant efficiency compared with that of unmodified curcumin was developed by using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (MPEG-PCL) as carrier followed by incorporating into the N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan/oxidized alginate hydrogel (CCS-OA hydrogel). In vitro release study revealed that the encapsulated nano-curcumin was slowly released from CCS-OA hydrogel with the diffusion-controllable manner at initial phase followed by the corrosion manner of hydrogel at terminal phase. In vivo wound healing study was performed by injecting hydrogels on rat dorsal wounds. Histological study revealed that application of nano-curcumin/CCS-OA hydrogel could significantly enhance the re-epithelialization of epidermis and collagen deposition in the wound tissue. DNA, protein and hydroxyproline content in wound tissue from each group were measured on 7th day of post wounding and the results also indicated that combined using nano-curcumin and CCS-OA hydrogel could significantly accelerate the process of wound healing. Therefore, all these results suggested that the developed nano-curcumin/CCS-OA hydrogel as a promising wound dressing might have potential application in the wound healing. PMID:22903048

  6. Overdose Intake of Curcumin Initiates the Unbalanced State of Bodies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is the major active component of turmeric and widely used as a spice and coloring agent in food. However, its safety evaluation has been little investigated. To evaluate the 90-day subchronic toxicity of curcumin in rats, its general observation, clinical biochemistry, pathology, and metabolomics were evaluated. The results showed that curcumin induced liver injury through the generation of the overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and the decreases of the levels of antioxidant enzyme SOD and detoxified enzyme GST. Meanwhile, for the self-protection of rats, curcumin treatment activated the transcription of Nrf-2 and elevated the expression of HO-1 to reduce tissue damage. Furthermore, curcumin significantly increased key mRNA levels of HK2, PKM2, LDHA, CES, Cpt1, Cpt2, FASN, and ATP5b and decreased levels of GLUT2 and ACC1 to enhance glycolysis and inhibit lipid metabolism and TCA cycle. Therefore, overdose or long-term intake of curcumin could initiate the unbalanced state of bodies through oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, which induces liver injury. Intermittent administration of curcumin is necessary in our daily lives. PMID:26978516

  7. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin accelerated the cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kant, Vinay; Gopal, Anu; Pathak, Nitya N; Kumar, Pawan; Tandan, Surendra K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-06-01

    Prolonged inflammation and increased oxidative stress impairs healing in diabetics and application of curcumin, a well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, could be an important strategy in improving impaired healing in diabetics. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the cutaneous wound healing potential of topically applied curcumin in diabetic rats. Open excision skin wound was created in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and wounded rats were divided into three groups; i) control, ii) gel-treated and iii) curcumin-treated. Pluronic F-127 gel (25%) and curcumin (0.3%) in pluronic gel were topically applied in the gel- and curcumin-treated groups, respectively, once daily for 19 days. Curcumin application increased the wound contraction and decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines/enzymes i.e. tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Curcumin also increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine i.e. IL-10 and antioxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Histopathologically, the curcumin-treated wounds showed better granulation tissue dominated by marked fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, and wounds were covered by thick regenerated epithelial layer. These findings reveal that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of curcumin caused faster and better wound healing in diabetic rats and curcumin could be an additional novel therapeutic agent in the management of impaired wound healing in diabetics.

  8. Curcumin enhances the cytogenotoxic effect of etoposide in leukemia cells through induction of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Papież, Monika A; Krzyściak, Wirginia; Szade, Krzysztof; Bukowska-Straková, Karolina; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Hajduk, Karolina; Bystrowska, Beata; Dulak, Jozef; Jozkowicz, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin may exert a more selective cytotoxic effect in tumor cells with elevated levels of free radicals. Here, we investigated whether curcumin can modulate etoposide action in myeloid leukemia cells and in normal cells of hematopoietic origin. HL-60 cell line, normal myeloid progenitor cluster of differentiation (CD)-34(+) cells, and granulocytes were incubated for 4 or 24 hours at different concentrations of curcumin and/or etoposide. Brown Norway rats with acute myeloid leukemia (BNML) were used to prove the influence of curcumin on etoposide action in vivo. Rats were treated with curcumin for 23 days and etoposide was administered for the final 3 days of the experiment. Curcumin synergistically potentiated the cytotoxic effect of etoposide, and it intensified apoptosis and phosphorylation of the histone H2AX induced by this cytostatic drug in leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, curcumin did not significantly modify etoposide-induced cytotoxicity and H2AX phosphorylation in normal CD34(+) cells and granulocytes. Curcumin modified the cytotoxic action of etoposide in HL-60 cells through intensification of free radical production because preincubation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect of curcumin itself and a combination of two compounds. In contrast, NAC did not decrease the cytotoxic effect of etoposide. Thus, oxidative stress plays a greater role in the cytotoxic effect of curcumin than that of etoposide in HL-60 cells. In vitro results were confirmed in a BNML model. Pretreatment with curcumin enhanced the antileukemic activity of etoposide in BNML rats (1.57-fold tumor reduction versus etoposide alone; P<0.05) and induced apoptosis of BNML cells more efficiently than etoposide alone (1.54-fold change versus etoposide alone; P<0.05), but this treatment protected nonleukemic B-cells from apoptosis. Thus, curcumin can increase the antileukemic effect of etoposide through reactive oxygen species in sensitive myeloid

  9. Curcumin enhances the cytogenotoxic effect of etoposide in leukemia cells through induction of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Papież, Monika A; Krzyściak, Wirginia; Szade, Krzysztof; Bukowska-Straková, Karolina; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Hajduk, Karolina; Bystrowska, Beata; Dulak, Jozef; Jozkowicz, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin may exert a more selective cytotoxic effect in tumor cells with elevated levels of free radicals. Here, we investigated whether curcumin can modulate etoposide action in myeloid leukemia cells and in normal cells of hematopoietic origin. HL-60 cell line, normal myeloid progenitor cluster of differentiation (CD)-34+ cells, and granulocytes were incubated for 4 or 24 hours at different concentrations of curcumin and/or etoposide. Brown Norway rats with acute myeloid leukemia (BNML) were used to prove the influence of curcumin on etoposide action in vivo. Rats were treated with curcumin for 23 days and etoposide was administered for the final 3 days of the experiment. Curcumin synergistically potentiated the cytotoxic effect of etoposide, and it intensified apoptosis and phosphorylation of the histone H2AX induced by this cytostatic drug in leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, curcumin did not significantly modify etoposide-induced cytotoxicity and H2AX phosphorylation in normal CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Curcumin modified the cytotoxic action of etoposide in HL-60 cells through intensification of free radical production because preincubation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect of curcumin itself and a combination of two compounds. In contrast, NAC did not decrease the cytotoxic effect of etoposide. Thus, oxidative stress plays a greater role in the cytotoxic effect of curcumin than that of etoposide in HL-60 cells. In vitro results were confirmed in a BNML model. Pretreatment with curcumin enhanced the antileukemic activity of etoposide in BNML rats (1.57-fold tumor reduction versus etoposide alone; P<0.05) and induced apoptosis of BNML cells more efficiently than etoposide alone (1.54-fold change versus etoposide alone; P<0.05), but this treatment protected nonleukemic B-cells from apoptosis. Thus, curcumin can increase the antileukemic effect of etoposide through reactive oxygen species in sensitive myeloid leukemia

  10. One pot synthesis, structural and spectral analysis of some symmetrical curcumin analogues catalyzed by calcium oxide under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elavarasan, S.; Bhakiaraj, D.; Chellakili, B.; Elavarasan, T.; Gopalakrishnan, M.

    2012-11-01

    A series of sixteen number of curcumin analogues have been synthesized under microwave irradiation using calcium oxide as a catalyst. The synthesized compounds have been characterized using FT-IR, MS, elemental analysis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. The UV-Vis absorption studies for these compounds have been studied in order to provide the electronic transitions taking place in the molecule. When compared to the curcumin ((1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one), the absorption maxima, λmax for all the synthesized curcumin analogues with a variety of substituents gets blue shifted i.e., hypsochromic shift was observed. This shift may be assigned to the change of dipole moment within the solvated molecule. Theoretical calculations regarding the optimization of the synthesized molecules, electronic properties like highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and mapped electron density surface diagrams were done. The geometrical energy, dipole moments and heat of formation values have also been calculated using the ArgusLab package by AM1 semi-empirical method.

  11. Therapeutic implications of curcumin in the prevention of diabetic retinopathy via modulation of anti-oxidant activity and genetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H; Aly, Salah M; Rahmani, Arshad H

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus that affects the blood vessels of the retina, leading to blindness. The current approach of treatment based on anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenesis drugs and laser photocoagulation are effective but also shows adverse affect in retinal tissues and that can even worsen the visual abilities. Thus, a safe and effective mode of treatment is needed to control or delaying the DR. Based on the earlier evidence of the potentiality of natural products as anti-oxidants, anti-diabetic and antitumor, medicinal plants may constitute a good therapeutic approach in the prevention of DR. Curcumin, constituents of dietary spice turmeric, has been observed to have therapeutic potential in the inhibition or slow down progression of DR. In this review, we summarize the therapeutic potentiality of curcumin in the delaying the DR through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth and nuclear transcription factors. The strength of involvement of curcumin in the modulation of genes action creates a strong optimism towards novel therapeutic strategy of diabetic retinopathy and important mainstay in the management of diabetes and its complications DR. PMID:24379904

  12. Curcumin protects against ischemic spinal cord injury: The pathway effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wei, Hao; Lin, Meimei; Chen, Chunmei; Wang, Chunhua; Liu, Maobai

    2013-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have been shown to participate in nerve cell injury during spinal cord ischemia. This study observed a protective effect of curcumin on ischemic spinal cord injury. Models of spinal cord ischemia were established by ligating the lumbar artery from the left renal artery to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. At 24 hours after model establishment, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with curcumin. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after spinal cord ischemia, inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression significantly increased. However, curcumin significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic spinal cord. Tarlov scale results showed that curcumin significantly improved motor function of the rat hind limb after spinal cord ischemia. The results demonstrate that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective fect against ischemic spinal cord injury by decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression. PMID:25206661

  13. Unraveling Curcumin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Odaine N.; Luis, Paula B.; Sintim, Herman O.; Schneider, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a dietary anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agent consisting of two methoxyphenol rings connected by a conjugated heptadienedione chain. Curcumin is unstable at physiological pH and rapidly degrades in an autoxidation reaction to a major bicyclopentadione product in which the 7-carbon chain has undergone oxygenation and double cyclization. Early degradation products (but not the final bicyclopentadione) mediate topoisomerase poisoning and possibly many other activities of curcumin, but it is not known how many and what autoxidation products are formed, nor their mechanism of formation. Here, using [14C2]curcumin as a tracer, seven novel autoxidation products, including two reaction intermediates, were isolated and identified using one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry. The unusual spiroepoxide and vinylether reaction intermediates are precursors to the final bicyclopentadione product. A mechanism for the autoxidation of curcumin is proposed that accounts for the addition and exchange of oxygen that have been determined using 18O2 and H218O. Several of the by-products are formed from an endoperoxide intermediate via reactions that are well precedented in lipid peroxidation. The electrophilic spiroepoxide intermediate formed a stable adduct with N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that oxidative transformation is required for biological effects mediated by covalent adduction to protein thiols. The spontaneous autoxidation distinguishes curcumin among natural polyphenolic compounds of therapeutic interest; the formation of chemically diverse reactive and electrophilic products provides a novel paradigm for understanding the polypharmacological effects of curcumin. PMID:25564617

  14. Curcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Hypertension and Tissue Cadmium Accumulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Donpunha, Wanida; Sompamit, Kwanjit; Surawattanawan, Praphassorn

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd)—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L) in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd. PMID:24662163

  15. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer's disease: An overview.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shrikant; Palanivelu, Kalpana

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of curcumin on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curcumin (Turmeric), an ancient Indian herb used in curry powder, has been extensively studied in modern medicine and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, haemorrhoids, gastric ulcer, colon cancer, breast cancer, atherosclerosis, liver diseases and arthritis. It has been used in various types of treatments for dementia and traumatic brain injury. Curcumin also has a potential role in the prevention and treatment of AD. Curcumin as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipophilic action improves the cognitive functions in patients with AD. A growing body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress, free radicals, beta amyloid, cerebral deregulation caused by bio-metal toxicity and abnormal inflammatory reactions contribute to the key event in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Due to various effects of curcumin, such as decreased Beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, metal-chelation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and decreased microglia formation, the overall memory in patients with AD has improved. This paper reviews the various mechanisms of actions of curcumin in AD and pathology.

  16. Potential protective effects of quercetin and curcumin on paracetamol-induced histological changes, oxidative stress, impaired liver and kidney functions and haematotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mokhtar I; Omar, Sahar A M; El-Guendi, Marwa I; Abdelmegid, Laila A

    2010-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of quercetin and curcumin against paracetamol-induced oxidative injury, liver damage and impairment of kidney function, as well as haematotoxicity in rats. Also, N-acetylcysteine was used to evaluate the potency of quercetin and curcumin. Paracetamol caused an elevation in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) paralleled with significant decline in glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (in plasma, brain, lung, heart, liver, kidney and testes) and glutathione content (in lung, liver and kidney). The apparent oxidative injury was associated with evident hepatic necrosis confirmed in histological examination, elevated plasma transmainases, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. Paracetamol reduced plasma total protein, albumin and globulin, while increased bilirubin, urea and creatinine, and induced haematotoxicity. The presence of quercetin or curcumin with paracetamol successfully mitigated the rise in TBARS and restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the group treated with both paracetamol and N-acetylcysteine. They also protected liver histology, normalized liver and kidney functions, which was more pronounced with curcumin. Therefore, it can be concluded that concomitant administration of quercetin or curcumin with paracetamol may be useful in reversing the toxicity of the drug compared to N-acetylcysteine.

  17. Chemical oxidation decreases proteolytic susceptibility of skeletal muscle myofibrillar proteins.

    PubMed

    Morzel, Martine; Gatellier, Philippe; Sayd, Thierry; Renerre, Michel; Laville, Elisabeth

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical oxidation on proteolysis susceptibility of myofibrillar proteins. Myofibrils were prepared from pig M. longissimus dorsi and oxidised by a hydroxyl radical generating system. Protein oxidation level was measured by the carbonyl content, free thiol group content and bityrosine formation. Oxidised or non-oxidised myofibrillar proteins were exposed to papain and proteolysis was estimated by fluorescence using fluorescamine. Oxidation of myofibrillar proteins was dependent upon the oxidising agent concentration. Disulfide bridge and bityrosine formation indicated that oxidation by OH° can induce protein polymerization. Electrophoretic study showed that myosin was the protein most sensitive to oxidation. Results showed a direct and quantitative relationship between protein damages by hydroxyl radical and decreased proteolytic susceptibility. Electrophoretic observations suggest that polymerization and aggregation may explain in part decreased susceptibility of myofibrillar proteins to proteolysis. PMID:22062494

  18. Curcumin and folic acid abrogated methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate, an antifolate drug widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer, is known to cause vascular endothelial dysfunction by causing hyperhomocysteinemia, direct injury to endothelium or by increasing the oxidative stress (raising levels of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin). Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and therapeutic spectra similar to that of methotrexate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and also compare its effect with that produced by folic acid (0.072 μg·g(-1)·day(-1), p.o., 2 weeks) per se and in combination. Male Wistar rats were exposed to methotrexate (0.35 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), i.p.) for 2 weeks to induce endothelial dysfunction. Methotrexate exposure led to shedding of endothelium, decreased vascular reactivity, increased oxidative stress, decreased serum nitrite levels, and increase in aortic collagen deposition. Curcumin (200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks prevented the increase in oxidative stress, decrease in serum nitrite, aortic collagen deposition, and also vascular reactivity. The effects were comparable with those produced by folic acid therapy. The study shows that curcumin, when concomitantly administered with methotrexate, abrogated its vascular side effects by preventing an increase in oxidative stress and abating any reduction in physiological nitric oxide levels. PMID:26571019

  19. Curcumin and folic acid abrogated methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate, an antifolate drug widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer, is known to cause vascular endothelial dysfunction by causing hyperhomocysteinemia, direct injury to endothelium or by increasing the oxidative stress (raising levels of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin). Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and therapeutic spectra similar to that of methotrexate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and also compare its effect with that produced by folic acid (0.072 μg·g(-1)·day(-1), p.o., 2 weeks) per se and in combination. Male Wistar rats were exposed to methotrexate (0.35 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), i.p.) for 2 weeks to induce endothelial dysfunction. Methotrexate exposure led to shedding of endothelium, decreased vascular reactivity, increased oxidative stress, decreased serum nitrite levels, and increase in aortic collagen deposition. Curcumin (200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks prevented the increase in oxidative stress, decrease in serum nitrite, aortic collagen deposition, and also vascular reactivity. The effects were comparable with those produced by folic acid therapy. The study shows that curcumin, when concomitantly administered with methotrexate, abrogated its vascular side effects by preventing an increase in oxidative stress and abating any reduction in physiological nitric oxide levels.

  20. Curcumin Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Premature Senescence via the Activation of SIRT1 in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yueliu; Hu, Xiaorong; Hu, Gangying; Xu, Changwu; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial senescence has been proposed to be involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. Curcumin, a natural phenol, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on endothelial senescence is unclear. This study explores the effect of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced endothelial premature senescence and the mechanisms involved. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured, and premature senescence was induced with 100 µM H2O2. Results showed that pretreatment with curcumin significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced HUVECs' premature senescence, which was evidenced by a decreased percentage of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells, improved cell division and decreased expression of senescence-associated protein p21 (all p<0.05). Pretreatment with curcumin decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis in H2O2-treated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with H2O2 also down-regulated the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), decreased the level of nitric oxide in the culture medium, and inhibited the protein expression and enzymatic activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), while pretreatment with curcumin partly reversed these effects (all p<0.05). Treatment with curcumin alone enhanced the enzymatic activity of SIRT1, but didn't affect cellular senescence, cell growth or apoptosis compared to the Control. The inhibition of SIRT1 using SIRT1 short interfering RNA (siRNA) could decrease the expression and phosphorylation of eNOS and abrogate the protective effect of curcumin on H2O2-induced premature senescence. These findings suggest that curcumin could attenuate oxidative stress-induced HUVECs' premature senescence via the activation of SIRT1.

  1. Therapeutic Applications of Curcumin Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Yallapu, Murali M; Nagesh, Prashanth K Bhusetty; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a bioactive and major phenolic component of turmeric derived from the rhizomes of curcuma longa linn. For centuries, curcumin has exhibited excellent therapeutic benefits in various diseases. Owing to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin plays a significant beneficial and pleiotropic regulatory role in various pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory disorders, neurological disorders, and so on. Despite such phenomenal advances in medicinal applications, the clinical implication of native curcumin is hindered due to low solubility, physico-chemical instability, poor bioavailability, rapid metabolism, and poor pharmacokinetics. However, these issues can be overcome by utilizing an efficient delivery system. Active scientific research was initiated in 2005 to improve curcumin's pharmacokinetics, systemic bioavailability, and biological activity by encapsulating or by loading curcumin into nanoform(s) (nanoformulations). A significant number of nanoformulations exist that can be translated toward medicinal use upon successful completion of pre-clinical and human clinical trials. Considering this perspective, current review provides an overview of an efficient curcumin nanoformulation for a targeted therapeutic option for various human diseases. In this review article, we discuss the clinical evidence, current status, and future opportunities of curcumin nanoformulation(s) in the field of medicine. In addition, this review presents a concise summary of the actions required to develop curcumin nanoformulations as pharmaceutical or nutraceutical candidates. PMID:26335307

  2. Therapeutic Applications of Curcumin Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Yallapu, Murali M; Nagesh, Prashanth K Bhusetty; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a bioactive and major phenolic component of turmeric derived from the rhizomes of curcuma longa linn. For centuries, curcumin has exhibited excellent therapeutic benefits in various diseases. Owing to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin plays a significant beneficial and pleiotropic regulatory role in various pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory disorders, neurological disorders, and so on. Despite such phenomenal advances in medicinal applications, the clinical implication of native curcumin is hindered due to low solubility, physico-chemical instability, poor bioavailability, rapid metabolism, and poor pharmacokinetics. However, these issues can be overcome by utilizing an efficient delivery system. Active scientific research was initiated in 2005 to improve curcumin's pharmacokinetics, systemic bioavailability, and biological activity by encapsulating or by loading curcumin into nanoform(s) (nanoformulations). A significant number of nanoformulations exist that can be translated toward medicinal use upon successful completion of pre-clinical and human clinical trials. Considering this perspective, current review provides an overview of an efficient curcumin nanoformulation for a targeted therapeutic option for various human diseases. In this review article, we discuss the clinical evidence, current status, and future opportunities of curcumin nanoformulation(s) in the field of medicine. In addition, this review presents a concise summary of the actions required to develop curcumin nanoformulations as pharmaceutical or nutraceutical candidates.

  3. Curcumin treatment recovery the decrease of protein phosphatase 2A subunit B induced by focal cerebral ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Fawad-Ali; Park, Dong-Ju; Gim, Sang-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin provides various biological effects through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Moreover, curcumin exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemic condition-induced brain damage. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitous serine and threonine phosphatase with various cell functions and broad substrate specificity. Especially PP2A subunit B plays an important role in nervous system. This study investigated whether curcumin regulates PP2A subunit B expression in focal cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced surgically by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Adult male rats were injected with either vehicle or curcumin (50 mg/kg) 1 h after MCAO and cerebral cortex tissues were isolated 24 h after MCAO. A proteomics study, reverse transverse-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to examine PP2A subunit B expression levels. We identified a reduction in PP2A subunit B expression in MCAO-operated animals using a proteomic approach. However, curcumin treatment prevented injury-induced reductions in PP2A subunit B levels. Reverse transverse-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that curcumin treatment attenuated the injury-induced reduction in PP2A subunit B levels. These findings can suggest that the possibility that curcumin maintains levels of PP2A subunit B in response to cerebral ischemia, which likely contributes to the neuroprotective function of curcumin in cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:26472966

  4. A review of therapeutic effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in herbal medicine. Scientific studies have demonstrated the beneficial pharmacological effects of curcumin. Curcumin is a bright yellow spice, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. It has been proven that curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule which can be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. Curcumin might be a potential candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of some diseases due to its anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory activities and an excellent safety profile. We present an updated concise review of currently available animal and clinical studies demonstrating the therapeutic effect of curcumin. PMID:23116311

  5. Effect of Curcumin on Lifespan, Activity Pattern, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in the Brains of Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Background. A time dependent loss of dopaminergic neurons and the formation of intracellular aggregates of alpha synuclein have been reported in PD model flies. Methods. The progeny (PD flies) expressing human alpha synuclein was exposed to 25, 50, and 100 µM of curcumin mixed in the diet for 24 days. The effect of curcumin was studied on lifespan, activity pattern, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the brains of PD model flies. The activity of PD model flies was monitored by using Drosophila activity monitors (DAMs). For the estimation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were estimated in the flies brains of each treated groups. The cell death in Drosophila brain was analyzed by isolating brains in Ringer's solution placing them in 70% ethanol and stained in acridine orange to calculate the gray scale values. Results. The exposure of flies to 25, 50, and 100 µM of curcumin showed a dose dependent significant delay in the loss of activity pattern, reduction in the oxidative stress and apoptosis, and increase in the life span of PD model flies. Conclusion. Curcumin is potent in reducing PD symptoms. PMID:24860828

  6. Curcumin contributes to in vitro removal of non-transferrin bound iron by deferiprone and desferrioxamine in thalassemic plasma.

    PubMed

    Srichairatanakool, S; Thephinlap, C; Phisalaphong, C; Porter, J B; Fucharoen, S

    2007-09-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) is detectable in plasma of beta-thalassemia patients with transfusional iron overload. This form of iron may cause oxidative tissue damage and increased iron uptake, into several vital organs. Removal of NTBI species is incomplete and transient using standard intermittent desferrioxamine (DFO) or deferiprone (DFP) monotherapy. Combinations of these or other chelators may improve the protection time from NTBI and increase removal of harmful NTBI species. Curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. is a naturally occurring phytochemical which shows a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and iron-chelating activities. In this study, the curcuminoids was investigated for NTBI chelation in thalassemic plasma in vitro and for the potential to improve NTBI removal when used with other chelators. Curcumin bound Fe(3+) to form a Fe(3+)-curcumin complex with a predominant absorption at 500 nm. The chemical binding of curcumin was dose- and time-dependent and more specific for Fe(3+) than Fe(2+). Using a HPLC-based NTBI assay without an aluminium blocking step, curcumin shuttled the iron from Fe(3+)-NTA complex, giving underestimated NTBI values. At equivalent concentrations DFO, DFP and curcumin decreased plasma NTBI with the order of DFP>DFO>curcumin. None of these chelators removed NTBI completely, but curcumin appeared to increase the rate of NTBI removal when added to DFP. It is proposed that the beta-diketo moiety of curcumin participates in the NTBI chelation.

  7. The curry spice curcumin selectively inhibits cancer cells growth in vitro and in preclinical model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Braganhol, Elizandra; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Behr, Guilherme A; Zanin, Rafael; Schröder, Rafael; Simões-Pires, André; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that curcumin is a potential agent against glioblastomas (GBMs). However, the in vivo efficacy of curcumin in gliomas remains not established. In this work, we examined the mechanisms underlying apoptosis, selectivity, efficacy and safety of curcumin from in vitro (U138MG, U87, U373 and C6 cell lines) and in vivo (C6 implants) models of GBM. In vitro, curcumin markedly inhibited proliferation and migration and induced cell death in liquid and soft agar models of GBM growth. Curcumin effects occurred irrespective of the p53 and PTEN mutational status of the cells. Interestingly, curcumin did not affect viability of primary astrocytes, suggesting that curcumin selectivity targeted transformed cells. In U138MG and C6 cells, curcumin decreased the constitutive activation of PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB survival pathways, down-regulated the antiapoptotic NFkappaB-regulated protein bcl-xl and induced mitochondrial dysfunction as a prelude to apoptosis. Cells developed an early G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by sub-G1 apoptosis and apoptotic bodies formation. Caspase-3 activation occurred in the p53-normal cell type C6, but not in the p53-mutant U138MG. Besides its apoptotic effect, curcumin also synergized with the chemotherapeutics cisplatin and doxorubicin to enhance GBM cells death. In C6-implanted rats, intraperitoneal curcumin (50 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) decreased brain tumors in 9/11 (81.8%) animals against 0/11 (0%) in the vehicle-treated group. Importantly, no evidence of tissue (transaminases, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase), metabolic (cholesterol and glucose), oxidative or hematological toxicity was observed. In summary, data presented here suggest curcumin as a potential agent for therapy of GBMs.

  8. Oxidative Stress Markers and Histological Analysis in Diverse Organs from Rats Treated with a Hepatotoxic Dose of Cr(VI): Effect of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Vega-García, Claudia Cecilia; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extremely toxic and carcinogenic. Despite the vast quantity of reports about Cr(VI) toxicity, the information regarding its effects when it is intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered is still limited. In contrast, it has been shown that curcumin prevents hepatotoxicity induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). This study aims to evaluate oxidative stress markers, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the potential histological injury in brain, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, stomach, and intestine from rats treated with a hepatotoxic dose of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.), and the effect of curcumin pretreatment. Rats were divided into four groups: control, curcumin, K2Cr2O7, and curcumin+K2Cr2O7. At the end of the treatment, plasma and ascites fluid were collected and target organs were dissected out for biochemical and histological analysis. K2Cr2O7 induced hepatotoxicity but failed to induce in all the other studied organs either oxidative or histological injury, since levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and related GSH enzymes were unchanged. As expected, curcumin was safe. Lack of K2Cr2O7-induced toxicity in those target organs could be due to the following: (1) route of administration, (2) absorption through the portal circulation, (3) lower dose than needed, (4) short time of exposure, or (5) repeated doses are required to produce damage. Thus, the intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7, that is able to induce hepatotoxicity, was unable to induce histological and oxidative damage in other target organs.

  9. In Vitro Study on Antihypertensive and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of a Curcumin Nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Soraya, Irene Surya; Kurniati, Neng Fisheri; Rahma, Annisa

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and hypertension can potentially progess into dangerous cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels while antihypertensive agents such as captopril are widely prescribed to treat high blood pressure. Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from Curcuma domestica, has been proven effective for a broad spectrum of diseases, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, curcumin is quite promising as an alternative therapeutic compound. Our previous studies have proven a significant increase in physical properties, bioavailability, and stability of curcumin when encapsulated in a nanoemulsion. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the nanoemulsion in enhancing curcumin activity as a antihypertensive and antihypercholesterolemic agent. The formulation and preparation method of the curcumin nanoemulsion have been developed in our previous study. Physical characterization was performed, including measurement of droplet size, polidispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity. Antihypertensive activity of curcumin was evaluated by determining Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition in vitro. A substrate for ACE, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine was allowed to react with ACE, resulting in hippuric acid formation as the product. The degree of ACE inhibition by curcumin was represented by the amount of hippuric acid formed. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of curcumin was studied using the HMG-CoA reductase assay equipped with a 96-well UV plate. This assay was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease in absorbance which represents the oxidation of NADPH by the catalytic subunit of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) in the presence of the substrate HMG-CoA. Curcumin is known to have no significant difference in inhibiting ACE compared to Captopril, but when it was incorporated in the self

  10. In Vitro Study on Antihypertensive and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of a Curcumin Nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Soraya, Irene Surya; Kurniati, Neng Fisheri; Rahma, Annisa

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and hypertension can potentially progess into dangerous cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels while antihypertensive agents such as captopril are widely prescribed to treat high blood pressure. Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from Curcuma domestica, has been proven effective for a broad spectrum of diseases, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, curcumin is quite promising as an alternative therapeutic compound. Our previous studies have proven a significant increase in physical properties, bioavailability, and stability of curcumin when encapsulated in a nanoemulsion. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the nanoemulsion in enhancing curcumin activity as a antihypertensive and antihypercholesterolemic agent. The formulation and preparation method of the curcumin nanoemulsion have been developed in our previous study. Physical characterization was performed, including measurement of droplet size, polidispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity. Antihypertensive activity of curcumin was evaluated by determining Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition in vitro. A substrate for ACE, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine was allowed to react with ACE, resulting in hippuric acid formation as the product. The degree of ACE inhibition by curcumin was represented by the amount of hippuric acid formed. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of curcumin was studied using the HMG-CoA reductase assay equipped with a 96-well UV plate. This assay was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease in absorbance which represents the oxidation of NADPH by the catalytic subunit of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) in the presence of the substrate HMG-CoA. Curcumin is known to have no significant difference in inhibiting ACE compared to Captopril, but when it was incorporated in the self

  11. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, N; Dwivedi, Subhash; Tota, Santosh Kumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OKA) has been observed to cause memory impairment in human subjects having seafood contaminated with dinoflagellate (Helicondria okadai). OKA induces tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress leading to memory impairment as our previous study has shown. Curcumin a natural antioxidant has demonstrated neuroprotection in various models of neurodegeneration. However, the effect of curcumin has not been explored in OKA induced memory impairment. Therefore, present study evaluated the effect of curcumin on OKA (100ng, intracerebrally) induced memory impairment in male Swiss albino mice as evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests (PAT). OKA administration resulted in memory impairment with a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured by laser doppler flowmetry), ATP level and increased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and GFAP), oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased Caspase-9 and cholinergic dysfunction (decreased AChE activity/expression and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. Oral administration of curcumin (50mg/kg) for 13 days significantly improved memory function in both MWM and PAT along with brain energy metabolism, CBF and cholinergic function. It decreased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrostative stress in different brain regions of OKA treated mice. Curcumin also inhibited astrocyte activation as evidenced by decreased GFAP expression. This neuroprotective effect of curcumin is due to its potent anti-oxidant action thus confirming previous studies. Therefore, use of curcumin should be encouraged in people consuming sea food (contaminated with dinoflagellates) to prevent cognitive impairment.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on focal cerebral ischemic rats by preventing blood-brain barrier damage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yong Jun; Hu, Mei; Li, Fei; Zhu, Dong Ya

    2007-04-30

    Curcumin, a member of the curcuminoid family of compounds, is a yellow colored phenolic pigment obtained from powdered rhizome of C. longa Linn. Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin has protective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, little is known about its mechanism. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier occurs after stroke. Protection of the blood-brain barrier has become an important target of stroke interventions in experimental therapeutic. The objective of the present study was to determine whether curcumin prevents cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by protecting blood-brain barrier integrity. We report that a single injection of curcumin (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats significantly diminished infarct volume, improved neurological deficit, decreased mortality, reduced the water content of the brain and the extravasation of Evans blue dye in ipsilateral hemisphere in a dose-dependent manner. In cultured astrocytes, curcumin significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO(x) (Nitrites/nitrates contents) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF(alpha)). Furthermore, curcumin prevented ONOO(-) donor SIN-1-induced cerebral capillaries endothelial cells damage. We concluded that curcumin ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by preventing ONOO(-) mediated blood-brain barrier damage. PMID:17303117

  13. The effect of curcumin on liver fibrosis in the rat model of microsurgical cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Barta, Andrej; Janega, Pavol; Babál, Pavel; Murár, Erich; Cebová, Martina; Pechánová, Olga

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of curcumin on liver fibrosis and to clarify the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a model of microsurgical cholestasis in the early stage of extrahepatic biliary atresia. Twelve-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): sham-operated rats (received olive oil after laparotomy); a curcumin group (received curcumin, 200 mg kg(-1) per day, after laparotomy); a biliary duct ligated group (BDL, received olive oil after operation); and a biliary duct ligated/curcumin group (BDL curc, received curcumin, 200 mg kg(-1) per day, after operation). After 3 weeks of treatment, curcumin did not modify blood plasma markers as well as the expressions of iNOS and NF-κB (p65) in the livers of the sham group. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in the extent of both liver and kidney fibrosis. On the other hand, despite a decrease in the expression of iNOS and NF-κB (p65), treatment with curcumin did not affect fibrosis enlargement due to bile duct ligation in the liver. In the BDL group, treatment with curcumin decreased the level of blood plasma markers investigated. In conclusion, treatment with curcumin was able to improve the functional properties of hepatocytes and to inhibit the upregulations of both NF-κB and iNOS in the BDL group; however, no beneficial effect was observed on the liver fibrosis developed in this model of cholestasis. Thus, in the studied model of microsurgical cholestasis, other factors different from NF-κB and iNOS are responsible for fibrotic processes in the liver.

  14. The Anti-Inflammatory Compound Curcumin Enhances Locomotor and Sensory Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Machova Urdzikova, Lucia; Karova, Kristyna; Ruzicka, Jiri; Kloudova, Anna; Shannon, Craig; Dubisova, Jana; Murali, Raj; Kubinova, Sarka; Sykova, Eva; Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena; Jendelova, Pavla

    2015-12-31

    Well known for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation properties, curcumin is a polyphenol found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa. In this study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin on behavioral recovery, glial scar formation, tissue preservation, axonal sprouting, and inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in male Wistar rats. The rats were randomized into two groups following a balloon compression injury at the level of T9-T10 of the spinal cord, namely vehicle- or curcumin-treated. Curcumin was applied locally on the surface of the injured spinal cord immediately following injury and then given intraperitoneally daily; the control rats were treated with vehicle in the same manner. Curcumin treatment improved behavioral recovery within the first week following SCI as evidenced by improved Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) test and plantar scores, representing locomotor and sensory performance, respectively. Furthermore, curcumin treatment decreased glial scar formation by decreasing the levels of MIP1α, IL-2, and RANTES production and by decreasing NF-κB activity. These results, therefore, demonstrate that curcumin has a profound anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential in the treatment of spinal cord injury, especially when given immediately after the injury.

  15. The Anti-Inflammatory Compound Curcumin Enhances Locomotor and Sensory Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Machova Urdzikova, Lucia; Karova, Kristyna; Ruzicka, Jiri; Kloudova, Anna; Shannon, Craig; Dubisova, Jana; Murali, Raj; Kubinova, Sarka; Sykova, Eva; Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena; Jendelova, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Well known for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation properties, curcumin is a polyphenol found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa. In this study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin on behavioral recovery, glial scar formation, tissue preservation, axonal sprouting, and inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in male Wistar rats. The rats were randomized into two groups following a balloon compression injury at the level of T9-T10 of the spinal cord, namely vehicle- or curcumin-treated. Curcumin was applied locally on the surface of the injured spinal cord immediately following injury and then given intraperitoneally daily; the control rats were treated with vehicle in the same manner. Curcumin treatment improved behavioral recovery within the first week following SCI as evidenced by improved Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) test and plantar scores, representing locomotor and sensory performance, respectively. Furthermore, curcumin treatment decreased glial scar formation by decreasing the levels of MIP1α, IL-2, and RANTES production and by decreasing NF-κB activity. These results, therefore, demonstrate that curcumin has a profound anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential in the treatment of spinal cord injury, especially when given immediately after the injury. PMID:26729105

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory Compound Curcumin Enhances Locomotor and Sensory Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Machova Urdzikova, Lucia; Karova, Kristyna; Ruzicka, Jiri; Kloudova, Anna; Shannon, Craig; Dubisova, Jana; Murali, Raj; Kubinova, Sarka; Sykova, Eva; Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena; Jendelova, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Well known for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammation properties, curcumin is a polyphenol found in the rhizome of Curcuma longa. In this study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin on behavioral recovery, glial scar formation, tissue preservation, axonal sprouting, and inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in male Wistar rats. The rats were randomized into two groups following a balloon compression injury at the level of T9–T10 of the spinal cord, namely vehicle- or curcumin-treated. Curcumin was applied locally on the surface of the injured spinal cord immediately following injury and then given intraperitoneally daily; the control rats were treated with vehicle in the same manner. Curcumin treatment improved behavioral recovery within the first week following SCI as evidenced by improved Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) test and plantar scores, representing locomotor and sensory performance, respectively. Furthermore, curcumin treatment decreased glial scar formation by decreasing the levels of MIP1α, IL-2, and RANTES production and by decreasing NF-κB activity. These results, therefore, demonstrate that curcumin has a profound anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential in the treatment of spinal cord injury, especially when given immediately after the injury. PMID:26729105

  17. Curcumin ameliorates streptozotocin-induced heart injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Abo-Salem, Osama M; Harisa, Gamaleldin I; Ali, Tarek M; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M; Abou-Elnour, Fatma M

    2014-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of diabetic complications. This work was designed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of curcumin against streptozotocin-induced diabetes and consequently HF in rats. Rats were divided into control, vehicle-treated, curcumin-treated, diabetic-untreated, diabetic curcumin-treated, and diabetic glibenclamide-treated groups. Animal treatment was started 5 days after induction of diabetes and extended for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, nitric oxide, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac malondialdehyde, plasma levels of interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and also showed marked decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, cardiac reduced glutathione, and cardiac antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase). However, curcumin or glibenclamide treatment significantly mitigated such changes. In conclusion, curcumin has a beneficial therapeutic effect in diabetes-induced HF, an effect that might be attributable to its antioxidant and suppressive activity on cytokines.

  18. Curcumin supplementation improves mitochondrial and behavioral deficits in experimental model of chronic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Bal, Amanjit; Sandhir, Rajat

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of curcumin, a polyphenol with pleiotropic properties, on mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress and cognitive deficits in a kindled model of epilepsy. Kindled epilepsy was induced in rats by administering a sub-convulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 40 mg/kg body weight) every alternate day for 30 days. PTZ administered rats exhibited marked cognitive deficits assessed using active and passive avoidance tasks. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in NADH:cytochrome-c reductase (complex I) and cytochrome-c oxidase (complex IV) activities along with an increase in ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls. The levels of glutathione also decreased in the cortex and hippocampus. Electron micrographs revealed disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity with distorted cristae in PTZ treated animals. Histopathological examination showed pyknotic nuclei and cell loss in the hippocampus as well as in the cortex of PTZ treated animals. Curcumin administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. throughout the treatment paradigm was able to ameliorate cognitive deficits with no significant effect on seizure score. Curcumin was able to restore the activity of mitochondrial complexes. In addition, significant reduction in ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls was observed in PTZ animals supplemented with curcumin. Moreover, glutathione levels were also restored in PTZ treated rats supplemented with curcumin. Curcumin protected mitochondria from seizure induced structural alterations. Further, the curcumin supplemented PTZ rats had normal cell morphology and reduced cell loss. These results suggest that curcumin supplementation has potential to prevent mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress with improved cognitive functions in a chronic model of epilepsy. PMID:25117510

  19. Effect of curcumin on hepatic heme oxygenase 1 expression in high fat diet fed rats: is there a triangular relationship?

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Koçak, Hikmet; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Aydin, A Fatih; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Yapişlar, Hande; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2014-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is associated with oxidative stress induced fatty liver. Curcumin, an extract of Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression along with pro-oxidant-antioxidant status and lipid accumulation in rats fed an HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed among 4 groups: Group 1, which was fed the control diet (10% of total calories from fat); Group 2, which was fed the HFD (60% of total calories from fat); and groups 3 and 4, which received the HFD supplemented with curcumin and the control diet supplemented with curcumin (1 g/kg diet; w/w), respectively, for 16 weeks. HFD caused increases in hepatic lipid levels, production of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Further, HO-1 expression was significantly decreased. Histopathological examination showed hepatic fat accumulation and slight fibrotic changes. Curcumin treatment reduced hepatic lipids and oxidative stress parameters, and HO-1 expression was significantly increased. These findings suggest that increased HO-1 expression, along with suppressed oxidative stress as well as reduced hepatic fat accumulation and fibrotic changes, contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in attenuating the pathogenesis of fatty liver induced metabolic diseases.

  20. Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by curcumin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rajesh S.; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Pant, Aditya B.; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2009-11-01

    In view of continued exposure to arsenic and associated human health risk including neurotoxicity, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been investigated in rats. A significant decrease in locomotor activity, grip strength (26%) and rota-rod performance (82%) was observed in rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) as compared to controls. The arsenic treated rats also exhibited a decrease in the binding of striatal dopamine receptors (32%) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (19%) in striatum. Increased arsenic levels in corpus striatum (6.5 fold), frontal cortex (6.3 fold) and hippocampus (7.0 fold) associated with enhanced oxidative stress in these brain regions, as evident by an increase in lipid perioxidation, protein carbonyl and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase with differential effects were observed in arsenic treated rats compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) caused an increase in locomotor activity and grip strength and improved the rota-rod performance in comparison to arsenic treated rats. Binding of striatal dopamine receptors and TH expression increased while arsenic levels and oxidative stress decreased in these brain regions in co-treated rats as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. No significant effect on any of these parameters was observed in rats treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) alone compared to controls. A significant protection in behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  1. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C.; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  2. Benzo(a)pyrene Induced p53 Mediated Male Germ Cell Apoptosis: Synergistic Protective Effects of Curcumin and Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bhaswati; Chakraborty, Supriya; Ghosh, Debidas; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Parimal C; Jana, Kuladip

    2016-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental toxicant that induces male germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin and resveratrol are phytochemicals with cytoprotective and anti-oxidative properties. At the same time resveratrol is also a natural Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) antagonist. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted the synergistic protective effect of curcumin and resveratrol against B(a)P induced p53 mediated germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol significantly prevented B(a)P induced decrease in sperm cell count and motility, as well as increased serum testosterone level. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment actively protected B(a)P induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, and Apaf1. B(a)P induced testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 (Cytochrome P4501A1) expression. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ

  3. Inhibition of Autophagy Enhances Curcumin United light irradiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Tumor Growth Suppression in Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Tianhui; Tian, Yan; Mei, Zhusong; Guo, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin carcinoma, which possesses fast propagating and highly invasive characteristics. Curcumin is a natural phenol compound that has various biological activities, such as anti-proliferative and apoptosis-accelerating impacts on tumor cells. Unfortunately, the therapeutical activities of Cur are severely hindered due to its extremely low bioavailability. In this study, a cooperative therapy of low concentration Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation was performed to inspect the synergistic effects on the apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy in human melanoma A375 cell. The results showed that red united blue light irradiation efficaciously synergized with Cur to trigger oxidative stress-mediated cell death, induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. Meanwhile, Western blotting revealed that combined disposure induced the formation of autophagosomes. Conversely, inhibition of the autophagy enhanced apoptosis, obstructed cell cycle arrest and induced reversible proliferation arrest to senescence. These findings suggest that Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation could generate photochemo-preventive effects via enhancing apoptosis and triggering autophagy, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy convert reversible arrested cells to senescence, therefore reducing the possibility that damaged cells might escape programmed death. PMID:27502897

  4. Inhibition of Autophagy Enhances Curcumin United light irradiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Tumor Growth Suppression in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Tianhui; Tian, Yan; Mei, Zhusong; Guo, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin carcinoma, which possesses fast propagating and highly invasive characteristics. Curcumin is a natural phenol compound that has various biological activities, such as anti-proliferative and apoptosis-accelerating impacts on tumor cells. Unfortunately, the therapeutical activities of Cur are severely hindered due to its extremely low bioavailability. In this study, a cooperative therapy of low concentration Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation was performed to inspect the synergistic effects on the apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy in human melanoma A375 cell. The results showed that red united blue light irradiation efficaciously synergized with Cur to trigger oxidative stress-mediated cell death, induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. Meanwhile, Western blotting revealed that combined disposure induced the formation of autophagosomes. Conversely, inhibition of the autophagy enhanced apoptosis, obstructed cell cycle arrest and induced reversible proliferation arrest to senescence. These findings suggest that Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation could generate photochemo-preventive effects via enhancing apoptosis and triggering autophagy, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy convert reversible arrested cells to senescence, therefore reducing the possibility that damaged cells might escape programmed death. PMID:27502897

  5. Nano-curcumin prepared via supercritical: Improved anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Maobin; Fan, Dejun; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Zhi; Li, Gang; Chen, Yufeng; He, Xiaowen; Chen, Aizheng; Li, Jiashen; Lin, Xiaofen; Zhi, Min; Li, Yi; Lan, Ping

    2015-12-30

    Curcumin (CM) possesses multiple biological activities. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability limit its application in biomedical fields. CM nanoparticles (NPs) (230-240nm) were prepared by solution-enhanced dispersion via supercritical CO2 (SEDS) (22-22.5MPa pressure, 31-32.5°C temperature) and its biological functions were evaluated in this study. The Minimum inhibitory concentration of CM NPs against S. aureus (∼250μg/mL) was lower than CM-DMSO (∼500μg/mL). Meanwhile, CM NPs showed effective anti-oxidant ability at a concentration raging from 125 to 2000μg/mL. CM NPs showed time-dependent intracellular internalization ability, resulting in an enhanced anti-cancer effect on colorectal cancer cells (HCT116), and the mechanism could be explained by cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase associated with inducing apoptotic cells. Moreover, CM NPs exhibited reduced cytotoxicity on normal cells (NCM460) compared to CM-DMSO and 5-Fu. In conclusion, CM NPs prepared via SEDS showed potentials in biomedical applications.

  6. Co-delivery of hydrophobic curcumin and hydrophilic catechin by a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion.

    PubMed

    Aditya, N P; Aditya, Sheetal; Yang, Hanjoo; Kim, Hye Won; Park, Sung Ook; Ko, Sanghoon

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin and catechin are naturally occurring phytochemicals with extreme sensitivity to oxidation and low bioavailability. We fabricated a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion encapsulating hydrophilic catechin and hydrophobic curcumin simultaneously. The co-loaded emulsion was fabricated using a two-step emulsification method, and its physicochemical properties were characterised. Volume-weighted mean size (d43) of emulsion droplets was ≈3.88 μm for blank emulsions, whereas it decreased to ≈2.8-3.0 μm for curcumin and/or catechin-loaded emulsions, which was attributed to their capacity to act as emulsifiers. High entrapment efficiency was observed for curcumin and/or catechin-loaded emulsions (88-97%). Encapsulation of catechin and curcumin within an emulsion increased their stability significantly in simulated gastrointestinal fluid, which resulted in a four-fold augmentation in their bioaccessibility compared to that of freely suspended curcumin and catechin solutions. Co-loading of curcumin and catechin did not have adverse effects on either compound's stability or bioaccessibility.

  7. Antiapoptotic and neuroprotective role of Curcumin in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model in rat.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Kumari, Sweta; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyojyoti

    2016-02-01

    Kindling, a sub threshold chemical or electrical stimulation, increases seizure duration and enhances accompanied behavior until it reaches a sort of equilibrium state. The present study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in PTZ kindled rats and its role in apoptosis and neuronal damage. In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of curcumin (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) were administrated orally one hour before the PTZ injections on alternate day during the whole kindling days. The following parameters were compared between control and experimental groups: the course of kindling, stages of seizures, Histopathological scoring of hippocampus, antioxidant parameters in the hippocampus, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 expression in hippocampus, and neuron-specific enolase in the blood. One way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis and Fischer's Exact test were used for statistical analyses. PTZ, 30 mg/kg, induced kindling in rats after 32.0 ± 1.4 days. Curcumin showed dose-dependent anti-seizure effect. Curcumin (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the latency to myoclonic jerks, clonic seizures as well as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, improved the seizure score and decreased the number of myoclonic jerks. PTZ kindling induced a significant neuronal injury, oxidative stress and apoptosis which were reversed by pretreatment with curcumin in a dose-dependent manner. Our study suggests that curcumin has a potential antiepileptogenic effect on kindling-induced epileptogenesis.

  8. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji; Kang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Wen; Lei, Wan; Feng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:27331813

  9. Electroanalytical study of the interaction between dsDNA and curcumin in the presence of copper(II).

    PubMed

    Serpi, C; Stanić, Z; Girousi, S

    2010-06-15

    As a result of the reaction between curcumin (CC) and copper(II) the characteristic peak of curcumin at -1.0V significantly increased, and the peak at -1.6V disappeared. Curcumin forms complex with copper(II). The interaction between double stranded (ds) calf-thymus DNA and curcumin in the presence of Cu(II) was studied in solution, by differential pulse adsorptive transfer voltammetry using carbon paste electrode (CPE) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). Cu(II)-CC complex generated changes in calf-thymus DNA. The characteristic peak of dsDNA, due to the oxidation of guanine residues, decreased. The increased DNA damage by Cu(II)-CC complex was observed in the presence of various concentrations of the transition metal ions, copper(II).

  10. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Patel, Devendra K; Ansari, Reyaz W; Pant, Aditya B; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K

    2010-09-01

    Our recent studies have shown that arsenic-induced neurobehavioral toxicity is protected by curcumin by modulating oxidative stress and dopaminergic functions in rats. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of curcumin has been investigated on arsenic-induced alterations in biogenic amines, their metabolites and nitric oxide (NO), which play an important role in neurotransmission process. Decrease in the levels of dopamine (DA, 28%), norepinephrine (NE, 54%), epinephrine (EPN, 46%), serotonin (5-HT, 44%), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, 20%) and homovanillic acid (HVA, 31%) in corpus striatum; DA (51%), NE (22%), EPN (47%), 5-HT (25%), DOPAC (34%) and HVA (41%) in frontal cortex and DA (35%), NE (35%), EPN (29%), 5-HT (54%), DOPAC (37%) and HVA (46%) in hippocampus, observed in arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) treated rats exhibited a trend of recovery in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days). Increased levels of NO in corpus striatum (2.4-fold), frontal cortex (6.1-fold) and hippocampus (6.2-fold) in arsenic-treated rats were found decreased in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. It is evident that curcumin modulates levels of brain biogenic amines and NO in arsenic-exposed rats and these results further strengthen its neuroprotective efficacy.

  11. Curcumin Ameliorates Lead (Pb(2+))-Induced Hemato-Biochemical Alterations and Renal Oxidative Damage in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; El-Toweissy, Mona Y; Ali, Awatef M; Awad Allah, Abd Allah M; Darwish, Hanaa S; Sadek, Ismail A

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the protective role of curcumin (Curc) against hematological and biochemical changes, as well as renal pathologies induced by lead acetate [Pb (CH3COO)2·3H2O] treatment. Male albino rats were intraperitoneally treated with Pb(2+) (25 mg of lead acetate/kg b.w., once a day) alone or in combination with Curc (30 mg of Curc/kg b.w., twice a day) for 7 days. Exposure of rats to Pb(2+) caused significant decreases in hemoglobin (Hb) content, hematocrit (Ht) value, and platelet (Plt) count, while Pb(2+)-related leukocytosis was accompanied by absolute neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia. A significant rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a marked drop of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evident in the kidney, liver, and serum of Pb(2+) group compared to that of control. Furthermore, significantly high levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a sharp drop in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level were also seen in blood after injection of Pb(2+). Additionally, hepatorenal function tests were enhanced. Meanwhile, Pb(2+) produced marked histo-cytological alterations in the renal cortex. Co-administration of Curc to the Pb(2+)-treated animals restored most of the parameters mentioned above to near-normal levels/features. In conclusion, Curc appeared to be a promising agent for protection against Pb(2+)-induced toxicity.

  12. Curcumin as a wound healing agent.

    PubMed

    Akbik, Dania; Ghadiri, Maliheh; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2014-10-22

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-coagulant and anti-infective effects. Curcumin has also been shown to have significant wound healing properties. It acts on various stages of the natural wound healing process to hasten healing. This review summarizes and discusses recently published papers on the effects of curcumin on skin wound healing. The highlighted studies in the review provide evidence of the ability of curcumin to reduce the body's natural response to cutaneous wounds such as inflammation and oxidation. The recent literature on the wound healing properties of curcumin also provides evidence for its ability to enhance granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, tissue remodeling and wound contraction. It has become evident that optimizing the topical application of curcumin through altering its formulation is essential to ensure the maximum therapeutical effects of curcumin on skin wounds.

  13. Oxidative stress decreases with elevation in the lizard Psammodromus algirus.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Senda; Zamora-Camacho, Francisco J; Trenzado, Cristina E; Sanz, Ana; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress is considered one of the main ecological and evolutionary forces. Several environmental stressors vary geographically and thus organisms inhabiting different sites face different oxidant environments. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about how oxidative damage and antioxidant defences vary geographically in animals. Here we study how oxidative stress varies from lowlands (300-700 m asl) to highlands (2200-2500 m asl) in the lizard Psammodromus algirus. To accomplish this, antioxidant enzymatic activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase, DT-diaphorase) and lipid peroxidation were assayed in tissue samples from the lizards' tail. Lipid peroxidation was higher in individuals from lowlands than from highlands, indicating higher oxidative stress in lowland lizards. These results suggest that environmental conditions are less oxidant at high elevations with respect to low ones. Therefore, our study shows that oxidative stress varies geographically, which should have important consequences for our understanding of geographic variation in physiology and life-history of organisms.

  14. The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on pigmentation, oxidative stability and quality of meat from broiler chickens affected by a coccidiosis challenge.

    PubMed

    Rajput, N; Ali, S; Naeem, M; Khan, M A; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants curcumin (CRM) and lutein (LTN) on the quality of meat from coccidiosis-infected broilers. A total of 200 one-day-old Arbor Acre chicks were randomly assigned to a treatment group with 5 replicates. The treatments included a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), with 300 mg/kg CRM, with 300 mg/kg LTN or with a combination (C + L) of 150 mg/kg CRM and 150 mg/kg LTN. All chickens were challenged with Eimeria maxima at 21 d old. 2. The results revealed that the coccidiosis reduced redness of meat, while supplementation with carotenoids improved the fresh meat's redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) and contributed to colour stability maintenance after storage (1 month at -18°C and 3 d at 4°C). 3. Coccidiosis did not produce lipid and protein oxidation in fresh meat, but after storage for one month, the malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl contents were lower in the CRM and C + L birds and the sulfhydryl contents were higher in C + L birds. 4. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis banding pattern showed equivalent myosin chain fragmentations in all treatment groups, whereas lower intensity actin bands were observed in the control group (CONT). Moreover, myofibril protein denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry) profiles showed a reduction in the CONT myosin and actin peaks. Coccidiosis reduced the meat's water holding capacity in non-supplemented chicken meat and was improved by natural carotenoid. 5. These results emphasise that coccidiosis did not decrease the eating quality of fresh meat, that natural carotenoids are efficient antioxidants and that CRM (300 mg/kg) fed individually or combined with LTN was the most effective supplemented antioxidant compound. PMID:24852123

  15. The effect of dietary supplementation with the natural carotenoids curcumin and lutein on pigmentation, oxidative stability and quality of meat from broiler chickens affected by a coccidiosis challenge.

    PubMed

    Rajput, N; Ali, S; Naeem, M; Khan, M A; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antioxidants curcumin (CRM) and lutein (LTN) on the quality of meat from coccidiosis-infected broilers. A total of 200 one-day-old Arbor Acre chicks were randomly assigned to a treatment group with 5 replicates. The treatments included a basal diet without carotenoid supplementation (control), with 300 mg/kg CRM, with 300 mg/kg LTN or with a combination (C + L) of 150 mg/kg CRM and 150 mg/kg LTN. All chickens were challenged with Eimeria maxima at 21 d old. 2. The results revealed that the coccidiosis reduced redness of meat, while supplementation with carotenoids improved the fresh meat's redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) and contributed to colour stability maintenance after storage (1 month at -18°C and 3 d at 4°C). 3. Coccidiosis did not produce lipid and protein oxidation in fresh meat, but after storage for one month, the malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl contents were lower in the CRM and C + L birds and the sulfhydryl contents were higher in C + L birds. 4. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis banding pattern showed equivalent myosin chain fragmentations in all treatment groups, whereas lower intensity actin bands were observed in the control group (CONT). Moreover, myofibril protein denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry) profiles showed a reduction in the CONT myosin and actin peaks. Coccidiosis reduced the meat's water holding capacity in non-supplemented chicken meat and was improved by natural carotenoid. 5. These results emphasise that coccidiosis did not decrease the eating quality of fresh meat, that natural carotenoids are efficient antioxidants and that CRM (300 mg/kg) fed individually or combined with LTN was the most effective supplemented antioxidant compound.

  16. Curcumin Ameliorates Furazolidone-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocyte L02 Cells by Inhibiting ROS Production and Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Daowen; Gong, Lijing; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Furazolidone (FZD), a synthetic nitrofuran derivative, has been widely used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent. Recently, the potential toxicity of FZD has raised concerns, but its mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on FZD-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated FZD-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde formation, and increased superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and glutathione contents. In addition, curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activations of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis caused by FZD. Alkaline comet assay showed that curcumin markedly reduced FZD-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin pre-treatment consistently and markedly down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and -3 and up-regulated the mRNA expression level of Bcl-2. Taken together, these results reveal that curcumin protects against FZD-induced DNA damage and apoptosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway. Our study indicated that curcumin may be a promising combiner with FZD to reduce FZD-related toxicity in clinical applications. PMID:27556439

  17. Curcumin induces ER stress-mediated apoptosis through selective generation of reactive oxygen species in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyun; Kim, Hee Seung; Jung, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jung Yun; K Tsang, Benjamin; Lim, Jeong Mook; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins caused by cellular stress, including oxidative stress, induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, which then activates an unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress is usually maintained at higher levels in cancer cells as compared to normal cells due to altered metabolism in cancer. Here, we investigated whether curcumin is ER stress-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells, and ROS increased by curcumin are involved in the process as an upstream contributor. Curcumin inhibited proliferation of cervical cancer cells (C33A, CaSki, HeLa, and ME180) and induced apoptotic cell death. Curcumin activated ER-resident UPR sensors, such as PERK, IRE-1α, and ATF6, and their downstream-signaling proteins in cervical cancer cells, but not in normal epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). CHOP, a key factor involved in ER stress-mediated apoptosis, was also activated by curcumin. CHOP decreased the ratio of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 to pro-apoptotic protein Bax expression, and subsequently increased the apoptotic population of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, curcumin elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cervical cancer cells, but not in normal epithelial cells. Scavenging ROS resulted in inhibition of ER stress and partially restored cell viability in curcumin-treated cancer cells. Collectively, these observations show that curcumin promotes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells through increase of cell type-specific ROS generation. Therefore, modulation of these differential responses to curcumin between normal and cervical cancer cells could be an effective therapeutic strategy without adverse effects on normal cells.

  18. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Wu, Dayong; Kwan, Paul; Meydani, Mohsen

    2009-05-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Dietary polyphenols may suppress growth of adipose tissue through their antiangiogenic activity and by modulating adipocyte metabolism. We investigated the effect of curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, on angiogenesis, adipogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, and gene expression involved in lipid and energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte in cell culture systems and on body weight gain and adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet (22%) supplemented with 500 mg curcumin/kg diet for 12 wk. Curcumin (5-20 micromol/L) suppressed 3T3-L1 differentiation, caused apoptosis, and inhibited adipokine-induced angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Supplementing the high-fat diet of mice with curcumin did not affect food intake but reduced body weight gain, adiposity, and microvessel density in adipose tissue, which coincided with reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2. Curcumin increased 5'AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase-1, and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 expression, which led to increased oxidation and decreased fatty acid esterification. The in vivo effect of curcumin on the expression of these enzymes was also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and expression of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, 2 key transcription factors in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The curcumin suppression of angiogenesis in adipose tissue together with its effect on lipid metabolism in adipocytes may contribute to lower body fat and body weight gain. Our findings suggest that dietary curcumin may have a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

  19. Curcumin inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in endothelial cell damage via trapping methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan Ping; Gu, Jun Fei; Tan, Xiao Bin; Wang, Chun Fei; Jia, Xiao Bin; Feng, Liang; Liu, Ji Ping

    2016-02-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses have been suggested to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa L., may protect endothelial cells against carbonyl stress-induced damage by trapping dicarbonyl compounds such as MGO. However, Cur-MGO adducts have not been studied in depth to date and it remains to be known whether Cur-MGO adducts are able to attenuate endothelial damage by trapping MGO. In the present study, 1,2-diaminobenzene was reacted with MGO to ensure the reliability of the reaction system. Cur was demonstrated to trap MGO at a 1:1 ratio to form adducts 1, 2 and 3 within 720 min. The structures of these adducts were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The kinetic curves of Cur (10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) were measured from 0-168 h by fluorescent intensity. Cur significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The differences in oxidative damage and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines following MGO + HSA or Cur-MGO treatment were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to the Cur-MGO reaction adducts significantly reduced the intracellular ROS levels and improved cell viability compared with MGO alone. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and intercellular adhesion molecule(-1) following treatment with Cur-MGO adducts compared with MGO alone. These results provide further evidence that the trapping of MGO by Cur inhibits the formation of AGEs. The current study indicates that the protective effect of Cur on carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial damage occurs via the trapping of MGO. PMID:26718010

  20. Curcumin inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in endothelial cell damage via trapping methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YAN PING; GU, JUN FEI; TAN, XIAO BIN; WANG, CHUN FEI; JIA, XIAO BIN; FENG, LIANG; LIU, JI PING

    2016-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses have been suggested to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa L., may protect endothelial cells against carbonyl stress-induced damage by trapping dicarbonyl compounds such as MGO. However, Cur-MGO adducts have not been studied in depth to date and it remains to be known whether Cur-MGO adducts are able to attenuate endothelial damage by trapping MGO. In the present study, 1,2-diaminobenzene was reacted with MGO to ensure the reliability of the reaction system. Cur was demonstrated to trap MGO at a 1:1 ratio to form adducts 1, 2 and 3 within 720 min. The structures of these adducts were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The kinetic curves of Cur (10−7, 10−6 and 10−5 M) were measured from 0–168 h by fluorescent intensity. Cur significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The differences in oxidative damage and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines following MGO + HSA or Cur-MGO treatment were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to the Cur-MGO reaction adducts significantly reduced the intracellular ROS levels and improved cell viability compared with MGO alone. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 following treatment with Cur-MGO adducts compared with MGO alone. These results provide further evidence that the trapping of MGO by Cur inhibits the formation of AGEs. The current study indicates that the protective effect of Cur on carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial damage occurs via the trapping of MGO. PMID:26718010

  1. Induction of G2/M arrest and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity by curcumin in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Kim, Gi Young; Kim, Gun Do; Choi, Byung Tae; Park, Yeong-Min; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2006-05-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol compound derived from Curcuma longa Linn, has been recognized as a promising anti-cancer drug due to its multiple properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. To elucidate the mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits human bladder carcinoma T24 cell proliferation, we tested the effects of curcumin on specific cell cycle pathways and on the expression of cyclooxygenases (COXs). Curcumin inhibited the growth of T24 cells and induced G2/M arrest in a concentration-dependent manner, effects associated with the down-regulation of cyclin A and up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1). However, other G2/M regulatory molecules, such as cyclin A, Cdc2, Cdk2, Wee1 and Cdc25C, were not modulated by curcumin treatment. Furthermore, curcumin decreased the levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein expression without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which correlated with a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. These observations suggest that curcumin may have therapeutic potential for bladder cancer patients. PMID:16596191

  2. Oral bioavailability of curcumin: problems and advancements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weidong; Zhai, Yingjie; Heng, Xueyuan; Che, Feng Yuan; Chen, Wenjun; Sun, Dezhong; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin is a natural compound of Curcuma longa L. and has shown many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant in both preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, curcumin has hepatoprotective, neuroprotective activities and protects against myocardial infarction. Particularly, curcumin has also demonstrated favorite anticancer efficacy. But limiting factors such as its extremely low oral bioavailability hampers its application as therapeutic agent. Therefore, many technologies have been developed and applied to overcome this limitation. This review described the main physicochemical properties of curcumin and summarized the recent studies in the design and development of oral delivery systems for curcumin to enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability, including liposomes, nanoparticles and polymeric micelles, phospholipid complexes, and microemulsions. PMID:26942997

  3. Curcumin and Health.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar; Ramirez-Tortosa, Mcarmen

    2016-02-25

    Nowadays, there are some molecules that have shown over the years a high capacity to act against relevant pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders or cancer. This article provides a brief review about the origin, bioavailability and new research on curcumin and synthetized derivatives. It examines the beneficial effects on health, delving into aspects such as cancer, cardiovascular effects, metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory properties, and neurological, liver and respiratory disorders. Thanks to all these activities, curcumin is positioned as an interesting nutraceutical. This is the reason why it has been subjected to several modifications in its structure and administration form that have permitted an increase in bioavailability and effectiveness against different diseases, decreasing the mortality and morbidity associated to these pathologies.

  4. Curcumin and Health.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar; Ramirez-Tortosa, Mcarmen

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, there are some molecules that have shown over the years a high capacity to act against relevant pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders or cancer. This article provides a brief review about the origin, bioavailability and new research on curcumin and synthetized derivatives. It examines the beneficial effects on health, delving into aspects such as cancer, cardiovascular effects, metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory properties, and neurological, liver and respiratory disorders. Thanks to all these activities, curcumin is positioned as an interesting nutraceutical. This is the reason why it has been subjected to several modifications in its structure and administration form that have permitted an increase in bioavailability and effectiveness against different diseases, decreasing the mortality and morbidity associated to these pathologies. PMID:26927041

  5. Effect of novel water soluble curcumin derivative on experimental type- 1 diabetes mellitus (short term study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is an autoimmune disorder caused by lymphocytic infiltration and beta cells destruction. Curcumin has been identified as a potent inducer of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a redoxsensitive inducible protein that provides protection against various forms of stress. A novel water soluble curcumin derivative (NCD) has been developed to overcome low in vivo bioavailability of curcumin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti diabetic effects of the “NCD” and its effects on diabetes-induced ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in experimental type- 1 diabetes mellitus. We also examine whether the up regulation of HO-1 accompanied by increased HO activity mediates these antidiabetic and anti oxidant actions. Materials and methods Rats were divided into control group, control group receiving curcumin derivative, diabetic group, diabetic group receiving curcumin derivative and diabetic group receiving curcumin derivative and HO inhibitor ZnPP. Type-1 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Curcumin derivative was given orally for 45 days. At the planned sacrification time (after 45 days), fasting blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of plasma glucose, plasma insulin and lipid profile . Animals were sacrificed; pancreas, aorta and liver were excised for the heme oxygenase - 1 expression, activity and malondialdehyde estimation. Results NCD supplementation to diabetic rats significantly lowered the plasma glucose by 27.5% and increased plasma insulin by 66.67%. On the other hand, the mean plasma glucose level in the control group showed no significant difference compared to the control group receiving the oral NCD whereas, NCD supplementation to the control rats significantly increased the plasma insulin by 47.13% compared to the control. NCD decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol levels. Also, it decreased lipid peroxides (malondialdehyde

  6. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1

    PubMed Central

    Gunnink, Leesha K.; Alabi, Ola D.; Kuiper, Benjamin D.; Gunnink, Stephen M.; Schuiteman, Sam J.; Strohbehn, Lauren E.; Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Wrobel, Kathryn E.; Louters, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin’s inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. PMID:27039889

  7. Alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions, redox metabolism and apoptosis by oxidant 4-hydroxynonenal and antioxidants curcumin and melatonin in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, Haider John, Annie; Brown, Eric M.; Benedict, Sheela; Kambal, Amr

    2008-01-15

    Cellular oxidative stress and alterations in redox metabolisms have been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many diseases including cancer. Antioxidant treatments have been proven beneficial in controlling these diseases. We have recently shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells by compromising the mitochondrial redox metabolism. In this study, we have further investigated the deleterious effects of 4-HNE on mitochondrial respiratory functions and apoptosis using the same cell line. In addition, we have also compared the effects of two antioxidants, curcumin and melatonin, used as chemopreventive agents, on mitochondrial redox metabolism and respiratory functions in these cells. 4-HNE treatment has been shown to cause a reduction in glutathione (GSH) pool, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonylation and apoptosis. A marked inhibition in the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase was observed after 4-HNE treatment. Increased nuclear translocation of NF-kB/p65 protein was also observed after 4-HNE treatment. Curcumin and melatonin treatments, on the other hand, maintained the mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions without a marked effect on ROS production and cell viability. These results suggest that 4-HNE-induced cytotoxicity may be associated, at least in part, with the altered mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions. The alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox functions may therefore be critical in determining the difference between cell death and survival.

  8. Alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions, redox metabolism and apoptosis by oxidant 4-hydroxynonenal and antioxidants curcumin and melatonin in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Brown, Eric M; Benedict, Sheela; Kambal, Amr

    2008-01-15

    Cellular oxidative stress and alterations in redox metabolisms have been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many diseases including cancer. Antioxidant treatments have been proven beneficial in controlling these diseases. We have recently shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells by compromising the mitochondrial redox metabolism. In this study, we have further investigated the deleterious effects of 4-HNE on mitochondrial respiratory functions and apoptosis using the same cell line. In addition, we have also compared the effects of two antioxidants, curcumin and melatonin, used as chemopreventive agents, on mitochondrial redox metabolism and respiratory functions in these cells. 4-HNE treatment has been shown to cause a reduction in glutathione (GSH) pool, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonylation and apoptosis. A marked inhibition in the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase was observed after 4-HNE treatment. Increased nuclear translocation of NF-kB/p65 protein was also observed after 4-HNE treatment. Curcumin and melatonin treatments, on the other hand, maintained the mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions without a marked effect on ROS production and cell viability. These results suggest that 4-HNE-induced cytotoxicity may be associated, at least in part, with the altered mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions. The alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox functions may therefore be critical in determining the difference between cell death and survival. PMID:17935746

  9. Curcumin abates hypoxia-induced oxidative stress based-ER stress-mediated cell death in mouse hippocampal cells (HT22) by controlling Prdx6 and NF-κB regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chhunchha, Bhavana; Fatma, Nigar; Kubo, Eri; Rai, Prerana; Singh, Sanjay P.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are emerging as crucial events in the etiopathology of many neurodegenerative diseases. While the neuroprotective contributions of the dietary compound curcumin has been recognized, the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin's neuroprotection under oxidative and ER stresses remains elusive. Herein, we show that curcumin protects HT22 from oxidative and ER stresses evoked by the hypoxia (1% O2 or CoCl2 treatment) by enhancing peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) expression. Cells exposed to CoCl2 displayed reduced expression of Prdx6 with higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression and activation of NF-κB with IκB phosphorylation. When NF-κB activity was blocked by using SN50, an inhibitor of NF-κB, or cells treated with curcumin, the repression of Prdx6 expression was restored, suggesting the involvement of NF-κB in modulating Prdx6 expression. These cells were enriched with an accumulation of ER stress proteins, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), GRP/78, and calreticulin, and had activated states of caspases 12, 9, and 3. Reinforced expression of Prdx6 in HT22 cells by curcumin reestablished survival signaling by reducing propagation of ROS and blunting ER stress signaling. Intriguingly, knockdown of Prdx6 by antisense revealed that loss of Prdx6 contributed to cell death by sustaining enhanced levels of ER stress-responsive proapoptotic proteins, which was due to elevated ROS production, suggesting that Prdx6 deficiency is a cause of initiation of ROS-mediated ER stress-induced apoptosis. We propose that using curcumin to reinforce the naturally occurring Prdx6 expression and attenuate ROS-based ER stress and NF-κB-mediated aberrant signaling improves cell survival and may provide an avenue to treat and/or postpone diseases associated with ROS or ER stress. PMID:23364261

  10. Lead Exposure in Different Organs of Mammals and Prevention by Curcumin-Nanocurcumin: a Review.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mili; Sachdeva, Meenu; Gupta, Niharika; Mishra, Priyanka; Yadav, Mahavir; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lead exposure is related to many health diseases in mammals. Exposure to lead forms reactive oxygen species reducing body antioxidant enzymes inflicting injury to numerous macromolecules or cell necrosis. Recent studies have revealed oxidative stress as the vital mechanism for lead toxicity. Lead is found to be toxic to several organ systems such as hematopoietic, skeletal, renal, cardiac, hepatic, and reproductive systems and extremely toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). Curcumin, an active ingredient of the dietary spice, and nanocurcumin, a nanoform of curcumin, are found to decrease toxicity due to lead in various organ systems in mouse models. Higher bioavailability, chelating property, and retention time of nanocurcumin over bulk curcumin may pave the way to expand the utility of nanocurcumin to remove lead toxicity from various organ systems within humans.

  11. Curcumin encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles: a novel strategy for the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Abhishek; Lomash, Vinay; Samim, M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2012-07-30

    Water-soluble nanoparticles of curcumin were synthesized, characterized and applied as a stable detoxifying agent for arsenic poisoning. Chitosan nanoparticles of less than 50 nm in diameter containing curcumin were prepared. The particles were characterized by TEM, DLS and FT-IR. The therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (ECNPs) against arsenic-induced toxicity in rats was investigated. Sodium arsenite (2mg/kg) and ECNPs (1.5 or 15 mg/kg) were orally administered to male Wistar rats for 4 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ECNPs in blood and soft tissues. Arsenic significantly decreased blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased blood reactive oxygen species (ROS). These changes were accompanied by increases in hepatic total ROS, oxidized glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels. By contrast, hepatic GSH, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities significantly decreased on arsenic exposure, indicative of oxidative stress. Brain biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) levels also showed significant changes on arsenic exposure. Co-administration of ECNPs provided pronounced beneficial effects on the adverse changes in oxidative stress parameters induced by arsenic. The results indicate that ECNPs have better antioxidant and chelating potential (even at the lower dose of 1.5 mg/kg) compared to free curcumin at 15 mg/kg. The significant neurochemical and immunohistochemical protection afforded by ECNPs indicates their neuroprotective efficacy. The formulation provides a novel therapeutic regime for preventing arsenic toxicity.

  12. Cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation are similar in SAMP8 and SAMR1 mice and unaltered by curcumin and Ginkgo biloba extract intake.

    PubMed

    Schiborr, Christina; Eckert, Gunter P; Weissenberger, Jakob; Müller, Walter E; Schwamm, Dorothea; Grune, Tilman; Rimbach, Gerald; Frank, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress increase with advancing age and appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a need for animal models that reflect the increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage observed during aging in humans. We therefore aimed to investigate the suitability of the fast-aging senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) strain and its normally aging control senescence-accelerated mouse-resistant 1 (SAMR1) to study the age-dependent changes in cytokines, oxidative damage and antioxidants in the heart. To this end, 2-months-old male SAMR1 and SAMP8 mice were fed a Western type diet (control groups) for 5 months. Two groups of SAMP8 mice were simultaneously fed identical diets fortified with 0.5 g curcumin or 1.0 g Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(®) per kg diet. Heart tissue homogenates were analysed for protein carbonyls, glutathione, glutathione disulfide, methionine, cysteine and uric acid as well as the cytokines tumor-necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. Neither the strain (SAMR1 or SAMP8) nor antioxidant intake (curcumin or EGb 761(®)) affected the concentrations of the measured parameters. In conclusion, our data do not support the suitability of the SAMP8 and SAMR1 strains as a model to study age-related changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress parameters in the heart.

  13. Curcumin, Silybin Phytosome(®) and α-R-Lipoic Acid Mitigate Chronic Hepatitis in Rat by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines Production.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa O; Darwish, Hebatallah A; Ismail, Nabila A

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis is recognized as a worldwide health problem that gradually progresses towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the large number of experiments using animal models for allergic hepatitis, it is still difficult to produce a picture of chronic hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted to introduce an animal model approximating to the mechanism of chronicity in human hepatitis. The study also aimed to examine the hepatoprotective effects of curcumin, silybin phytosome(®) and α-R-lipoic acid against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatitis in rat model. TAA was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 200 mg/kg three times weekly for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, a group of rats was killed to assess the development of chronic hepatitis in comparison with their respective control group. TAA administration was then discontinued, and the remaining animals were subsequently allocated into four groups. Group 1 was left untreated, whereas groups 2-4 were allowed to receive daily oral doses of curcumin, silybin phytosome(®) or α-R-lipoic acid, respectively, for 7 weeks. Increases in hepatic levels of malondialdehyde associated with TAA administration were inhibited in groups receiving supplements. Furthermore, glutathione depletion, collagen deposition, macrophage activation and nuclear factor κappa-B expression as well as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels were significantly decreased in response to supplements administration. Serological analysis of liver function and liver histopathological examination reinforced the results. The above evidence collectively indicates that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin, silybin phytosome(®) and α-R-lipoic acid may confer therapeutic efficacy against chronic hepatitis.

  14. Curcumin Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Limb Injury Through Immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Lianyu; Shen, Yi; Tan, Tao; Xie, Nanzi; Luo, Ming; Li, Zhihong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is increasing worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PAD. Curcumin is an ingredient of turmeric that has antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anticancer properties. In the present study we investigated the potential effect of curcumin in protecting against ischemic limb injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used an established hindlimb ischemia mouse model in our study. Curcumin was administrated through intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection. Immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. Treadmill training was used to evaluate skeletal muscle functions of animals. RESULTS Our experiments using in vivo treadmill training showed that curcumin treatment improved the running capacity of animals after ischemic injury. Histological analysis revealed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced the skeletal muscle damage and fibrosis associated with ischemic injury. In order to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated tissue protection, immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. The results showed that curcumin treatment led to less macrophage infiltration and less local inflammatory responses as demonstrated by decreasing TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 levels. Further immunofluorescent staining of tissue slides indicated that curcumin treatment inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, curcumin can inhibit NF-kB activation induced by LPS in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS Our study results show that curcumin treatment can ameliorate hindlimb injury following ischemic surgery, which suggests that curcumin could be used for PAD treatment. PMID:27302110

  15. Curcumin Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Limb Injury Through Immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Lianyu; Shen, Yi; Tan, Tao; Xie, Nanzi; Luo, Ming; Li, Zhihong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is increasing worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PAD. Curcumin is an ingredient of turmeric that has antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anticancer properties. In the present study we investigated the potential effect of curcumin in protecting against ischemic limb injury. Material/Methods We used an established hindlimb ischemia mouse model in our study. Curcumin was administrated through intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection. Immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. Treadmill training was used to evaluate skeletal muscle functions of animals. Results Our experiments using in vivo treadmill training showed that curcumin treatment improved the running capacity of animals after ischemic injury. Histological analysis revealed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced the skeletal muscle damage and fibrosis associated with ischemic injury. In order to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated tissue protection, immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. The results showed that curcumin treatment led to less macrophage infiltration and less local inflammatory responses as demonstrated by decreasing TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 levels. Further immunofluorescent staining of tissue slides indicated that curcumin treatment inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, curcumin can inhibit NF-κB activation induced by LPS in macrophages. Conclusions Our study results show that curcumin treatment can ameliorate hindlimb injury following ischemic surgery, which suggests that curcumin could be used for PAD treatment. PMID:27302110

  16. Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Palanisamy; Gopal Telang, Avinash; Kalaivanan, Ramya; Karunakaran, Vijayakaran; Manikam, Kesavan; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (CUR-NP) against sodium arsenite-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats. The CUR-NP prepared by emulsion technique was spherical in shape with an encapsulation efficiency of 86.5%. The particle size ranged between 120 and 140 nm with the mean particle size being 130.8 nm. Rats were divided into five groups of six each. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (25 ppm) daily through drinking water for 42 days. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with arsenic as in group 2, however, they were administered, empty nanoparticles, curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) and CUR-NP (100 mg/kg bw), respectively, by oral gavage during the last 14 days of arsenic exposure. Arsenic increased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and caused histological alterations in liver indicating hepatotoxicity. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation, depleted reduced glutathione and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver. All these effects of arsenic were attenuated with both curcumin and CUR-NP. However, the magnitude of amelioration was more pronounced with CUR-NP. The results indicate that curcumin given in nano-encapsulated form caused better amelioration than free curcumin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 628-637, 2015.

  17. Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Palanisamy; Gopal Telang, Avinash; Kalaivanan, Ramya; Karunakaran, Vijayakaran; Manikam, Kesavan; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (CUR-NP) against sodium arsenite-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats. The CUR-NP prepared by emulsion technique was spherical in shape with an encapsulation efficiency of 86.5%. The particle size ranged between 120 and 140 nm with the mean particle size being 130.8 nm. Rats were divided into five groups of six each. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (25 ppm) daily through drinking water for 42 days. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with arsenic as in group 2, however, they were administered, empty nanoparticles, curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) and CUR-NP (100 mg/kg bw), respectively, by oral gavage during the last 14 days of arsenic exposure. Arsenic increased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and caused histological alterations in liver indicating hepatotoxicity. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation, depleted reduced glutathione and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver. All these effects of arsenic were attenuated with both curcumin and CUR-NP. However, the magnitude of amelioration was more pronounced with CUR-NP. The results indicate that curcumin given in nano-encapsulated form caused better amelioration than free curcumin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 628-637, 2015. PMID:24347089

  18. Neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu L; Ansari, Reyaz W; Shukla, Pradeep K; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2011-12-01

    Our recent studies have shown that curcumin protects arsenic induced neurotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress, neurotransmitter levels and dopaminergic system in rats. As chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans, the present study has been carried out to implore the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats. Rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) exhibited a significant decrease in the learning activity, assessed by passive avoidance response associated with decreased binding of (3)H-QNB, known to label muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in hippocampus (54%) and frontal cortex (27%) as compared to controls. Decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (46%) and frontal cortex (33%), staining of Nissl body, immunoreactivity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and expression of ChAT protein in hippocampal region was also observed in arsenic treated rats as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) increased learning and memory performance associated with increased binding of (3)H-QNB in hippocampus (54%), frontal cortex (25%) and activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (41%) and frontal cortex (29%) as compared to arsenic treated rats. Increase in the expression of ChAT protein, immunoreactivity of ChAT and staining of Nissl body in hippocampal region was also observed in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin significantly modulates arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in brain and also exhibits neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin. PMID:21839772

  19. Neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu L; Ansari, Reyaz W; Shukla, Pradeep K; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2011-12-01

    Our recent studies have shown that curcumin protects arsenic induced neurotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress, neurotransmitter levels and dopaminergic system in rats. As chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans, the present study has been carried out to implore the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats. Rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) exhibited a significant decrease in the learning activity, assessed by passive avoidance response associated with decreased binding of (3)H-QNB, known to label muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in hippocampus (54%) and frontal cortex (27%) as compared to controls. Decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (46%) and frontal cortex (33%), staining of Nissl body, immunoreactivity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and expression of ChAT protein in hippocampal region was also observed in arsenic treated rats as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) increased learning and memory performance associated with increased binding of (3)H-QNB in hippocampus (54%), frontal cortex (25%) and activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (41%) and frontal cortex (29%) as compared to arsenic treated rats. Increase in the expression of ChAT protein, immunoreactivity of ChAT and staining of Nissl body in hippocampal region was also observed in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin significantly modulates arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in brain and also exhibits neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  20. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26366056

  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities.

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26366056

  3. Prevention of kainic acid-induced changes in nitric oxide level and neuronal cell damage in the rat hippocampus by manganese complexes of curcumin and diacetylcurcumin.

    PubMed

    Sumanont, Yaowared; Murakami, Yukihisa; Tohda, Michihisa; Vajragupta, Opa; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2006-03-13

    Curcumin is a natural antioxidant isolated from the medicinal plant Curcuma longa Linn. We previously reported that manganese complexes of curcumin (Cp-Mn) and diacetylcurcumin (DiAc-Cp-Mn) exhibited potent superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity in an in vitro assay. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radial playing a multifaceted role in the brain and its excessive production is known to induce neurotoxicity. Here, we examined the in vivo effect of Cp-Mn and DiAc-Cp-Mn on NO levels enhanced by kainic acid (KA) and L-arginine (L-Arg) in the hippocampi of awake rats using a microdialysis technique. Injection of KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and L-Arg (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the concentration of NO and Cp-Mn and DiAc-Cp-Mn (50 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed the effects of KA and L-Arg without affecting the basal NO concentration. Following KA-induced seizures, severe neuronal cell damage was observed in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of hippocampal 3 days after KA administration. Pretreatment with Cp-Mn and DiAc-Cp-Mn (50 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly attenuated KA-induced neuronal cell death in both CA1 and CA3 regions of rat hippocampus compared with vehicle control, and Cp-Mn and DiAc-Cp-Mn showed more potent neuroprotective effect than their parent compounds, curcumin and diacetylcurcumin. These results suggest that Cp-Mn and DiAc-Cp-Mn protect against KA-induced neuronal cell death by suppression of KA-induced increase in NO levels probably by their NO scavenging activity and antioxidative activity. Cp-Mn and DiAc-Cp-Mn have an advantage to be neuroprotective agents in the treatment of acute brain pathologies associated with NO-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage such as epilepsy, stroke and traumatic brain injury. PMID:16266725

  4. Curcumin and vitamin E protect against adverse effects of benzo[a]pyrene in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenbin; Cromie, Meghan M; Cai, Qingsong; Lv, Tangfeng; Singh, Kamaleshwar; Gao, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-known environmental carcinogen, promotes oxidative stress and DNA damage. Curcumin and vitamin E (VE) have potent antioxidative activity that protects cells from oxidative stress and cellular damage. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the adverse effects of BaP on normal human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), the potential protective effects of curcumin and VE against BaP-induced cellular damage, and the molecular mechanisms of action. MTT assay, flow cytometry, fluorescence microplate assay, HPLC, qRT-PCR, and western blot were performed to analyze cytotoxicity, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS), BaP diol-epoxidation (BPDE)-DNA adducts, gene expression, and protein expression, respectively. Curcumin or VE prevented cells from BaP-induced cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition, significantly suppressed BaP-induced ROS levels, and decreased BPDE-DNA adducts. While CYP1A1 and 1B1 were induced by BaP, these inductions were not significantly reduced by curcumin or VE. Moreover, the level of activated p53 and PARP-1 were significantly induced by BaP, whereas this induction was markedly reduced after curcumin and VE co-treatment. Survivin was significantly down-regulated by BaP, and curcumin significantly restored survivin expression in BaP-exposed cells. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was also significantly increased in cells exposed to BaP and this increase was reversed by VE co-treatment. Taken together, BaP-induced cytotoxicity occurs through DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, ROS production, modulation of metabolizing enzymes, and the expression/activation of p53, PARP-1, survivin, and Bax/Bcl-2. Curcumin and VE could reverse some of these BaP-mediated alterations and therefore be effective natural compounds against the adverse effects of BaP in lung cells.

  5. Radio-protective effect of some new curcumin analogues.

    PubMed

    El-Gazzar, Marwa G; Zaher, Nashwa H; El-Hossary, Ebaa M; Ismail, Amel F M

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, novel symmetrical curcumin analogues (2-7) have been synthesized by substituting the phenolic OH of curcumin with different linkers providing additional keto-enol tautomerism, very essential for radioprotective activity. The structures of the synthesized compounds (2-7) were elucidated by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral data and were found consistent with the assigned structures. The curative effect of these new compounds, against the oxidative stress due to exposure of rats to the whole body γ-irradiation (7Gy) was investigated. Gamma-irradiated rats exhibited elevations of ALT, AST activities, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) levels. Contrariwise, the total protein, albumin, total calcium level, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST activities and GSH content were decreased. Treatment of gamma-irradiated rats with the new curcumin analogues (2-7) showed significant amelioration in the in-vivo antioxidant status, liver and kidney functions, as well as the anti-inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). Inhibition of NF-κB could be responsible for the improvement of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in gamma-irradiated animals, by down-regulation of IL-1β and TNF-α level. In conclusion, the new curcumin analogues (2-7) exhibited post-protective effect on gamma-irradiation, by NF-κB inhibition. PMID:27505300

  6. Curcumin and aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curcumin has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic, curcumin has a broad range of beneficial properties to human health. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has d...

  7. Antioxidant and iron-binding properties of curcumin, capsaicin, and S-allylcysteine reduce oxidative stress in rat brain homogenate.

    PubMed

    Dairam, Amichand; Fogel, Ronen; Daya, Santy; Limson, Janice L

    2008-05-14

    Research demonstrates that antioxidants and metal chelators may be of beneficial use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the antioxidant and metal-binding properties of curcumin, capsaicin, and S-allylcysteine, which are major components found in commonly used dietary spice ingredients turmeric, chilli, and garlic, respectively. The DPPH assay demonstrates that these compounds readily scavenge free radicals. These compounds significantly curtail iron- (Fe2+) and quinolinic acid (QA)-induced lipid peroxidation and potently scavenge the superoxide anion generated by 1 mM cyanide in rat brain homogenate. The ferrozine assay was used to measure the extent of Fe2+ chelation, and electrochemistry was employed to measure the Fe3+ binding activity of curcumin, capsaicin, and S-allylcysteine. Both assays demonstrate that these compounds bind Fe2+ and Fe3+ and prevent the redox cycling of iron, suggesting that this may be an additional method through which these agents reduce Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrates the antioxidant and metal-binding properties of these spice ingredients, and it is hereby postulate that these compounds have important implications in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  8. Pentoxifylline decreases oxidized lipid products in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: New evidence on the potential therapeutic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zein, Claudia O.; Lopez, Rocio; Fu, Xiaoming; Kirwan, John P.; Yerian, Lisa M.; McCullough, Arthur J.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Feldstein, Ariel E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentoxifylline (PTX) improved histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a recent randomized placebo-controlled trial. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for the beneficial effects of PTX in NASH remains unidentified. A key role of lipid oxidation in the pathogenesis and progression of NASH has been established. PTX is known to decrease free-radical mediated oxidative stress and inhibit lipid oxidation. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PTX on levels of lipid oxidation products in patients with NASH. Methods Levels of multiple structurally specific oxidized fatty acids including hydroxy-octadecadenoic acids (HODEs), oxo-octadecadenoic acids (oxoODEs), and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) were quantified by mass spectrometry in plasma obtained at baseline and at study completion in patients who completed 1 year of therapy with PTX or placebo in a randomized controlled trial. Results Therapy with PTX resulted in significant decreases on 9-HODE and 13-oxoODE, oxidized lipid products of linoleic acid (LA) linked to histological severity in NAFLD. Similarly, PTX therapy was associated with significant decreases in 8-HETE, 9-HETE, and 11-HETE compared to placebo. Statistically significant correlations were demonstrated between the decrease in HODEs and oxoODEs and improved histological scores of fibrosis; and between the decrease in HETEs and improved lobular inflammation. Conclusion Therapy with PTX compared to placebo was associated with a significant reduction of oxidized fatty acids. This novel evidence supports that the beneficial effects of PTX in patients with NASH are likely partly mediated through decreasing lipid oxidation, largely free-radical mediated lipid oxidation. Additionally, this is the first report on the link between decreased oxidized lipid products and improved histological disease in the setting of a therapeutic trial in NASH. PMID:22505276

  9. Spectrometric study on the interaction of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Ke, Dan; Wang, Xiaoyong; Yang, Qianqian; Niu, Yumeng; Chai, Shaohu; Chen, Zhiyun; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and curcumin has been studied in pH 5.0 sodium phosphate buffer using absorption and fluorescence measurements. With increasing DTAB concentration (C(DTAB)) from 0 to 20 mM, the absorption peak of curcumin at 430 nm, corresponding to the conjugated structure of curcumin, first weakens gradually into a shoulder but increases back into one peak with much higher absorption intensity. On the contrary, as C(DTAB) increases, the initial small absorption shoulder of curcumin at 355 nm, corresponding to the feruloyl unit of curcumin, first increases gradually into a clear peak but decreases back into one shoulder until almost disappeared finally. By remaining at nearly the same wavelength, the fluorescence of curcumin first decreases at C(DTAB) lower than 5 mM and then increases gradually up to C(DTAB) = 10 mM, which is followed by sharp increases of fluorescence intensity with marked blue-shifts at higher C(DTAB). The values of anisotropy and microviscosity of curcumin obtained from the fluorescence polarization technique also showed pronounced changes at different surfactant concentrations. The interaction mechanisms of DTAB with curcumin have been presented at low, intermediate, and high surfactant concentrations, which is relating to interaction forces, surfactant aggregations, as well as structural alterations of curcumin.

  10. Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Larry; Cheung, Stanley K K; Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Linda C W; Leung, Vivian P Y; Hui, Elsie; Ng, Chelsia C Y; Chow, Moses; Ho, Ping C; Lam, Sherry; Woo, Jean; Chiu, Helen F K; Goggins, William; Zee, Benny; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Hazel; Cheng, William K F; Fong, Carmen; Lee, Jenny S W; Chan, Ming-Houng; Szeto, Samuel S L; Lui, Victor W C; Tsoh, Joshua; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Iris H S; Lam, Christopher W K

    2007-12-01

    Studies in animals and a short-term human study have suggested that curcumin, a polyphenolic compound concentrated in the curry spice turmeric, decreases serum cholesterol concentration. However, no controlled human trials have examined the effect of curcumin on cholesterol. This study investigated the effects of consuming curcumin on the serum lipid profile in men and women. Elderly subjects (n=36) consumed 4 g/d curcumin, 1g/d curcumin, or placebo in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Plasma curcumin and its metabolites were measured at 1 month, and the serum lipid profile was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The plasma curcumin concentration reached a mean of 490 nmol/L. The curcumin concentration was greater after capsule than powder administration. Consumption of either dose of curcumin did not significantly affect triacylglycerols, or total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol over 1 month or 6 months. However, the concentrations of plasma curcumin and serum cholesterol were positively and significantly correlated. Curcumin consumption does not appear to have a significant effect on the serum lipid profile, unless the absorbed concentration of curcumin is considered, in which case curcumin may modestly increase cholesterol.

  11. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide and Curcumin Separately against Thallium-Induced Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdou, Rania H

    2015-01-01

    Thallium acetate (TI) is a cumulative poison intimately accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that represents an important risk factor for tissue injury and malfunction. This study aims to determine the possible hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) from garlic and curcumin from turmeric against TI-induced liver injury and oxidative stress (OS) in rats. This in vivo animal study divided rats into six groups of 8 rats per group. The first group received saline and served as the control group. The second and third groups received DAS or curcumin only at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The fourth group received TI at a dose of 6.4 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. The fifth and sixth groups received DAS or curcumin orally 1 hour before TI intoxication at the same dose as the second and third groups. Liver integrity serum enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) were evaluated. Serum and liver tissue homogenate lipid peroxidation and OS biomarkers were measured. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test for post hoc analysis using SPSS version 16. TI induced marked oxidative liver damage as shown by significantly (P≤0.05) elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and γ-GT levels. There were significant (P≤0.05) increases in serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum nitric oxide (NO) as well as decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities. There were significantly (P≤0.05) less serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Pre-treatment with DAS or curcumin ameliorated the changes in most studied biochemical parameters. DAS and curcumin effectively reduced TI-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26199917

  12. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide and Curcumin Separately against Thallium-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Abdou, Rania H.

    2015-01-01

    Thallium acetate (TI) is a cumulative poison intimately accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that represents an important risk factor for tissue injury and malfunction. This study aims to determine the possible hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) from garlic and curcumin from turmeric against TI-induced liver injury and oxidative stress (OS) in rats. This in vivo animal study divided rats into six groups of 8 rats per group. The first group received saline and served as the control group. The second and third groups received DAS or curcumin only at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The fourth group received TI at a dose of 6.4 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. The fifth and sixth groups received DAS or curcumin orally 1 hour before TI intoxication at the same dose as the second and third groups. Liver integrity serum enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) were evaluated. Serum and liver tissue homogenate lipid peroxidation and OS biomarkers were measured. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test for post hoc analysis using SPSS version 16. TI induced marked oxidative liver damage as shown by significantly (P≤0.05) elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and γ-GT levels. There were significant (P≤0.05) increases in serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum nitric oxide (NO) as well as decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities. There were significantly (P≤0.05) less serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Pre-treatment with DAS or curcumin ameliorated the changes in most studied biochemical parameters. DAS and curcumin effectively reduced TI-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26199917

  13. Resveratrol and curcumin ameliorate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Fattah, Amal Ahmed; Fahim, Atef Tadros; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Ali, Bassam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol and curcumin on oxidative testicular damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups; three groups received oral daily doses of DEHP (2g/kgBW) for 45days to induce testicular injury. Two of these groups received either resveratrol (80mg/kgBW) or curcumin (200mg/kgBW) orally for 30days before and 45days after DEHP administration. A vehicle-treated control group was also included. Another two groups of rats received either resveratrol or curcumin alone. Oxidative damage was observed by decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the testes of DEHP-administered rats. Serum testosterone level as well as testicular marker enzymes activities; acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed severe declines. DEHP administration caused significant increases in the testicular gene expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 as well as a significant decrease in c-Kit protein when compared with the control group. Histopathological observations provided evidence for the biochemical and molecular analysis. These DEHP-induced pathological alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. We conclude that DEHP-induced injuries in biochemical, molecular and histological structure of testis were recovered by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. The chemoprotective effects of these compounds may be due to their intrinsic antioxidant properties along with boosting Nrf2, HSP 60, HSP 70 and HSP 90 gene expression levels and as such may be useful potential tools in combating DEHP-induced testicular dysfunction.

  14. Resveratrol and curcumin ameliorate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Fattah, Amal Ahmed; Fahim, Atef Tadros; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Ali, Bassam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol and curcumin on oxidative testicular damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups; three groups received oral daily doses of DEHP (2g/kgBW) for 45days to induce testicular injury. Two of these groups received either resveratrol (80mg/kgBW) or curcumin (200mg/kgBW) orally for 30days before and 45days after DEHP administration. A vehicle-treated control group was also included. Another two groups of rats received either resveratrol or curcumin alone. Oxidative damage was observed by decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the testes of DEHP-administered rats. Serum testosterone level as well as testicular marker enzymes activities; acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed severe declines. DEHP administration caused significant increases in the testicular gene expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 as well as a significant decrease in c-Kit protein when compared with the control group. Histopathological observations provided evidence for the biochemical and molecular analysis. These DEHP-induced pathological alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. We conclude that DEHP-induced injuries in biochemical, molecular and histological structure of testis were recovered by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. The chemoprotective effects of these compounds may be due to their intrinsic antioxidant properties along with boosting Nrf2, HSP 60, HSP 70 and HSP 90 gene expression levels and as such may be useful potential tools in combating DEHP-induced testicular dysfunction. PMID:26361869

  15. Curcumin inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ying; Lin, Lexun; Chen, Yang; Wu, Shuo; Si, Xiaoning; Wu, Heng; Zhai, Xia; Wang, Yan; Tong, Lei; Pan, Bo; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Tianying; Zhao, Wenran; Zhong, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. The epidemic of HFMD has been a public health problem in Asia-Pacific region for decades, and no vaccine and effective antiviral medicine are available. Curcumin has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries to treat a diversity of disorders including viral infections. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin showed potent antiviral effect again EV71. In Vero cells infected with EV71, the addition of curcumin significantly suppressed the synthesis of viral RNA, the expression of viral protein, and the overall production of viral progeny. Similar with the previous reports, curcumin reduced the production of ROS induced by viral infection. However, the antioxidant property of curcumin did not contribute to its antiviral activity, since N-acetyl-l-cysteine, the potent antioxidant failed to suppress viral replication. This study also showed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was activated by either viral infection or curcumin treatment, but the activated ERK did not interfere with the antiviral effect of curcumin, indicating ERK is not involved in the antiviral mechanism of curcumin. Unlike the previous reports that curcumin inhibited protein degradation through ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), we found that curcumin had no impact on UPS in control cells. However, curcumin did reduce the activity of proteasomes which was increased by viral infection. In addition, the accumulation of the short-lived proteins, p53 and p21, was increased by the treatment of curcumin in EV71-infected cells. We further probed the antiviral mechanism of curcumin by examining the expression of GBF1 and PI4KB, both of which are required for the formation of viral replication complex. We found that curcumin significantly reduced the level of both proteins. Moreover, the decreased expression of either GBF1 or PI4KB by the application of siRNAs was

  16. Effect of various levels of dietary curcumin on meat quality and antioxidant profile of breast muscle in broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfei; Hu, Zhiping; Lu, Changhui; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2015-04-22

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of curcumin on meat quality and antioxidant profile of breast muscle in broilers. In experiment 1, birds were fed basal diet with an additional 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg curcumin, respectively. The results showed that dietary curcumin significantly increased the redness values of meat, catalase activity, and ABTS radical scavenging activity and decreased drip loss at 48 h. In experiment 2, birds reared under heat stress were assigned to similar treatments as experiment 1. Significant differences in the redox status of breast muscle were observed between the control and heat stress groups. The various levels of curcumin significantly prevented reactive oxygen species overproduction, enhanced the antioxidant defense system, and alleviated the abnormal change of antioxidant-related gene expression of muscle in heat-stressed birds. It was concluded that curcumin, as a potential antioxidant, improved meat quality and oxidant stability of muscle in broilers, whereas the inclusion of 50 and 100 mg/kg would be more efficient. PMID:25823972

  17. Protective in vivo effect of curcumin on copper genotoxicity evaluated by comet and micronucleus assays.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Urbina-Cano, Patricia; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Vargas-Lares, José de Jesus; Ramirez-Herrera, Mario Alberto; Mendoza-Magaua, Maria Luisa; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Diaz-Esquivel, Pedro; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Roman

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin is a phytochemical with antiinflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities. Apparently, curcumin is not genotoxic in vivo, but in vitro copper and curcumin interactions induce genetic damage. The aim of this study was to test if in vivo copper excess induces DNA damage measured by comet and micronucleus assays in the presence of curcumin. We tested 0.2% curcumin in Balb-C mice at normal (13 ppm) and high (65, 130 and 390 ppm) copper ion concentrations. The comet and micronucleus assays were performed 48 hr after chemical application. Comet tail length in animals treated with 0.2% curcumin was not significantly different from the control. Animals exposed to copper cations (up to 390 ppm) exhibited higher oxidative DNA damage. Curcumin reduced the DNA damage induced by 390 ppm copper. We observed statistically significant increase in damage in individuals exposed to 390 ppm copper versus the control or curcumin groups, which was lowered by the presence of curcumin. Qualitative data on comets evidenced that cells from individuals exposed to 390 ppm copper had longer tails (categories 3 and 4) than in 390 ppm copper + curcumin. A statistically significant increase in frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE/10000TE) was observed only in 390 ppm copper versus the control and curcumin alone. Also cytotoxicity measured as the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes (PE/1000TE) was attributable to 390 ppm copper. The lowest cytotoxic effect observed was attributed to curcumin. In vivo exposure to 0.2% curcumin for 48 hr did not cause genomic damage, while 390 ppm copper was genotoxic, but DNA damage induced by 390 ppm copper was diminished by curcumin. Curcumin seems to exert a genoprotective effect against DNA damage induced by high concentrations of copper cations. The comet and micronucleus assays prove to be suitable tools to detect DNA damage by copper in the presence of curcumin. PMID:17998598

  18. Curcumin and lung cancer--a review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hiren J; Patel, Vipul; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2014-12-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the most important component of the spice turmeric and is derived from the rhizome of the East Indian plant Curcuma longa. Curcumin has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, as it is nontoxic and has a variety of therapeutic properties including antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic activities. Recently, curcumin has been widely studied for its anticancer properties via its effects on a variety of biological pathways involved in apoptosis, tumor proliferation, chemo- and radiotherapy sensitization, tumor invasion, and metastases. Curcumin can be an effective adjunct in treating solid organ tumors due to its properties of regulating oncogenes like p53, egr-1, c-myc, bcl-XL, etc.; transcription factors like NF-kB, STAT-3, and AP-1; protein kinases like MAPK; and enzymes like COX and LOX. Lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Seventy-five percent of lung cancer presents at an advanced stage where the existing treatment is not very effective and may result in tremendous patient morbidity. As a result, there is a significant interest in developing adjunctive chemotherapies to augment currently available treatment protocols, which may allow decreased side effects and toxicity without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Curcumin is one such potential candidate, and this review presents an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo studies of curcumin in lung cancer.

  19. Oxidation of proline decreases immunoreactivity and alters structure of barley prolamin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Stoddard, Frederick L; Kato, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    Elimination of celiac-toxic prolamin peptides and proteins is essential for Triticeae products to be gluten-free. Instead of enzymatic hydrolysis, in this study we investigated metal-catalyzed oxidation of two model peptides, QQPFP, and PQPQLPY, together with a hordein isolate from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We established a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) LC-MS method to detect and quantify proline oxidation fragments. In addition to fragmentation, aggregation and side chain modifications were identified, including free thiol loss, carbonyl formation, and dityrosine formation. The immunoreactivity of the oxidized hordein isolate was considerably decreased in all metal-catalyzed oxidation systems. Cleavage of peptides or protein fragments at the numerous proline residues partially accounts for the decrease. Metal-catalyzed oxidation can thus be used in the modification and elimination of celiac-toxic peptides and proteins.

  20. Oxidation of proline decreases immunoreactivity and alters structure of barley prolamin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Stoddard, Frederick L; Kato, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    Elimination of celiac-toxic prolamin peptides and proteins is essential for Triticeae products to be gluten-free. Instead of enzymatic hydrolysis, in this study we investigated metal-catalyzed oxidation of two model peptides, QQPFP, and PQPQLPY, together with a hordein isolate from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We established a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) LC-MS method to detect and quantify proline oxidation fragments. In addition to fragmentation, aggregation and side chain modifications were identified, including free thiol loss, carbonyl formation, and dityrosine formation. The immunoreactivity of the oxidized hordein isolate was considerably decreased in all metal-catalyzed oxidation systems. Cleavage of peptides or protein fragments at the numerous proline residues partially accounts for the decrease. Metal-catalyzed oxidation can thus be used in the modification and elimination of celiac-toxic peptides and proteins. PMID:27507515

  1. Orally Administered Chitosan-Coated Polycaprolactone Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin Attenuate Metastatic Melanoma in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Loch-Neckel, Gecioni; Santos-Bubniak, Lorena; Mazzarino, Letícia; Jacques, Amanda V; Moccelin, Bárbara; Santos-Silva, Maria Claúdia; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2015-10-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of orally administered chitosan-coated nanoparticles containing curcumin on metastatic melanoma. Chitosan-coated nanoparticles containing curcumin were prepared, and their antimetastatic activity was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of B16F10 melanoma cells. We observed that curcumin significantly decreased the expression of metalloproteinases, which are known to be associated with migration and proliferation of cancer cells. Importantly, treatment with chitosan-coated nanoparticles containing curcumin decreased pulmonary tumor formation in a murine model of experimental metastasis. Histological analyses confirmed the macroscopic results in which lungs of mice treated with curcumin-loaded chitosan-coated polycaprolactone nanoparticles had only a few small nodules and most of them were free of melanoma. Our findings indicate that nanoparticles coated with the mucoadhesive polymer chitosan containing curcumin may be a promising approach and/or intervention for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  2. Curcumin ameliorates high‑fat diet‑induced spermatogenesis dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yang; Yan, Wen-Jie; Yin, Tai-Lang; Yang, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Curcumin, a type of natural active ingredient, is derived from rhizoma of Curcuma, which possesses antioxidant, antitumorigenic and anti‑inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate whether treatment with curcumin reduced high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced spermatogenesis dysfunction. Sprague‑Dawley rats fed a HFD were treated with or without curcumin for 8 weeks. The testis/body weight, histological analysis and serum hormone levels were used to evaluate the effects of curcumin treatment on spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by the HFD. In addition, the expression levels of apoptosis associated proteins, Fas, B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑xl, Bcl‑associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved‑caspase 3, were determined in the testis. The results of the present study suggested that curcumin treatment attenuated decreased testis/body weight and abnormal hormone levels. Morphological changes induced by a HFD were characterized as atrophied seminiferous tubules, decreased spermatogenetic cells and interstitial cells were improved by curcumin treatment. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced apoptosis in the testis, and decreased expression of Fas, Bax and cleaved‑caspase 3, as well as increased expression of Bcl‑xl. In conclusion, the present study revealed that curcumin treatment reduced HFD‑induced spermatogenesis dysfunction in male rats. PMID:27600729

  3. Curcumin ameliorates high-fat diet-induced spermatogenesis dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yang; Yan, Wen-Jie; Yin, Tai-Lang; Yang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a type of natural active ingredient, is derived from rhizoma of Curcuma, which possesses antioxidant, antitumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate whether treatment with curcumin reduced high-fat diet (HFD)-induced spermatogenesis dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a HFD were treated with or without curcumin for 8 weeks. The testis/body weight, histological analysis and serum hormone levels were used to evaluate the effects of curcumin treatment on spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by the HFD. In addition, the expression levels of apoptosis associated proteins, Fas, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xl, Bcl-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved-caspase 3, were determined in the testis. The results of the present study suggested that curcumin treatment attenuated decreased testis/body weight and abnormal hormone levels. Morphological changes induced by a HFD were characterized as atrophied seminiferous tubules, decreased spermatogenetic cells and interstitial cells were improved by curcumin treatment. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced apoptosis in the testis, and decreased expression of Fas, Bax and cleaved-caspase 3, as well as increased expression of Bcl-xl. In conclusion, the present study revealed that curcumin treatment reduced HFD-induced spermatogenesis dysfunction in male rats. PMID:27600729

  4. Effects of curcumin on methyl methanesulfonate damage to mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Cuce, G; Cetinkaya, S; Isitez, N; Kuccukturk, S; Sozen, M E; Kalkan, S; Cigerci, I H; Demirel, H H

    2016-01-01

    Methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating agent that may react with DNA and damage it. We investigated histological changes and apoptosis caused by MMS and the effects of curcumin on MMS treated mouse kidneys. Twenty-four mice were divided into four equal groups: controls injected with saline, a group injected with 40 mg/kg MMS, a group injected with 40 mg/kg MMS and given 100 mg/kg curcumin by gavage, and a group given 100 mg/kg curcumin by gavage. MMS caused congestion and vacuole formation, and elevated the apoptotic index significantly, but had no other effect on kidney tissue. Curcumin improved the congestion and vacuole formation caused by MMS and decreased the apoptotic index. Curcumin administered with MMS appears to decrease the deleterious effects of MMS on the kidney.

  5. Curcumin-induced inhibition of cellular reactive oxygen species generation: novel therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, M; Koteswari, A Adaikala; Kumar, R Sampath; Monickaraj, S Finny; Maheswari, J Uma; Mohan, V

    2003-12-01

    There is evidence for increased levels of circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetics, as indirectly inferred by the findings of increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant status. Direct measurements of intracellular generation of ROS using fluorescent dyes also demonstrate an association of oxidative stress with diabetes. Although phenolic compounds attenuate oxidative stress-related tissue damage, there are concerns over toxicity of synthetic phenolic antioxidants and this has considerably stimulated interest in investigating the role of natural phenolics in medicinal applications. Curcumin (the primary active principle in turmeric, Curcuma longa Linn.) has been claimed to represent a potential antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent with phytonutrient and bioprotective properties. However there are lack of molecular studies to demonstrate its cellular action and potential molecular targets. In this study the antioxidant effect of curcumin as a function of changes in cellular ROS generation was tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that curcumin abolished both phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA) and thapsigargin-induced ROS generation in cells from control and diabetic subjects. The pattern of these ROS inhibitory effects as a function of dose-dependency suggests that curcumin mechanistically interferes with protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium regulation. Simultaneous measurements of ROS and Ca2+ influx suggest that a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ may be a trigger for increased ROS generation. We suggest that the antioxidant and antiangeogenic actions of curcumin, as a mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+ entry and PKC activity, should be further exploited to develop suitable and novel drugs for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic complications. PMID:14660871

  6. The chemistry of curcumin: from extraction to therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Kavirayani Indira

    2014-12-01

    Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one of the very few promising natural products that has been extensively investigated by researchers from both the biological and chemical point of view. While there are several reviews on the biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin, chemistry reviews are comparatively scarcer. In this article, an overview of different aspects of the unique chemistry research on curcumin will be discussed. These include methods for the extraction from turmeric, laboratory synthesis methods, chemical and photochemical degradation and the chemistry behind its metabolism. Additionally other chemical reactions that have biological relevance like nucleophilic addition reactions, and metal chelation will be discussed. Recent advances in the preparation of new curcumin nanoconjugates with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles will also be mentioned. Directions for future investigations to be undertaken in the chemistry of curcumin have also been suggested.

  7. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Alihosseini, Faezeh; Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Haghighat, Setareh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains. PMID:27766232

  8. Exceedingly Higher co-loading of Curcumin and Paclitaxel onto Polymer-functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Potent Synergistic Anticancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Bai, Renu Geetha; Loh, Hwei-San; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of lung carcinoma to breast and vice versa accounts for one of the vast majority of cancer deaths. Synergistic treatments are proven to be the effective method to inhibit malignant cell proliferation. It is highly advantageous to use the minimum amount of a potent toxic drug, such as paclitaxel (Ptx) in ng/ml together with a natural and safe anticancer drug, curcumin (Cur) to reduce the systemic toxicity. However, both Cur and Ptx suffer from poor bioavailability. Herein, a drug delivery cargo was engineered by functionalizing reduced graphene oxide (G) with an amphiphilic polymer, PF-127 (P) by hydrophobic assembly. The drugs were loaded via pi-pi interactions, resulting in a nano-sized GP-Cur-Ptx of 140 nm. A remarkably high Cur loading of 678 wt.% was achieved, the highest thus far compared to any other Cur nanoformulations. Based on cell proliferation assay, GP-Cur-Ptx is a synergistic treatment (CI < 1) and is highly potent towards lung, A549 (IC50 = 13.24 μg/ml) and breast, MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 1.450 μg/ml) cancer cells. These positive findings are further confirmed by increased reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential depletion and cell apoptosis. The same dose treated on normal MRC-5 cells shows that the system is biocompatible and cancerous cell-specific. PMID:27597657

  9. Exceedingly Higher co-loading of Curcumin and Paclitaxel onto Polymer-functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Potent Synergistic Anticancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Bai, Renu Geetha; Loh, Hwei-San; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of lung carcinoma to breast and vice versa accounts for one of the vast majority of cancer deaths. Synergistic treatments are proven to be the effective method to inhibit malignant cell proliferation. It is highly advantageous to use the minimum amount of a potent toxic drug, such as paclitaxel (Ptx) in ng/ml together with a natural and safe anticancer drug, curcumin (Cur) to reduce the systemic toxicity. However, both Cur and Ptx suffer from poor bioavailability. Herein, a drug delivery cargo was engineered by functionalizing reduced graphene oxide (G) with an amphiphilic polymer, PF-127 (P) by hydrophobic assembly. The drugs were loaded via pi-pi interactions, resulting in a nano-sized GP-Cur-Ptx of 140 nm. A remarkably high Cur loading of 678 wt.% was achieved, the highest thus far compared to any other Cur nanoformulations. Based on cell proliferation assay, GP-Cur-Ptx is a synergistic treatment (CI < 1) and is highly potent towards lung, A549 (IC50 = 13.24 μg/ml) and breast, MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 1.450 μg/ml) cancer cells. These positive findings are further confirmed by increased reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential depletion and cell apoptosis. The same dose treated on normal MRC-5 cells shows that the system is biocompatible and cancerous cell-specific. PMID:27597657

  10. Carboxymethyl cellulose coating decreases toxicity and oxidizing capacity of nanoscale zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Thanh, Thao Le; Gong, Jianyu; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Eun-Ju; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) with modified surface via coating with organic stabilizers has been documented with enhanced colloidal stability and dispersity. Therefore, the expanded application potential and accompanying intrinsic exposure of such nanoparticle can be anticipated. In our study, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized NZVI (CNZVI) exerted minimized oxidative stress response and slower disruption of cell membrane integrity, resulting in mitigated cytotoxicity towards bacteria Agrobacterium sp. PH-08 as compared with the uncoated counterpart. The corrosive oxidation of both nanoparticles in oxygenic water provided a better understanding of coating effect. The decreased oxidative degradation of probe 4-chlorophenol with CNZVI than NZVI implicated a weaker oxidizing capacity, which might overweight massive adhesion-mediated redox damage and explain the different exposure outcome. However, enhanced evolution of iron oxide as well as the promoted production of hydrogen peroxide adversely demonstrated CMC-coating facilitated iron corrosion by oxygen, suggesting CMC was most likely to act as a radical scavenger and compete with organics or bacteria for oxidants. Moreover, XRD, XPS and TEM results showed that the spherical NZVI was oxidized to form needle-shaped iron oxide-hydroxide (γFeOOH) with no detectable oxidative stress for PH-08, alleviating worries regarding exotoxicological impact of iron nanotechnology.

  11. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype. PMID:24184606

  12. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype.

  13. Recent developments in curcumin and curcumin based polymeric materials for biomedical applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Kashif; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Salman, Mahwish; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed

    2015-11-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anticoagulant and anti-infective effects. This review summarizes and discusses recently published papers on the key biomedical applications of curcumin based materials. The highlighted studies in the review provide evidence of the ability of curcumin to show the significant vitro antioxidant, diabetic complication, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, anti-cancer activities and detection of hypochlorous acid, wound healing, treatment of major depression, healing of paracentesis, and treatment of carcinoma and optical detection of pyrrole properties. Hydrophobic nature of this polyphenolic compound along with its rapid metabolism, physicochemical and biological instability contribute to its poor bioavailability. To redress these problems several approaches have been proposed like encapsulation of curcumin in liposomes and polymeric micelles, inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrin, formation of polymer-curcumin conjugates, etc.

  14. Curcumin Resource Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs.

  15. Curcumin Resource Database

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs. Database URL: http://www.crdb.in PMID:26220923

  16. Curcumin Resource Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs. PMID:26220923

  17. Dietary L-methionine restriction decreases oxidative stress in porcine liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yang; Yun, Ji; Guoyao, Wu; Kaiji, Sun; Zhaolai, Dai; Zhenlong, Wu

    2015-05-01

    Dietary methionine restriction (MetR) has been reported to improve hepatocyte function in mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that MetR decreases generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and attenuates oxidative damage in hepatic mitochondria. Twenty-four 35-day old pigs were fed a control diet or a Met-restricted diet for two weeks. Liver mitochondria were isolated to determine: 8-oxodG in mitochondrial DNA, oxidative-derived proteins markers, including glutamic semialdehyde (GSA), aminoadipic semialdehydes (AASA), carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL), carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and malondialdehyde lysine (MDAL), mitochondrial H2O2 generation rate; rates of oxygen consumption; free radical leak (FRL); anti-oxidative capacity, electron transport complex activity; and protein abundances of respiratory chain complex subunits (NDUFA9, SDHA, Core 2, and Cox 1), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Compared with the control, MetR decreased mitochondrial 8-oxodG content, H2O2 generation, FRL (P<0.05), and increased rates of oxygen consumption. Abundances of markers for protein oxidative damage, including GSA, AASA, CEL, and CML, were decreased (P<0.05) by 40%, 30%, 32%, and 28%, respectively, compared with the control. Western blot analysis revealed that MetR decreased (P<0.05) the protein abundances of complex subunits, NDUFA9 and AIF without affecting expression of SDHA, Core 2, Cox 1 or MnSOD. The complex I activity (P<0.05) were lowered in MetR group as compared with that of control. Collectively, our findings indicate that dietary MetR decreases mitochondrial ROS generation primarily via inhibiting complex I activity and ROS generation rather than augmenting anti-oxidative capacity, thereby ameliorating oxidative damage to hepatic mitochondrial DNA and proteins.

  18. Effect of Curcumin in Experimental Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    D, Savitha; Mani, Indu; Ravikumar, Gayatri; Avadhany, Sandhya T

    2015-12-01

    Despite medical advancements, the inflammatory cascade and oxidative stress worsen the prognosis in most cases of peritonitis. Curcumin has emerged as a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in few of the acute inflammatory and infective conditions. We examined the effect of intraperitoneal injection of curcumin in endotoxin-induced peritonitis in rats. The blood and peritoneal fluid samples were collected at 3 and 24 h following the induction of peritonitis. Animals were sacrificed at 24 h and the organs preserved. The histopathological report of lung, liver, and intestines in the curcumin-treated rats showed maintenance of tissue architecture to a large extent compared to the control group which showed massive congestion, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The blood and peritoneal fluid total count and differential neutrophil counts were significantly higher at 24 h of induction of peritonitis. Serum amyloid assay and lipid peroxidation were significantly lower, and myeloperoxidase assay was higher in the curcumin-treated group at the end of 24 h; thus, curcumin probably demonstrated a neutrophil-mediated immunopotentiation and anti-inflammatory action thereby protecting the animal from endotoxemia-induced multi-organ damage. PMID:26884658

  19. Haptoglobin alters oxygenation and oxidation of hemoglobin and decreases propagation of peroxide-induced oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sambuddha; Jia, Yiping; Siburt, Claire J Parker; Abraham, Bindu; Wood, Francine; Bonaventura, Celia; Henkens, Robert; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Alayash, Abdu I

    2012-09-15

    We compared oxygenation and anaerobic oxidation reactions of a purified complex of human hemoglobin (Hb) and haptoglobin (Hb-Hp) to those of uncomplexed Hb. Under equilibrium conditions, Hb-Hp exhibited active-site heterogeneity and noncooperative, high-affinity O(2) binding (n(1/2)=0.88, P(1/2)=0.33 mm Hg in inorganic phosphate buffer at pH 7 and 25 °C). Rapid-reaction kinetics also exhibited active-site heterogeneity, with a slower process of O(2) dissociation and a faster process of CO binding relative to uncomplexed Hb. Deoxygenated Hb-Hp had significantly reduced absorption at the λ(max) of 430 nm relative to uncomplexed Hb, as occurs for isolated Hb subunits that lack T-state stabilization. Under comparable experimental conditions, the redox potential (E(1/2)) of Hb-Hp was found to be +54 mV, showing that it is much more easily oxidized than uncomplexed Hb (E(1/2)=+125 mV). The Nernst plots for Hb-Hp oxidation showed no cooperativity and slopes less than unity indicated active-site heterogeneity. The redox potential of Hb-Hp was unchanged by pH over the range of 6.4-8.3. Exposure of Hb-Hp to excess hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced ferryl heme, which was found to be more kinetically inert in the Hb-Hp complex than in uncomplexed Hb. The negative shift in the redox potential of Hb-Hp and its stabilized ferryl state may be central elements in the protection against Hb-induced oxidative damage afforded by formation of the Hb-Hp complex. PMID:22841869

  20. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Teow, Sin-Yeang; Ali, Syed Atif

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with 8 different antibiotic groups. Two reference, one clinical and ten environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were tested. Disc diffusion assay with 25 μg/mL Curcumin demonstrated synergism in combination with a majority of tested antibiotics against S. aureus. However, checkerboard micro dilution assay only showed synergism, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5 in three antibiotics i.e. Gentamicin, Amikacin, and Ciprofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed indifferent interactions but no antagonism was observed. In time-kill curve, appreciable reduction of bacterial cells was also observed in combination therapy (Curcumin + antibiotics) compared to monotherapy (Curcumin or antibiotic(s) alone). The antibiotics with higher synergistic interaction with Curcumin are arranged in a decreasing order: Amikacin > Gentamicin > Ciprofloxacin.

  1. Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of curcumin in a ketamine-induced model of mania in rats.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Valente, Matheus R; Acosta, Bruna A; Kaufmann, Fernanda N; Braganhol, Elizandra; Lencina, Claiton L; Stefanello, Francieli M; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Kaster, Manuella P

    2014-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and debilitating illness characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. Our research investigates the protective effects of curcumin, the main curcuminoid of the Indian spice turmeric, in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Our results indicated that ketamine treatment (25 mg/kg, for 8 days) induced hyperlocomotion in the open-field test and oxidative damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HP), evaluated by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased total thiol content. Moreover, ketamine treatment reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the HP. Pretreatment of rats with curcumin (20 and 50 mg/kg, for 14 days) or with lithium chloride (45 mg/kg, positive control) prevented behavioral and pro-oxidant effects induced by ketamine. These findings suggest that curcumin might be a good compound for preventive intervention in BD, reducing the episode relapse and the oxidative damage associated with the manic phase of this disorder.

  2. Oxidative stress is decreased in physically active sickle cell SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Charrin, Emmanuelle; Aufradet, Emeline; Douillard, Aymeric; Romdhani, Aymen; Souza, Genevieve De; Bessaad, Amine; Faes, Camille; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent; Martin, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in sickle cell disease (SCD) physiopathology. Given that chronic physical activity is known to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular or inflammatory pathologies, modulating these factors involved in the severity of the pathology could also be beneficial in SCD. This study aimed to determine if 8 weeks of increased physical activity (PA) by voluntary wheel running affects the hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) responses by reducing oxidative stress and increasing NO synthesis in sickle SAD mice. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx) concentrations, NOS3 mRNA expression and phosphorylated-endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunostaining were increased in the lungs of the PA groups after H/R stress. Moreover, lipid peroxidation in the heart was decreased in PA SAD mice. The improvement of antioxidant activity at rest and the decrease in haemolysis may explain this reduced oxidative stress. These results suggest that physical activity probably diminishes some deleterious effects of H/R stress in SAD mice and could be protective against vascular occlusions. PMID:25382268

  3. Ketogenic diet decreases oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial respiratory complex activity.

    PubMed

    Greco, Tiffany; Glenn, Thomas C; Hovda, David A; Prins, Mayumi L

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral metabolism of ketones after traumatic brain injury (TBI) improves neuropathology and behavior in an age-dependent manner. Neuroprotection is attributed to improved cellular energetics, although other properties contribute to the beneficial effects. Oxidative stress is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction after TBI. Ketones decrease oxidative stress, increase antioxidants and scavenge free radicals. It is hypothesized that ketogenic diet (KD) will decrease post-TBI oxidative stress and improve mitochondria. Postnatal day 35 (PND35) male rats were given sham or controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury and placed on standard (STD) or KD. Ipsilateral cortex homogenates and mitochondria were assayed for markers of oxidative stress, antioxidant expression and mitochondrial function. Oxidative stress was significantly increased at 6 and 24 h post-injury and attenuated by KD while inducing protein expression of antioxidants, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1/2). Complex I activity was inhibited in STD and KD groups at 6 h and normalized by 24 h. KD significantly improved Complex II-III activity that was reduced in STD at 6 h. Activity remained reduced at 24 h in STD and unchanged in KD animals. These results strongly suggest that ketones improve post-TBI cerebral metabolism by providing alternative substrates and through antioxidant properties, preventing oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  5. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  6. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  7. Photobiomodulation Therapy Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Lung Tissue after Formaldehyde Exposure: Role of Oxidant/Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barioni, Éric Diego; de Oliveira Duro, Stephanie; Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Anna Carolina; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Marcourakis, Tânia; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is ubiquitous pollutant that induces oxidative stress in the lung. Several lung diseases have been associated with oxidative stress and their control is necessary. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been highlighted as a promissory treatment, but its mechanisms need to be better investigated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PBMT on the oxidative stress generated by FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were submitted to FA exposure of 1% or vehicle (3 days) and treated or not with PBMT (1 and 5 h after each FA exposure). Rats treated only with laser were used as control. Twenty-four hours after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the effects of PBMT on the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide, oxidative burst, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, S-transferase enzyme activities, the gene expression of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, superoxide dismutase, the catalase enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1. PBMT reduced the generation of nitrites and hydrogen peroxide and increased oxidative burst in the lung cells. A decreased level of oxidant enzymes was observed which were concomitantly related to an increased level of antioxidants. This study provides new information about the antioxidant mechanisms of PBMT in the lung and might constitute an important tool for lung disease treatment. PMID:27293324

  8. EDTA chelation therapy, without added vitamin C, decreases oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Anne Marie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Waters, Robert S; Osman, Mireille; Fernholz, Karen; Anderson, Richard A

    2009-03-01

    Chelation therapy is thought to not only remove contaminating metals but also to decrease free radical production. However, in standard ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) chelation therapy, high doses of vitamin C with potential pro-oxidant effects are often added to the chelation solution. The authors demonstrated previously that the intravenous administration of the standard chelation cocktail, containing high amounts of vitamin C, resulted in an acute transitory pro-oxidant burst that should be avoided in the treatment of pathologies at risk of increased oxidative stress such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The current study was designed to determine the acute and chronic biochemical effects of chelation therapy on accepted clinical, antioxidant variables. An EDTA chelation cocktail not containing ascorbic acid was administered to six adult patients for five weeks (10 sessions of chelation therapy); antioxidant indicators were monitored. Immediately after the initial chelation session, in contrast with the data previously reported with the standard cocktail containing high doses of vitamin C, none of the oxidative stress markers were adversely modified. After five weeks, plasma peroxide levels, monitored by malondialdehyde, decreased by 20 percent, and DNA damage, monitored by formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) sensitive sites, decreased by 22 percent. Remaining antioxidant-related variables did not change. In summary, this study demonstrates that multiple sessions of EDTA chelation therapy in combination with vitamins and minerals, but without added ascorbic acid, decreases oxidative stress. These results should be beneficial in the treatment of diseases associated with increased oxidative stress such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Protective Role of Curcumin against N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-Induced Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fahad; Rahul; Jyoti, Smita; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed at studying the possible role of curcumin against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced toxicity in albino rats. Administration of NDEA to rats at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml in drinking water ad libitum for 21 days produced toxicity in them, which was evident from histopathological changes in the rat livers, and increased levels of blood serum enzyme markers, i.e. aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, the levels of oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCC), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity were elevated and the total glutathione (GSH) content was reduced in the livers. The administration of curcumin to rats at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml in drinking water along with 0.1 mg/ml of NDEA for 21 days effectively suppressed NDEA-induced toxicity and also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of blood serum enzyme markers (AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH). Moreover, LPO, PCC, and GST activity were reduced and the GSH level was increased upon the administration of curcumin along with NDEA. The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes and blood lymphocytes showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length. The micronucleus assay performed on rat hepatocytes also showed a dose-dependent reduction in the frequency of micronucleated cells along with curcumin administration. These results suggest that curcumin has a protective role against NDEA-induced toxicity in albino rats. PMID:27222610

  10. Redox modulation and human bile duct cancer inhibition by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Suphim, Bunliang; Prawan, Auemduan; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kongpetch, Sarinya; Buranrat, Benjaporn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin, a major component from tumeric and well-known dietary spice, possesses various pharmacological effects. The cancer chemoprevention effect is suggested to act through its pro-oxidant property. The study was to clarify effects of curcumin on cholangiocarcinoma cells, a cancer of the bile duct that refractory to chemotherapeutic drugs. We examined time-course of oxidant formation in relation to antitumor and the adaptive antioxidant response of the cells. Curcumin induced antiproliferation and apoptosis in KKU-M214 CCA cells with concentration- and time- dependent manners. The antiproliferative effect of curcumin was observed at concentrations as low as 3 microM and was not necessarily associated with oxidative stress, while induction of apoptosis required significant production of superoxide anion, suppression of cellular redox and collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Western blot analysis showed a temporal relationship between the suppression of nuclear NF-kappaB with Bcl-XL protein levels. Up-regulation of p53 and Bax was associated with marked oxidative stress and apoptosis. Curcumin also induced Nrf2 protein expression with up-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase mRNA and increased cellular antioxidant, glutathione. The study suggests that curcumin could be developed into an effective chemoprevention against CCA.

  11. Solvent dependent photophysical properties of dimethoxy curcumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K.

    2013-03-01

    Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a methylated derivative of curcumin. In order to know the effect of ring substitution on photophysical properties of curcumin, steady state absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC were recorded in organic solvents with different polarity and compared with those of curcumin. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC, like curcumin, are strongly dependent on solvent polarity and the maxima of DMC showed red shift with increase in solvent polarity function (Δf), but the above effect is prominently observed in case of fluorescence maxima. From the dependence of Stokes' shift on solvent polarity function the difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moment was estimated as 4.9 D. Fluorescence quantum yield (ϕf) and fluorescence lifetime (τf) of DMC were also measured in different solvents at room temperature. The results indicated that with increasing solvent polarity, ϕf increased linearly, which has been accounted for the decrease in non-radiative rate by intersystem crossing (ISC) processes.

  12. Solvent dependent photophysical properties of dimethoxy curcumin.

    PubMed

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K

    2013-03-15

    Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a methylated derivative of curcumin. In order to know the effect of ring substitution on photophysical properties of curcumin, steady state absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC were recorded in organic solvents with different polarity and compared with those of curcumin. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC, like curcumin, are strongly dependent on solvent polarity and the maxima of DMC showed red shift with increase in solvent polarity function (Δf), but the above effect is prominently observed in case of fluorescence maxima. From the dependence of Stokes' shift on solvent polarity function the difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moment was estimated as 4.9 D. Fluorescence quantum yield (φ(f)) and fluorescence lifetime (τ(f)) of DMC were also measured in different solvents at room temperature. The results indicated that with increasing solvent polarity, φ(f) increased linearly, which has been accounted for the decrease in non-radiative rate by intersystem crossing (ISC) processes. PMID:23314392

  13. Adaptogenic potential of curcumin in experimental chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress-induced memory deficits and alterations in functional homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nitish; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Anand, Preet; Dhawan, Ravi

    2011-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of curcumin in chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress-induced memory deficits and alteration of functional homeostasis in mice. Chronic stress was induced by immobilizing the animal for 2 h daily for 10 days, whereas chronic unpredictable stress was induced by employing a battery of stressors of variable magnitude and time for 10 days. Curcumin was administered to drug-treated mice prior to induction of stress. Body weight, adrenal gland weight, ulcer index and biochemical levels of glucose, creatine kinase, cholesterol, corticosterone, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated to assess stress-induced functional changes. Memory deficits were evaluated using the elevated plus maze (EPM) model. Chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress significantly increased the levels of corticosterone, glucose and creatine kinase and decreased cholesterol levels. Moreover, chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress resulted in severe memory deficits along with adrenal hypertrophy, weight loss and gastric ulceration. Chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress also increased oxidative stress assessed in terms of increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment with curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress-associated memory deficits, biochemical alterations, pathological outcomes and oxidative stress. It may be concluded that curcumin-mediated antioxidant actions and decrease in corticosterone secretion are responsible for its adaptogenic and memory restorative actions in chronic and chronic unpredictable stress.

  14. Curcumin I mediates neuroprotective effect through attenuation of quinoprotein formation, p-p38 MAPK expression, and caspase-3 activation in 6-hydroxydopamine treated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Meesarapee, Benjawan; Thampithak, Anusorn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Sanvarinda, Pimtip; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Sanvarinda, Yupin

    2014-04-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively enters dopaminergic neurons and undergoes auto-oxidation resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and dopamine quinones, subsequently leading to apoptosis. This mechanism mimics the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and has been used to induce experimental Parkinsonism in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin I (diferuloylmethane) purified from Curcuma longa on quinoprotein production, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (p-p38), and caspase-3 activation in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y with curcumin I at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, and 20 μM, significantly decreased the formation of quinoprotein and reduced the levels of p-p38 and cleaved caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the levels of the dopaminergic neuron marker, phospho-tyrosine hydroxylase (p-TH), were also dose-dependently increased upon treatment with curcumin I. Our results clearly demonstrated that curcumin I protects neurons against oxidative damage, as shown by attenuation of p-p38 expression, caspase-3-activation, and toxic quinoprotein formation, together with the restoration of p-TH levels. This study provides evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin I in the chemoprevention of oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration.

  15. Inhibition of curcumin on myeloid-derived suppressor cells is requisite for controlling lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; You, Ming; Xu, Yujun; Li, Fanlin; Zhang, Dongya; Li, Xiujun; Hou, Yayi

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are potent immune-suppressive cells and present in most cancer patients. Recently, several studies have shown that curcumin inhibits the expansion of MDSCs in some cancers. However, it is not clear how curcumin modulates the suppressive function of MDSCs, and whether curcumin achieves anti-tumor effects via regulating the expansion of MDSCs in lung cancer. Here, our results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited tumor growth in a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) isogenic tumor model. Curcumin reduced the accumulation of MDSCs in spleen and tumor tissue in LLC isogenic model. And curcumin promoted the maturation and differentiation of MDSCs in tumor tissue. Notably, curcumin inhibited the expression level of immune suppressive factors of MDSCs, arginase-1 (Arg-1) and ROS, in purified MDSCs from tumor tissue in vivo. Expectedly, curcumin also inhibited the immunosuppressive function of isolated MDSCs from tumor tissue and spleen of tumor bearing mice in vitro. Moreover, curcumin decreased the level of IL-6 in the tumor tissue and serum from LLC-bearing mice. Taken together, curcumin indeed possesses anti-cancer effect and inhibits the accumulation and function of MDSCs. And curcumin reduces the level of IL-6 in tumor-bearing mice to impair the expansion and function of MDSCs. These results suggest that inhibition of MDSCs in tumor is requisite for controlling lung cancer. PMID:27497194

  16. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K

    2007-06-01

    The beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of the dietary spice compounds curcumin and capsaicin were evaluated. Curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination were included in the diet of high-(30%)-fat-fed rats for 8 weeks. Dietary high-fat-induced hypertriglyceridemia was countered by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination by 12%-20%. Curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination also produced a slight decrease in serum total cholesterol in these animals. Serum alpha-tocopherol content was increased by dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and their combination in high-fat-fed rats. Serum total thiol content in high-fat-fed animals and serum ascorbic acid in normal animals was elevated by the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione was increased by curcumin, capsaicin, or their combination in normal animals. Hepatic glutathione and alpha-tocopherol were increased, whereas lipid peroxide level was reduced by dietary curcumin and combination of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed animals. Serum glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in high-fat-fed rats were generally higher as a result of dietary curcumin, capsaicin, and the combination of curcumin and capsaicin. Hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly elevated by dietary spice principles in high-fat-fed animals. The additive effect of the 2 bioactive compounds was generally not evident with respect to hypolipidemic or antioxidant potential. However, the effectiveness of the combination was higher in a few instances.

  17. Protective effect of curcumin against formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ben-Yan; Shi, Yu-Qin; Chen, Xin; Dai, Juan; Jiang, Zhong-Fa; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Bing

    2013-12-01

    Formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the environment. It is known to be a genotoxic substance. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are involved in formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in human lung cancer cell lines A549. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of antioxidant on formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 Cell Lines. Formaldehyde exposure caused induction of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Curcumin is an important antioxidant. Formaldehyde significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. In addition, the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 were induced by formaldehyde treatment. Pretreatment with curcumin counteracted formaldehyde-induced oxidative stress, ameliorated DPCs and attenuated activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in A549 Cell Lines. These results, taken together, suggest that formaldehyde induced genotoxicity through its ROS and lipid peroxidase activity and caused DPCs effects in A549 cells.

  18. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. PMID:23281076

  19. Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Adriana; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Alavez, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Over the last ten years curcumin has been reported to be effective against a wide variety of diseases and is characterized as having anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardioprotective, anti-arthritic, and anti-infectious properties. Recent studies performed in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have been conducted to determine whether curcumin was also neuroprotective. The efficacy of curcumin in several pre-clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases has created considerable excitement mainly due to its lack of toxicity and low cost. This suggests that curcumin could be a worthy candidate for nutraceutical intervention. Since aging is a common risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, it is possible that some compounds that target aging mechanisms could also prevent these kinds of diseases. One potential mechanism to explain several of the general health benefits associated with curcumin is that it may prevent aging-associated changes in cellular proteins that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation. This loss in protein homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases. Recently, curcumin has been found to help maintain protein homeostasis and extend lifespan in the model invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we review the evidence from several animal models that curcumin improves healthspan by preventing or delaying the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23303664

  20. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, Nicolas; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E.; Biswal, Shyam; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. {yields} HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. {yields} HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. {yields} HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  1. Targeting NADPH Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Sezen, Sena F.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown. Aims We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes. Main Outcome Measures Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis. Results Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox, 4-HNE-modified proteins, induced eNOS uncoupling, and reduced Gpx1 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of p47phox, gp91phox (but not p67phox) and 4-HNE, but only slightly (P > 0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a

  2. Effects of Curcumin on Parameters of Myocardial Oxidative Stress and of Mitochondrial Glutathione Turnover in Reoxygenation after 60 Minutes of Hypoxia in Isolated Perfused Working Guinea Pig Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Ermita I. Ibrahim; Nur, Busjra M.; Laksono, Sonny P.; Bahtiar, Anton; Estuningtyas, Ari; Vitasyana, Caecilia; Kusmana, Dede; Suyatna, Frans D.; Tadjudin, Muhammad Kamil; Freisleben, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In cardiovascular surgery ischemia-reperfusion injury is a challenging problem, which needs medical intervention. We investigated the effects of curcumin on cardiac, myocardial, and mitochondrial parameters in perfused isolated working Guinea pig hearts. After preliminary experiments to establish the model, normoxia was set at 30 minutes, hypoxia was set at 60, and subsequent reoxygenation was set at 30 minutes. Curcumin was applied in the perfusion buffer at 0.25 and 0.5 μM concentrations. Cardiac parameters measured were afterload, coronary and aortic flows, and systolic and diastolic pressure. In the myocardium histopathology and AST in the perfusate indicated cell damage after hypoxia and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased to 232.5% of controls during reoxygenation. Curcumin protected partially against reoxygenation injury without statistically significant differences between the two dosages. Mitochondrial MDA was also increased in reoxygenation (165% of controls), whereas glutathione was diminished (35.2%) as well as glutathione reductase (29.3%), which was significantly increased again to 62.0% by 0.05 μM curcumin. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was strongly increased in hypoxia and even more in reoxygenation (255% of controls). Curcumin partly counteracted this increase and attenuated GPx activity independently in hypoxia and in reoxygenation, 0.25 μM concentration to 150% and 0.5 μM concentration to 200% of normoxic activity. PMID:26904113

  3. Pre-administration of curcumin prevents neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Qiu, Li-Li; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ru; Zhu, Si-Hai; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane, a commonly used inhaled anesthetic, can induce neuronal apoptosis in the developing rodent brain and correlate with functional neurological impairment later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects of sevoflurane remain unclear and no effective treatment is currently available. Herein, the authors investigated whether curcumin can prevent the sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane 2h daily for 3 consecutive days and were treated with curcumin at the dose of 20 mg/kg or vehicle 30 min before the sevoflurane anesthesia from postnatal days 6 (P6) to P8. Cognitive functions were evaluated by open field, Morris water maze, and fear conditioning tests on P61, P63-69, and P77-78, respectively. In another separate experiment, mice were killed on day P8 or P78, and the brain tissues were harvested and then subjected to biochemistry studies. Our results showed that repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure led to significant cognitive impairment later in life, which was associated with increased neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, and decreased memory related proteins. By contrast, pre-administration of curcumin ameliorated early neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, memory related proteins, and later cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, our data suggested that curcumin pre-administration can prevent the sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairment later in life, which may be partly attributed to its ability to attenuate the neural apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative nitrosative stress in mouse brain. PMID:25447320

  4. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Gonzalez-Reyes, Susana; Juarez-Figueroa, Ulises E.; Gonzalez, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs). Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM) attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs. PMID:23533689

  5. The golden root, Rhodiola rosea, prolongs lifespan but decreases oxidative stress resistance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-11-15

    The effect of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on lifespan and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. The supplementation of the growth medium with R. rosea extract decreased survival of exponentially growing S. cerevisiae cells under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, but increased viability and reproduction success of yeast cells in stationary phase. The extract did not significantly affect catalase activity and decreased SOD activity in chronologically aged yeast population. These results suggest that R. rosea acts as a stressor for S. cerevisiae cells, what sensitizes yeast cells to oxidative stress at exponential phase, but induces adaptation in stationary phase cells demonstrating the positive effect on yeast survival without activation of major antioxidant enzymes.

  6. The golden root, Rhodiola rosea, prolongs lifespan but decreases oxidative stress resistance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-11-15

    The effect of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on lifespan and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. The supplementation of the growth medium with R. rosea extract decreased survival of exponentially growing S. cerevisiae cells under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, but increased viability and reproduction success of yeast cells in stationary phase. The extract did not significantly affect catalase activity and decreased SOD activity in chronologically aged yeast population. These results suggest that R. rosea acts as a stressor for S. cerevisiae cells, what sensitizes yeast cells to oxidative stress at exponential phase, but induces adaptation in stationary phase cells demonstrating the positive effect on yeast survival without activation of major antioxidant enzymes. PMID:21802922

  7. DNA damage in mouse lymphocytes exposed to curcumin and copper.

    PubMed

    Urbina-Cano, Patricia; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Ramírez-Herrera, Mario A; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Mendoza-Magaña, Maria L; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Dietary polyphenolics, such as curcumin, have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Some antioxidants cause DNA strand breaks in excess of transition metal ions, such as copper. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of curcumin in the presence of increasing concentrations of copper to induce DNA damage in murine leukocytes by the comet assay. Balb-C mouse lymphocytes were exposed to 50 microM curcumin and various concentrations of copper (10 microM, 100 microM and 200 microM). Cellular DNA damage was detected by means of the alkaline comet assay. Our results show that 50 microM curcumin in the presence of 100-200 microM copper induced DNA damage in murine lymphocytes. Curcumin did not inhibit the oxidative DNA damage caused by 50 microM H2O2 in mouse lymphocytes. Moreover, 50 microM curcumin alone was capable of inducing DNA strand breaks under the tested conditions. The increased DNA damage by 50 mM curcumin was observed in the presence of various concentrations of copper, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. PMID:17132903

  8. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD.

  9. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Daishi; Nishida, Yoichiro; Nishina, Tomoko; Mogushi, Kaoru; Tajiri, Mio; Ishibashi, Satoru; Ajioka, Itsuki; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/-) mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3); Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD. PMID:26637123

  10. Curcumin aggravates CNS pathology in experimental systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Foxley, Sean; Zamora, Marta; Hack, Bradley; Alexander, Rebecca Rashmi; Roman, Brian; Quigg, Richard John; Alexander, Jessy John

    2013-04-01

    Complement activation and inflammation are key disease features of systemic lupus erythematosus. Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the complement cascade. Therefore, we hypothesized that curcumin will be protective in CNS lupus. To assess the effect of curcumin on CNS-lupus, MRL/lpr mice were used. Brain MRI showed that curcumin (30mg/kg body wt. i.p. from 12-20 weeks) worsened regional brain atrophy. The volumes of the lateral and third ventricles are significantly increased (150%-213% and 107%-140%, without and with treatment respectively compared to MRL+/+ controls). The hippocampus was reduced further (83%-81%) by curcumin treatment. In line with increased brain atrophy, there were edematous cells (41% increase in cell size in MRL/lpr compared to MRL+/+ mice. The cell size was further increased by 28% when treated with curcumin; p<0.02) in the cortex. In line with increased atrophy and edema, there was a significant increase (p<0.02) in the mRNA and protein expression of the water channel protein, aquaporin 4 in these mice. The increase in the matrix proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in lupus mice in the hippocampus was prevented by curcumin. Curcumin increased IgG deposits and decreased C3 deposits in brain with a corresponding increase in immune complexes and decrease in C3 concentration (by 60% in MRL/lpr mice Vs. MRL+/+ mice and a further 26% decrease when treated with curcumin) in circulation. Decrease in C3 could alter the transport of immune complexes leading to an increase in IgG deposits which could induce inflammatory pathways thereby leading to worsening of the disease. The neurological outcome as measured by maze performance indicates that the curcumin treated mice performed poorly compared to the untreated counterparts. Our results for the first time provide evidence that at the dose used in this study, curcumin aggravates some CNS disease manifestations in experimental lupus brain. Therefore, until a safe

  11. Chronic social isolation decreases glutamate and glutamine levels and induces oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuan; Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Peng, Hui; Huang, Qing-Jun; Wu, Renhua; Xu, Haiyun

    2015-04-01

    Social isolation (SI) rearing of rodents is a developmental manipulation, which is commonly compared with the psychological stressors in humans as it produces several behavioral outcomes similar to those observed in humans with early life stress. To explain the SI-induced behavioral outcomes, animal studies have been performed to examine the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in the brain. In this study, we measured possible changes in levels of glutamate and glutamine of SI-rats using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We also assessed the oxidative stress parameters in certain brain regions to see if glutamate and/or glutamine changes, if any, are associated with oxidative stress. SI rearing for 8 weeks decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and the total antioxidant capacity, but increased levels of hydrogen peroxide, in certain brain regions, of which prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were most vulnerable. It also decreased levels of glutamate, glutamine, N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA), and phosphocreatine in the dorsal hippocampus, but not in the cerebral cortex. Decreased phosphocreatine and NAA indicate energy metabolism deficit in brain cells; the latter also suggests the neuronal viability was inhibited. Decreased glutamate and glutamine may suggest the neuron-glial integrity was implicated by chronic SI. These neurochemical and biochemical changes may contribute to the SI-induced behavioral abnormalities including a high level of anxiety, social interaction deficit, and impaired spatial working memory shown in this study.

  12. Decreased aortic glutathione levels may contribute to impaired nitric oxide-induced relaxation in hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Takeshi; Cohen, Richard A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the decrease in aortic total glutathione (GSH) levels in hypercholesterolaemia is related to the impairment of relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and exogenous nitric oxide (NO). Isometric tension and vascular GSH levels were measured in thoracic aortic rings from rabbits fed for 12 weeks with 0.5% cholesterol diet. Hypercholesterolaemia decreased aortic GSH levels and impaired relaxation to ACh and NO. To determine if GSH depletion impaired the response to NO, normal rabbit thoracic aorta was incubated with 1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea (BCNU; 0.2 mmol L−1), a GSH reductase inhibitor, or diazine-dicarboxylic acid bis [N, N dimethylamide] (diamide; 1 mmol L−1), a thiol oxidizing agent. BCNU or diamide decreased aortic GSH levels and impaired ACh and NO-induced relaxation. The effects of diamide on GSH levels and relaxation were partially prevented by co-incubation with GSH ester (GSE; 2 mmol L−1). Increasing GSH with GSE significantly enhanced NO-induced relaxation in aorta from both hypercholesterolaemic and normal rabbits, however relaxation of hypercholesterolaemic rabbit aorta was not restored to normal. These data suggest that other factors, perhaps related to the long-term decrease in GSH levels, are responsible for reduced NO bioactivity in hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:10696103

  13. Targets of curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  14. TWEAK promotes exercise intolerance by decreasing skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor Fn14 are the major regulators of skeletal muscle mass in many catabolic conditions. However, their role in muscle metabolism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of TWEAK on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative metabolism. Methods We employed wild-type and TWEAK-knockout (KO) mice and primary myotube cultures and performed biochemical, bioenergetics, and morphometric assays to evaluate the effects of TWEAK on exercise tolerance and muscle mitochondrial function and angiogenesis. Results TWEAK-KO mice showed improved exercise tolerance compared to wild-type mice. Electron microscopy analysis showed that the abundance of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, age-related loss in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity was rescued in TWEAK-KO mice. Expression of a key transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and several other molecules involved in oxidative metabolism were significantly higher in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-KO mice. Moreover, treatment of primary myotubes with soluble TWEAK inhibited the expression of PGC-1α and mitochondrial genes and decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Deletion of TWEAK also improved angiogenesis and transcript levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in skeletal muscle of mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that TWEAK decreases mitochondrial content and oxidative phosphorylation and inhibits angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Neutralization of TWEAK is a potential approach for improving exercise capacity and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:23835416

  15. Decreased oxidative stress in prehepatic portal hypertensive rat livers following the induction of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Evelson, P; Llesuy, S; Filinger, E; Rodriguez, R R; Lemberg, A; Scorticati, C; Susemihl, M; Villareal, I; Polo, J M; Peredo, H; Perazzo, J C

    2004-03-01

    1. Oxidative stress (OS) is a biological entity indicated as being responsible for several pathologies, including diabetes. Diabetes can also be associated with human cirrhosis. Portal hypertension (PH), a major syndrome in cirrhosis, produces hyperdynamic splanchnic circulation and hyperaemia. The present study was designed to investigate the occurrence of OS in prehepatic PH rat livers following the induction of diabetes. 2. Five groups of rats were used: control, sham operated, chronic diabetes (induced with a single dose of streptozotocin at 60 mg/kg, i.p.), prehepatic PH and chronic diabetic plus prehepatic PH. The occurrence of OS was determined in liver homogenates by measuring hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence and the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). 3. Prehepatic PH produced a significant increase in hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence in the liver compared with control and sham-operated rats, whereas the liver in chronic diabetic rats showed no difference. However, chemiluminescence values decreased almost by 50% in the chronic diabetic plus prehepatic PH group. Concomitantly, the activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes in chronic diabetes, prehepatic PH and chronic diabetic plus prehepatic PH groups were decreased (P < 0.05 vs control and sham-operated groups). 4. Livers from the chronic diabetic group did not show any evidence of the occurrence of OS, whereas the prehepatic PH group showed the occurrence of OS. The association of PH and chronic diabetes resulted in a significant decrease in the occurrence of OS, which could be explained by an anti-oxidant response to an OS. PMID:15008960

  16. High-Relaxivity Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms with Decreased Immune Recognition and Long-Circulating Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guankui; Inturi, Swetha; Serkova, Natalie J.; Merkulov, Sergey; McCrae, Keith; Russek, Stephen E.; Banda, Nirmal K.; Simberg, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    One of the core issues of nanotechnology involves masking the foreignness of nanomaterials to enable in vivo longevity and long-term immune evasion. Dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are very effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and strategies to prevent immune recognition are critical for their clinical translation. Here we prepared 20 kDa dextran-coated SPIO nanoworms (NWs) of 250 nm diameter and a high molar transverse relaxivity rate R2 (~400 mM−1 s−1) to study the effect of cross-linking-hydrogelation with 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (epichlorohydrin) on the immune evasion both in vitro and in vivo. Cross-linking was performed in the presence of different concentrations of NaOH (0.5 to 10 N) and different temperatures (23 and 37 °C). Increasing NaOH concentration and temperature significantly decrease the binding of anti-dextran antibody and dextran-binding lectin conconavalin A to the NWs. The decrease in dextran immunoreactivity correlated with the decrease in opsonization by complement component 3 (C3) and with the decrease in the binding of the lectin pathway factor MASP-2 in mouse serum, suggesting that cross-linking blocks the lectin pathway of complement. The decrease in C3 opsonization correlated with the decrease in NW uptake by murine peritoneal macrophages. Optimized NWs demonstrated up to 10 h circulation half-life in mice and minimal uptake by the liver, while maintaining the large 250 nm size in the blood. We demonstrate that immune recognition of large iron oxide nanoparticles can be efficiently blocked by chemical cross-linking-hydrogelation, which is a promising strategy to improve safety and bioinertness of MRI contrast agents. PMID:25419856

  17. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  18. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  19. Decreased skin-mediated detoxification contributes to oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Xing; Sun, Chang-Bin; Yang, Ting-Tong; Li, Da; Li, Chun-Yan; Tian, Yan-Jie; Guo, Ming; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The skin, the body's largest organ, plays an important role in the biotransformation/detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous toxic substances, but its role in oxidative stress and insulin resistance is unclear. We investigated the relationship between skin detoxification and oxidative stress/insulin resistance by examining burn-induced changes in nicotinamide degradation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, sham-nicotinamide, burn, and burn-nicotinamide. Rats received an intraperitoneal glucose injection (2 g/kg) with (sham-nicotinamide and burn-nicotinamide groups) or without (sham-operated and burn groups) coadministration of nicotinamide (100 mg/kg). The results showed that the mRNA of all detoxification-related enzymes tested was detected in sham-operated skin but not in burned skin. The clearance of nicotinamide and N(1)-methylnicotinamide in burned rats was significantly decreased compared with that in sham-operated rats. After glucose loading, burn group showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels with a lower muscle glycogen level than that of sham-operated and sham-nicotinamide groups, although there were no significant differences in blood glucose levels over time between groups. More profound changes in plasma H(2)O(2) and insulin levels were observed in burn-nicotinamide group. It may be concluded that decreased skin detoxification may increase the risk for oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  20. Curcumin: a Polyphenol with Molecular Targets for Cancer Control.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Naqvi, Syeda Tahira Qousain; Muhammad, Syed Aun

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, is a polyphenol from Curcuma longa (turmeric plant), is a polyphenol that belongs to the ginger family which has long been used in Ayurveda medicines to treat various diseases such as asthma, anorexia, coughing, hepatic diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, wound healing and Alzheimer's. Various studies have shown that curcumin has anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardio protective, anti-arthritic, chemo preventive and anti-carcinogenic activities. It may suppress both initiation and progression stages of cancer. Anticancer activity of curcumin is due to negative regulation of inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, protein kinases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oncogenes. This review focuses on the different targets of curcumin to treat cancer. PMID:27356682

  1. Decreased levels of serum nitric oxide in different forms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Lola; Zas, Raquel; Rodríguez, Susana; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2007-06-15

    Nitric oxide is involved in normal physiological functions and also in pathological processes leading to tissue damage due, in part, to its free radical nature (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction have been recognized as contributing factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). In order to study the possible links between these processes and dementia, we have analysed plasma amyloid-beta(1-42) levels (Abeta) and total nitric oxide (NOx), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), lipids, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations in the serum of 99 patients with dementia and 55 age-matched non-demented controls. Both nitrate and nitrite levels were measured by a colorimetric method using Griess Reagent and plasma Abeta levels were analysed by a hypersensitive ELISA method. Our data showed a significant decrease of serum NOx levels in dementia, especially in probable AD and VD patients, as compared with controls. We observed a weak correlation between serum NOx levels and cognitive deterioration in dementia; however, NOx levels were not associated with ApoE and Abeta levels. In dementia and controls, a similar correlation pattern between HDL-cholesterol versus NOx was found. No apparent association between NOx, Abeta and AD-related genes [APOE (apolipoprotein E), PSEN1 (Presenilin 1)] was observed. Our data suggest that NOx may contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia through a process mediated by HDL-cholesterol.

  2. Tyrosine administration decreases glutathione and stimulates lipid and protein oxidation in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Sgaravatti, Angela M; Magnusson, Alessandra S; de Oliveira, Amanda S; Rosa, Andréa P; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Zanin, Fernanda R; Pederzolli, Carolina D; Wyse, Angela T S; Wannmacher, Clóvis M D; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2009-09-01

    Tyrosine levels are abnormally elevated in tissues and physiological fluids of patients with inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism especially in tyrosinemia type II which is caused by deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and provokes eyes, skin and central nervous system disturbances. We have recently reported that tyrosine promoted oxidative stress in vitro but the exact mechanisms of brain damage in these disorder are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effect of L-tyrosine (500 mg/Kg) on oxidative stress indices in cerebral cortex homogenates of 14-day-old Wistar rats. A single injection of L-tyrosine decreased glutathione (GSH) and thiol-disulfide redox state (SH/SS ratio) while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl content and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were enhanced. In contrast, the treatment did not affect ascorbic acid content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These results indicate that acute administration of L-tyrosine may impair antioxidant defenses and stimulate oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in cerebral cortex of young rats in vivo. This suggests that oxidative stress may represent a pathophysiological mechanism in hypetyrosinemic patients.

  3. Dietary supplementation with curcumin enhances metastatic growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curcumin is a phenolic compound derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. Curcumin has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine as it has therapeutic properties including being anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial. The present study investigated the effects...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of hypolipidemic effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Zingg, Jean-Marc; Hasan, Syeda T; Meydani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests potential benefits from phytochemicals and micronutrients in reducing the elevated oxidative and lipid-mediated stress associated with inflammation, obesity, and atherosclerosis. These compounds may either directly scavenge reactive oxygen or nitrogen species or they may modulate the activity of signal transduction enzymes leading to changes in the expression of antioxidant genes. Alternatively, they may reduce plasma lipid levels by modulating lipid metabolic genes in tissues and thus reduce indirectly lipid-mediated oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress through their hypolipidemic effect. Here we review the proposed molecular mechanisms by which curcumin, a polyphenol present in the rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa) spice, influences oxidative and lipid-mediated stress in the vascular system. At the molecular level, mounting experimental evidence suggests that curcumin may act chemically as scavenger of free radicals and/or influences signal transduction (e.g., Akt, AMPK) and modulates the activity of specific transcription factors (e.g., FOXO1/3a, NRF2, SREBP1/2, CREB, CREBH, PPARγ, and LXRα) that regulate the expression of genes involved in free radicals scavenging (e.g., catalase, MnSOD, and heme oxygenase-1) and lipid homeostasis (e.g., aP2/FABP4, CD36, HMG-CoA reductase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-1)). At the cellular level, curcumin may induce a mild oxidative and lipid-metabolic stress leading to an adaptive cellular stress response by hormetic stimulation of these cellular antioxidant defense systems and lipid metabolic enzymes. The resulting lower oxidative and lipid-mediated stress may not only explain the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease, but may also contribute to the increase in maximum life-span observed in animal models.

  5. Curcumin attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Ahn, Jiyun; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-09-01

    Curcumin is a well-known component of traditional turmeric (Curcuma longa), which has been reported to prevent obesity and diabetes. However, the effect of curcumin on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of curcumin on hepatic steatosis in high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND), HFD or HFD with 0.15% curcumin (HFD+C) for 11 weeks. We found that curcumin significantly lowered the body-weight and adipose tissue weight of mice in the HFD+C group compared with the findings for the HFD group (p < 0.05). The levels of total cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in serum were decreased, and HFD-induced impairment of insulin sensitivity was improved by curcumin supplementation (p < 0.05). Curcumin protected against the development of hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic fat accumulation. Moreover, curcumin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. By contrast, curcumin suppressed the HFD-mediated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase and cluster of differentiation 36 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that curcumin attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism via AMPK activation, suggesting its use as a therapeutic for hepatic steatosis.

  6. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP.

  7. Curcumin regulates cell fate and metabolism by inhibiting hedgehog signaling in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Naqi; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Huanhuan; Lu, Chunfeng; Wu, Xiafei; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling becomes activated in chronic liver injury and plays a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are Hh-responsive cells and activation of the Hh pathway promotes transdifferentiation of HSCs into myofibroblasts. Targeting Hh signaling may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis. We previously reported that curcumin has potent antifibrotic effects in vivo and in vitro, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This study shows that curcumin downregulated Patched and Smoothened, two key elements in Hh signaling, but restored Hhip expression in rat liver with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis and in cultured HSCs. Curcumin also halted the nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcription activity of Gli1. Moreover, the Hh signaling inhibitor cyclopamine, like curcumin, arrested the cell cycle, induced mitochondrial apoptosis, reduced fibrotic gene expression, restored lipid accumulation, and inhibited invasion and migration in HSCs. However, curcumin's effects on cell fate and fibrogenic properties of HSCs were abolished by the Hh pathway agonist SAG. Furthermore, curcumin and cyclopamine decreased intracellular levels of adenosine triphosphate and lactate, and inhibited the expression and/or function of several key molecules controlling glycolysis. However, SAG abrogated the curcumin effects on these parameters of glycolysis. Animal data also showed that curcumin downregulated glycolysis-regulatory proteins in rat fibrotic liver. These aggregated data therefore indicate that curcumin modulated cell fate and metabolism by disrupting the Hh pathway in HSCs, providing novel molecular insights into curcumin reduction of HSC activation.

  8. Piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yaosheng; Sun, Dongmei; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yao, Nan; Huang, Xuejun; Huang, Dane; Chen, Yuxing

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that curcumin possesses a hypocholesterolemic effect and potentiates numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin, however, the mechanisms underlying this hypocholesterolemic effect and the interaction between curcumin and piperine remain to be elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) to establish a hyperlipidemia (HLP) model. Co-administration of curcumin plus piperine was found to decrease the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum and liver, as well as increase the levels of fecal TC, TG and total bile acid, compared with administration of curcumin alone. Curcumin plus piperine also markedly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, compared with administration of curcumin alone, administration of curcumin plus piperine resulted in a significant upregulation of the activity and gene expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In conclusion, these results indicated that co-administration of curcumin plus piperine potentiates the hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin by increasing the activity and gene expression of ApoAI, CYP7A1, LCAT and LDLR, providing a promising combination for the treatment of HLP. PMID:24944632

  9. Proteomic analysis of pRb loss highlights a signature of decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Brandon N; Danielian, Paul S; Kottakis, Filippos; Lapek, John D; Sanidas, Ioannis; Miles, Wayne O; Dehnad, Mantre; Tschöp, Katrin; Gierut, Jessica J; Manning, Amity L; Morris, Robert; Haigis, Kevin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Lees, Jacqueline A; Haas, Wilhelm; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2015-09-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) protein associates with chromatin and regulates gene expression. Numerous studies have identified Rb-dependent RNA signatures, but the proteomic effects of Rb loss are largely unexplored. We acutely ablated Rb in adult mice and conducted a quantitative analysis of RNA and proteomic changes in the colon and lungs, where Rb(KO) was sufficient or insufficient to induce ectopic proliferation, respectively. As expected, Rb(KO) caused similar increases in classic pRb/E2F-regulated transcripts in both tissues, but, unexpectedly, their protein products increased only in the colon, consistent with its increased proliferative index. Thus, these protein changes induced by Rb loss are coupled with proliferation but uncoupled from transcription. The proteomic changes in common between Rb(KO) tissues showed a striking decrease in proteins with mitochondrial functions. Accordingly, RB1 inactivation in human cells decreased both mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function. RB(KO) cells showed decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the accumulation of hypopolarized mitochondria. Additionally, RB/Rb loss altered mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation from (13)C-glucose through the TCA cycle in mouse tissues and cultured cells. Consequently, RB(KO) cells have an enhanced sensitivity to mitochondrial stress conditions. In summary, proteomic analyses provide a new perspective on Rb/RB1 mutation, highlighting the importance of pRb for mitochondrial function and suggesting vulnerabilities for treatment.

  10. Decrease of plasma and urinary oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen after consumption of watercress by human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Mohr, S N; Yang, C S

    1996-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the consumption of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), a cruciferous vegetable, on acetaminophen metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and its metabolites were studied in a crossover trial of human volunteers. A single oral dose of acetaminophen (1 gm) was given 10 hours after ingestion of watercress homogenates (50 gm). In comparison with acetaminophen only, the ingestion of watercress resulted in a significant reduction in the area under the plasma cysteine acetaminophen (Cys-acetaminophen) concentration-time curve and in the peak plasma Cys-acetaminophen concentration by 28% +/- 3% and by 21% +/- 4% (mean +/- SE; n = 7; p < 0.005), respectively. Correspondingly, the Cys-acetaminophen formation rate constant and Cys-acetaminophen formation fraction were decreased by 55% +/- 9% and 52% +/- 7% (p < 0.01), respectively. Consistent with the results obtained from the plasma, the total urinary excretion of Cys-acetaminophen in 24 hours was also reduced. A decrease of mercapturate acetaminophen, a Cys-acetaminophen metabolite, was also shown in the plasma and urine samples. However, the plasma pharmacokinetic processes and the urinary excretions of acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and acetaminophen sulfate were not altered significantly by the watercress treatment. These results suggest that the consumption of watercress causes a decrease in the levels of oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen, probably due to inhibition of oxidative metabolism of this drug.

  11. Proteomic analysis of pRb loss highlights a signature of decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Nicolay, Brandon N.; Danielian, Paul S.; Kottakis, Filippos; Lapek, John D.; Sanidas, Ioannis; Miles, Wayne O.; Dehnad, Mantre; Tschöp, Katrin; Gierut, Jessica J.; Manning, Amity L.; Morris, Robert; Haigis, Kevin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Haas, Wilhelm; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) protein associates with chromatin and regulates gene expression. Numerous studies have identified Rb-dependent RNA signatures, but the proteomic effects of Rb loss are largely unexplored. We acutely ablated Rb in adult mice and conducted a quantitative analysis of RNA and proteomic changes in the colon and lungs, where RbKO was sufficient or insufficient to induce ectopic proliferation, respectively. As expected, RbKO caused similar increases in classic pRb/E2F-regulated transcripts in both tissues, but, unexpectedly, their protein products increased only in the colon, consistent with its increased proliferative index. Thus, these protein changes induced by Rb loss are coupled with proliferation but uncoupled from transcription. The proteomic changes in common between RbKO tissues showed a striking decrease in proteins with mitochondrial functions. Accordingly, RB1 inactivation in human cells decreased both mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function. RBKO cells showed decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the accumulation of hypopolarized mitochondria. Additionally, RB/Rb loss altered mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation from 13C-glucose through the TCA cycle in mouse tissues and cultured cells. Consequently, RBKO cells have an enhanced sensitivity to mitochondrial stress conditions. In summary, proteomic analyses provide a new perspective on Rb/RB1 mutation, highlighting the importance of pRb for mitochondrial function and suggesting vulnerabilities for treatment. PMID:26314710

  12. Mild Hyperbaric Oxygen Improves Decreased Oxidative Capacity of Spinal Motoneurons Innervating the Soleus Muscle of Rats with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Ai; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Rats with type 2 diabetes exhibit decreased oxidative capacity, such as reduced oxidative enzyme activity, low-intensity staining for oxidative enzymes in fibers, and no high-oxidative type IIA fibers, in the skeletal muscle, especially in the soleus muscle. In contrast, there are no data available concerning the oxidative capacity of spinal motoneurons innervating skeletal muscle of rats with type 2 diabetes. This study examined the oxidative capacity of motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle of non-obese rats with type 2 diabetes. In addition, this study examined the effects of mild hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute with 36 % oxygen for 10 weeks on the oxidative capacity of motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle because mild hyperbaric oxygen improves the decreased oxidative capacity of the soleus muscle in non-obese rats with type 2 diabetes. Spinal motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle were identified using nuclear yellow, a retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracer. Thereafter, the cell body sizes and succinate dehydrogenase activity of identified motoneurons were analyzed. Decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of small-sized alpha motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle was observed in rats with type 2 diabetes. The decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of these motoneurons was improved by mild hyperbaric oxygen. Therefore, we concluded that rats with type 2 diabetes have decreased oxidative capacity in motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle and this decreased oxidative capacity is improved by mild hyperbaric oxygen.

  13. Curcumin shows excellent therapeutic effect on psoriasis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Jiang, Wenbing; Lu, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqing; Lai, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is an active herbal ingredient possessing surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. Recently, it has been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity on potassium channel subtype Kv1.3. As Kv1.3 channels are mainly expressed in T cells and play a key role in psoriasis, the effects of curcumin were investigated on inflammatory factors secretion in T cells and psoriasis developed in keratin (K) 14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic mouse model. Results showed that, 10 μM of curcumin significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-17,IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in T cells by 30-60% in vitro. Notably, more than 50% of T cells proliferation was inhibited by application of 100 μM curcumin. Compared with severe psoriatic symptoms observed in the negative control mice, all psoriasis indexes including ear redness, weight, thickness and lymph node weight were significantly improved by oral application of curcumin in treatment mouse group. Histological examination indicated that curcumin had anti-inflammatory function in the experimental animals. More than 50% level of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-22 and IL-23 in mouse serum was decreased by curcumin treatment as well as cyclosporine. Compared with renal fibrosis observed in the mouse group treated by cyclosporine, no obvious side effect in mouse kidney was found after treated by curcumin. Taken together, curcumin, with high efficacy and safety, has a great potential to treat psoriasis.

  14. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kgb.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits-NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Effects of curcumin on the skeletal system in rats.

    PubMed

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Zych, Maria; Trzeciak, Henryk I

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the discovery of natural compounds that could favorably affect the skeletal system. Curcumin is a constituent of turmeric, a plant which has been used for centuries as a dietary spice and a traditional Indian medicine. Curcumin has been reported to affect differentiation, activity and the lifespan of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on the skeletal system of rats in vivo. Curcumin (10 mg/kg, po daily) was administered for four weeks to normal (non-ovariectomized) and bilaterally ovariectomized (estrogen-deficient) three-month-old female Wistar Cmd:(WI)WU rats. Ovariectomy was performed seven days before the start of curcumin administration. Bone mass, mineral and calcium content, macrometric and histomorphometric parameters, as well as the mechanical properties of the bone, were examined. Serum total cholesterol and estradiol levels were also determined. In rats with normal estrogen levels, curcumin decreased serum estradiol level and slightly increased cancellous bone formation, along with decreased mineralization. Estrogen deficiency induced osteoporotic changes in the skeletal system of the ovariectomized control rats. In ovariectomized rats, curcumin decreased body mass gain and serum total cholesterol level, slightly improved some bone histomorphometric parameters impaired by estrogen deficiency, but did not improve bone mineralization or mechanical properties. In conclusion, the results of the present in vivo study in rats did not support the hypothesis that curcumin, at doses that are readily achievable through dietary intake, could be useful for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L.; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded

  17. Curcumin I protects the dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity through attenuation of p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jaisin, Yamaratee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Meesarapee, Benjawan; Ratanachamnong, Piyanee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Phumala-Morales, Noppawan; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Sanvarinda, Yupin

    2011-02-11

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin used to induce oxidative cell death of dopaminergic neurons in experimental models of PD. Curcumin I, or diferuloylmethane is a pure compound isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. that has been reported to have neuroprotective properties. The precise mechanism, however, remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which curcumin I exerts its effects, using 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y. In our experiments, pretreatment with curcumin I improved cell viability, and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further investigations revealed a reduction of p53 phosphorylation and decrease of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as measured by mRNA expression and protein level. Taken together, these findings indicate that curcumin I protects dopaminergic neurons from 6-OHDA-induced toxicity via the reduction of ROS production, and subsequent attenuation of p53 phosphorylation and reduction of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. PMID:21167259

  18. Mechanism of curcumin-induced trypsin inhibition: Computational and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Kang, Yi-Jun; Gu, Yun-Lan; Cao, Jian

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the experimental and theoretical methods were used to analyze the binding interaction of food dye, curcumin with trypsin. The results of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements indicated that curcumin binding resulted in the obviously intrinsic fluorescence quenching with the increase concentration of curcumin. This binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being -15.70 kJ mol-1 and 40.25 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces played an important role in the complex formation between curcumin and trypsin. Moreover, curcumin could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket and makes the activity of trypsin decrease remarkably with the increasing concentration of curcumin.

  19. Mechanism of curcumin-induced trypsin inhibition: Computational and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Kang, Yi-Jun; Gu, Yun-Lan; Cao, Jian

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the experimental and theoretical methods were used to analyze the binding interaction of food dye, curcumin with trypsin. The results of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements indicated that curcumin binding resulted in the obviously intrinsic fluorescence quenching with the increase concentration of curcumin. This binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being -15.70 kJ mol-1 and 40.25 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces played an important role in the complex formation between curcumin and trypsin. Moreover, curcumin could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket and makes the activity of trypsin decrease remarkably with the increasing concentration of curcumin.

  20. Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin on Artesunate-Induced Subchronic Toxicity in Testis of Swiss Albino Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dhrupadsinh K.; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Highland, Hyacinth N.

    2015-01-01

    India is one of the endemic areas where control of malaria has become a formidable task. Artesunate is the current antimalarial drug used to treat malaria, especially chloroquine resistant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of oral administration of artesunate on the oxidative parameters in testes of adult male Swiss albino mice and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin, a widely used antioxidant. An oral dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (bwt; low dose) and 300 mg/kg bwt (high dose) of artesunate was administered for a period of 45 days to male mice, and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin was also assessed. The results revealed that artesunate caused significant alteration in oxidative parameters in dose-dependent manner. Administration of artesunate brought about significant decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, whereas lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity were found to be significantly increased. The results obtained show that oxidative insult is incurred upon the intracellular antioxidant system of testis tissue by artesunate treatment. Further, administration of curcumin at the dose level of 80 mg/kg bwt along with both doses of artesunate attenuated adverse effects in male mice. PMID:26673878

  1. REVIEW: Curcumin and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin has a long history of use as a traditional remedy and food in Asia. Many studies have reported that curcumin has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antitumor. Because of the reported effects of curcumin on tumors, many clinical trials have been performed to elucidate curcumin's effects on cancers. Recent reports have suggested therapeutic potential of curcumin in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In in vitro studies, curcumin has been reported to inhibit amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, and Aβ-induced inflammation, as well as the activities of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase. In in vivo studies, oral administration of curcumin has resulted in the inhibition of Aβ deposition, Aβ oligomerization, and tau phosphorylation in the brains of AD animal models, and improvements in behavioral impairment in animal models. These findings suggest that curcumin might be one of the most promising compounds for the development of AD therapies. At present, four clinical trials concerning the effects of curcumin on AD has been conducted. Two of them that were performed in China and USA have been reported no significant differences in changes in cognitive function between placebo and curcumin groups, and no results have been reported from two other clinical studies. Additional trials are necessary to determine the clinical usefulness of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:20406252

  2. REVIEW: Curcumin and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin has a long history of use as a traditional remedy and food in Asia. Many studies have reported that curcumin has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antitumor. Because of the reported effects of curcumin on tumors, many clinical trials have been performed to elucidate curcumin's effects on cancers. Recent reports have suggested therapeutic potential of curcumin in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In in vitro studies, curcumin has been reported to inhibit amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, and Aβ-induced inflammation, as well as the activities of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase. In in vivo studies, oral administration of curcumin has resulted in the inhibition of Aβ deposition, Aβ oligomerization, and tau phosphorylation in the brains of AD animal models, and improvements in behavioral impairment in animal models. These findings suggest that curcumin might be one of the most promising compounds for the development of AD therapies. At present, four clinical trials concerning the effects of curcumin on AD has been conducted. Two of them that were performed in China and USA have been reported no significant differences in changes in cognitive function between placebo and curcumin groups, and no results have been reported from two other clinical studies. Additional trials are necessary to determine the clinical usefulness of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of AD.

  3. Curcumin Induces Apoptosis in Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Lines Via PARP-1 Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Deepshikha; Singh, Sunita; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound isolated from the rhizomes of an herbaceous perennial plant, Curcuma longa, is known to possess anticancerous activity. However, the mechanism of apoptosis induction in cancers differs. In this study, we have (1) investigated the anticancerous activity of curcumin on REH and RS4;11 leukemia cells and (2) studied the chemo-sensitizing potential of curcumin for doxorubicin, a drug presently used for leukemia treatment. It was found that curcumin induced a dose dependent decrease in cell viability because of apoptosis induction as visualized by annexin V-FITC/ PI staining. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of leukemia cells was mediated by PARP-1 cleavage. An increased level of caspase-3, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), cleaved PARP-1 and decreased level of Bcl2 was observed in leukemia cells after 24h of curcumin treatment. In addition, curcumin at doses lower than the IC50 value significantly enhanced doxorubicin induced cell death. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin induces apoptosis in leukemia cells via PARP-1 mediated caspase-3 dependent pathway and further may act as a potential chemo-sensitizing agent for doxorubicin. Our study highlights the chemo-preventive and chemo-sensitizing role of curcumin. PMID:27644631

  4. Biliary excretion of curcumin is mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Young-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin has a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. Recently, its potential as effective chemoprevention against cholangiocarcinoma, a highly malignant tumor of the bile duct with limited therapeutic options, was reported. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) to the biliary excretion of curcumin using Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR). After intravenous administration of curcumin with a loading dose of 4.5 mg/kg, followed by a constant infusion of 18 mg/kg/h to the SDR and EHBR, the pharmacokinetic parameters of curcumin were estimated. In EHBR, the total area under the bile concentration-time curve from 0 to 80 min following curcumin administration was dramatically decreased (0.094%) compared to that in SDR. In addition, the plasma-to-bile and liver-to-bile clearances were both significantly decreased compared to SDR. These results provide the first evidence that Mrp2 mediates the biliary excretion of curcumin and thus may be a major factor in the control of exposure of curcumin to the bile duct. This study may be helpful to the potential use of curcumin as a treatment for bile duct cancer, and to understanding the genetic polymorphism of Mrp2 for clinical trials of curcumin.

  5. Effect of curcumin on lateral diffusion of phosphatidylcholines in saturated and unsaturated bilayers.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Andrei V; Kotenkov, Sergey A; Munavirov, Bulat; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin, a dietary polyphenol, is a natural spice with preventive and therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Curcumin possesses a spectrum of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic properties. Because of this broad spectrum of pharmacological activity, it has been suggested that, like cholesterol, curcumin exerts its effect on a rather basic biological level, such as on lipid bilayers of biomembranes. The effect of curcumin on translational mobility of lipids in biomembranes has not yet been studied. In this work, we used (1)H NMR diffusometry to explore lateral diffusion in planar-oriented bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) at curcumin concentrations of up to 40 mol % and in the temperature range of 298-333 K. The presence of curcumin at much lower concentrations (∼7 mol %) leads to a decrease in the lateral diffusion coefficient of DOPC by a factor of 1.3 at lower temperatures and by a factor of 1.14 at higher temperatures. For DMPC, the diffusion coefficient decreases by a factor of 1.5 at lower temperatures and by a factor of 1.2 at higher temperatures. Further increasing the curcumin concentration has no effect. Comparison with cholesterol showed that curcumin and cholesterol influence lateral diffusion of lipids differently. The effect of curcumin is determined by its solubility in lipid bilayers, which is as low as 10 mol % that is much less than that of cholesteroĺs 66 mol %.

  6. Cationic triblock copolymer micelles enhance antioxidant activity, intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Kamenova, Katya; Perperieva, Teodora; Hadjimitova, Vera; Donchev, Petar; Kaloyanov, Kaloyan; Konstantinov, Spiro; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Tzankova, Virginia; Petrov, Petar

    2015-07-25

    The aim of the present study was to develop curcumin loaded cationic polymeric micelles and to evaluate their loading, preservation of curcumin antioxidant activity and intracellular uptake ability. The micelles were prepared from a triblock copolymer consisting of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) and very short poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) segments (PDMAEMA9-PCL70-PDMAEMA9). The micelles showed monomodal size distribution, mean diameter of 145 nm, positive charge (+72 mV), critical micellar concentration around 0.05 g/l and encapsulation efficiency of 87%. The ability of the micellar curcumin to scavenge the ABTS radical and hypochlorite ions was higher than that of the free curcumin. Confocal microscopy revealed that the uptake of curcumin by chronic myeloid leukemia derived K-562 cells and human multiple myeloma cells U-266 was more intensive when curcumin was loaded into the micelles. These results correlated with the higher cytotoxicity of the micellar curcumin compared to free curcumin. Intraperitoneal treatment of Wistar rats indicated that PDMAEMA-PCL-PDMAEMA copolymer, comprising very short cationic chains, did not change the levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione in livers indicating an absence of oxidative stress. Thus, PDMAEMA-PCL-PDMAEMA triblock micelles could be considered efficient and safe platform for curcumin delivery. PMID:26026253

  7. Curcumin stimulates proliferation of embryonic neural progenitor cells and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jung; Son, Tae Gen; Park, Hee Ra; Park, Mikyung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Hae Young; Mattson, Mark P; Lee, Jaewon

    2008-05-23

    Curcumin is a natural phenolic component of yellow curry spice, which is used in some cultures for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Curcumin has been reported to be capable of preventing the death of neurons in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, but its possible effects on developmental and adult neuroplasticity are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on mouse multi-potent neural progenitor cells (NPC) and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Curcumin exerted biphasic effects on cultured NPC; low concentrations stimulated cell proliferation, whereas high concentrations were cytotoxic. Curcumin activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 kinases, cellular signal transduction pathways known to be involved in the regulation of neuronal plasticity and stress responses. Inhibitors of ERKs and p38 kinases effectively blocked the mitogenic effect of curcumin in NPC. Administration of curcumin to adult mice resulted in a significant increase in the number of newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus, indicating that curcumin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings suggest that curcumin can stimulate developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and a biological activity that may enhance neural plasticity and repair.

  8. Curcumin in cell death processes: a challenge for CAM of age-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Salvioli, S; Sikora, E; Cooper, E L; Franceschi, C

    2007-06-01

    Curcumin, the yellow pigment from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, is a widely studied phytochemical which has a variety of biological activities: anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. In this review we discuss the biological mechanisms and possible clinical effects of curcumin treatment on cancer therapy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, with particular attention to the cell death processes induced by curcumin. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are major determinants of the aging process, we also argue that curcumin can have a more general effect that slows down the rate of aging. Finally, the effects of curcumin can be described as xenohormetic, since it activates a sort of stress response in mammalian cells.

  9. Curcumin AntiCancer Studies in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Leongito, Maddalena; Piccirillo, Mauro; Giudice, Aldo; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Granata, Vincenza; Palaia, Raffaele; Izzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis. Systemic gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus nab-paclitaxel are used as the gold-standard therapy for patients with advanced PC; although this treatment is associated with a better overall survival compared to the old treatment, many side effects and poor results are still present. Therefore, new alternative therapies have been considered for treatment of advanced PC. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has anticancer effects against different types of cancer, including PC, by modulating many molecular targets. Regarding PC, in vitro studies have shown potent cytotoxic effects of curcumin on different PC cell lines including MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3. In addition, in vivo studies on PC models have shown that the anti-proliferative effects of curcumin are caused by the inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis and are due to the induction of apoptosis. On the basis of these results, several researchers tested the anticancer effects of curcumin in clinical trials, trying to overcome the poor bioavailability of this agent by developing new bioavailable forms of curcumin. In this article, we review the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effects of curcumin in the treatment of PC. PMID:27438851

  10. Curcumin AntiCancer Studies in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Leongito, Maddalena; Piccirillo, Mauro; Giudice, Aldo; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Granata, Vincenza; Palaia, Raffaele; Izzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis. Systemic gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus nab-paclitaxel are used as the gold-standard therapy for patients with advanced PC; although this treatment is associated with a better overall survival compared to the old treatment, many side effects and poor results are still present. Therefore, new alternative therapies have been considered for treatment of advanced PC. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has anticancer effects against different types of cancer, including PC, by modulating many molecular targets. Regarding PC, in vitro studies have shown potent cytotoxic effects of curcumin on different PC cell lines including MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3. In addition, in vivo studies on PC models have shown that the anti-proliferative effects of curcumin are caused by the inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis and are due to the induction of apoptosis. On the basis of these results, several researchers tested the anticancer effects of curcumin in clinical trials, trying to overcome the poor bioavailability of this agent by developing new bioavailable forms of curcumin. In this article, we review the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effects of curcumin in the treatment of PC. PMID:27438851

  11. Liposome-Encapsulated Curcumin Suppresses Neuroblastoma Growth Through Nuclear Factor-κB Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Orr, W. Shannon; Denbo, Jason W.; Saab, Karim R.; Myers, Adrianne L.; Ng, Catherine Y.; Zhou, Junfang; Morton, Christopher L.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation and survival, and tumor angiogenesis. We sought to evaluate the effects of curcumin, an inhibitor of NF-κB, on a xenograft model on disseminated neuroblastoma. Methods For in vitro studies, neuroblastoma cell lines, NB1691, CHLA-20, and SK-N-AS, were treated with varying doses of liposomal curcumin. Disseminated neuroblastoma was established in vivo by tail vein injection of NB1691-luc cells into SCID mice which were then treated with 50mg/kg/day of liposomal curcumin 5 days/week intraperitoneal. Results Curcumin suppressed NF-κB activation and proliferation of all neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro. In vivo, curcumin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in disseminated tumor burden. Curcumin treated tumors had decreased NF-κB activity and an associated significant decrease in tumor cell proliferation and an increase in tumor cell apoptosis, as well as a decrease in tumor VEGF levels and microvessel density. Conclusions Liposomal curcumin suppressed neuroblastoma growth, with treated tumors showing a decrease in NF-kB activity. Our results suggest that liposomal curcumin maybe a viable option for the treatment of neuroblastoma that works via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. PMID:22284765

  12. Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via curcumin-prebiotic inulin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fares, Mohammad M; Salem, Mu'taz Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via prebiotic inulin designed to orally deliver poorly water-soluble curcumin at duodenum low acidity (pH 5.5) was investigated. Different prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol-water binary system at different pre-adjusted pH values. Characterization via FTIR, XRD and TGA revealed the formation of curcumin-inulin conjugates, whereas surface morphology via SEM and TEM techniques implied the formation of nanoparticle beads and nanoclusters. Prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles prepared at pH 7.0 demonstrated a maximum curcumin dissolution enhancement of ≈90% with respect to 30% for curcumin alone at pH 5.5. Power law constant values were in accordance with dissolution enhancement investigations. All samples show Fickian diffusion mechanism. XRD investigations confirm that inulin maintain its crystalline structure in curcumin-inulin conjugate structure, which confirms that it can exert successfully its prebiotic role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, the use of curcumin-inulin nanoparticles can perform dual-mission in the GI tract at the duodenum environment; release of 90% of curcumin followed by prebiotic activity of inulin, which will probably play a significant role in cancer therapeutics for the coming generations.

  13. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Decreases Hypothalamic Oxidative Stress During Experimental Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Fazal; Santos-Junior, Nilton N; de Almeida Rodrigues, Rodrigo Pereira; Costa, Luis Henrique A; Catalão, Carlos Henrique R; Rocha, Maria Jose A

    2016-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) prevented the impairment in vasopressin secretion and increased survival rate in septic rats. Additionally, we saw a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels in cerebroventricular spinal fluid (CSF), suggesting that the IL-1ra prevents apoptosis that seems to occur in vasopressinergic neurons. Here, we investigated the effect of IL-1ra pre-treatment on the sepsis-induced increase in oxidative stress markers in the hypothalamus of rats. The animals were pre-treated by an i.c.v. injection of IL-1ra (9 nmol) or vehicle (0.01 M PBS) before being subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or left as control (sham-operation or naive). After 4, 6, and 24 h, the animals were decapitated (n = 9/group) and the brain removed for hypothalamic tissue collection. Transcript and protein levels of IL-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot, respectively. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of all these genes were significantly (P < 0.005) increased at 4, 6, and 24 h CLP, as compared to sham-operated animals. IL-1ra pre-treatment in these CLP animals significantly decreased IL-1 gene expression at all time points and also of iNOS, caspase-3, and HIF-1α at 24 h when compared to vehicle-treated CLP animals. The effect of the pre-treatment on protein expression was most clearly seen for IL-1β and iNOS at 24 h. Our results showed that blocking the IL-1-IL-1r signaling pathway by central administration of an IL-1ra decreases hypothalamic oxidative stress markers during sepsis.

  14. Exhaled nitric oxide decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel E; Beall, Cynthia M; Strohl, Kingman P; Mills, Phoebe S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator that plays a role in blood flow and oxygen delivery. Acute hypoxia down regulates NO synthesis, a response that may exacerbate hypoxic stress by decreasing blood flow. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that pulmonary NO decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia and that relatively low levels of NO at altitude are associated with greater stress as reflected in more symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). A sample of 47 healthy, adult, nonsmoking, sea-level residents provided measurements at sea level, at 2,800 m, and at 0-, 2-, and 3-h exposure times at 4,200 m altitude on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements were made of exhaled NO, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, heart rate, and reported symptoms of AMS. The partial pressure of NO concentration in exhaled breath decreased significantly from a sea level mean of 4.2 nmHg to 3.8 nmHg at 2,800 m and 3.4 nmHg at 4,200 m. NO concentration in exhaled breath did not change significantly over a 3-h exposure at 4,200 m and recovered to pre-exposure baseline upon return to sea level. There was no significant association between the level of NO exhaled and the number of self-reported symptoms of AMS during this brief exposure. PMID:16493632

  15. Decreased training volume and increased carbohydrate intake increases oxidized LDL levels.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, I A; Vuorimaa, T; Ahotupa, M; Kekkonen, R; Korpela, R; Vasankari, T

    2012-04-01

    We studied effects of probiotics and training volume on oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL), serum antioxidant potential (s-TRAP) and serum antioxidants (s-α-tocopherol, s-γ-tocopherol, s-retinol, s-β-carotene and s-ubiquinone-10) in marathon runners during 3-months training period, 6-days preparation period and marathon run. Runners (n=127) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention during which they received either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG, probiotic group) or placebo drink (placebo group) during whole study. During the preparation period, subjects decreased training and increased carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were taken at baseline, before 6-days preparation, before and immediately after the marathon. Probiotics did not have any effect on ox-LDL, s-TRAP or serum antioxidants levels during the study. Interestingly, ox-LDL increased by 28% and 33% during the preparation period and decreased by 16% and 19% during the marathon run in the placebo and probiotic groups, respectively (in all, P<0.001). No changes were seen in s-TRAP before marathon, but during run s-TRAP raised by 16% in both groups (both, P<0.001). The increase of ox-LDL level during the preparative period after several months' training suggests that aerobic training may reduce the concentration of ox-LDL and that decrease of training together with increased energy intake, mainly carbohydrate, before marathon is capable of increasing the level of ox-LDL.

  16. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin Nanocrystals and Validation of Its Antioxidant Activity Against Circulatory Toxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, A; Devasena, T

    2015-06-01

    Our investigation was carried out in two phases. First we synthesized curcumin nanocrystals using a simple precipitation method and characterized their absorbance, crystallinity, size, and morphology by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Particle size Analyzer (PSA), in comparison with bulk curcumin. Characterization studies revealed that the protocol we standardized resulted in Curcumin nanocrystals with 10-200 nm size which was fairly soluble in water in contrast to bulk curcumin. Due to its crystallinity, nanocurcumin that we synthesized was also referred as Curcumin Nanocrystals. In Phase 2, we have assessed the comparative antioxidant efficacy of Curcumin nanocrystals and bulk Curcumin in the circulation of 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-treated rats by investigating lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase), GSH and GSH-dependent detoxification enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, gIutathione-S-transferase). Curcumin nanocrystals exerted its antioxidant effect by decreasing lipid peroxidation, and by enhancing the activities of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes studied. Curcumin nanocrystals exhibited its antioxidant action at 40 mg dose whereas the bulk curcumin exerted its effect at 80 mg dose. This may be due to enhanced solubility, dispersibility, and crystallinity of the nanocrystals, which might have enhanced its bioavailability when compared to poorly soluble bulk curcumin. PMID:26369020

  17. Effect of curcumin on the interaction between androgen receptor and Wnt/β-catenin in LNCaP xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gilho; Choi, Han Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin is a nontoxic, chemopreventive agent possessing multifaceted functions. Our previous study showed that curcumin inhibits androgen receptor (AR) through modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LNCaP cells. Therefore, we investigated the in vivo effects of curcumin by using LNCaP xenografts. Materials and Methods LNCaP cells were subcutaneously inoculated in Balb/c nude mice. When the tumor volume reached greater than 100 mm3, either curcumin (500 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle was administered through oral gavage three times weekly for 4 weeks. The expression of AR and intermediate products of Wnt/β-catenin were assessed. Results Curcumin had an inhibitory effect on tumor growth during the early period, which was followed by a slow increase in growth over time. Tumor growth was delayed about 27% in the curcumin group. The mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in the curcumin group was approximately twice that in the untreated group. Curcumin significantly decreased AR expression at both the mRNA and protein level. The PSA levels tended to be reduced in the curcumin group. However, there were no significant changes in expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway intermediates. Conclusions This study revealed that curcumin initially interferes with prostate cancer growth by inhibiting AR activity and possibly by reducing PSA expression. Further research is needed to investigate the plausible mechanism of the antiandrogenic action of curcumin. PMID:26366279

  18. Inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in normal newborn rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    Hua-Huy, Thông; Duong-Quy, Sy; Pham, Hoa; Pansiot, Julien; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Baud, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is commonly used in the treatment of very ill pre-term newborns. Previous studies showed that exogenous NO could affect endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and expression in vascular endothelial cell cultures or adult rat models, but this has never been fully described in newborn rat lungs. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of iNO on eNOS expression and activity in newborn rats. Rat pups, post-natal day (P) 0 to P7, and their dams were placed in a chamber containing NO at 5 ppm (iNO-5 ppm group) or 20 ppm (iNO-20 ppm group), or in room air (control group). Rat pups were sacrificed at P7 and P14 for evaluation of lung eNOS expression and activity. At P7, eNOS protein expression in total lung lysates, in bronchial and arterial sections, was significantly decreased in the iNO-20 ppm versus control group. At P14, eNOS expression was comparable among all three groups. The amounts of eNOS mRNA significantly differed at P7 between the iNO-20 ppm and control groups. NOS activity decreased in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7 and returned to normal levels at P14. There was an imbalance between superoxide dismutase and NOS activities in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7. Inhalation of NO at 20 ppm early after birth decreases eNOS gene transcription, protein expression and enzyme activity. This decrease might account for the rebound phenomenon observed in patients treated with iNO.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of dual function vanadyl, gallium and indium curcumin complexes for medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Thompson, Katherine H; Patrick, Brian O; Storr, Tim; Martins, Candice; Polishchuk, Elena; Yuen, Violet G; McNeill, John H; Orvig, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Novel bis[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (curcumin) complexes with the formula, ML(3), where M is Ga(III) or In(III), or of the formula, ML(2) where M is [VO](2+), have been synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared and absorption spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. A new ligand, bis[4-acetyl-3-hydroxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (diacetylbisdemethoxycurcumin, DABC) was similarly characterized; an X-ray structure analysis was performed. Vanadyl complexes tested in an acute i.p. testing protocol in STZ-diabetic rats showed a lack of insulin enhancing potential. Vanadyl complexes were, however, more cytotoxic than were the ligands alone in standard MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]ate, -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) cytotoxicity testing, using mouse lymphoma cells. With the exception of DABC, that was not different from VO(DABC)(2), the complexes were not significantly different from one another, with IC(50) values in the 5-10 microM range. Gallium and indium curcumin complexes had IC(50) values in the same 5-10 microM range; whereas Ga(DAC)(3) and In(DAC)(3) (where DAC=diacetylcurcumin) were much less cytotoxic (IC(50)=20-30 microM). Antioxidant capacity was decreased in VO(DAC)(2), Ga(DAC)(3), and In(DAC)(3), compared to vanadyl, gallium and indium curcumin, corroborating the importance of curcumin's free phenolic OH groups for scavenging oxidants, and correlated with reduced cytotoxic potential. PMID:16171869

  20. Metformin decreases glucose oxidation and increases the dependency of prostate cancer cells on reductive glutamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Bell, Eric L.; Keibler, Mark A.; Davidson, Shawn M.; Wirth, Gregory J.; Fiske, Brian; Mayers, Jared R.; Schwab, Matthias; Bellinger, Gary; Csibi, Alfredo; Patnaik, Akash; Jose Blouin, Marie; Cantley, Lewis C.; Guarente, Leonard; Blenis, John; Pollak, Michael N.; Olumi, Aria F.

    2013-01-01

    Metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation and epidemiology studies suggest an association with increased survival in cancer patients taking metformin, however, the mechanism by which metformin improves cancer outcomes remains controversial. To explore how metformin might directly affect cancer cells, we analyzed how metformin altered the metabolism of prostate cancer cells and tumors. We found that metformin decreased glucose oxidation and increased dependency on reductive glutamine metabolism in both cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of prostate cancer. Inhibition of glutamine anaplerosis in the presence of metformin further attenuated proliferation while increasing glutamine metabolism rescued the proliferative defect induced by metformin. These data suggest that interfering with glutamine may synergize with metformin to improve outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:23687346

  1. Mitochondria-targeted heme oxygenase-1 decreases oxidative stress in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bolisetty, Subhashini; Traylor, Amie; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Johnson, Michelle S; Benavides, Gloria A; Ricart, Karina; Boddu, Ravindra; Moore, Ray D; Landar, Aimee; Barnes, Stephen; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Agarwal, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are both a source and target of the actions of reactive oxygen species and possess a complex system of inter-related antioxidants that control redox signaling and protect against oxidative stress. Interestingly, the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is not present in the mitochondria despite the fact that the organelle is the site of heme synthesis and contains multiple heme proteins. Detoxification of heme is an important protective mechanism since the reaction of heme with hydrogen peroxide generates pro-oxidant ferryl species capable of propagating oxidative stress and ultimately cell death. We therefore hypothesized that a mitochondrially localized HO-1 would be cytoprotective. To test this, we generated a mitochondria-targeted HO-1 cell line by transfecting HEK293 cells with a plasmid construct containing the manganese superoxide dismutase mitochondria leader sequence fused to HO-1 cDNA (Mito-HO-1). Nontargeted HO-1-overexpressing cells were generated by transfecting HO-1 cDNA (HO-1) or empty vector (Vector). Mitochondrial localization of HO-1 with increased HO activity in the mitochondrial fraction of Mito-HO-1 cells was observed, but a significant decrease in the expression of heme-containing proteins occurred in these cells. Both cytosolic HO-1- and Mito-HO-1-expressing cells were protected against hypoxia-dependent cell death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, but these effects were more pronounced with Mito-HO-1. Furthermore, decrement in production of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates following hypoxia was significantly mitigated in Mito-HO-1 cells. These data suggest that specific mitochondrially targeted HO-1 under acute pathological conditions may have beneficial effects, but the selective advantage of long-term expression is constrained by a negative impact on the synthesis of heme-containing mitochondrial proteins.

  2. Blueberry treatment decreased D-galactose-induced oxidative stress and brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Çoban, Jale; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Aydın, A Fatih; Betül-Kalaz, Esra; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Uysal, Müjdat

    2015-06-01

    D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of whole fresh blueberry (BB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) treatment on oxidative stress in age-related brain damage model. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days per week) alone or together with 5 % (BB1) and 10 % (BB2) BB containing chow for two months. Malondialdehyde (MDA),protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and Cu Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were determined. Expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and caspase-3 were also evaluated in the brain by immunohistochemistry. MDA and PC levels and AChE activity increased, but GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities decreased together with histopathological structural damage in the brain of GAL-treated rats. BB treatments, especially BB2 reduced MDA and PC levels and AChE activity and elevated GSH levels and GSH-Px activity. BB1 and BB2 treatments diminished apoptosis and ameliorated histopathological findings in the brain of GAL-treated rats. These results indicate that BB partially prevented the shift towards an imbalanced prooxidative status and apoptosis together with histopathological amelioration by acting as an antioxidant (radical scavenger) itself in GAL-treated rats.

  3. Decreased oxidative phosphorylation and PGAM deficiency in horses suffering from atypical myopathy associated with acquired MADD.

    PubMed

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; van Diggelen, O P; Schoonderwoerd, K; Bierau, J; Waterham, H R; van der Kolk, J H

    2011-11-01

    Earlier research on ten horses suffering from the frequently fatal disorder atypical myopathy showed that MADD (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) is the biochemical derangement behind atypical myopathy. From five horses that died as a result of this disease and seven healthy control horses, urine and plasma were collected ante mortem and muscle biopsies were obtained immediately post-mortem (2 patients and 7 control horses), to analyse creatine, purine and carbohydrate metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation. In patients, the mean creatine concentration in urine was increased 17-fold and the concentration of uric acid approximately 4-fold, compared to controls. The highest degree of depletion of glycogen was observed in the patient with the most severe myopathy clinically. In this patient, glycolysis was more active than in the other patients and controls, which may explain this depletion. One patient demonstrated very low phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) activity, less than 10% of reference values. Most respiratory chain complex activity in patients was 20-30% lower than in control horses, complex II activity was 42% lower than normal, and one patient had severely decrease ATP-synthase activity, more than 60% lower than in control horses. General markers for myopathic damage are creatine kinase (CK) and lactic acid in plasma, and creatine and uric acid in urine. To obtain more information about the cause of the myopathy analysis of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation is advised. This study expands the diagnostic possibilities of equine myopathies. PMID:21843962

  4. Resveratrol protects against arsenic trioxide-induced nephrotoxicity by facilitating arsenic metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meiling; Xue, Jiangdong; Li, Yijing; Zhang, Weiqian; Ma, Dexing; Liu, Lian; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an environmental toxicant and a potent antineoplastic agent. Exposure to arsenic causes renal cancer. Resveratrol is a well-known polyphenolic compound that is reported to reduce As(2)O(3)-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on As(2)O(3)-induced nephrotoxicity and arsenic metabolism. Chinese Dragon-Li cats were injected with 1 mg/kg As(2)O(3) on alternate days; resveratrol (3 mg/kg) was administered via the forearm vein 1 h before the As(2)O(3) treatment. On the sixth day, the cats were killed to determine the histological renal damage, renal function, the accumulation of arsenic, and antioxidant activities in the kidney. Urine samples were taken for arsenic speciation. In the resveratrol + As(2)O(3)-treated group, activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, the total arsenic concentrations, and the percentage of methylated arsenic in urine were significantly increased. The concentrations of renal malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and renal arsenic accumulation were significantly decreased and reduced renal morphologic injury was observed compared with the As(2)O(3)-treated group. These results demonstrate that resveratrol could significantly scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibit As(2)O(3)-induced oxidative damage, and significantly attenuate the accumulation of arsenic in renal tissues by facilitating As(2)O(3) metabolism. These data suggest that use of resveratrol as postremission therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia as well as adjunctive therapy in patients with exposure to arsenic may decrease arsenic nephrotoxicity. PMID:23471352

  5. Pecans acutely increase plasma postprandial antioxidant capacity and catechins and decrease LDL oxidation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Haddad, Ella Hasso; McCarthy, Katie; Wang, Piwen; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive constituents of pecan nuts such as γ-tocopherol and flavan-3-ol monomers show antioxidant properties in vitro, but bioavailability in humans is not known. We examined postprandial changes in plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in concentrations of tocopherols, catechins, oxidized LDL, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in response to pecan test meals. Sixteen healthy men and women (23-44 y, BMI 22.7 ± 3.4) were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of test meals composed of whole pecans, blended pecans, or an isocaloric meal of equivalent macronutrient composition but formulated of refined ingredients in a crossover design with a 1-wk washout period between treatments. Blood was sampled at baseline and at intervals up to 24 h postingestion. Following the whole and blended pecan test meals, plasma concentrations of γ-tocopherols doubled at 8 h (P < 0.001) and hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC increased 12 and 10% at 2 h, respectively. Post whole pecan consumption, oxidized LDL decreased 30, 33, and 26% at 2, 3, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate concentrations at 1 h (mean ± SEM; 95.1 ± 30.6 nmol/L) and 2 h (116.3 ± 80.5 nmol/L) were higher than at baseline (0 h) and after the control test meal at 1 h (P < 0.05). The postprandial molar ratio of MDA:triglycerides decreased by 37, 36, and 40% at 3, 5, and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05), only when whole and blended pecan data were pooled. These results show that bioactive constituent of pecans are absorbable and contribute to postprandial antioxidant defenses. PMID:21106921

  6. Curcumin alleviates glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis by protecting osteoblasts from apoptosis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiguang; Xue, Jinqi; Shen, Tao; Ba, Gen; Yu, Dongdong; Fu, Qin

    2016-02-01

    Curcumin, an active component of the rhizomes of Curcumin longa L., possesses broad anti-inflammation and anti-cancer properties. Curcumin was previously reported to be capable of protecting ovariectomized rats against osteoporosis. However, the effect of curcumin on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is not yet clear. The present study investigated the effects of curcumin on dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoporosis in vivo and Dex-induced osteoblast apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. The GIO rat model was induced by subcutaneous injection of Dex for 60 days and verified to be successful as evidenced by the significantly decreased bone mineral density (BMD) determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subsequently, curcumin administration (100 mg/kg) for 60 days obviously increased BMD and bone-alkaline phosphatase, decreased carboxy-terminal collagen cross links, enhanced bone mechanical strength, and improved trabecular microstructure, thereby alleviating Dex-induced osteoporosis. Mechanically, curcumin remarkably reversed Dex-induced femoral osteoblast apoptosis in vivo. In cultured primary osteoblasts, pretreatment with curcumin concentration-dependently decreased the number of Dex-induced apoptotic osteoblasts by down-regulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 as well as the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Moreover, curcumin pretreatment activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signalling in Dex-induced osteoblasts by up-regulating the expression level of p-ERK1/2. Taken together, our study demonstrated that curcumin could ameliorate GIO by protecting osteoblasts from apoptosis, which was possibly related to the activation of the ERK pathway. The results suggest that curcumin may be a promising drug for prevention and treatment of GIO.

  7. Protective Effects of Curcumin, Vitamin C, or their Combination on Cadmium-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tarasub, Naovarat; Junseecha, Thongbai; Tarasub, Chinnawat; Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn Devakul

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, a biologically active compound from turmeric, and vitamin C act as a natural antioxidant and potent chemopreventive agent. The objective of the study was to investigate whether the combined pretreatment with curcumin and vitamin C offers more beneficial effects than that provided by either of them alone in reversing cadmium (Cd)- induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, 64 adult male Wistar rats, equally divided into control and seven treated groups, received either Cd (as CdCl2 5 mg/kg), curcumin 400 mg/kg, curcumin 200 or 400 mg/kg + CdCl2, vitamin C 100 mg/kg + CdCl2, curcumin 200 or 400 mg/kg + vitamin C + CdCl2. All groups were treated by gavage for 27 days. The results showed that Cd treatment increased significantly lipid peroxidation levels,decreased significantly the glutathione levels, increased significantly on metallothionein (MT) expressions including the degenerative changes of liver histological tissues were observed. The treatment of Cd-exposed rats with curcumin or vitamin C alone could not reverse Cd-induced the above changes. The combined treatment with curcumin along with vitamin C before Cd intoxication was more effective than that with either of them alone in reducing such changes and reverse the changes almost similar to that of control. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the combined pretreatment with curcumin along with vitamin C could recover the alterations and offer more protection than curcumin or vitamin C alone against Cd hepatotoxicity. PMID:24826037

  8. Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin Useful for Suppressing Macrophages In Vivo in Mice.

    PubMed

    Amano, Chie; Minematsu, Hideki; Fujita, Kazuyo; Iwashita, Shinki; Adachi, Masaki; Igarashi, Koichi; Hinuma, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    To explore a novel method using liposomes to suppress macrophages, we screened food constituents through cell culture assays. Curcumin was one of the strongest compounds exhibiting suppressive effects on macrophages. We subsequently tried various methods to prepare liposomal curcumin, and eventually succeeded in preparing liposomes with sufficient amounts of curcumin to suppress macrophages by incorporating a complex of curcumin and bovine serum albumin. The diameter of the resultant nanoparticles, the liposomes containing curcumin, ranged from 60 to 100 nm. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that after intraperitoneal administration of the liposomes containing curcumin into mice, these were incorporated mainly by macrophages positive for F4/80, CD36, and CD11b antigens. Peritoneal cells prepared from mice injected in vivo with the liposomes containing curcumin apparently decreased interleukin-6-producing activities. Major changes in body weight and survival rates in the mice were not observed after administrating the liposomes containing curcumin. These results indicate that the liposomes containing curcumin are safe and useful for the selective suppression of macrophages in vivo in mice. PMID:26361331

  9. Study of curcumin immunomodulatory effects on reactive astrocyte cell function.

    PubMed

    Seyedzadeh, Mir Hadi; Safari, Zohreh; Zare, Ahad; Gholizadeh Navashenaq, Jamshid; Razavi, Seyed Alireza; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which most often presents as relapsing-remitting episodes. Recent evidence suggests that activated astrocytes play a dual functional role in CNS inflammatory disorders such as MS. In this study, we tried to induce anti-inflammatory functions of astrocytes by curcumin. The effects of curcumin were examined on human a astrocyte cell line (U373-MG) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity was assessed by gelatin zymography. Cytokine levels were evaluated by quantitative ELISA method and mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. We found that curcumin decreased the release of IL-6 and reduced MMP-9 enzyme activity. It down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression too. However, curcumin did not have significant effects on the expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 mRNAs. Results suggest that curcumin might beneficially affect astrocyte population in CNS neuroinflammatory environment lean to anti-inflammatory response and help to components in respects of CNS repair. Our findings offer curcumin as a new therapeutic agent with the potential of regulating astrocyte-mediated inflammatory diseases in the CNS. PMID:24998635

  10. Immune response modulation by curcumin in a latex allergy model

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, Viswanath P; Barrios, Christy S; Raju, Raghavan; Johnson, Bryon D; Levy, Michael B; Fink, Jordan N

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been a worldwide increase in allergy and asthma over the last few decades, particularly in industrially developed nations. This resulted in a renewed interest to understand the pathogenesis of allergy in recent years. The progress made in the pathogenesis of allergic disease has led to the exploration of novel alternative therapies, which include herbal medicines as well. Curcumin, present in turmeric, a frequently used spice in Asia has been shown to have anti-allergic and inflammatory potential. Methods We used a murine model of latex allergy to investigate the role of curcumin as an immunomodulator. BALB/c mice were exposed to latex allergens and developed latex allergy with a Th2 type of immune response. These animals were treated with curcumin and the immunological and inflammatory responses were evaluated. Results Animals exposed to latex showed enhanced serum IgE, latex specific IgG1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophils and inflammation in the lungs. Intragastric treatment of latex-sensitized mice with curcumin demonstrated a diminished Th2 response with a concurrent reduction in lung inflammation. Eosinophilia in curcumin-treated mice was markedly reduced, co-stimulatory molecule expression (CD80, CD86, and OX40L) on antigen-presenting cells was decreased, and expression of MMP-9, OAT, and TSLP genes was also attenuated. Conclusion These results suggest that curcumin has potential therapeutic value for controlling allergic responses resulting from exposure to allergens. PMID:17254346

  11. Increased oxidative stress and decreased membrane fluidity in erythrocytes of CAD patients.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Edyta; Olszewska-Banaszczyk, Małgorzata; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Broncel, Marlena

    2013-10-01

    One of many risk factors for cardiovascular disease appears to be oxidative stress. To estimate possible changes in redox balance, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol level in erythrocytes was collected erythrocytes from patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD). The study included 20 patients with previous myocardial infarction occurring more than 6 months prior to the time of screening with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) > 70 mg/dL and 21 healthy controls. The following parameters were studied: catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates (TBARS), sulfhydryl (SH) groups in membrane protein, total cholesterol level, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Our study showed an increase in the level of lipid peroxidation (13%) and total cholesterol (19%), and a decrease in membrane fluidity (14%) in the subsurface layers and in the deeper layers of erythrocyte membrane (7%) isolated from patients with CAD in comparison to healthy controls. A significant decrease in catalase (10%) and SOD (17%) activities were also observed. No changes in GPx activity or the level of SH groups were observed. Our study indicates that there are disorders in the antioxidant system as well as changes in the membrane structure of erythrocytes obtained from CAD patients.

  12. Effects and mechanisms of curcumin and basil polysaccharide on the invasion of SKOV3 cells and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Shao, Qianqian; Wang, Huayang; Shi, Huan; Wang, Ting; Gao, Wenjuan; Song, Bingfeng; Zheng, Guangjuan; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, a polysaccharide extract was obtained from Ocimum basilicum (basil polysaccharide, BPS) and the effects of curcumin and BPS on the invasion activity of the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were investigated. SKOV3 cells and immature or mature DCs were treated with 50 µM curcumin or 100 µg/ml BPS. A transwell invasion assay demonstrated that curcumin and BPS differentially regulate the invasion of SKOV3 cells and DCs. Curcumin significantly decreased the invasion of SKOV3 cells and immature and mature DCs, while BPS only decreased SKOV3 cell invasion. Osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in curcumin and BPS-treated SKOV3 cells and curcumin-treated DCs. Furthermore, flow cytometry showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the surface expression of CD44 in SKOV3 cells and DCs, while BPS had a minimal effect on CD44 expression. Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA and protein expression were also reduced in all curcumin-treated cells and BPS-treated SKOV3 cells. The results indicated that curcumin and BPS regulated invasion of SKOV3 cells and DCs by distinctly downregulating OPN, CD44 and MMP-9 expression. Therefore, Curcumin and BPS may be suitable candidates for DC-based vaccines for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24065177

  13. Curcumin Pyrazole and its derivative (N-(3-Nitrophenylpyrazole) Curcumin inhibit aggregation, disrupt fibrils and modulate toxicity of Wild type and Mutant α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Nuzhat; Mishra, Satyendra; Jain, Manish Kumar; Surolia, Avadhesha; Gupta, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of neurotoxic α-synuclein aggregates in the brain during the development of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease can be curbed by anti-aggregation strategies that either disrupt or eliminate toxic aggregates. Curcumin, a dietary polyphenol exhibits anti-amyloid activity but the use of this polyphenol is limited owing to its instability. As chemical modifications in curcumin confiscate this limitation, such efforts are intensively performed to discover molecules with similar but enhanced stability and superior properties. This study focuses on the inhibitory effect of two stable analogs of curcumin viz. curcumin pyrazole and curcumin isoxazole and their derivatives against α-synuclein aggregation, fibrillization and toxicity. Employing biochemical, biophysical and cell based assays we discovered that curcumin pyrazole (3) and its derivative N-(3-Nitrophenylpyrazole) curcumin (15) exhibit remarkable potency in not only arresting fibrillization and disrupting preformed fibrils but also preventing formation of A11 conformation in the protein that imparts toxic effects. Compounds 3 and 15 also decreased neurotoxicity associated with fast aggregating A53T mutant form of α-synuclein. These two analogues of curcumin described here may therefore be useful therapeutic inhibitors for the treatment of α-synuclein amyloidosis and toxicity in Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. PMID:25985292

  14. Partial oxidation ("aging") and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nanosized zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Long, Thomas C; Lowry, Gregory V; Veronesi, Bellina

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is a "redox"-active nanomaterial used in the remediation of contaminated groundwater. To assess the effect of "aging" and surface modification on its potential neurotoxicity, cultured rodent microglia (BV2) and neurons (N27) were exposed to fresh nZVI, "aged" (>11 months) nZVI, magnetite, and polyaspartate surface-modified (SM) nZVI. Increases in various measures of oxidative stress indicated that BV2 microglia responded to these materials in the following rank order: nZVI > "aged" nZVI > magnetite = SM nZVI. Fresh nZVI produced morphological evidence of mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis. In N27 neurons, ATP levels were reduced in the following rank order: nZVI > SM-nZVI > "aged" nZVI = magnetite. Ultrastructurally, nZVI produced a perinuclear floccular material and cytoplasmic granularity. Both SM-nZVI produced intracellular deposits of nanosize particles in the N27. The physicochemical properties of each material, measured under exposure conditions, indicated that all had electronegative zeta potentials. The iron content of nZVI (approximately 35%) and SM-nZVI (approximately 25%) indicated high "redox" activity while that of "aged" and magnetite was neglibile. Sedimentation and agglomeration occurred in the following rank order: nZV > "aged" nZVI > magnetite > SM-nZVI. Correlating these properties with toxicity indicated that partial or complete oxidation of nZVI reduced its "redox" activity, agglomeration, sedimentation rate, and toxicity to mammalian cells. Surface modification decreased nZVI toxicity by reducing sedimentation which limited particle exposure to the cells.

  15. Protective Role of Curcumin and Flunixin Against Acetic Acid-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease via Modulating Inflammatory Mediators and Cytokine Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopu, Boobalan; Dileep, Rasakatla; Rani, Matukumalli Usha; Kumar, C S V Satish; Kumar, Matham Vijay; Reddy, Alla Gopala

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronically recurrent inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. The present study is to evaluate the effect of flunixin and curcumin in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four groups, each consisting of 12 animals: normal control group, acetic acid group, curcumin-treated group, and flunixin-treated group. Induction of colitis by intracolonic administration of 4% acetic acid produced severe macroscopic inflammation in the colon, 14 days after acetic acid administration as assessed by the colonic damage score. Microscopically, colonic tissues showed ulceration, edema, and inflammatory cells infiltration. Biochemical studies revealed increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Oxidative stress was indicated by elevated lipid peroxide formation and depleted reduced glutathione concentrations in colonic tissues. After induction of colitis, treatment with curcumin (50 mg/kg daily, p.o.) and flunixin (2.5 mg/kg daily, s.c.) decreased serum LDH, ALP, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as colonic MPO and lipid peroxide levels, whereas increased colonic prostaglandin E2 and IL-10 concentrations were observed. Moreover, effective doses of curcumin and flunixin were effective in restoring the histopathological changes induced by acetic acid administration. The findings of the present study provide evidence that flunixin may be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26756424

  16. Curcumin: a natural substance with potential efficacy in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Pamela E

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a component of turmeric, a spice used in many types of cooking. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that populations that eat food with a substantial amount of curcumin were at lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) led to the idea that this compound might have a neuroprotective effect. Curcumin has substantial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is being used as a potential preventative agent or treatment for many types of cancer. There is evidence to suggest that the addition of curcumin to cultured neuronal cells decreases brain inflammation and protects against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity. Curcumin also protects against toxicity when β-amyloid is administered to produce animal models of AD. Curcumin decreases β-amyloid formation from amyloid precursor protein, and also inhibits aggregation of β-amyloid into pleated sheets. Studies in transgenic mice with overproduction of β-amyloid demonstrate a neuroprotective effect of curcumin as well. Cognitive function was also improved in these animal models. Clinical trials of curcumin in AD have not been very promising. It is possible that this is due to poor oral bioavailability of curcumin in humans, and thus several approaches are being developed to improve delivery systems or to create analogs that will mimic the neuroprotective effects and easily reach the brain. The lack of efficacy of curcumin in humans with AD may also result from treating for too short a time or starting treatment too late in the course of the disease, where substantial neuronal death has already occurred and cannot be reversed. Curcumin may be beneficial in protecting against development or progression of AD if taken over the long term and started before symptoms of AD become apparent. PMID:27186134

  17. [DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN PRO-AND ANTIOXIDANT BALANCE AND THEIR CORRECTION BY CURCUMIN IN THE NEONATAL RAT CARDIOMYOCYTES CULTURE].

    PubMed

    Linnik, O O; Drevytska, T I; Gonchar, O O; Chornyy, S A; Kovalyov, O M; Mankovska, I M

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of doxorubicin on the HIF system and the pro-antioxidant balance of neonatal cardiomyocytes as well as the possibility of the oxidative stress correcting using curcumin. It has been revealed that the expression of mRNA HIF-1α using doxorubicin at a dose of 0.5 μM was 2.9 ± 0.8 cu, so it decreased by 20% compared to control--3.6 ± 0.7 cu (P < 0.05). The level of expression of the HIF target gene PDK-1 also significantly decreased (4 times). During the incubation with doxorubicin, the number of live cells decreased by 50.4% relative to control. And after using doxorubicin and curcumin together, the percentage of dead cells decreased by 7,7 compared to doxorubicin only. Doxorubicin intoxication led to a significant increase in the secondary products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cardiomyocytes by 3.6 times and hydrogen peroxide by 64%. Prolonged incubation with doxorubicin reduced the enzymatic activity of Mn-SOD by 32%, while catalase activity increased by 72% compared to control. Adding of curcumin to the cardiomyocyte cell culture contributed to increasing of the Mn-SOD activity by 14%, catalase--by 23%. The level of TBARS increased by 1,4 times compared with the control, and the level of H2O2 increased by 20%. The joint use of doxorubicin and curcumin resulted in a significant reduction of free radical oxidation unlike effect of doxorubicin per se. Specifically, there was lessening of TBARS and H2O2 (at 56.7 and 18.4% respectively), while decreasing of the catalase hyperactivation (19%) and rising of the Mn-SOD activity (35%). PMID:26845849

  18. Gastrodin improves cognitive dysfunction and decreases oxidative stress in vascular dementia rats induced by chronic ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the potential protective effects of gastrodin on reducing tissue oxidative stress and attenuating cognitive deficits in vascular dementia induced by cerebral chronic hyperfusion. To explore the detailed molecular mechanisms. Methods: 6 to 8 week old male Wistar rats were adopted as experimental animals. Animals were divided into the following groups: Group 1 (sham group with no occlusion), Group 2 (control group with 2VO procedure), Group 3 (sham group with gastrodin administration), Group 4 (2VO group with gastrodin administration). Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to test the learning and memory function of rats within different groups. MDA, glutathione peroxidase and total thiol assessment was done to reflect the oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and flow cytometry (FCM) were performed to examine the cell viability and apoptosis rate of SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and rescued by gastrodin treatments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by the 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. qPCR and Western blot (WB) were adopted to detect the molecular mechanisms related to the anti-apoptosis and ROS scavenging effects of gastrodin. Results: Our results indicated an obvious protective effect of gastrodin on vascular dementia induced brain ischemia. Administration of gastrodin could improve the impaired learning and memory function induced by 2VO procedure in rats. The levels of MDA were partially decreased by the administration of gastrodin. The levels of glutathione peroxidase and total thiol were partially restored by the administration of gastrodin. Cell viability was improved by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Cell apoptosis rate was reduced by gastrodin in a dose-dependent pattern on SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.05). Gastrodin could scavenge ROS generation induced by pre

  19. Role of curcumin in protection of gastric mucosa against stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. Involvement of hypoacidity, vasoactive mediators and sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Czekaj, R; Majka, J; Ptak-Belowska, A; Szlachcic, A; Targosz, A; Magierowska, K; Strzalka, M; Magierowski, M; Brzozowski, T

    2016-04-01

    The antioxidizing properties of curcumin, a highly pleiotropic substance used for centuries in traditional medicine has been confirmed by numerous experimental and clinical studies. Curcumin exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic actions inhibiting the development and progression of tumors but the efficacy of this compound to influence gastric acid secretion n in the stomach and to affect the gastric mucosal damage induced by non-topical ulcerogenes such as stress has been little studied. We determined the effect of curcumin on basal and pentagastrin- or histamine-stimulated gastric secretion, in rats with surgically implemented gastric fistulas and we assessed the contribution of gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandin (PG), endogenous nitric oxide (NO), as well as sensory afferent nerves in the mechanisms underlying the potential gastroprotective effects of curcumin against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Rats exposed to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) for 3.5 h were pretreated either with: 1) vehicle (saline); 2) curcumin (2.5 - 100 mg/kg i.g.) or 3) curcumin (50 mg/kg i.g.) combined with or without indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g.) or rofecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g.); 4) curcumin (50 mg/kg i.g.) co-administered with (L-NNA (20 mg/kg i.p.) with or without L-arginine (200 mg/kg i.g.), a substrate for NO-synthase; 5) curcumin (50 mg/kg i.g.) administered in rats with intact or capsaicin-induced functional ablation of sensory nerve fibers, and 6) curcumin (50 mg/kg i.g.) administered with capsazepine (5 mg/kg i.g.), the antagonist of vanilloid TRPV1 receptor. The number of gastric lesions was determined by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique, the plasma gastrin concentrations were measured using the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in

  20. Melatonin decreases muscular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise and stimulates growth factor synthesis.

    PubMed

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Dermargos, Alexandre; da Silva Junior, Edenilson Pinto; Weimann, Eleine; Lambertucci, Rafael Herling; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Strenuous exercise is detrimental to athletes because of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Melatonin, a classic antioxidant, has been shown to exhibit beneficial effects regarding intense exercise and tissue repair. In this study, we evaluated the onset and resolution of inflammation in melatonin-treated and nontreated rats subjected to a strenuous exercise session. We also analyzed the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Control and treated rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise after a period of 10 days of melatonin treatment (20 mg/dL). Plasma and muscle levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2-alpha/beta (CINC-2α/β), l-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-3-alpha (MIP-3α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured prior to, immediately after, and 2 hr after exercise. Our data revealed decreases in the muscle concentrations of IL-1β (35%), TNF-α (13%), IL-6 (48%), and TBARS (40%) in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We also observed decreases in the plasma concentrations of IL-1β (17%) in the melatonin-treated group. VEGF-α concentrations and SOD activity increased by 179% and 22%, respectively, in the melatonin-treated group compared with the control group. We concluded that muscle inflammation and oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise were less severe in the muscles of melatonin-treated animals than in the muscles of control animals. Thus, melatonin treatment may reverse exercise-induced skeletal muscle inflammation and stimulate growth factor synthesis.

  1. Multitargeting by curcumin as revealed by molecular interaction studies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subash C.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Kim, Ji Hye; Patchva, Sridevi; Webb, Lauren J.; Priyadarsini, Indira K.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the active ingredient in turmeric (Curcuma longa), is a highly pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, chemopreventive, chemosensitization, and radiosensitization activities. The pleiotropic activities attributed to curcumin come from its complex molecular structure and chemistry, as well as its ability to influence multiple signaling molecules. Curcumin has been shown to bind by multiple forces directly to numerous signaling molecules, such as inflammatory molecules, cell survival proteins, protein kinases, protein reductases, histone acetyltransferase, histone deacetylase, glyoxalase I, xanthine oxidase, proteasome, HIV1 integrase, HIV1 protease, sarco (endo) plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, DNA methyltransferases 1, FtsZ protofilaments, carrier proteins, and metal ions. Curcumin can also bind directly to DNA and RNA. Owing to its β-diketone moiety, curcumin undergoes keto–enol tautomerism that has been reported as a favorable state for direct binding. The functional groups on curcumin found suitable for interaction with other macromolecules include the α, β-unsaturated β-diketone moiety, carbonyl and enolic groups of the β-diketone moiety, methoxy and phenolic hydroxyl groups, and the phenyl rings. Various biophysical tools have been used to monitor direct interaction of curcumin with other proteins, including absorption, fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, competitive ligand binding, Forster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), radiolabeling, site-directed mutagenesis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), immunoprecipitation, phage display biopanning, electron microscopy, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS) displacement, and co-localization. Molecular docking, the most commonly employed computational tool for calculating binding affinities and predicting

  2. Do cover crops increase or decrease nitrous oxide emissions? A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined the factors that affect the impact of cover crops on nitrous oxide emissions. A meta-analysis of the data obtained from twenty-six peer reviewed articles was conducted using the natural log of the nitrous oxide flux with a cover crop divided by the nitrous oxide flux withou...

  3. Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis by regulating functional connections between caveolin-1 phosphorylation and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-na; Liu, Xiang-chun; Chen, Xiang-jun; Guan, Guang-ju; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Caveolin-1 (cav-1) is a major multifunctional scaffolding protein of caveolae. Cav-1 is primarily expressed in mesangial cells, renal proximal tubule cells and podocytes in kidneys. Recent evidence shows that the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS play a key role in many diseases. In this study we investigated whether regulating the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS in kidneys contributed to the beneficial effects of curcumin in treating diabetic nephropathy in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cultured mouse podocytes (mpc5) were incubated in a high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L) medium for 24, 48 or 72 h. Male rats were injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) to induce diabetes. ROS generation, SOD activity, MDA content and caspase-3 activity in the cultured cells and kidney cortex homogenate were determined. Apoptotic proteins and cav-1 phosphorylation were analyzed using Western blot analyses. Results: Incubation in HG-containing medium time-dependently increased ROS production, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cav-1 phosphorylation in podocytes. Pretreatment with curcumin (1, 5, and 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated these abnormalities in HG-treated podocytes. Furthermore, in HG-containing medium, the podocytes transfected with a recombinant plasmid GFP-cav-1 Y14F (mutation at a cav-1 phosphorylation site) exhibited significantly decreased ROS production and apoptosis compared with the cells transfected with empty vector. In diabetic rats, administration of curcumin (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight per day, ig, for 8 weeks) not only significantly improved the renal function, but also suppressed ROS levels, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cav-1 phosphorylation in the kidneys. Conclusion: Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis in vitro and diabetic nephropathy in vivo partly through regulating the functional connections between cav-1 phosphorylation and ROS. PMID:26838071

  4. Molecular signalling of a novel curcumin derivative versus Tadalafil in erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abdel Aziz, M T; Rezq, A M; Atta, H M; Fouad, H; Zaahkouk, A M; Ahmed, H H; Sabry, D; Yehia, H M

    2015-08-01

    The efficacy of a novel curcumin derivative (NCD) versus tadalafil in erectile signalling was assessed. Ten control male rats and 50 diabetic male rats were used and divided into the following: diabetic (DM), curcumin (CURC), NCD, tadalafil and NCD combined with tadalafil rat groups. Cavernous tissue gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nrf2, NF-B and p38, enzyme activities of heme oxygenase (HO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cGMP and intracavernosal pressure (ICP)/mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed. Results showed that 12 weeks after induction of diabetes, erectile dysfunction (ED) was confirmed by the significant decrease in ICP/MAP, a significant decrease in cGMP, NOS, HO enzyme activities, a significant decrease in HO-1 gene and a significant increase in NF-Ҡβ, p38 genes. Administration of all therapeutic interventions led to a significant increase in ICP/MAP, cGMP levels, a significant increase in HO-1 and NOS enzymes, a significant increase in HO-1, and Nrf2 gene expression, and a significant decrease in NF-Ҡβ, p38 gene expression. NCD or its combination with tadalafil showed significant superiority and more prolonged duration of action. In conclusion, a tendency was observed that CURC and NCD have high efficacy and more prolonged duration of action in enhancing erectile function.

  5. Curcumin delivered through bovine serum albumin/polysaccharides multilayered microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Paşcalău, V; Soritau, O; Popa, F; Pavel, C; Coman, V; Perhaita, I; Borodi, G; Dirzu, N; Tabaran, F; Popa, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to obtain and characterize k-carrageenan-chitosan dual hydrogel multilayers shell BSA gel microcapsules, as a carrier for curcumin, and as a possible antitumoral agent in biological studies. We used the CaCO3 template to synthesize non-toxic CaCO3/BSA particles as microtemplates by coprecipitating a CaCl2 solution that contains dissolved BSA, with an equimolar Na2CO3 solution. The microcapsules shell is assembled through a layer-by-layer deposition technique of calcium cross-linked k-carrageenan hydrogel alternating with polyelectrolite complex hydrogel formed via electrostatic interactions between k-carrageenan and chitosan. After the removal of CaCO3 through Ca(2+) complexation with EDTA, and by a slightly treatment with HCl diluted solution, the BSA core is turned into a BSA gel through a thermal treatment. The BSA gel microcapsules were then loaded with curcumin, through a diffusion process from curcumin ethanolic solution. All the synthesized particles and microcapsules were stucturally characterized by: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The behavior of curcumin loaded microcapsules in media of different pH (SGF, SIF and PBS) was studied in order to reveal the kinetics and the release profile of curcumin. The in vitro evaluation of the antitumoral activity of encapsulated curcumin microcapsules on HeLa cell line and the primary culture of mesenchymal stem cells is the main reason of the microcapsules synthesis as BSA-based vehicle meant to enhance the biodisponibility of curcumin, whose anti-tumor, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are well known.

  6. Vascular Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome and Effects of Curcumin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Panighini, Anna; Duranti, Emiliano; Santini, Ferruccio; Maffei, Margherita; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Funel, Niccola; Taddei, Stefano; Bernardini, Nunzia; Ippolito, Chiara; Virdis, Agostino; Costa, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of the X-linked gene MeCP2 (Methyl CpG–binding protein) are present in around 80% of patients with Rett Syndrome, a common cause of intellectual disability in female and to date without any effective pharmacological treatment. A relevant, and so far unexplored feature of RTT patients, is a marked reduction in peripheral circulation. To investigate the relationship between loss of MeCP2 and this clinical aspect, we used the MeCP2 null mouse model B6.129SF1-MeCP2tm1Jae for functional and pharmacological studies. Functional experiments were performed on isolated resistance mesenteric vessels, mounted on a pressurized myograph. Vessels from female MeCP2+/− mice show a reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation, due to a reduced Nitric Oxide (NO) availability secondary to an increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. Such functional aspects are associated with an intravascular increase in superoxide anion production, and a decreased vascular eNOS expression. These alterations are reversed by curcumin administration (5% (w/w) dietary curcumin for 21 days), which restores endothelial NO availability, decreases intravascular ROS production and normalizes vascular eNOS gene expression. In conclusion our findings highlight alterations in the vascular/endothelial system in the absence of a correct function of MeCP2, and uncover related cellular/molecular mechanisms that are rescued by an anti-oxidant treatment. PMID:23705018

  7. Modulation Effects of Curcumin on Erythrocyte Ion-Transporter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), the yellow biphenolic pigment isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has various medicinal benefits through antioxidation, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular protection, immunomodulation, enhancing of the apoptotic process, and antiangiogenic property. We explored the effects of curcumin in vitro (10−5 M to 10−8 M) and in vivo (340 and 170 mg/kg b.w., oral) on Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA), Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity, and membrane lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH) in control and experimental oxidative stress erythrocytes of Wistar rats. As a result, we found that curcumin potently modulated the membrane transporters activity with protecting membrane lipids against hydro-peroxidation in control as well as oxidatively challenged erythrocytes evidenced by stimulation of NKA, downregulation of NHE, and reduction of ROOH in the membrane. The observed results corroborate membrane transporters activity with susceptibility of erythrocyte membrane towards oxidative damage. Results explain the protective mechanism of curcumin against oxidative stress mediated impairment in ions-transporters activity and health beneficial effects. PMID:26421014

  8. Curcumin ameliorates renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats: role of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S S; Massey, H D; Krieg, R; Fazelbhoy, Z A; Ghosh, S; Sica, D A; Fakhry, I; Gehr, T W B

    2009-05-01

    TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB play important roles in the development of inflammation in chronic renal failure (CRF). In hepatic cells, curcumin is shown to antagonize TNF-alpha-elicited NF-kappaB activation. In this study, we hypothesized that if inflammation plays a key role in renal failure then curcumin should be effective in improving CRF. The effectiveness of curcumin was compared with enalapril, a compound known to ameliorate human and experimental CRF. Investigation was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats where CRF was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). The Nx animals were divided into untreated (Nx), curcumin-treated (curcumin), and enalapril-treated (enalapril) groups. Sham-operated animals served as a control. Renal dysfunction in the Nx group, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, proteinuria, segmental sclerosis, and tubular dilatation, was significantly reduced by curcumin and enalapril treatment. However, only enalapril significantly improved blood pressure. Compared with the control, the Nx animals had significantly higher plasma and kidney TNF-alpha, which was associated with NF-kappaB activation and macrophage infiltration in the kidney. These changes were effectively antagonized by curcumin and enalapril treatment. The decline in the anti-inflammatory peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) seen in Nx animals was also counteracted by curcumin and enalapril. Studies in mesangial cells were carried out to further establish that the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin in vivo was mediated essentially by antagonizing TNF-alpha. Curcumin dose dependently antagonized the TNF-alpha-mediated decrease in PPARgamma and blocked transactivation of NF-kappaB and repression of PPARgamma, indicating that the anti-inflamatory property of curcumin may be responsible for alleviating CRF in Nx animals.

  9. Nitric oxide decreases the permselectivity of the paracellular pathway in thick ascending limbs.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Casandra M; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Thick ascending limbs reabsorb 25% to 30% of the filtered NaCl. About 50% to 70% is reabsorbed via the transcellular pathway and 30% to 50% is reabsorbed through the Na-selective paracellular pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits transepithelial Na reabsorption, but its effects on the paracellular pathway are unknown. We hypothesized that NO decreases the selectivity of the paracellular pathway in thick ascending limbs via cGMP-dependent protein kinase. To assess relative Na/Cl permeability ratios (PNa/PCl), we perfused rat thick ascending limbs and measured the effect of reducing bath NaCl on transepithelial voltage, creating dilution potentials, with vehicle, NO donors, and endogenous NO. PNa/PCl was calculated using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Reducing bath Na/Cl to 16/8, 32/24, and 64/56 mmol/L created dilution potentials of -13.6±2.2, -10.8±3.0, and -6.1±0.9 mV, respectively. Calculated PNa/PCls were 2.0±0.2, 2.2±0.5, and 1.9±0.2. The NO donor spermine NONOate (200 µmol/L) blunted the dilution potential caused by 32/24 mmol/L Na/Cl from -11.1±2.1 to -6.5±1.6 mV (P<0.004) and PNa/PCl from 2.2±0.4 to 1.5±0.2. Nitroglycerin (200 µmol/L), another NO donor, also reduced PNa/PCl. Controls showed no significant changes. Dibutyryl-cGMP decreased dilution potentials from -13.4±2.9 to -7.5±1.8 mV (n=6; P<0.01). cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibition with KT5823 (4 µmol/L) blocked the effect of spermine NONOate, whereas phosphodiesterase 2 inhibition did not. Endogenously produced NO mimicked the effect of the NO donors. In conclusion, NO reduces the selectivity of the paracellular pathway in thick ascending limbs via cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

  10. Curcumin: therapeutical potential in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Giannotti, Rossella; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Pascarella, Antonia; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In the last 50 years, in vitro and in vivo experiments supported the main role of polyphenols and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of many different inflammatory diseases and tumors.The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties of curcumin are due to different cellular mechanisms: this compound, in fact, produces different responses in different cell types. Unfortunately, because of its low solubility and oral bioavailability, the biomedical potential of curcumin is not easy to exploit; for this reason more attention has been given to nanoparticles and liposomes, which are able to improve curcumin's bioavailability. Pharmacologically, curcumin does not show any dose-limiting toxicity when it is administered at doses of up to 8 g/day for three months. It has been demonstrated that curcumin has beneficial effects on several ocular diseases, such as chronic anterior uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. The purpose of this review is to report what has so far been elucidated about curcumin properties and its potential use in ophthalmology. PMID:24323538

  11. Curcumin: therapeutical potential in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Giannotti, Rossella; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Pascarella, Antonia; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In the last 50 years, in vitro and in vivo experiments supported the main role of polyphenols and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of many different inflammatory diseases and tumors.The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties of curcumin are due to different cellular mechanisms: this compound, in fact, produces different responses in different cell types. Unfortunately, because of its low solubility and oral bioavailability, the biomedical potential of curcumin is not easy to exploit; for this reason more attention has been given to nanoparticles and liposomes, which are able to improve curcumin's bioavailability. Pharmacologically, curcumin does not show any dose-limiting toxicity when it is administered at doses of up to 8 g/day for three months. It has been demonstrated that curcumin has beneficial effects on several ocular diseases, such as chronic anterior uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. The purpose of this review is to report what has so far been elucidated about curcumin properties and its potential use in ophthalmology.

  12. Oral Pseudoephedrine Decreases the Rate of Trans-mucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Martin, Brian S; Cullen Doyle, Brendan M.; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine if oral pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor decreases the blood to middle-ear exchange-rate of the perfusion-limited gas, Nitrous Oxide (N2O). Study Design Randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Methods Ten adult subjects with and 10 without past middle-ear disease completed paired experimental sessions, identical but for oral pretreatment with either pseudoephedrine HCL or lactose placebo. At each session, subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes (acclimation period), 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes (experimental period) and 100% O2 for 10 minutes (recovery period). Throughout, heart-rate, blood-pressure and O2 saturation were monitored and bilateral middle-ear pressures were recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome was the slope of the middle-ear pressure-time function for the experimental period which estimates the volume N2O exchange-rate. Using repeated measures ANOVA, the effects of Group (disease history), Treatment (active vs. placebo) and Period (1 vs. 2) on the recorded vital signs, and of Group, Treatment and Ear (left/right) on the middle-ear pressure-time slope were evaluated for statistical significance. Results Statistically significant effects of Period on O2 saturation (Period 2>Period 1) and of Treatment on heart-rate (Active>Placebo) were documented. Only Treatment was statistically significant for the middle-ear pressure-time slope with a shallower slope characterizing the active treatment session. Conclusion The volume exchange-rate across the middle-ear mucosa of perfusion-limited gases can be modulated pharmacologically. Theoretically, similar drugs can be used to reduce the requisite Eustachian tube opening efficiency for adequate middle-ear pressure regulation. PMID:26152838

  13. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CURCUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Greg M.; Teter, Bruce; Frautschy, Sally A.

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases result in the loss of functional neurons and synapses. Although future stem cell therapies offer some hope, current treatments for most of these diseases are less than adequate and our best hope is to prevent these devastating diseases. Neuroprotective approaches work best prior to the initiation of damage, suggesting that some safe and effective prophylaxis would be highly desirable. Curcumin has an outstanding safety profile and a number of pleiotropic actions with potential for neuroprotective efficacy, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-protein-aggregate activities. These can be achieved at sub-micromolar levels. Curcumin’s dose–response curves are strongly dose dependent and often biphasic so that in vitro data need to be cautiously interpreted; many effects might not be achievable in target tissues in vivo with oral dosing. However, despite concerns about poor oral bioavailability, curcumin has at least 10 known neuroprotective actions and many of these might be realized in vivo. Indeed, accumulating cell culture and animal model data show that dietary curcumin is a strong candidate for use in the prevention or treatment of major disabling age-related neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and stroke. Promising results have already led to ongoing pilot clinical trials. PMID:17569212

  14. Curcumin inhibits in vitro and in vivo chronic myelogenous leukemia cells growth: a possible role for exosomal disposal of miR-21.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Simona; Giallombardo, Marco; Pucci, Marzia; Flugy, Anna; Manno, Mauro; Raccosta, Samuele; Rolfo, Christian; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are nanosize vesicles released from cancer cells containing microRNAs that can influence gene expression in target cells. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antitumor activities in a wide spectrum of human cancer. The addition of Curcumin, to Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) cells, caused a dose-dependent increase of PTEN, target of miR-21. Curcumin treatment also decreased AKT phosphorylation and VEGF expression and release. Colony formation assays indicated that Curcumin affects the survival of CML cells. Some observation suggest a possible cellular disposal of miRNAs by exosomes. To elucidate if Curcumin caused a decrease of miR-21 in CML cells and its packaging in exosomes, we analyzed miR-21 content in K562 and LAMA84 cells and exosomes, after treatment with Curcumin. Furthermore, we showed that addition of Curcumin to CML cells caused a downregulation of Bcr-Abl expression through the cellular increase of miR-196b.The effects of Curcumin was then investigated on a CML xenograft in SCID mice. We observed that animals treated with Curcumin, developed smaller tumors compared to mice control. Real time PCR analysis showed that exosomes, released in the plasma of the Curcumin-treated mice, were enriched in miR-21 with respect control. Taken together, our results suggested that a selective packaging of miR-21 in exosomes may contribute to the antileukemic effect of Curcumin in CML.

  15. Curcumin improves synaptic plasticity impairment induced by HIV-1gp120 V3 loop

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ling-ling; Jiang, Ming-liang; Liu, Si-si; Cai, Min-chun; Hong, Zhong-qiu; Lin, Li-qing; Xing, Yan-yan; Chen, Gui-lin; Pan, Rui; Yang, Li-juan; Xu, Ying; Dong, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to significantly improve spatial memory impairment induced by HIV-1 gp120 V3 in rats, but the electrophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using extracellular microelectrode recording techniques, this study confirmed that the gp120 V3 loop could suppress long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampal CA1 region and synaptic plasticity, and that curcumin could antagonize these inhibitory effects. Using a Fura-2/AM calcium ion probe, we found that curcumin resisted the effects of the gp120 V3 loop on hippocampal synaptosomes and decreased Ca2+ concentration in synaptosomes. This effect of curcumin was identical to nimodipine, suggesting that curcumin improved the inhibitory effects of gp120 on synaptic plasticity, ameliorated damage caused to the central nervous system, and might be a potential neuroprotective drug. PMID:26199609

  16. Sodium arsenite induced biochemical perturbations in rats: ameliorating effect of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mokhtar I; El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Radwan, Fatma M E

    2008-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin in terms of normalization of altered biochemical parameters following sodium arsenite treatment in rats. Animals were divided into four groups. The first group was used as control. While, groups 2, 3 and 4 were orally treated with curcumin (Cur, 15 mg/kg BW), sodium arsenite (Sa, 5 mg/kg BW) and sodium arsenite plus curcumin, respectively. Results showed that the activities of transaminases and phosphatases were significantly decreased in liver due to Sa administration, whereas increased in plasma. The activity of brain and plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with Sa. Also, Sa significantly decreased plasma total protein (TP), albumin (Alb) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), while increased glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total lipid (TL), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c). Curcumin alone decreased the levels of glucose, urea, creatinine, TL, cholesterol, TG and LDL-c. Curcumin reduced Sa-induced transaminases, phosphatases, glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, TL, cholesterol and TG. Moreover, curcumin induced Sa-reduced liver transaminases and phosphatases, plasma and brain AChE, and the levels of TP and Alb. Experimental results, therefore suggested that curcumin protects arsenic induced biochemical alterations in rats.

  17. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%–60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  18. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%-60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  19. Long-Term Moderate Oxidative Stress Decreased Ovarian Reproductive Function by Reducing Follicle Quality and Progesterone Production

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhiwen; Tian, Yong; Fang, Li; Wu, Meng; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Qin, Xian; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian aging is a long-term and complex process associated with a decrease in follicular quantity and quality. The damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovarian aging and ovarian aging-associated disorders have received relatively little attention. Thus, we assessed if the oxidative stress induced by long-term (defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as at least 30 days in duration) moderate ozone inhalation reduced ovarian reserves, decreased ovarian function and induced ovarian aging-associated disorders. The expression of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes was used to determine the degree of oxidative stress. Ultrastructural changes in ovarian cells were examined via electron microscopy. The ovarian reserve was assessed by measuring multiple parameters, such as the size of the primordial follicle pool and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression. The estrous cycle, hormone levels and fertility status were investigated to assess ovarian function. To investigate ovarian aging-associated disorders, we utilized bone density and cardiovascular ultrasonography in mice. The levels of oxidized metabolites, such as 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NTY), significantly increased in ovarian cells in response to increased oxidative stress. The ultrastructural analysis indicated that lipid droplet formation and the proportion of mitochondria with damaged membranes in granulosa cells were markedly increased in ozone-exposed mice when compared with the control group. Ozone exposure did not change the size of the primordial follicle pool or anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression. The estrogen concentration remained normal; however, progesterone and testosterone levels decreased. The mice exposed to ozone inhalation exhibited a substantial decrease in fertility and fecundity. No differences were revealed by the bone density or cardiovascular ultrasounds. These findings suggest that the

  20. Curcumin protects DNA damage in a chronically arsenic-exposed population of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Jaydip; Sinha, Dona; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Roy, Soumi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Roy, Madhumita

    2010-06-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has been a health hazard for West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress to DNA is recognized as an underlying mechanism of arsenic carcinogenicity. A phytochemical, curcumin, from turmeric appears to be potent antioxidant and antimutagenic agent. DNA damage prevention with curcumin could be an effective strategy to combat arsenic toxicity. This field trial in Chakdah block of West Bengal evaluated the role of curcumin against the genotoxic effects of arsenic. DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed by comet assay and fluorescence-activated DNA unwinding assay. Curcumin was analyzed in blood by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Arsenic induced oxidative stress and elucidation of the antagonistic role of curcumin was done by observation on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathioneS-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic glutathione were also analyzed. The blood samples of the endemic regions showed severe DNA damage with increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation. The antioxidants were found with depleted activity. Three months curcumin intervention reduced the DNA damage, retarded ROS generation and lipid peroxidation and raised the level of antioxidant activity. Thus curcumin may have some protective role against the DNA damage caused by arsenic.

  1. Curcumin protects DNA damage in a chronically arsenic-exposed population of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Jaydip; Sinha, Dona; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Roy, Soumi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Roy, Madhumita

    2010-06-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has been a health hazard for West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress to DNA is recognized as an underlying mechanism of arsenic carcinogenicity. A phytochemical, curcumin, from turmeric appears to be potent antioxidant and antimutagenic agent. DNA damage prevention with curcumin could be an effective strategy to combat arsenic toxicity. This field trial in Chakdah block of West Bengal evaluated the role of curcumin against the genotoxic effects of arsenic. DNA damage in human lymphocytes was assessed by comet assay and fluorescence-activated DNA unwinding assay. Curcumin was analyzed in blood by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Arsenic induced oxidative stress and elucidation of the antagonistic role of curcumin was done by observation on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathioneS-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic glutathione were also analyzed. The blood samples of the endemic regions showed severe DNA damage with increased levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation. The antioxidants were found with depleted activity. Three months curcumin intervention reduced the DNA damage, retarded ROS generation and lipid peroxidation and raised the level of antioxidant activity. Thus curcumin may have some protective role against the DNA damage caused by arsenic. PMID:20056736

  2. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, E; Barritt, G J; Rychkov, G Y

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca(2+) entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca(2+)]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  3. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, E.; Barritt, G.J.; Rychkov, G.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels. PMID:26609559

  4. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S.; Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S.; Dwivedi, Hari N.; Pant, Aditiya B.; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  5. Curcumin Relaxes Precontracted Guinea Pig Gallbladder Strips via Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Loren W.; Karpinski, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Curcumin (diferuloymethane) is the active ingredient of the dietary spice turmeric. Curcumin modulates various signalling molecules, including inflammatory agents, transcription factors, protein kinases and cell cycle regulatory proteins. The purpose of this study was to determine if curcumin had an effect on gallbladder motility. Methods A pharmacologic in vitro technique was used. Since curcumin relaxed both cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK) and KCl-induced tension of guinea pig gallbladder strips in a concentration dependent manner, an in vitro technique was used to determine which second messenger system(s) mediated the observed relaxation. Paired t-tests, t-tests and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Differences between mean values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results To determine if protein kinase A (PKA) mediated the curcumin-induced relaxation, PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide myristolated (PKA-IM) was used. PKA-IM had no significant effect on the amount of curcumin-induced relaxation. When the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors bisindolymaleimide IV and chelerythrine Cl- were used together, a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the curcumin-induced relaxation was observed. The use of tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) caused a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the amount of curcumin-induced relaxation. Adding curcumin prior to the KCl caused a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the amount of KCl-induced tension. Conclusions The results suggested that the curcumin-induced relaxation is mediated by multiple signaling pathways including the PKC second messenger system, inhibiting extracellular Ca2+ entry and K+ channels.

  6. Curcumin Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Survival of Human Renal Cancer Cells by Negative Modulation of the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Weili; Li, Baolin; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Yudong; Xu, Haidong; Wang, Junyong; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Rui; Wei, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin possesses anti-cancer effects. In the current study, we tested the effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, viability, apoptosis, cell cycle phases, and activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line RCC-949. We observed that cell proliferation and viability were markedly inhibited by curcumin, while cell apoptosis was promoted. The latter effect was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and diminished expression of Bax (both: mRNA and protein). The cells treated with curcumin increasingly went into cell cycle arrest, which was likely mediated by diminished expression of cyclin B1, as seen in curcumin-treated cells. In addition, curcumin decreased activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts anti-cancer effects by negative modulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and may represent a promising new drug to treat RCC. PMID:27259310

  7. Curcumin targets fibroblast–tumor cell interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dudás, József; Fullár, Alexandra; Romani, Angela; Pritz, Christian; Kovalszky, Ilona; Hans Schartinger, Volker; Mathias Sprinzl, Georg; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OSCC tumor cells. We hypothesized that Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells. Normal and 2 μM Curcumin-treated co-culture were performed for 4 days, followed by analysis of tumor cell invasivity, mRNA/protein expression of EMT-markers and mediators, activity measure of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and western blot analysis of signal transduction in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In Curcumin-treated co-culture, in tumor cells, the levels of nuclear factor κB (NFκBα) and early response kinase (ERK)—decreased, in fibroblasts, integrin αv protein synthesis decreased compared to corresponding cells in normal co-culture. The signal modulatory changes induced by Curcumin caused decreased release of EMT-mediators in CAFs and reversal of EMT in tumor cells, which was associated with decreased invasion. These data confirm the palliative potential of Curcumin in clinical application. - Graphical abstract: Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells by inhibiting the production of EMT mediators in CAFs and by modification of intracellular signaling in tumor cells. This causes less invasivity and reversal of EMT in tumor cells. Highlights: ► Curcumin targets tumor–fibroblast interaction in head and neck cancer. ► Curcumin suppresses mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. ► Curcumin decreases the invasivity of tumor cells.

  8. Curcumin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC-9 cells proliferation by regulating miR-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Can; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Lifang; Zhang, Chenping; Zhou, Jianhua

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • miR-9 expression level was significantly decreased in OSCC tissues. • Curcumin significantly inhibited SCC-9 cells proliferation. • miR-9 mediates the inhibition of SCC-9 proliferation by curcumin. • Curcumin suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in SCC-9 cells. • miR-9 mediates the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by curcumin. - Abstract: Curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has shown anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the miR-9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explored the potential relationships between miR-9 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in curcumin-mediated OSCC inhibition in vitro. As the results shown, the expression levels of miR-9 were significantly lower in clinical OSCC specimens than those in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, our results indicated that curcumin inhibited OSCC cells (SCC-9 cells) proliferation through up-regulating miR-9 expression, and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling by increasing the expression levels of the GSK-3β, phosphorylated GSK-3β and β-catenin, and decreasing the cyclin D1 level. Additionally, the up-regulation of miR-9 by curcumin in SCC-9 cells was significantly inhibited by delivering anti-miR-9 but not control oligonucleotides. Downregulation of miR-9 by anti-miR-9 not only attenuated the growth-suppressive effects of curcumin on SCC-9 cells, but also re-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling that was inhibited by curcumin. Therefore, our findings would provide a new insight into the use of curcumin against OSCC in future.

  9. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations.

  10. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  11. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations. PMID:27197667

  12. Modulation of ischemia-induced NMDAR1 activation by environmental enrichment decreases oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Briones, Teresita L; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined whether enriched environment (EE) housing has direct neuroprotective effects on oxidative damage following transient global cerebral ischemia. Fifty-two adult male Wistar rats were included in the study and received either ischemia or sham surgery. Once fully awake, rats in each group were randomly assigned to either: EE housing or socially paired housing (CON). Animals remained in their assigned environment for 7 days, and then were killed. Our data showed that glutamate receptor expression was significantly higher in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group than in the ischemia EE group. Furthermore, the oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group were significantly increased compared to the ischemia EE group. These results suggest that EE housing possibly modulated the ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity, which then attenuated the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in the ischemia EE rats.

  13. Nanoparticles based on oleate alginate ester as curcumin delivery system.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mazhar Ali; Liu, Chenguang; Huang, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic alginate derivative was prepared by the modification of alginate with methyl oleate. The synthesized oleate alginate ester (OAE) conjugate was characterized by FTIR and (1)HNMR analysis. Results of critical aggregation concentration (CAC) revealed that OAE conjugate had low CAC and was prone to form self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous medium. Curcumin loaded OAE nanoparticles (Cur-OAE Nps) were developed by a simple sonication method and the physicochemical parameters of the nanoparticles such as zeta potential, size distribution and drug encapsulation were characterized. The results showed that zeta potential of the prepared nanoparticles was -55.4±0.91 mV and the average size was about 200 nm. A significant enhancement in aqueous solubility and stability of curcumin were observed after encapsulation into OAE nanoparticles. With the increase of curcumin concentration, loading efficiency increased but encapsulation efficiency decreased. The in vitro release profile exhibited significant sustained release pattern with initial burst release followed by a slower release over a period of one week. Cytotoxicity assay against MCF-7cells showed that Cur-OAE Nps had slow and continuous cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, in vitro cell uptake study revealed that cell uptake of curcumin from OAE nanoparticles was sustained and both were time and concentration dependent. Therefore, the developed Cur-OAE Nps might be promising candidates for curcumin delivery to cancer cells.

  14. Curcumin Reduces the Noise-Exposed Cochlear Fibroblasts Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Haryuna, Tengku Siti Hajar; Riawan, Wibi; Nasution, Ardyansyah; Ma'at, Suprapto; Harahap, Juliandi; Adriztina, Indri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The structural changes underlying permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) include loss of the sensory hair cells, damage to their stereocilia, and supporting tissues within the cochlear lateral wall. Objective The objective of this study is to demonstrate curcumin as a safe and effective therapeutic agent in the prevention and treatment for fibroblasts damage within the cochlear supporting tissues and lateral wall through cell death pathway. Methods We divided 24 Rattus norvegicus into 4 groups, Group 1: control; Group 2: noise (+); Group 3: noise (+), 50 mg/day curcumin (+); Group 4: noise (+), 100 mg/day curcumin (+). We provided the noise exposure dose at 100 dB SPL for two hours over two weeks and administered the curcumin orally over two weeks. We examined all samples for the expressions of calcineurin, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and apoptotic index of cochlear fibroblasts. Results We found significant differences for the expressions of calcineurin (p < 0.05) in all groups, significant differences for the expressions of NFATc1 (p < 0.05) in all groups, except in Groups 1 and 4, and significant differences for the apoptotic index (p < 0.05) in all groups. Conclusion Curcumin proved to be potentially effective in the prevention and treatment for fibroblasts damage within the cochlear supporting tissues and lateral wall regarding the decreased expression of calcineurin, NFATc1, and apoptotic index of cochlear fibroblasts. PMID:27746842

  15. Exercise Increases Cystathionine-γ-lyase Expression and Decreases the Status of Oxidative Stress in Myocardium of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Lu, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Exercise could be a therapeutic approach for cardiovascular dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency. Our previous study has shown that estrogen maintains cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression and inhibits oxidative stress in the myocardium of female rats. In the present study, we investigated whether exercise improves CSE expression and oxidative stress status and ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac damage in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The results showed that treadmill training restored the ovariectomy-induced reduction of CSE and estrogen receptor (ER)α and decrease of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA). The level of CSE was positively correlated to T-AOC and ERα while inversely correlated to MDA. OVX rats showed increases in the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult compared to sham rats. Exercise training significantly reduced the serum levels of LDH and CK and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult in OVX rats. In cultured cardiomyocytes, ISO treatment decreased cell viability and increased LDH release, while overexpression of CSE increased cell viability and decreased LDH release in the cells upon ISO insult. The results suggest that exercise training improves the oxidative stress status and ameliorates the cardiac damage induced by oxidative stress in OVX rats. The improvement of oxidative stress status by exercise might be at least partially due to upregulation of CSE/H2S signaling.

  16. A comparison between PLGA-PEG and NIPAAm-MAA nanocarriers in curcumin delivery for hTERT silencing in lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Roointan, A; Sharifi-Rad, M; Badrzadeh, F; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer among men. Since the main reason of cancer cells immortality is telomerase activity, targeting of such enzyme can be a promising approach in cancer therapy. Curcumin is a safe and efficient anticancer agent in this context, but its applications in cancer therapy are limited because of its hydrophobic structure and low solubility in water. Today, using nanocarriers for delivery of such anticancer agents is a well performed method. Here, we developed and compared the efficiency of two nanocarriers (PLGA-PEG and NIPAAm-MAA) in delivery of curcumin and also in levels of hTERT silencing in lung cancer cell line (calu-6). Scanning electron microscopy, MTT assays and real-time PCR were used for imaging, cytotoxicity testing and measuring the expression levels of hTERT after treatment of cells with different concentrations of free curcumin and curcumin loaded nanocarriers. The MTT results demonstrated that the IC50 values of curcumin loaded nanocarriers were in lower concentrations than free curcumin. The hTERT expression levels were decreased by curcumin loaded PLGA-PEG more than curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA and free curcumin. Our results showed that the curcumin loaded PLGA-PEG can be a useful nano based carrier for delivery of anti-cancer agents such as curcumin to fight lung cancer. PMID:27585262

  17. Tart Cherry Juice Decreases Oxidative Stress in Healthy Older Men and Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S.; Stock, Anthoney A.; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 ± 4 y (61–75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F2-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F2-isoprostane response (P < 0.05), whereas placebo had no significant effect. The tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P < 0.05) but not urinary excretion of isoprostanes. These data suggest that consumption of tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids. PMID:19692530

  18. Curcumin attenuates adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Won Hee; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin, the yellow substance found in turmeric, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and lipid-lowering properties. Because we hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate the development of atherosclerosis, the present study focused on the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin consumption on high-cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. During our study, New Zealand white rabbits were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a normal diet, a normal diet enriched with 1% cholesterol (HCD), or an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin. At the end of 8 weeks, blood samples were collected to determine the levels of serum lipids, cytokines, and soluble adhesion molecule levels. Gene expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortas were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Compared with the HCD group, rabbits fed an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin had significantly less aortic lesion areas and neointima thickening. Curcumin reduced the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum by 30.7%, 41.3%, 30.4%, and 66.9% (all P < .05), respectively, but did not affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, curcumin attenuated HCD-induced CD36 expression, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and soluble adhesive molecule levels. Curcumin reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and it inhibited HCD-induced up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts an antiatherosclerotic effect, which is mediated by multiple mechanisms that include lowering serum lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thus modulating the proinflammatory cytokine levels and altering adhesion molecules and MMP gene expression. PMID

  19. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. PMID:26973412

  20. Curcumin attenuates adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Hwang, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Won Hee; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-01

    Curcumin, the yellow substance found in turmeric, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and lipid-lowering properties. Because we hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate the development of atherosclerosis, the present study focused on the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin consumption on high-cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. During our study, New Zealand white rabbits were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a normal diet, a normal diet enriched with 1% cholesterol (HCD), or an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin. At the end of 8 weeks, blood samples were collected to determine the levels of serum lipids, cytokines, and soluble adhesion molecule levels. Gene expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aortas were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Compared with the HCD group, rabbits fed an HCD supplemented with 0.2% curcumin had significantly less aortic lesion areas and neointima thickening. Curcumin reduced the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum by 30.7%, 41.3%, 30.4%, and 66.9% (all P < .05), respectively, but did not affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, curcumin attenuated HCD-induced CD36 expression, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and soluble adhesive molecule levels. Curcumin reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and it inhibited HCD-induced up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts an antiatherosclerotic effect, which is mediated by multiple mechanisms that include lowering serum lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, thus modulating the proinflammatory cytokine levels and altering adhesion molecules and MMP gene expression.

  1. Curcumin as a potential therapeutic candidate for Helicobacter pylori associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment and principal polyphenolic Curcuminoid obtained from the turmeric rhizome Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a food-coloring agent. Studies suggest that curcumin has a wide range of beneficial properties e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-microbial. These pleiotropic activities prompted several research groups to elucidate the role of curcumin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This is the first review with this heading where we discussed regarding the role of curcumin as an anti-H. pylori agent along with its potential in other gastrointestinal diseases. Based on several in vitro, early cell culture, animal research and few pre-clinical trials, curcumin projected as a potential therapeutic candidate against H. pylori mediated gastric pathogenesis. This review sheds light on the anti-H. pylori effects of curcumin in different models with meticulous emphasis on its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects as well as some critical signaling and effecter molecules. Remarkably, non-toxic molecule curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent against H. pylori mediated gastric carcinogenesis but the foremost challenge is to obtain the optimum therapeutic levels of curcumin, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability. Further, we have discussed about the possibilities for improving its efficacy and bioavailability. Lastly, we concluded with the anticipation that in near future curcumin may be used to develop a therapeutic drug against H. pylori mediated gastric ailments through improved formulation or delivery systems, facilitating its enhanced absorption and cellular uptake. PMID:26973412

  2. Notch1 deficiency decreases hepatic lipid accumulation by induction of fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Song, No-Joon; Yun, Ui Jeong; Yang, Sunghee; Wu, Chunyan; Seo, Cho-Rong; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Baik, Sang-Ha; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bo Youn; Bahn, Gahee; Kim, Suji; Kwon, So-Mi; Park, Jin Su; Baek, Seung Hyun; Park, Tae Joo; Yoon, Keejung; Kim, Byung-Joon; Mattson, Mark P; Lee, Sung-Joon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling pathways modulate various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and communication. Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch1 signaling also regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid synthesis. However, the effect of Notch1 signaling on hepatic lipid oxidation has not yet been directly investigated. To define the function of Notch1 signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism, wild type mice and Notch1 deficient antisense transgenic (NAS) mice were fed a high-fat diet. High-fat diet -fed NAS mice exhibited a marked reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation compared with wild type obese mice. The improved fatty liver was associated with an increased expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However, lipogenic genes were not differentially expressed in the NAS liver, suggesting lipolytic-specific regulatory effects by Notch1 signaling. Expression of fatty acid oxidative genes and the rate of fatty acid oxidation were also increased by inhibition of Notch1 signaling in HepG2 cells. In addition, similar regulatory effects on lipid accumulation were observed in adipocytes. Taken together, these data show that inhibition of Notch1 signaling can regulate the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes and may provide therapeutic strategies in obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:26786165

  3. Notch1 deficiency decreases hepatic lipid accumulation by induction of fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Song, No-Joon; Yun, Ui Jeong; Yang, Sunghee; Wu, Chunyan; Seo, Cho-Rong; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Baik, Sang-Ha; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bo Youn; Bahn, Gahee; Kim, Suji; Kwon, So-Mi; Park, Jin Su; Baek, Seung Hyun; Park, Tae Joo; Yoon, Keejung; Kim, Byung-Joon; Mattson, Mark P.; Lee, Sung-Joon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling pathways modulate various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and communication. Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch1 signaling also regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid synthesis. However, the effect of Notch1 signaling on hepatic lipid oxidation has not yet been directly investigated. To define the function of Notch1 signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism, wild type mice and Notch1 deficient antisense transgenic (NAS) mice were fed a high-fat diet. High-fat diet -fed NAS mice exhibited a marked reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation compared with wild type obese mice. The improved fatty liver was associated with an increased expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However, lipogenic genes were not differentially expressed in the NAS liver, suggesting lipolytic-specific regulatory effects by Notch1 signaling. Expression of fatty acid oxidative genes and the rate of fatty acid oxidation were also increased by inhibition of Notch1 signaling in HepG2 cells. In addition, similar regulatory effects on lipid accumulation were observed in adipocytes. Taken together, these data show that inhibition of Notch1 signaling can regulate the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes and may provide therapeutic strategies in obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:26786165

  4. Aging-associated oxidative stress leads to decrease in IAS tone via RhoA/ROCK downregulation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Krishna, Chadalavada Vijay; Rattan, Satish

    2014-06-01

    Internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone plays an important role in rectoanal incontinence (RI). IAS tone may be compromised during aging, leading to RI in certain patients. We examined the influence of oxidative stress in the aging-associated decrease in IAS tone (AADI). Using adult (4-6 mo old) and aging (24-30 mo old) rats, we determined the effect of oxidative stress on IAS tone and the regulatory RhoA/ROCK signal transduction cascade. We determined the effect of the oxidative stress inducer LY83583, which produces superoxide anions (O2 (·-)), on basal and stimulated IAS tone before and after treatment of intact smooth muscle strips and smooth muscle cells with the O2 (·-) scavenger SOD. Our data showed that AADI was associated with a decrease in RhoA/ROCK expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Oxidative stress with a LY83583-mediated decrease in IAS tone and relaxation of IAS smooth muscle cells was associated with a decrease in RhoA/ROCK signal transduction, which was reversible by SOD. In addition, LY83583 caused a significant decrease in IAS contraction produced by the RhoA activator and a known RhoA/ROCK agonist, U46619, that was also reversible by SOD. The inhibitory effects of LY83583 and the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 on the U46619-induced increase in IAS tone were similar. We conclude that an increase in oxidative stress plays an important role in AADI in the elderly and may be one of the underlying mechanisms of RI in certain aging patients.

  5. Curcumin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in human biliary cancer cells through modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Prakobwong, Suksanti; Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Bokyung; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hiraku, Yusuke; Wongkham, Sopit; Sripa, Banchob; Pinlaor, Somchai; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a tumor with poor prognosis that is resistant to all currently available treatments. Whether curcumin, a nutraceutical derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potential therapeutic activity against human CCA was investigated using three CCA cell lines (KKU100, KKU-M156 and KKU-M213). Examination of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, phosphatidylserine externalization, esterase staining, caspase activation and poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase cleavage demonstrated that curcumin inhibited proliferation of and induced apoptosis in these biliary cancer cells. Colony-formation assay confirmed the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin on CCA cells. When examined for the mechanism, curcumin was found to activate multiple cell signaling pathways in these cells. First, all CCA cells exhibited constitutively active nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and treatment with curcumin abolished this activation as indicated by DNA binding, nuclear translocation and p65 phosphorylation. Second, curcumin suppressed activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 as indicated by decreased phosphorylation at both tyrosine(705) and serine(727) and inhibition of janus kinase-1 phosphorylation. Third, curcumin induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Fourth, curcumin upregulated death receptors, DR4 and DR5. Fifth, curcumin suppressed the Akt activation pathway. Sixth, curcumin inhibited expression of cell survival proteins such as B-cell lymphoma-2, B-cell leukemia protein xL, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, c-FLIP, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, cIAP-2 and survivin and proteins linked to cell proliferation, such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Seventh, the growth inhibitory effect of curcumin was enhanced in the IκB kinase-deficient cells, the enzyme required for nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Overall, our results indicate that curcumin mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic

  6. Placental oxidative stress and decreased global DNA methylation are corrected by copper in the Cohen diabetic rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Szyf, Moshe; Ornoy, Asher

    2014-05-01

    Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) is a leading cause for long term morbidity. The Cohen diabetic sensitive rats (CDs), originating from Wistar, develop overt diabetes when fed high sucrose low copper diet (HSD) while the original outbred Sabra strain do not. HSD induced FGR and fetal oxidative stress, more prominent in the CDs, that was alleviated more effectively by copper than by the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of copper or the anti-oxidant Tempol on placental size, protein content, oxidative stress, apoptosis and total DNA methylation. Animals were mated following one month of HSD or regular chow diet and supplemented throughout pregnancy with either 0, 1 or 2 ppm of copper sulfate or Tempol in their drinking water. Placental weight on the 21st day of pregnancy decreased in dams fed HSD and improved upon copper supplementation. Placental/fetal weight ratio increased among the CDs. Protein content decreased in Sabra but increased in CDs fed HSD. Oxidative stress biochemical markers improved upon copper supplementation; immunohistochemistry for oxidative stress markers was similar between strains and diets. Caspase 3 was positive in more placentae of dams fed HSD than those fed RD. Placental global DNA methylation was decreased only among the CDs dams fed HSD. We conclude that FGR in this model is associated with smaller placentae, reduced DNA placental methylation, and increased oxidative stress that normalized with copper supplementation. DNA hypomethylation makes our model a unique method for investigating genes associated with growth, oxidative stress, hypoxia and copper. - Highlights: • Sensitive Cohen diabetic rats (CDs) had small placentae and growth restricted fetuses. • CDs dams fed high sucrose low copper diet had placental global DNA hypomethylation. • Caspase 3 was positive in more placentae of dams fed HSD than those fed RD. • Oxidative stress parameters improved by Tempol and resolved by copper

  7. Curcumin attenuated acute Propionibacterium acnes-induced liver injury through inhibition of HMGB1 expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qiaoli; Guan, Honggeng; Shi, Qin; Zhang, Yanyun; Yang, Huilin

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has protective effects on inflammatory diseases. Here we investigated the protective effect of curcumin in acute Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)-induced inflammatory liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were primed with P. acnes followed by LPS challenge to induce fulminant hepatitis. Curcumin or vehicle control was administered perorally by gavage once daily starting 2days before P. acnes priming. We found that curcumin significantly improved mouse mortality. Then, to investigate the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in this acute inflammatory liver injury model, we primed C57BL/6 mice with P. acnes only. We found that curcumin treatment attenuated P. acnes-induced liver injury as evidenced by decreased production of ALT. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, accompanied by reduced hepatocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, curcumin treatment significantly reduced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and expression by down-regulating acetylation of lysine. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin protects mice from P. acnes-induced liver injury through reduction of HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and expression.

  8. SREBP2 mediates the modulation of intestinal NPC1L1 expression by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Malhotra, Pooja; Ma, Ke; Singla, Amika; Hedroug, Omar; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A

    2011-07-01

    Curcumin, the major phenolic compound in the spice turmeric, exhibits numerous biological effects, including lowering plasma cholesterol and preventing diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The mechanisms underlying the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin are not fully understood. In this regard, intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, the molecular target of intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe, plays an essential role in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The current studies were designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on NPC1L1 function, expression, and promoter activity in intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. NPC1L1 function was evaluated by the measurement of ezetimibe-sensitive [(3)H]cholesterol esterification. Relative abundance of NPC1L1 mRNA and protein was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Luciferase assays were used to measure NPC1L1 promoter activity. Our results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol esterification in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum decrease (by 52% compared with control) occurring at 50 μM concentration. Curcumin treatment of Caco-2 monolayers also significantly decreased NPC1L1 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, the promoter activity of the NPC1L1 gene was inhibited significantly (55%) by 50 μM curcumin. The decrease in NPC1L1 promoter activity by curcumin was associated with a reduction in the expression and the DNA-binding activity of the sterol response element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor. Furthermore, the overexpression of active SREBP2 protected NPC1L1 from the inhibitory effect of curcumin. Our studies demonstrate that curcumin directly modulates intestinal NPC1L1 expression via transcriptional regulation and the involvement of SREBP2 transcription factor.

  9. Curcumin Rescues Diabetic Renal Fibrosis by Targeting Superoxide-Mediated Wnt Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Lei, Chen-Chou; Mau, Shu-Ching; Shih, Ya-Hsueh; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate whether curcumin can weaken diabetic nephropathy by modulating both oxidative stress and renal injury from Wnt signaling mediation. Wnt5a/β-catenin depression and induction of superoxide synthesis are associated with high glucose (HG) induced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and fibronectin expression in mesangial cells. Curcumin resumes HG depression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and alleviates HG induction of superoxide, TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression in renal mesangial cell. Exogenous curcumin alleviated urinary total proteinuria and serum superoxide level in diabetic rats. Based on laser-captured microdissection for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, it was found that diabetes significantly increased TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression in line with depressed Wnt5a expression. Curcumin treatment reduced the TGF-β1 and fibronectin activation and the inhibiting effect of diabetes on Wnt5a/β-catenin expression in renal glomeruli. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, TGF-β1 and fibronectin, and was in line with the restoration of the suppressed Wnt5a expression immunoreactivities in glomeruli of diabetic rats. Curcumin alleviated extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy by not only preventing the diabetes-mediated superoxide synthesis but also resuming downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings suggest that regulation of Wnt activity by curcumin is a feasible alternative strategy to rescue diabetic renal injury.

  10. Unraveling curcumin degradation: autoxidation proceeds through spiroepoxide and vinylether intermediates en route to the main bicyclopentadione.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Odaine N; Luis, Paula B; Sintim, Herman O; Schneider, Claus

    2015-02-20

    Curcumin is a dietary anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agent consisting of two methoxyphenol rings connected by a conjugated heptadienedione chain. Curcumin is unstable at physiological pH and rapidly degrades in an autoxidation reaction to a major bicyclopentadione product in which the 7-carbon chain has undergone oxygenation and double cyclization. Early degradation products (but not the final bicyclopentadione) mediate topoisomerase poisoning and possibly many other activities of curcumin, but it is not known how many and what autoxidation products are formed, nor their mechanism of formation. Here, using [(14)C2]curcumin as a tracer, seven novel autoxidation products, including two reaction intermediates, were isolated and identified using one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry. The unusual spiroepoxide and vinylether reaction intermediates are precursors to the final bicyclopentadione product. A mechanism for the autoxidation of curcumin is proposed that accounts for the addition and exchange of oxygen that have been determined using (18)O2 and H2(18)O. Several of the by-products are formed from an endoperoxide intermediate via reactions that are well precedented in lipid peroxidation. The electrophilic spiroepoxide intermediate formed a stable adduct with N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that oxidative transformation is required for biological effects mediated by covalent adduction to protein thiols. The spontaneous autoxidation distinguishes curcumin among natural polyphenolic compounds of therapeutic interest; the formation of chemically diverse reactive and electrophilic products provides a novel paradigm for understanding the polypharmacological effects of curcumin.

  11. Curcumin therapy in a Plp1 transgenic mouse model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

    PubMed Central

    Epplen, Dirk B; Prukop, Thomas; Nientiedt, Tobias; Albrecht, Philipp; Arlt, Friederike A; Stassart, Ruth M; Kassmann, Celia M; Methner, Axel; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Werner, Hauke B; Sereda, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a progressive and lethal leukodystrophy caused by mutations affecting the proteolipid protein (PLP1) gene. The most common cause of PMD is a duplication of PLP1 and at present there is no curative therapy available. Methods By using transgenic mice carrying additional copies of Plp1, we investigated whether curcumin diet ameliorates PMD symptoms. The diet of Plp1 transgenic mice was supplemented with curcumin for 10 consecutive weeks followed by phenotypical, histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the central nervous system. Plp1 transgenic and wild-type mice fed with normal chow served as controls. Results Curcumin improved the motor phenotype performance of Plp1 transgenic mice by 50% toward wild-type level and preserved myelinated axons by 35% when compared to Plp1 transgenic controls. Furthermore, curcumin reduced astrocytosis, microgliosis and lymphocyte infiltration in Plp1 transgenic mice. Curcumin diet did not affect the pathologically increased Plp1 mRNA abundance. However, high glutathione levels indicating an oxidative misbalance in the white matter of Plp1 transgenic mice were restored by curcumin treatment. Interpretation Curcumin may potentially serve as an antioxidant therapy of PMD caused by PLP1 gene duplication. PMID:26339673

  12. Regulatory effects of curcumin on lipid accumulation in monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zingg, Jean-Marc; Hasan, Syeda T; Cowan, Danica; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Azzi, Angelo; Meydani, Mohsen

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests potential benefits from phytochemicals and micronutrients in protecting against atherosclerosis and inflammation, but the molecular mechanisms of these actions are still unclear. Here, we investigated whether the dietary polyphenol curcumin can modulate the accumulation of lipids in monocytes/macrophages. Curcumin increased the expression of two lipid transport genes, the fatty acids transporter CD36/FAT and the fatty acids binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2; P < 0.05), leading to increased lipid levels in THP-1 and RAW264.7 monocytes and macrophages (P < 0.05). To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved, we assessed the activity of Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), a transcription factor centrally involved in regulating several stress resistance and lipid transport genes. Curcumin increased FOXO3a-mediated gene expression by twofold (P < 0.05), possibly as a result of influencing FOXO3a phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. The curcumin derivative, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), with similar chemical antioxidant activity as curcumin, did not show any measurable effects. In contrast to the in vitro results, curcumin showed a trend for reduction of lipid levels in peritoneal macrophages in LDL receptor knockout mice fed a high fat diet for 4 months, suggesting additional regulatory mechanisms in vivo. Thus, the up-regulation of FOXO3a activity by curcumin could be a mechanism to protect against oxidant- and lipid-induced damage in the inflammatory cells of the vascular system.

  13. Curcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Miyaki, Asako; Tanabe, Yoko; Sugawara, Jun; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2012-10-01

    Vascular endothelial function is declines with aging and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle modification, particularly aerobic exercise and dietary adjustment, has a favorable effect on vascular aging. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric with known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. We investigated the effects of curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training on flow-mediated dilation as an indicator endothelial function in postmenopausal women. A total of 32 postmenopausal women were assigned to 3 groups: control, exercise, and curcumin groups. The curcumin group ingested curcumin orally for 8 weeks. The exercise group underwent moderate aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks. Before and after each intervention, flow-mediated dilation was measured. No difference in baseline flow-mediated dilation or other key dependent variables were detected among the groups. Flow-mediated dilation increased significantly and equally in the curcumin and exercise groups, whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Our results indicated that curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training can increase flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women, suggesting that both can potentially improve the age-related decline in endothelial function.

  14. Curcumin Rescues Diabetic Renal Fibrosis by Targeting Superoxide-Mediated Wnt Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Lei, Chen-Chou; Mau, Shu-Ching; Shih, Ya-Hsueh; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate whether curcumin can weaken diabetic nephropathy by modulating both oxidative stress and renal injury from Wnt signaling mediation. Wnt5a/β-catenin depression and induction of superoxide synthesis are associated with high glucose (HG) induced transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and fibronectin expression in mesangial cells. Curcumin resumes HG depression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and alleviates HG induction of superoxide, TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression in renal mesangial cell. Exogenous curcumin alleviated urinary total proteinuria and serum superoxide level in diabetic rats. Based on laser-captured microdissection for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, it was found that diabetes significantly increased TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression in line with depressed Wnt5a expression. Curcumin treatment reduced the TGF-β1 and fibronectin activation and the inhibiting effect of diabetes on Wnt5a/β-catenin expression in renal glomeruli. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, TGF-β1 and fibronectin, and was in line with the restoration of the suppressed Wnt5a expression immunoreactivities in glomeruli of diabetic rats. Curcumin alleviated extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy by not only preventing the diabetes-mediated superoxide synthesis but also resuming downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings suggest that regulation of Wnt activity by curcumin is a feasible alternative strategy to rescue diabetic renal injury. PMID:26992258

  15. Effect of polymer architecture on curcumin encapsulation and release from PEGylated polymer nanoparticles: Toward a drug delivery nano-platform to the CNS.

    PubMed

    Rabanel, Jean-Michel; Faivre, Jimmy; Paka, Ghislain Djiokeng; Ramassamy, Charles; Hildgen, Patrice; Banquy, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    We developed a nanoparticles (NPs) library from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly lactic acid comb-like polymers with variable amount of PEG. Curcumin was encapsulated in the NPs with a view to develop a delivery platform to treat diseases involving oxidative stress affecting the CNS. We observed a sharp decrease in size between 15 and 20% w/w of PEG which corresponds to a transition from a large solid particle structure to a "micelle-like" or "polymer nano-aggregate" structure. Drug loading, loading efficacy and release kinetics were determined. The diffusion coefficients of curcumin in NPs were determined using a mathematical modeling. The higher diffusion was observed for solid particles compared to "polymer nano-aggregate" particles. NPs did not present any significant toxicity when tested in vitro on a neuronal cell line. Moreover, the ability of NPs carrying curcumin to prevent oxidative stress was evidenced and linked to polymer architecture and NPs organization. Our study showed the intimate relationship between the polymer architecture and the biophysical properties of the resulting NPs and sheds light on new approaches to design efficient NP-based drug carriers.

  16. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  17. Decreased SIRT3 in aged human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells increases cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Shao, Yong; Ma, Chong-Yi; Chen, Wei; Sun, Lu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Yang; Fu, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Kai-Yu; Jia, Zhi-Bo; Xie, Bao-Dong; Jiang, Shu-Lin; Li, Ren-Ke; Tian, Hai

    2014-11-01

    Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) is an important member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized to mitochondria and linked to lifespan extension in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. As aged cells have less regenerative capacity and are more susceptible to oxidative stress, we investigated the effect of ageing on SIRT3 levels and its correlation with antioxidant enzyme activities. Here, we show that severe oxidative stress reduces SIRT3 levels in young human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Overexpression of SIRT3 improved hMSCs resistance to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. By activating manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT), SIRT3 protects hMSCs from apoptosis under stress. SIRT3 expression, levels of MnSOD and CAT, as well as cell survival showed little difference in old versus young hMSCs under normal growth conditions, whereas older cells had a significantly reduced capacity to withstand oxidative stress compared to their younger counterparts. Expression of the short 28 kD SIRT3 isoform was higher, while the long 44 kD isoform expression was lower in young myocardial tissues compared with older ones. These results suggest that the active short isoform of SIRT3 protects hMSCs from oxidative injury by increasing the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. The expression of this short isoform decreases in cardiac tissue during ageing, leading to a reduced capacity for the heart to withstand oxidative stress. PMID:25210848

  18. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis.

  19. HSP60 mediates the neuroprotective effects of curcumin by suppressing microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Feijia; Li, Fan; Li, Yunhong; Hou, Xiaolin; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Nan; Ma, Jiao; Zhang, Rui; Lang, Bing; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and has been widely used to treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of curcumin are not well known. In the present study, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 mouse microglia cells was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the culture medium and western blotting of cell lysates. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the LPS-induced expression and release of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) in the BV2 cells. The level of heat shock factor (HSF)-1 was upregulated in LPS-activated BV2 microglia, indicating that the increased expression of HSP60 was driven by HSF-1 activation. However, the increased HSF-1 level was downregulated by curcumin. Extracellular HSP60 is a ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and the level of the latter was increased in the LPS-activated BV2 microglia and inhibited by curcumin. The activation of TLR-4 is known to be associated with the activation of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, with the subsequent production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. In the present study, curcumin demonstrated marked suppression of the LPS-induced expression of MyD88, NF-κB, caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the microglia. These results indicate that curcumin may exert its neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the HSP60/TLR-4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling wpathway. Therefore, curcumin may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with microglial activation. PMID:27446282

  20. Treatment with curcumin alleviates sublesional bone loss following spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobin; He, Baorong; Liu, Peng; Yan, Liang; Yang, Ming; Li, Dichen

    2015-10-15

    This work aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on sublesional bone loss induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. SCI model in this work was generated in rats by surgical transaction of the cord at the T10-12 level. After the surgery, animals were treated with curcumin (110 mg/kg body mass/day, via oral gavages) for 2 weeks. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin prevented the reduction of bone mass in tibiae and femurs, preserved bone microstructure including trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in proximal tibiae, and preserved mechanical properties of femoral midshaft. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin increased osteoblast surface and reduced osteoclast surface in proximal tibiae. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin increased osteocalcin mRNA expression and reduced mRNA levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and mRNA ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin in distal femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin reduced serum and femoral levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin had no significant effect on serum 25(OH)D, but enhanced mRNA and protein expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in distal femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with curcumin enhanced mRNA levels of Wnt3a, Lrp5, and ctnnb1 and upregulated protein expression of β-catenin in distal femurs. In conclusions, treatment with curcumin abated oxidative stress, activated VDR, and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which might explain its beneficial effect against sublesional bone loss following SCI in rats, at least in part.

  1. Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Silaste, Marja-Leena; Alfthan, Georg; Aro, Antti; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Hörkkö, Sohvi

    2007-12-01

    High dietary intakes of tomato products are often associated with a reduced risk of CVD, but the atheroprotective mechanisms have not been established. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increased dietary intake of tomato products on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation. The diet intervention included a baseline period, a 3-week low tomato diet (no tomato products allowed) and a 3-week high tomato diet (400 ml tomato juice and 30 mg tomato ketchup daily). Twenty-one healthy study subjects participated in the study. Total cholesterol concentration was reduced by 5.9 (sd 10) % (P = 0.002) and LDL cholesterol concentration by 12.9 (sd 17.0) % (P = 0.0002) with the high tomato diet compared to the low tomato diet. The changes in total and LDL cholesterol concentrations correlated significantly with the changes in serum lycopene (r 0.56, P = 0.009; r 0.60, P = 0.004, total and LDL, respectively), beta-carotene (r 0.58, P = 0.005; r 0.70, P < 0.001) and gamma-carotene concentrations (r 0.64, P = 0.002; r 0.64, P = 0.002). The level of circulating LDL to resist formation of oxidized phospholipids increased 13 % (P = 0.02) in response to the high tomato diet. In conclusion, a high dietary intake of tomato products had atheroprotective effects, it significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels, and increased LDL resistance to oxidation in healthy normocholesterolaemic adults. These atheroprotective features associated with changes in serum lycopene, beta-carotene and gamma-carotene levels. PMID:17617941

  2. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marcondes A. B.; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cau, Stefany B. A.; Lopes, Rheure A. M.; Mestriner, Fabiola L. A. C.; Fais, Rafael S.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) with spironolactone decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular nitric oxide (NO) signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db)] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+) mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day) or vehicle (ethanol 1%) via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (Ser1177) in arteries from db/db mice, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, and increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) β subunit expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes. PMID:26500555

  3. High-fat diet decreases activity of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Colina, Francisco; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent histological finding in individuals with abnormal liver-function tests in the Western countries. In previous studies, we have shown that oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is decreased in individuals with NAFLD, but the cause of this mitochondrial dysfunction remains uncertain. The aims of this study were to determine whether feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD) induces any change in the activity of OXPHOS, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this defect. To that end, 30 mice were distributed between five groups: control mice fed a standard diet, and mice on a HFD and treated with saline solution, melatonin (an antioxidant), MnTBAP (a superoxide dismutase analog) or uric acid (a scavenger of peroxynitrite) for 28 weeks intraperitoneously. In the liver of these mice, we studied histology, activity and assembly of OXPHOS complexes, levels of subunits of these complexes, gene expression of these subunits, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and oxidative DNA damage. In HFD-fed mice, we found nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, increased gene expression of TNFα, IFNγ, MCP-1, caspase-3, TGFβ1 and collagen α1(I), and increased levels of 3-tyrosine nitrated proteins. The activity and assembly of all OXPHOS complexes was decreased to about 50–60%. The amount of all studied OXPHOS subunits was markedly decreased, particularly the mitochondrial-DNA-encoded subunits. Gene expression of mitochondrial-DNA-encoded subunits was decreased to about 60% of control. There was oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA but not to genomic DNA. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with melatonin, MnTBAP or uric acid prevented all changes observed in untreated HFD-fed mice. We conclude that a HFD decreased OXPHOS enzymatic activity owing to a decreased amount of fully assembled complexes caused by a reduced synthesis of their subunits. Antioxidants and antiperoxynitrites prevented all of these changes, suggesting

  4. High-fat diet decreases activity of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Colina, Francisco; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A

    2014-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent histological finding in individuals with abnormal liver-function tests in the Western countries. In previous studies, we have shown that oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is decreased in individuals with NAFLD, but the cause of this mitochondrial dysfunction remains uncertain. The aims of this study were to determine whether feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD) induces any change in the activity of OXPHOS, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this defect. To that end, 30 mice were distributed between five groups: control mice fed a standard diet, and mice on a HFD and treated with saline solution, melatonin (an antioxidant), MnTBAP (a superoxide dismutase analog) or uric acid (a scavenger of peroxynitrite) for 28 weeks intraperitoneously. In the liver of these mice, we studied histology, activity and assembly of OXPHOS complexes, levels of subunits of these complexes, gene expression of these subunits, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and oxidative DNA damage. In HFD-fed mice, we found nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, increased gene expression of TNFα, IFNγ, MCP-1, caspase-3, TGFβ1 and collagen α1(I), and increased levels of 3-tyrosine nitrated proteins. The activity and assembly of all OXPHOS complexes was decreased to about 50-60%. The amount of all studied OXPHOS subunits was markedly decreased, particularly the mitochondrial-DNA-encoded subunits. Gene expression of mitochondrial-DNA-encoded subunits was decreased to about 60% of control. There was oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA but not to genomic DNA. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with melatonin, MnTBAP or uric acid prevented all changes observed in untreated HFD-fed mice. We conclude that a HFD decreased OXPHOS enzymatic activity owing to a decreased amount of fully assembled complexes caused by a reduced synthesis of their subunits. Antioxidants and antiperoxynitrites prevented all of these changes, suggesting that

  5. EDTA Chelation Therapy, Without Added Vitamin C, Decreases Oxidative DNA Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chelation therapy is thought to not only remove contaminating metals, but also to decrease free radical production. However, in standard EDTA chelation therapy high doses of vitamin C with potential prooxidant effects are often added to the chelation solution. We demonstrated previously that the in...

  6. Novel Curcumin Diclofenac Conjugate Enhanced Curcumin Bioavailability and Efficacy in Streptococcal Cell Wall-induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Gill, M S; Pawar, H S; Suresh, Sarasija

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin-diclofenac conjugate as been synthesized by esterification of phenolic group of curcumin with the acid moiety of diclofenac, and characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, FTIR, DSC, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. The relative solubility of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate, curcumin and diclofenac; stability of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate in intestinal extract; permeability study of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate using the everted rat intestinal sac method; stability of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate in gastrointestinal fluids and in vitro efficacy have been evaluated. In vivo bioavailability of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate and curcumin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and antiarthritic activity of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate, curcumin and diclofenac in modified streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model in Balb/c mice to mimic rheumatoid arthritis in humans have also been studied. In all of the above studies, curcumin-diclofenac conjugate exhibited enhanced stability as compared to curcumin; its activity was twice that of diclofenac in inhibiting thermal protein denaturation taken as a measure of in vitro antiinflammatory activity; it enhanced the bioavailability of curcumin by more than five folds, and significantly (P<0.01) alleviated the symptoms of arthritis in streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model as compared to both diclofenac and curcumin. PMID:25425755

  7. Enhancement of Curcumin Solubility by Phase Change from Crystalline to Amorphous in Cur-TPGS Nanosuspension.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gye Hwa; Li, Jinglei; Cho, Jin Hun; Kim, Jun Tae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2016-02-01

    Nanosuspensions (NSs) were fabricated to enhance water solubility, dissolution rate, and oral adsorption of water insoluble curcumin using sonoprecipitation method. As a good stabilizer, d-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was used to improve the stability of curcumin-TPGS NSs (Cur-TPGS NSs). Ultrasonic homogenization (UH) could effectively enhance the solubility of curcumin and to produce homogeneous NSs with small particle sizes. Water solubility of curcumin was significantly improved from 0.6 μg/mL in pure water to 260 μg/mL in the mixture of curcumin and TPGS (1:10) with UH treatment. The mean particle size of Cur-TPGS NSs was decreased significantly after UH and maintained between 208 and 246 nm. Lyophilized powder of Cur-TPGS NSs was dissolved about 91.08% whereas the pristine curcumin powder was dissolved only 6.5% at pH 7.4. This study showed a great potential of Cur-TPGS NSs as a good nano-formulation of curcumin with enhanced solubility and improved oral adsorption.

  8. The critical roles of miR-21 in anti-cancer effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiezhong; Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin is a well-known phytochemical that has various anti-cancer effects. Although it has been demonstrated that curcumin can inhibit multiple signalling pathways, the exact mechanisms for its demonstrated anti-cancer effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that curcumin may affect cancer initiation and progression through regulating microRNAs (miRs). In this review, we focus on the roles of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and regulatory mechanisms for the effects of curcumin on miR-21. MiR-21 mediates various effects of curcumin on cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Several downstream pathways of miR-21 have been identified including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and NF-κB pathways. Curcumin decreases miR-21 levels through both increasing miR-21 exosome exclusion from the cells and inhibiting the transcription of the miR-21 gene in the cells by binding to its promoter. PMID:26734640

  9. A Genetically Engineered Thermally Responsive Sustained Release Curcumin Depot to Treat Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, S. Michael; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Gooden, David M.; Gopalaswamy, Ramesh; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Setton, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiculopathy, a painful neuroinflammation that can accompany intervertebral disc herniation, is associated with locally increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Systemic administration of TNF antagonists for radiculopathy in the clinic has shown mixed results, and there is growing interest in the local delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to treat this pathology as well as similar inflammatory events of peripheral nerve injury. Curcumin, a known antagonist of TNFα in multiple cell types and tissues, was chemically modified and conjugated to a thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) to create an injectable depot for sustained, local delivery of curcumin to treat neuroinflammation. ELPs are biopolymers capable of thermally-triggered in situ depot formation that have been successfully employed as drug carriers and biomaterials in several applications. ELP-curcumin conjugates were shown to display high drug loading, rapidly release curcumin in vitro via degradable carbamate bonds, and retain in vitro bioactivity against TNFα-induced cytotoxicity and monocyte activation with IC50 only two-fold higher than curcumin. When injected proximal to the sciatic nerve in mice via intramuscular (i.m.) injection, ELP-curcumin conjugates underwent a thermally triggered soluble-insoluble phase transition, leading to in situ formation of a depot that released curcumin over 4 days post-injection and decreased plasma AUC 7-fold. PMID:23830979

  10. The critical roles of miR-21 in anti-cancer effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiezhong; Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin is a well-known phytochemical that has various anti-cancer effects. Although it has been demonstrated that curcumin can inhibit multiple signalling pathways, the exact mechanisms for its demonstrated anti-cancer effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that curcumin may affect cancer initiation and progression through regulating microRNAs (miRs). In this review, we focus on the roles of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and regulatory mechanisms for the effects of curcumin on miR-21. MiR-21 mediates various effects of curcumin on cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Several downstream pathways of miR-21 have been identified including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and NF-κB pathways. Curcumin decreases miR-21 levels through both increasing miR-21 exosome exclusion from the cells and inhibiting the transcription of the miR-21 gene in the cells by binding to its promoter.

  11. Antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and proliferative effect of curcumin on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Toydemir, Toygar; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Oguz, Serhat; Erenoglu, Cengiz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of curcumin on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated (SH), PH, and PH + curcumin; each group contains eight animals. The rats in curcumin-treated groups were given curcumin (in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 7 days, starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At 7 days after resection, liver samples were collected. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine, 5'-triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, and apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at 7 days after hepatectomy. As a result, curcumin significantly increased MI and PI and significantly decreased AI in PH rats. Additionally, curcumin remarkably inhibited MDA elevation, restored impaired antioxidant SOD activity and GSH level and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion. These results suggested that curcumin treatment had a beneficial effect on liver regenerative capacity of the remnant liver tissue after hepatectomy, probably due to its antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and proliferative properties.

  12. Enhanced behavioral response by decreasing brain oxidative stress to 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine in Alzheimer's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Stefan, Marius; Brandsch, Roderich; Mihasan, Marius

    2015-03-30

    6-Hydroxy-l-nicotine (6HLN) is a nicotine metabolite resulted from nicotine degradation within Arthrobacter nicotinovorans with positive effects on spatial memory and oxidative stress damage. In the present study, the effects of 6HLN on spatial memory performance were assessed in scopolamine-treated rats. Scopolamine-induced memory impairments were observed, as measured by the Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks. Decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase along with decrease of total content of reduced glutathione were observed in the rat hippocampal homogenates of scopolamine-treated animals as compared with control. Production of malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) significantly increased in the rat hippocampal homogenates of scopolamine-treated animals as compared with control, as a consequence of impaired antioxidant enzymes activities. Additionally, in scopolamine-treated rats 6HLN significantly improved memory formation and decreased oxidative stress, suggesting memory-enhancing and antioxidant effects. Therefore, our results suggest that administration of 6HLN ameliorates scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. PMID:25684246

  13. Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongli; He, Yan; Li, Yu; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun; DiPaola, Robert; Goodin, Susan; Zheng, Xi

    2015-01-01

    α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer. PMID:26630272

  14. Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huarong; Chen, Xuan; Li, Dongli; He, Yan; Li, Yu; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun; DiPaola, Robert; Goodin, Susan; Zheng, Xi

    2015-01-01

    α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer. PMID:26630272

  15. Niacin deficiency causes oxidative stress in rat bone marrow cells but not through decreased NADPH or glutathione status.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kitty; Sham, Heidi; Hui, Evon; Kirkland, James B

    2008-11-01

    Niacin (vitamin B(3)), in the form of NADPH, is required for the regeneration of glutathione (GSH), which is the substrate of GSH peroxidase. In this study, we examined the effect of dietary niacin deficiency on protein and DNA oxidation in bone marrow cells of Long-Evans rats. Western blotting was used to measure 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-reactive protein carbonyl products, and the Biotrin OxyDNA method was used to measure 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). The levels of both protein carbonyls and 8-oxodG were increased by 50% in niacin-deficient bone marrow cells. To examine whether this oxidant damage involves altered metabolism of pyridine nucleotides and glutathione, both oxidized and reduced forms of pyridine nucleotides (NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), NADPH) and glutathione (GSSG and GSH) were quantified in total and nucleated bone marrow cells. NAD and NADP(+) levels were decreased 80% and 22%, respectively, by niacin deficiency. NADPH and GSH were not depleted by niacin deficiency, showing that oxidant injury was not due directly to impairment of this pathway. Oxidative stress, of uncertain etiology, may play a role in the observed genomic instability and sensitivity to leukemogenesis in bone marrow cells during niacin deficiency.

  16. Beneficial effects of curcumin on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Shin, Su-Kyung; Seong, Chi-Nam; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of curcumin (0.05-g/100-g diet) supplementation on a high-fat diet (10% coconut oil, 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) fed to hamsters, one of the rodent species that are most closely related to humans in lipid metabolism. Curcumin significantly lowered the levels of free fatty acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, whereas it elevated the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and paraoxonase activity in plasma, compared with the control group. The levels of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride were also lower in the curcumin group than in the control group. In the liver, fatty acid beta-oxidation activity was significantly higher in the curcumin group than in the control group, whereas fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activities were significantly lower. Curcumin significantly lowered the lipid peroxide levels in the erythrocyte and liver compared with the control group. These results indicate that curcumin exhibits an obvious hypolipidemic effect by increasing plasma paraoxonase activity, ratios of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol and of apo A-I to apo B, and hepatic fatty acid oxidation activity with simultaneous inhibition of hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis in high-fat-fed hamsters.

  17. Curcumin and its Derivatives: Their Application in Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Bebawy, Mary; Luk, Frederick; Mason, Rebecca S; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, is widely used in Southeast Asia, China and India in food preparation and for medicinal purposes. Since the second half of the last century, this traditional medicine has attracted the attention of scientists from multiple disciplines to elucidate its pharmacological properties. Of significant interest is curcumin’s role to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and Parkinson’s disease (PD) and malignancy. These diseases all share an inflammatory basis, involving increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. The therapeutic benefits of curcumin for these neurodegenerative diseases appear multifactorial via regulation of transcription factors, cytokines and enzymes associated with (Nuclear factor kappa beta) NFκB activity. This review describes the historical use of curcumin in medicine, its chemistry, stability and biological activities, including curcumin's anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The review further discusses the pharmacology of curcumin and provides new perspectives on its therapeutic potential and limitations. Especially, the review focuses in detail on the effectiveness of curcumin and its mechanism of actions in treating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and brain malignancies. PMID:24381528

  18. Curcumin protects against myocardial infarction-induced cardiac fibrosis via SIRT1 activation in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jie; Sheng, Xi; Zhang, Xinyu; Guo, Mengqi; Ji, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric, protects against myocardial injury by alleviating oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. However, the role of curcumin and its mechanism of action on interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. To clarify, MI was induced by a permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in adult mice, and the effects of curcumin were evaluated 4 weeks after the MI event. In vitro, we treated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) with Ang II, and investigated the anti-fibrotic mechanism of curcumin. Our results showed that curcumin significantly attenuated collagen deposition in vivo and inhibited CF proliferation and migration, and MMP expression. In addition, we found that the down-regulation of SIRT1 after MI was attenuated by curcumin pretreatment, which indicated that the activation of SIRT1 might be involved in the protective action of curcumin. This hypothesis was confirmed by genetic inhibition of SIRT1 (siRNA-SIRT1) in Ang II-treated CFs. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin in the heart. PMID:27099472

  19. Activation of ERK1/2 pathway mediates oxidant-induced decreases in mitochondrial function in renal cells.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Grazyna; Clifton, Ginger L; Godwin, Malinda L; Bakajsova, Diana

    2006-10-01

    Previously, we showed that oxidant exposure in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) induces mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by PKC-epsilon. This study examined the role of ERK1/2 in mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidant injury and whether PKC-epsilon mediates its effects on mitochondrial function through the Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway. Sublethal injury produced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) resulted in three- to fivefold increase in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK. This was followed by decreases in basal and uncoupled respirations (41%), state 3 respiration and ATP production coupled to complex I (46%), and complex I activity (42%). Oxidant exposure decreased aconitase activity 30% but not pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and malate dehydrogenase activities. Inhibition of ERK1/2 restored basal and state 3 respirations, DeltaPsi(m), ATP production, and complex I activity but not aconitase activity. In contrast, activation of ERK1/2 by expression of constitutively active MEK1 suppressed basal, uncoupled, and state 3 respirations in noninjured RPTC to the levels observed in TBHP-injured RPTC. MEK1/2 inhibition did not change Akt or p38 phosphorylation, demonstrating that the protective effect of MEK1/2 inhibitor was not due to activation of Akt or inhibition of p38 pathway. Inhibition of PKC-epsilon did not block TBHP-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in whole RPTC or in mitochondria. We conclude that 1) oxidant-induced activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 or JNK reduces mitochondrial respiration and ATP production by decreasing complex I activity and substrate oxidation through complex I, 2) citric acid cycle dehydrogenases are not under control of the ERK1/2 pathway in oxidant-injured RPTC, 3) the protective effects of ERK1/2 inhibition are not due to activation of Akt, and 4) ERK1/2 and PKC-epsilon mediate oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction through independent pathways.

  20. Nitric oxide decreases stability of mRNAs encoding soluble guanylate cyclase subunits in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Filippov, G; Bloch, D B; Bloch, K D

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) to convert GTP to the intracellular second messenger cGMP. In rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, sGC is an obligate heterodimer composed of alpha1 and beta1 subunits. We investigated the effect of NO donor compounds on sGC subunit gene expression in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-glutathione decreased sGC subunit mRNA and protein levels, as well as sGC enzyme activity. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an sGC inhibitor, blocked the effect of sodium nitroprusside on sGC subunit gene expression, whereas 8-bromo cGMP decreased subunit mRNA levels, demonstrating that NO-mediated decrease in sGC subunit mRNA levels is cGMP-dependent. sGC subunit mRNA levels decreased more rapidly in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to actinomycin D, suggesting that NO decreases sGC subunit mRNA stability. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked the ability of NO to decrease sGC subunit mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that NO decreases sGC subunit mRNA stability via a transcription- and translation-dependent mechanism. PMID:9259594

  1. Effect of cadmium-polluted diet on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity of juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Shi-Jun; Chen, Ming; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals that have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. To investigate the effects of dietary cadmium on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity in juvenile Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) and potential protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin, five experimental diets (control, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd, 30mg/kg Cd+100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd+200mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin) were formulated. The results showed that Cd at 30mg/kg induced significant increase in weight gain, specific growth rate and visible alterations to the hepatopancreas structures of L. vannamei. Compared with control diet, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin added diet had no effect on growth performance or feed utilization, while healthier hepatopancreas and less plasma ALT, AST production was found. Moreover, 200mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin significantly ameliorated the Cd induced hepatotoxicity while 100mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin slightly ameliorated. Cd accumulation in the whole body was decreasing and Metallothioneins like was increasing in hepatopancreas with increasing dietary Zn(II)-curcumin level. The shrimp fed with dietary Zn(II)-curcumin showed higher survival rate after acute salinity change. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that hepatotoxicity and hormesis could be induced by Cd when Cd levels were 30mg/kg, Zn(II)-curcumin could mitigate the effects of dietary Cd on L. vannamei.

  2. Heat-solubilized curry spice curcumin inhibits antibody-antigen interaction in in vitro studies: A possible therapy to alleviate autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; D'Souza, Anil; Scofield, R. Hal

    2010-01-01

    Chronic and complex autoimmune diseases, currently treated palliatively with immunosuppressives, require multi-targeted therapy for greater effectiveness. The naturally occurring polyphenol curcumin has emerged as a powerful “nutraceutical” that interacts with multiple targets to regress diseases safely and inexpensively. Upto 8 g/day of curcumin for 18 months was non-toxic to humans. However, curcumin's utility is limited by its aqueous insolubility. We have demonstrated a heat-mediated 12-fold increase in curcumin's aqueous solubility. Here we show by, SDS-PAGE and SPR, that heat-solubilized curcumin binds to proteins. Based on this binding we hypothesized that heat-solubilized curcumin or turmeric would prevent autoantibody targeting of cognate autoantigens. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric significantly decreased binding of autoantibodies from Sjögren's syndrome (SS) (up to 43/70 % respectively) and SLE (up to 52/70 % respectively) patients as well as an animal model of SS (up to 50/60 % respectively) to their cognate antigens. However, inhibition was not specific to autoimmunity. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric also inhibited binding of polyclonal anti-spectrin to spectrin (50/56 % respectively). Thus, we suggest that the multifaceted heat-solubilized curcumin can ameliorate autoimmune disorders. In addition, the non-toxic curcumin could serve as a new protein stain in SDS-PAGE even though it is less sensitive than the Coomassie system which involves toxic chemicals. PMID:20146265

  3. Curcumin ameliorates autoimmune diabetes. Evidence in accelerated murine models of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Castro, C N; Barcala Tabarrozzi, A E; Winnewisser, J; Gimeno, M L; Antunica Noguerol, M; Liberman, A C; Paz, D A; Dewey, R A; Perone, M J

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that selectively destroys pancreatic β cells. The only possible cure for T1DM is to control autoimmunity against β cell-specific antigens. We explored whether the natural compound curcumin, with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, might down-regulate the T cell response that destroys pancreatic β cells to improve disease outcome in autoimmune diabetes. We employed two accelerated autoimmune diabetes models: (i) cyclophosphamide (CYP) administration to non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and (ii) adoptive transfer of diabetogenic splenocytes into NODscid mice. Curcumin treatment led to significant delay of disease onset, and in some instances prevented autoimmune diabetes by inhibiting pancreatic leucocyte infiltration and preserving insulin-expressing cells. To investigate the mechanisms of protection we studied the effect of curcumin on key immune cell populations involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Curcumin modulates the T lymphocyte response impairing proliferation and interferon (IFN)-γ production through modulation of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), a key transcription factor for proinflammatory T helper type 1 (Th1) lymphocyte differentiation, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Also, curcumin reduces nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated NOD lymphocytes. In addition, curcumin impairs the T cell stimulatory function of dendritic cells with reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) and low surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules, leading to an overall diminished antigen-presenting cell activity. These in-vitro effects correlated with ex-vivo analysis of cells obtained from curcumin-treated mice during the course of autoimmune diabetes. These findings reveal an effective therapeutic effect of curcumin in autoimmune diabetes by its actions on key immune cells responsible for β cell death. PMID

  4. The abilities of selenium dioxide and selenite ion to coordinate DNA-bound metal ions and decrease oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Hart, William E; Marczak, Steven P; Kneller, Andrew R; French, Robert A; Morris, Daniel L

    2013-08-01

    Several transition metals react with H2O2 and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for oxidative damage linked to many diseases and disorders, and species that form coordination complexes with these metal ions show promise as antioxidants. The present study demonstrates that metal-mediated radical and non-radical oxidative DNA damage decreases when selenium dioxide (SeO2) and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) are present. Radical-induced damage is associated with production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), which arises from ROS generated at or near the guanine base, and the selenium compounds reduce Fe(II)-, Cr(III)- and Cu(II)-mediated radical damage to differing degrees based on the identity of the metal ion and the order in which the metals, selenium compounds and DNA are combined. Radical damage arising from Fe(II) and Cr(III) decreases substantially when they are pre-incubated with the selenium compounds prior to adding DNA. Non-radical damage is associated with oxidation of the adenine base in the presence of high H2O2 concentrations through an ionic mechanism, and this type of damage also decreases significantly when the selenium compounds are allowed to interact with the metal ions before adding DNA. Fluorescence studies using dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) to probe ROS formation indicate that the majority of the SeO2- and SeO3(2-)-metal systems in combination with H2O2 (no DNA present) produce ROS to the same degree as the metal/H2O2 systems in the absence of the selenium compounds, suggesting that selenium-metal complexes react with H2O2 in a sacrificial manner that protects DNA from oxidative damage.

  5. Curcumin treatment alters ERK-1/2 signaling in vitro and inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma proliferation in mouse xenografts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Qiang; Wu, Xian-Bo; Tang, Song-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a plant phenol, has been used for centuries in traditional medicines for its anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic properties. The compound is believed to act on a range of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effect of curcumin on ERK-1/2 pathway protein expression and on proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells was investigated. CNE-2Z nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were cultured with 10, 20, 40, or 80 μM curcumin for 24 h before proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetry. Cell proliferation was increasingly inhibited as the concentration of curcumin increased (P<0.005). Additionally, Western blotting revealed that expression of p-ERK-1/2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was altered following curcumin treatment, also in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of p-ERK-1/2 and MMP-9 decreased, while expression of TIMP-1 increased (P<0.05). Finally, CNE-2Z cells were xenografted under the skin of 18 nude mice. Mice were treated with vehicle only (control), 24 mg/kg curcumin (low-dose group), or 50 mg/kg curcumin (high-dose group) every other day for 40 days beginning 24 h after xenografting. Compared to tumors from the control group, the volume and weight of xenograft tumors was significantly lower in both curcumin groups, with a higher magnitude of difference in the high-dose curcumin group (P<0.05). These results indicate that curcumin treatment can inhibit proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and alter expression of proteins in the ERK-1/2 signaling pathway. Therefore, curcumin warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer.

  6. Pharmacokinetic effects of curcumin on docetaxel mediated by OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and CYP450s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Li, Junxiu; Guo, Chaorui; Xing, Han; Xu, Jie; Wen, Yanli; Qiu, Zhixia; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Xijing; Zhao, Di

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin can synergistically enhance docetaxel's in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity and has been co-administrated with docetaxel in clinical trials. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel and explore its mechanism on OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and human liver microsomes (HLMs). In rats, curcumin increased the docetaxel area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-8h) and the terminal half-life (t1/2) to 1.86- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Moreover, curcumin decreased the clearance (CL) of docetaxel to 52.1%. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were used to observe the effects of curcumin on OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of docetaxel. Curcumin exhibited potent inhibition on OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated docetaxel uptake with IC50 values of 3.81 ± 1.19 μM and 33.70 ± 1.22 μM, respectively. The inhibition of curcumin on docetaxel metabolism in HLMs indicated that curcumin can modestly inhibit the metabolism of docetaxel with the IC50 value of 22.70 ± 1.13 μM and Ki value of 24.72 ± 4.24 μM. The preclinical and clinical improved docetaxel's therapeutic efficacy when co-administrated with curcumin may be due to the inhibition of curcumin on OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and HLMs activities. Close attention should be paid when combined treatment with docetaxel and curcumin carried out clinically. PMID:27452633

  7. Hepatoprotective and Nephroprotective Effect of Curcumin Against Copper Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Elgaml, Shimaa A

    2016-07-01

    Curcumin is a natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant with several potential health benefits. Although it has been examined in several metals toxicity studies, but its role in the protection against copper toxicity has not been investigated. In this study; the detoxification and antioxidant effect of curcumin were examined to determine its prophylactic/therapeutic role experimentally in rats. Forty albino rats were divided into five groups; control, CuSO4 (4 mg/kg body weight), curcumin (80 mg/kg body weight), curcumin post-treatment (CuSO4 for 15 days followed by curcumin for the next 15 days) and curcumin co-treatment (CuSO4 plus curcumin for 30 days). All rats were treated orally by stomach tube for 30 days/once a day. Changes were observed in hepatic marker enzymes such as: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase-(ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), besides the serum total protein, urea and creatinine. Concentration of liver and kidney antioxidants such as: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione-(GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. An increased in the activities of liver marker enzymes, urea, creatinine and the MDA contents were detected after exposure to CuSO4. Meanwhile, the activities of serum total protein, hepatic and renal antioxidants were decreased. Changes in all biochemical parameters were alleviated by the post-treatment and co-treatment of curcumin. Our finding suggests that the curcumin showed protective effects on CuSO4-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. PMID:27382197

  8. Curcumin augments lung maturation, preventing neonatal lung injury by inhibiting TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Torday, John S.

    2011-01-01

    There is no effective intervention to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Curcumin has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it modulates signaling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), an important molecule in the pathobiology of BPD. However, its role in the prevention of BPD is not known. We determined 1) if curcumin enhances neonatal lung maturation, 2) if curcumin protects against hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury, and 3) if this protection is mediated by blocking TGF-β. Embryonic day 19 fetal rat lung fibroblasts were exposed to 21% or 95% O2 for 24 h following 1 h of treatment with curcumin. Curcumin dose dependently accelerated e19 fibroblast differentiation [increased parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor, PPARγ, and adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) levels and triolein uptake] and proliferation (increased thymidine incorporation). Pretreatment with curcumin blocked the hyperoxia-induced decrease (PPARγ and ADRP) and increase (α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin) in markers of lung injury/repair, as well as the activation of TGF-β signaling. In a separate set of experiments, neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 21% or 95% O2 for 7 days with or without intraperitoneal administration of curcumin. Analysis for markers of lung injury/repair [PTHrP receptor, PPARγ, ADRP, fibronectin, TGF-β receptor (activin receptor-like kinase 5), and Smad3] and lung morphology (radial alveolar count) demonstrated that curcumin effectively blocks TGF-β activation and hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Therefore, curcumin accelerates lung maturation by stimulating key alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and prevents hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury, possibly by blocking TGF-β activation, suggesting that it is a potential intervention against BPD. PMID:21821729

  9. Global and Regional Decreases in Tropospheric Oxidants from Photochemical Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of tropospheric OH, O3, and O3 precursors to photochemical effects of aerosols not usually included in global models: (1) aerosol scattering and absorption of ultraviolet radiation and (2) reactive uptake of HO', NO2, and NO3. Our approach is to couple a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS- CHEM) with aerosol fields from a global 3-D aerosol model (GOCART). Reactive uptake by aerosols is computed using reaction probabilities from a recent review (gamma(sub HO2) = 0.2, gamma(sub NO2) = 10(exp -4), gamma(sub NO3) = l0(exp -3). Aerosols decrease the O3 - O((sup 1)D) photolysis frequency by 5-20% at the surface throughout the Northern Hemisphere (largely due to mineral dust) and by a factor of 2 in biomass burning regions (largely due to black carbon). Aerosol uptake of HO2 accounts for 10-40% of total HOx radical ((triple bonds)OH + peroxy) loss in the boundary layer over polluted continental regions (largely due to sulfate and organic carbon) and for more than 70% over tropical biomass burning regions (largely due to organic carbon). Uptake of NO2 and NO3 accounts for 10-20% of total HNO3 production over biomass burning regions and less elsewhere. Annual mean OH concentrations decrease by 9% globally and by 5-35% in the boundary layer over the Northern Hemisphere. Simulated CO increases by 5- 15 ppbv in the remote Northern Hemisphere, improving agreement with observations. Simulated boundary layer O3 decreases by 15- 45 ppbv over India during the biomass burning season in March and by 5-9 ppbv over northern Europe in August, again improving comparison with observations. We find that particulate matter controls would increase surface O3 over Europe and other industrial regions.

  10. Penetration of Oxidized Carbon Nanospheres through Lipid Bilayer Membrane: Comparison to Graphene Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes, and Effects of pH and Membrane Composition.

    PubMed

    Seemork, Jiraporn; Sansureerungsikul, Titiporn; Sathornsantikun, Kamonluck; Sinthusake, Tarit; Shigyou, Kazuki; Tree-Udom, Thapakorn; Jiangchareon, Banphot; Chiablaem, Khajeelak; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Svasti, Jisnuson; Hamada, Tsutomu; Palaga, Tanapat; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2016-09-14

    Here we show that the ability of oxidized carbon particles to penetrate phospholipid bilayer membrane varies with the particle shapes, chemical functionalities on the particle surface, lipid compositions of the membrane and pH conditions. Among the similar surface charged oxidized carbon particles of spherical (oxidized carbon nanosphere, OCS), tubular (oxidized carbon nanotube, OCT), and sheet (oxidized graphene sheet, OGSh) morphologies, OCS possesses the highest levels of adhesion to lipid bilayer membrane and penetration into the cell-sized liposome. OCS preferably binds better to the disordered lipid bilayer membrane (consisting of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine) as compared to the ordered membrane (consisting of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol). The process of OCS-induced leak on the membrane is pH responsive and most pronounced under an acidic condition. Covalently decorating the OCS's surface with poly(ethylene oxide) or (2-aminoethyl)trimethylammonium moieties decreases its ability to interact with the membrane. When used as carriers, OCSs can deliver curcumin into nucleus of A549 human lung cancer and human embryonic kidney cells, in contrast, curcumin molecules delivered by OCTs remain in the cytoplasm. OGShs cannot significantly enter cells and cannot induce noticeable cellular uptake of curcumin. PMID:27404585

  11. Penetration of Oxidized Carbon Nanospheres through Lipid Bilayer Membrane: Comparison to Graphene Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes, and Effects of pH and Membrane Composition.

    PubMed

    Seemork, Jiraporn; Sansureerungsikul, Titiporn; Sathornsantikun, Kamonluck; Sinthusake, Tarit; Shigyou, Kazuki; Tree-Udom, Thapakorn; Jiangchareon, Banphot; Chiablaem, Khajeelak; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Svasti, Jisnuson; Hamada, Tsutomu; Palaga, Tanapat; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2016-09-14

    Here we show that the ability of oxidized carbon particles to penetrate phospholipid bilayer membrane varies with the particle shapes, chemical functionalities on the particle surface, lipid compositions of the membrane and pH conditions. Among the similar surface charged oxidized carbon particles of spherical (oxidized carbon nanosphere, OCS), tubular (oxidized carbon nanotube, OCT), and sheet (oxidized graphene sheet, OGSh) morphologies, OCS possesses the highest levels of adhesion to lipid bilayer membrane and penetration into the cell-sized liposome. OCS preferably binds better to the disordered lipid bilayer membrane (consisting of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine) as compared to the ordered membrane (consisting of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol). The process of OCS-induced leak on the membrane is pH responsive and most pronounced under an acidic condition. Covalently decorating the OCS's surface with poly(ethylene oxide) or (2-aminoethyl)trimethylammonium moieties decreases its ability to interact with the membrane. When used as carriers, OCSs can deliver curcumin into nucleus of A549 human lung cancer and human embryonic kidney cells, in contrast, curcumin molecules delivered by OCTs remain in the cytoplasm. OGShs cannot significantly enter cells and cannot induce noticeable cellular uptake of curcumin.

  12. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and function contribute to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress in fetal lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Adeleye J; Eis, Annie; Alexander, Maxwell; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Teng, Ru-Jeng; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Konduri, Girija G

    2016-01-01

    Impaired vasodilation in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the hypothesis that a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level leads to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function in a lamb model of PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction. We ventilated PPHN lambs with 100% O2 alone or with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). We treated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from normal and PPHN lambs with detaNONOate, an NO donor. We observed decreased mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number, electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunit levels, and ATP levels in PAECs and lung tissue of PPHN fetal lambs at baseline compared with gestation matched controls. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and sirtuin-1, which facilitate mitochondrial biogenesis, were decreased in PPHN. Ventilation with 100% O2 was associated with larger decreases in ETC subunits in the lungs of PPHN lambs compared with unventilated PPHN lambs. iNO administration, which facilitated weaning of FiO2 , partly restored mtDNA copy number, ETC subunit levels, and ATP levels. DetaNONOate increased eNOS phosphorylation and its interaction with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90); increased levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mRNA, protein, and activity; and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide levels in PPHN-PAECs. Knockdown of eNOS decreased ETC protein levels in control PAECs. We conclude that ventilation with 100% O2 amplifies oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in PPHN, which are partly improved by iNO and weaning of oxygen. PMID:26519208

  13. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Aslan, Mutay; Basaranlar, Goksun; Unal, Mustafa; Ciftcioglu, Akif; Derin, Narin; Mutus, Bulent

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  14. Bioavailability of curcumin and curcumin glucuronide in the central nervous system of mice after oral delivery of nano-curcumin.

    PubMed

    Szymusiak, Magdalena; Hu, Xiaoyu; Leon Plata, Paola A; Ciupinski, Paulina; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Liu, Ying

    2016-09-10

    Curcumin is a bioactive molecule extracted from Turmeric roots that has been recognized to possess a wide variety of important biological activities. Despite its great pharmacological activities, curcumin is highly hydrophobic, which results in poor bioavailability. We have formulated this hydrophobic compound into stable polymeric nanoparticles (nano-curcumin) to enhance its oral absorption. Pharmacokinetic analysis after oral delivery of nano-curcumin in mice demonstrated approximately 20-fold reduction in dose requirement when compared to unformulated curcumin to achieve comparable plasma and central nervous system (CNS) tissue concentrations. This investigation corroborated our previous study of curcumin functionality of attenuating opioid tolerance and dependence, which shows equivalent efficacy of low-dose (20mg/kg) nano-curcumin and high-dose (400mg/kg) pure curcumin in mice. Furthermore, the highly selective and validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to quantify curcumin glucuronide, the major metabolite of curcumin. The results suggest that the presence of curcumin in the CNS is essential for prevention and reversal of opioid tolerance and dependence. PMID:27426105

  15. Ob/ob Mouse Livers Show Decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation Efficiencies and Anaerobic Capacities after Cold Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tagaloa, Sherry; Zhang, Linda; Dare, Anna J.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Yeong, Mee-Ling; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. Methods Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n = 9) and lean C57 mice (n = 9) were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. Results Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60%) macrovesicular and mild (<30%) microvesicular steatosis on Oil Red O staining, respectively. Ob/ob livers had lower baseline enzymatic complex I activity but similar adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to lean livers. During cold storage, the respiratory control ratio and complex I-fueled phosphorylation deteriorated approximately twice as fast in ob/ob livers compared to lean livers. Ob/ob livers also demonstrated decreased ATP production capacities at all time-points analyzed compared to lean livers. Ob/ob liver baseline lactate dehydrogenase activities and intrinsic non-bicarbonate buffering capacities were depressed by 60% and 40%, respectively compared to lean livers. Conclusions Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in steatotic donor

  16. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation activates transforming growth factor-beta in cerebrospinal fluid and decreases spontaneous motor activity.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Teppei; Fujita, Ryo; Iwaki, Yoko; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Fushiki, Tohru; Inoue, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    We have previously reported that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is involved in the mechanism underlying the regulation of spontaneous motor activity (SMA) by the central nervous system after exercise. However, it remained unclear what physiological condition triggers the activation of TGF-beta. We hypothesized that the shortage of energy derived from fatty acid (FA) oxidation observed in the early phase of exercise activated TGF-beta in the CSF. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether mercaptoacetate (MA), an inhibitor of FA oxidation, could induce an activation of TGF-beta in the CSF and a decrease in SMA. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MA activated TGF-beta in CSF in rats and depressed SMA; 2-deoxyglucose, an inhibitor of carbohydrate oxidation, on the other hand, depressed SMA but failed to activate CSF TGF-beta. Intracisternal administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody abolished the depressive effect of MA on SMA. We also found that the depression of SMA and the activation of TGF-beta in the CSF by i.p. MA administration were eliminated by vagotomy. Our data suggest that TGF-beta in the CSF is activated by the inhibition of FA oxidation via the vagus nerve and that this subsequently induces depression of SMA.

  17. Anti-cancer effects of curcumin on lung cancer through the inhibition of EZH2 and NOTCH1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Wang, Xiao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Ai-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Ying; Chen, Yun; Chen, Xiao-Chen; Xiao, Jian-Yong; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Fu-Wei; Rui, Tao; Liao, Yi-Ji; Xie, Dan; Lu, Li-Qin; Huang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is potentially therapeutic for malignant diseases. The mechanisms of this effect might involve a combination of antioxidant, immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activities. However, the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we provided evidences that curcumin suppressed the expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in lung cancer cells both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Curcumin inhibited the expression of EZH2 through microRNA (miR)-let 7c and miR-101. Curcumin decreased the expression of NOTCH1 through the inhibition of EZH2. There was a reciprocal regulation between EZH2 and NOTCH1 in lung cancer cells. These observations suggest that curcumin inhibits lung cancer growth and metastasis at least partly through the inhibition of EZH2 and NOTCH1. PMID:27049834

  18. Soy Isoflavone Protects Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Increasing Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Decreasing Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Li, Shuangyue; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Jinbiao; Meng, Guoliang; Xie, Liping; Yu, Ying; Ji, Yong; Han, Yi

    2016-01-01

    There is a special role for estrogens in preventing and curing cardiovascular disease in women. Soy isoflavone (SI), a soy-derived phytoestrogen, has similar chemical structure to endogenous estrogen-estradiol. We investigate to elucidate the protective mechanism of SI on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Female SD rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy. One week later, rats were randomly divided into several groups, sham ovariectomy (control group), ovariectomy with MI/R, or ovariectomy with sham MI/R. Other ovariectomy rats were given different doses of SI or 17β-estradiol (E2). Four weeks later, they were exposed to 30 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 6 or 24 hours of reperfusion. SI administration significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved left ventricle function and restored endothelium-dependent relaxation function of thoracic aortas after MI/R in ovariectomized rats. SI also decreased serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity, reduced plasma malonaldehyde, and attenuated oxidative stress in the myocardium. Meanwhile, SI increased phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signal pathway. SI failed to decrease infarct size of hearts with I/R in ovariectomized rats if PI3K was inhibited. Overall, these results indicated that SI protects myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in ovariectomized rats through increasing PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway and decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:27057277

  19. Downstream modulation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's dementia in rats: Erythropoietin versus curcumin.

    PubMed

    Samy, Doaa M; Ismail, Cherine A; Nassra, Rasha A; Zeitoun, Teshreen M; Nomair, Azhar M

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietin and curcumin showed promising neuroprotective effects in various models of Alzheimer's dementia. This study was designed to compare the beneficial effects of erythropoietin and/or curcumin in intracerebro-ventricular (ICV) streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's like disease in rats. Rats received ICV injection of either saline (control, n=8 rats), or streptozotocin. Three weeks following surgery, streptozotocin-injected rats were assigned into 4 groups (8 rats each); vehicle, curcumin (80mg/kg/day, orally), erythropoietin (500 IU/kg every other day, intraperitoneally) and combined (curcumin and erythropoietin)-treated groups. After 3 months of treatment, rats were subjected to neurobehavioral testing, and then killed for biochemical and histological assessment of hippocampus. Fas ligand protein and caspase-8 activity as mediators of extrinsic apoptotic pathway, oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione) and β-amyloid (1-40 and 1-42) peptides were measured. The results showed that administration of erythropoietin suppressed extrinsic apoptosis better than curcumin, while curcumin was more effective in combating oxidative stress in ICV-streptozotocin injected rats. Both erythropoietin and curcumin treatments (individually or combined) equally reduced the hippocampal β-amyloid accumulation and improved cognitive impairment in Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks. The combined treatment was the most effective in ameliorating apoptosis and oxidative stress rather than behavioral responses or β-amyloid burden. In conclusion, ICV-streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's dementia activates hippocampal Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis, which could be reduced by erythropoietin and/or curcumin treatment. Curcumin supplementation alone could ameliorate cognitive deficits and reverse biochemical alterations in ICV-streptozotocin Alzheimer's rat model without the hazardous polycythemic effect of long-term erythropoietin injection.

  20. Curcumin interaction with copper and iron suggests one possible mechanism of action in Alzheimer's disease animal models.

    PubMed

    Baum, Larry; Ng, Alex

    2004-08-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic diketone from turmeric. Because of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, it was tested in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, reducing levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and preventing cognitive deficits. An alternative mechanism of these effects is metal chelation, which may reduce amyloid aggregation or oxidative neurotoxicity. Metals can induce Abeta aggregation and toxicity, and are concentrated in AD brain. Chelators desferrioxamine and clioquinol have exhibited anti-AD effects. Using spectrophotometry, we quantified curcumin affinity for copper, zinc, and iron ions. Zn2+ showed little binding, but each Cu2+ or Fe2+ ion appeared to bind at least two curcumin molecules. The interaction of curcumin with copper reached half-maximum at approximately 3-12 microM copper and exhibited positive cooperativity, with Kd1 approximately 10-60 microM and Kd2 approximately 1.3 microM (for binding of the first and second curcumin molecules, respectively). Curcumin-iron interaction reached half-maximum at approximately 2.5-5 microM iron and exhibited negative cooperativity, with Kd1 approximately 0.5-1.6 microM and Kd2 approximately 50-100 microM. Curcumin and its metabolites can attain these levels in vivo, suggesting physiological relevance. Since curcumin more readily binds the redox-active metals iron and copper than redox-inactive zinc, curcumin might exert a net protective effect against Abeta toxicity or might suppress inflammatory damage by preventing metal induction of NF-kappaB.

  1. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Sundaram, Chitra; Malani, Nikita; Ichikawa, Haruyo

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life". PMID:17569205

  2. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Sundaram, Chitra; Malani, Nikita; Ichikawa, Haruyo

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric, derived from the plant Curcuma longa, is a gold-colored spice commonly used in the Indian subcontinent, not only for health care but also for the preservation of food and as a yellow dye for textiles. Curcumin, which gives the yellow color to turmeric, was first isolated almost two centuries ago, and its structure as diferuloylmethane was determined in 1910. Since the time of Ayurveda (1900 Bc) numerous therapeutic activities have been assigned to turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems, aches, pains, wounds, sprains, and liver disorders. Extensive research within the last half century has proven that most of these activities, once associated with turmeric, are due to curcumin. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities and thus has a potential against various malignant diseases, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and other chronic illnesses. These effects are mediated through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits activities similar to recently discovered tumor necrosis factor blockers (e.g., HUMIRA, REMICADE, and ENBREL), a vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (e.g., AVASTIN), human epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (e.g., ERBITUX, ERLOTINIB, and GEFTINIB), and a HER2 blocker (e.g., HERCEPTIN). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that multitargeted therapy is better than monotargeted therapy for most diseases, curcumin can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life".

  3. Nitrite decreases ethanol production by intact soybean roots submitted to oxygen deficiency: a role for mitochondrial nitric oxide synthesis?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley C; Salgado, Ione; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2013-04-01

    Nitrate increases the tolerance of plants to hypoxia, although the mechanisms related to this beneficial effect are still unclear. Recently, we observed that cultivation of soybean plants with nitrate reduced hypoxic accumulation of fermentation end products by isolated root segments compared with the ammonium treatment. Interestingly, the same decrease in the intensity of fermentation was detected when ammonium-grown root segments were incubated with nitrite, suggesting the involvement of this anion in the nitrate-mediated modulation of fermentative metabolism. Here we extended these experiments to intact plants subjected to root hypoxia and observed similar effects of nitrate and nitrite in reducing root ethanol production, which indicates the physiological relevance of the in vitro results. In both experimental systems, nitrite stimulated nitric oxide emission by ammonium-grown roots to levels similar to that of nitrate-cultivated ones. The involvement of mitochondrial reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide in the root response to hypoxia is suggested.

  4. Expression of uncoupling protein 1 in skeletal muscle decreases muscle energy efficiency and affects thermoregulation and substrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Susanne; Rudolph, Bettina; Dohrmann, Cord; Wehr, Roland

    2005-04-14

    Skeletal muscle uncoupling by ectopic expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) has been shown to result in a lean phenotype in mice characterized by increased energy expenditure (EE), resistance to diet-induced obesity, and improved glucose tolerance. Here, we investigated in detail the effect of ectopic UCP1 expression in skeletal muscle on thermoregulation and energy homeostasis in HSA-mUCP1 transgenic mice. Thermoneutrality was determined to be approximately 30 degrees C for both wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice. EE, body temperature (Tb), activity, and respiratory quotient (RQ) were then measured over 24 h at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 30, 22, and 5 degrees C. HSA-mUCP1 transgenic mice showed increased activity-related EE and heat loss but similar basal metabolic rate compared with WT. Tb at resting periods was progressively decreased with declining Ta in HSA-mUCP1 transgenic mice but not in WT. Compared with WT littermates, the transgenic HSA-mUCP1 mice displayed increased RQ levels during night time, indicative of increased overall glucose oxidation, and failed to decrease their RQ levels with declining Ta. Thus increased EE caused by skeletal muscle uncoupling is clearly due to a decreased muscle energy efficiency during activity combined with increased glucose oxidation and a compromised thermoregulation associated with increased overall heat loss. At Tas below thermoneutrality, this puts increasing energy demands on the animals, whereas at thermoneutrality most differences in energy metabolism are not apparent any more.

  5. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  6. Thermal stability, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin and its degradation product 4-vinyl guaiacol.

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ulbrich, Katrin; Rehberg, Clemens; Rohn, Sascha; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin is a secondary plant metabolite present in Curcuma longa L. Since curcumin is widely used as a food colorant in thermally processed food it may undergo substantial chemical changes which in turn could affect its biological activity. In the current study, curcumin was roasted at 180 °C up to 70 minutes and its kinetic of degradation was analyzed by means of HPLC-PDA and LC-MS, respectively. Roasting of curcumin resulted in the formation of the degradation products vanillin, ferulic acid, and 4-vinyl guaiacol. In cultured hepatocytes roasted curcumin as well as 4-vinyl guaiacol enhanced the transactivation of the redox-regulated transcription factor Nrf2, known to be centrally involved in cellular stress response and antioxidant defense mechanisms. The antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase 1 was induced by roasted curcumin and 4-vinyl guaiacol. Furthermore, roasted curcumin and 4-vinyl guaiacol decreased interleukin-6 gene expression in lipopolysaccharide stimulated murine macrophages. Current data suggest that curcumin undergoes degradation due to roasting and its degradation product exhibit significant biological activity in cultured cells.

  7. Antidepressant effects of curcumin in the forced swim test and olfactory bulbectomy models of depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ku, Bao-Shan; Yao, Hai-Yan; Lin, Yan-Hua; Ma, Xing; Zhang, Yong-He; Li, Xue-Jun

    2005-09-01

    Curcuma longa is a major constituent of Xiaoyao-san, the traditional Chinese medicinal formula, which has been used to effectively manage stress and depression-related disorders in China. Curcumin is the active component of curcuma longa, and we hypothesized that curcumin would have an influence on depressive-like behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the putative antidepressant effect of chronic administrations of curcumin (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) in the forced swimming test and bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OB) models of depression in rats. In the first study, chronic treatment with curcumin (14 days) reduced the immobility time in the forced swimming test. In the second experiment, curcumin reversed the OB-induced behavioral abnormalities such as hyperactivity in the open field, as well as deficits in step-down passive avoidance. In addition, OB-induced low levels of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), high 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the hippocampus were observed, and were completely reversed by curcumin administration. A slight decrease in 5-HT, NA and dopamine (DA) levels was found in the frontal cortex of OB rats which was also reversed by curcumin treatment. These results confirm the antidepressant effects of curcumin in the forced swim and the OB models of depression in rats, and suggest that these antidepressant effects may be mediated by actions in the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems.

  8. Sustained release Curcumin loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jourghanian, Parisa; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Haghighat, Setareh; Mohammadnejad, Mahdieh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: curcumin is poorly water soluble drug with low bioavailability. Use of lipid systems in lipophilic substances increases solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to prepare curcumin loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) with high loading efficiency, small particle size and prolonged release profile with enhanced antibacterial efficacy. Methods: to synthesize stable SLNs, freeze- Drying was done using mannitol as cryoprotectant. Cholesterol was used as carrier because of good tolerability and biocompatibility. SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization method. Results: optimized SLNs had 112 and 163 nm particle size before and after freeze drying, respectively. The prepared SLNs had 71% loading efficiency. 90% of loaded curcumin was released after 48 hours. Morphologic study for formulation was done by taking SEM pictures of curcumin SLNs. Results show the spherical shape of curcumin SLNs. DSC studies were performed to determine prolonged release mechanism. Antimicrobial studies were done to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of curcumin SLNs with free curcumin. DSC studies showed probability of formation of hydrogen bonds between cholesterol and curcumin which resulted in prolonged release of curcumin. Lipid structure of cholesterol could cause enhanced permeability in studied bacteria to increase antibacterial characteristics of curcumin. Conclusion: the designed curcumin SLNs could be candidate for formulation of different dosage forms or cosmeceutical products. PMID:27123413

  9. Decreased long-chain fatty acid oxidation impairs postischemic recovery of the insulin-resistant rat heart.

    PubMed

    Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G; Guthrie, Patrick H; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction are more likely to die than nondiabetic patients. In the present study we examined the effect of insulin resistance on myocardial ischemia tolerance. Hearts of rats, rendered insulin resistant by high-sucrose feeding, were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion ex vivo. Cardiac power of control hearts from chow-fed rats recovered to 93%, while insulin-resistant hearts recovered only to 80% (P<0.001 vs. control). Unexpectedly, impaired contractile recovery did not result from an impairment of glucose oxidation (576±36 vs. 593±42 nmol/min/g dry weight; not significant), but from a failure to increase and to sustain oxidation of the long-chain fatty acid oleate on reperfusion (1878±56 vs. 2070±67 nmol/min/g dry weight; P<0.05). This phenomenon was due to a reduced ability to transport oleate into mitochondria and associated with a 38-58% decrease in the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) levels. Contractile function was rescued by replacing oleate with a medium-chain fatty acid or by restoring UCP3 levels with 24 h of food withdrawal. Lastly, the knockdown of UCP3 in rat L6 myocytes also decreased oleate oxidation by 13-18% following ischemia. Together the results expose UCP3 as a critical regulator of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in the stressed heart postischemia and identify octanoate as an intervention by which myocardial metabolism can be manipulated to improve function of the insulin-resistant heart.

  10. Membrane-thinning effect of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Chin; Chen, Fang-Yu; Lee, Chang-Chun; Sun, Yen; Lee, Ming-Tao; Huang, Huey W

    2008-06-01

    Interaction of curcumin with lipid bilayers is not well understood. A recent experiment showed that curcumin significantly affected the single-channel lifetime of gramicidin in a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer without affecting its single-channel conductance. We performed two experiments to understand this result. By isothermal titration calorimetry, we measured the partition coefficient of curcumin binding to DOPC bilayers. By x-ray lamellar diffraction, we measured the thickness change of DOPC bilayers as a function of the curcumin/lipid ratio. A nonlinear membrane-thinning effect by curcumin was discovered. The gramicidin data were qualitatively interpreted by the combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and x-ray results. We show that not only does curcumin thin the lipid bilayer, it might also weaken its elasticity moduli. The result implies that curcumin may affect the function of membrane proteins by modifying the properties of the host membrane.

  11. Membrane-Thinning Effect of Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wei-Chin; Chen, Fang-Yu; Lee, Chang-Chun; Sun, Yen; Lee, Ming-Tao; Huang, Huey W.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction of curcumin with lipid bilayers is not well understood. A recent experiment showed that curcumin significantly affected the single-channel lifetime of gramicidin in a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer without affecting its single-channel conductance. We performed two experiments to understand this result. By isothermal titration calorimetry, we measured the partition coefficient of curcumin binding to DOPC bilayers. By x-ray lamellar diffraction, we measured the thickness change of DOPC bilayers as a function of the curcumin/lipid ratio. A nonlinear membrane-thinning effect by curcumin was discovered. The gramicidin data were qualitatively interpreted by the combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and x-ray results. We show that not only does curcumin thin the lipid bilayer, it might also weaken its elasticity moduli. The result implies that curcumin may affect the function of membrane proteins by modifying the properties of the host membrane. PMID:18310254

  12. Inhibition of IL-6 Signaling Pathway by Curcumin in Uterine Decidual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Y. Sangeeta; DeVine, Majesta; DeKuiper, Justin; Ferguson, Susan; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2015-01-01

    IL-6 is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine and has been implicated in many gestational disorders including preterm birth. Currently, there are no appropriate therapeutic interventions available to circumvent inflammatory-mediated gestational disorders. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify a safe and effective pharmacological compound to counterbalance inflammatory responses in the uterus. Curcumin, a naturally-occuring polyphenolic compound, has been widely used in alternative medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin has not been explored in uterine decidual cells, a major source of IL-6. Therefore, we examined the effect of curcumin on IL-6 expression using two types of uterine decidual cells 1) HuF cells, primary human fibroblast cells obtained from the decidua parietalis; 2) UIII cells, a rodent non-transformed decidual cell line. Curcumin treatment completely abrogated the expression of IL-1β-induced IL-6 in these cells. Curcumin also strongly inhibited the expression of gp130, a critical molecule in IL-6 signaling, whereas expression of IL-6R and sIL-6R was not affected. Curcumin also inhibited phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STAT3, a well-known downstream mediator of IL-6 signaling. Furthermore, curcumin attenuated IL-1β-induced IL-6 promoter reporter activity suggesting transcriptional regulation. To further understand whether NF-ҡB is involved in this inhibition, we examined the effect of curcumin on the expression of p50 and p65 subunits of NF-ҡB in decidual cells. Expression of IL-1β-induced p50 mRNA was repressed by curcumin while p65 mRNA was not affected. However, curcumin treatment dramatically inhibited both p50 and p65 protein levels and prevented its nuclear localization. This effect is at least partly mediated through the deactivation of IKK, since IL-1β-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation is decreased upon curcumin treatment. Our results not only revealed

  13. Modulatory effects of curcumin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, C; Menon, V P

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine, a pharmacologically active substance in tobacco, has been identified as a major risk factor for lung diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of curcumin on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in nicotine-treated Wistar rats. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (5 days a week, for 22 weeks). Curcumin (80 mg/kg) was given simultaneously by intragastric intubation for 22 weeks. The enhanced level of tissue lipid peroxides in nicotine-treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Administration of curcumin significantly lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin exerts its protective effect against nicotine-induced lung toxicity by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system. PMID:15591646

  14. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Medeiros-de-Moraes, Isabel Matos; Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  15. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  16. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  17. The Healing Effect of Curcumin on Burn Wounds in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Farjam, Mojtaba; Geramizadeh, Bita; Tanideh, Nader; Amini, Masood; Panjehshahin, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burns are still considered one of the most devastating conditions in emergency medicine affecting both genders and all age groups in developed and developing countries, resulting into physical and psychological scars and cause chronic disabilities. This study was performed to determine the healing effect of curcumin on burn wounds in rat. METHODS Seventy female Sprague-Dawley 180-220 g rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Groups of A-C received 0.1, 0.5 and 2% curcumin respectively and Group D, silver sulfadiazine ointment. Group E was considered as control group and received eucerin. After 7, 14 and 21 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically were scored. RESULTS Administration of curcumin resulted into a decrease in size of the burn wounds and a reduction in inflammation after 14th days. Reepithelialization was prominent in groups A-C while more distinguishable in group C. In group C, epidermis exhibited well structured layers without any crusting. There were spindle shaped fibroblasts in fascicular pattern, oriented parallel to the epithelial surface with eosinophilic collagen matrix. CONCLUSION Curcumin as an available and inexpensive herbal was shown be a suitable substitute in healing of burn wounds especially when 2% concentration was applied. PMID:25606474

  18. The reduction of oxidative stress by nanocomposite Fullerol decreases mucositis severity and reverts leukopenia induced by Irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Arifa, Raquel Duque Nascimento; Paula, Talles Prosperi de; Madeira, Mila Fernandes Moreira; Lima, Renata Lacerda; Garcia, Zélia Menezes; Ávila, Thiago Vinícius; Pinho, Vanessa; Barcelos, Lucíola Silva; Pinheiro, Maurício Veloso Brant; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando; Krambrock, Klaus; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Souza, Danielle Glória

    2016-05-01

    Irinotecan is a useful chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several solid tumors. However, this therapy is associated with side effects, including leukopenia and mucositis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate inflammatory pathways and contribute to Irinotecan-induced mucositis. Fullerol is a nanocomposite with anti-oxidant properties that may reduce tissue damage after inflammatory stimuli. In this paper, the effects of Fullerol and mechanisms of protection were investigated in a model of Irinotecan-induced mucositis. Mucositis was induced by an injection of Irinotecan per 4 days in C57BL/6. Fullerol or a vehicle was injected every 12h. On day 7, the intestines were removed to evaluate histological changes, leukocyte influx, and the production of cytokines and ROS. Irinotecan therapy resulted in weight loss, an increased clinical score and intestinal injury. Treatment with Fullerol attenuated weight loss, decreased clinical score and intestinal damage. Irinotecan also induced increased ROS production in enterocytes, oxidative stress, IL-1β production, neutrophil and eosinophil influx in the ileum. Fullerol treatment decreased production of ROS in the enterocytes, oxidative stress, IL-1β production, neutrophil and eosinophil influx in the ileum. Irinotecan therapy also induced leukopenia in an ROS-dependent manner because leukopenia reverted in WT mice treated with Fullerol or Apocynin or in Gp91phox(-/-) mice. Mice treated with Irinotecan presented less melanoma tumor growth compared to the control group. Fullerol does not interfere in the anti-tumor action of Irinotecan. Fullerol has a great pharmacology potential to decreases the severity of mucositis and of leukopenia during chemotherapy treatment. PMID:26987941

  19. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants.

  20. N-acetylcysteine amide decreases oxidative stress but not cell death induced by doxorubicin in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Aronstam, Robert S; Ercal, Nuran; Martin, Adam; Huang, Yue-Wern

    2009-01-01

    Background While doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in cancer chemotherapy, long-term severe cardiotoxicity limits its use. This is the first report of the chemoprotective efficacy of a relatively new thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), on DOX-induced cell death in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that NACA would protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced toxicity by reducing oxidative stress. Accordingly, we determined the ability of NACA to mitigate the cytotoxicity of DOX in H9c2 cells and correlated these effects with the production of indicators of oxidative stress. Results DOX at 5 μM induced cardiotoxicity while 1) increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2) decreasing levels and activities of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and 3) increasing lipid peroxidation. NACA at 750 μM substantially reduced the levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation, as well as increased both GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio. However, treating H9c2 cells with NACA did little to protect H9c2 cells from DOX-induced cell death. Conclusion Although NACA effectively reduced oxidative stress in DOX-treated H9c2 cells, it had minimal effects on DOX-induced cell death. NACA prevented oxidative stress by elevation of GSH and CYS, reduction of ROS and lipid peroxidation, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities. Further studies to identify oxidative stress-independent pathways that lead to DOX-induced cell death in H9c2 are warranted. PMID:19368719

  1. Hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin via up-regulation of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minji; Kim, Yangha

    2010-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) protective agent via decreased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) level. The aim of this study was to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), a rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of bile acid from cholesterol, at the mRNA level. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 45% high fat diet or same diet supplemented with curcumin (0.1% wt/wt) for 8 weeks. The curcumin diet significantly decreased serum triglyceride (TG) by 27%, total cholesterol (TC) by 33.8%, and LDL-cholesterol by 56%, respectively as compared to control group. The curcumin-supplemented diet also significantly lowered the atherogenic index (AI) by 48% as compared to control group. Hepatic TG level was significantly reduced by 41% in rats fed with curcumin-supplemented diet in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Conversely, the curcumin diet significantly increased fecal TG and TC. The curcumin diet up-regulated hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level by 2.16-fold, compared to control group p (P < 0.05). These findings suggested that the increases in the CYP7A1 gene expression may partially account for the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin.

  2. Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-induced migration in K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Lin, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Rong-Rong; Bao, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, traditionally used as food and medicinal purposes, has recently been reported to have protective efficacy against hypoxia. Hypoxia is one of the important reactive factors in tumor metastasis, which is a key problem in clinical thyroid cancer therapy. In present study, we investigate the anti-metastatic effect of curcumin on the K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells as well as its potential mechanisms. The results show that curcumin effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) upregulation and significantly decreases the mRNA and protein expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in K1 cells. Curcumin also decreases the DNA binding ability of HIF-1α to hypoxia response element (HRE). Furthermore, curcumin enhances E-cadherin expression, inhibits metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzyme activity, and weakens K1 cells migration under hypoxic conditions. In summary, these results indicate that curcumin possesses a potent anti-metastatic effect and might be an effective tumoristatic agent for the treatment of aggressive papillary thyroid cancers. PMID:25349216

  3. The beneficial role of curcumin on inflammation, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease: A recent update.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shatadal; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sil, Parames C

    2015-09-01

    The concept of using phytochemicals has ushered in a new revolution in pharmaceuticals. Naturally occurring polyphenols (like curcumin, morin, resveratrol, etc.) have gained importance because of their minimal side effects, low cost and abundance. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a component of turmeric isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Research for more than two decades has revealed the pleiotropic nature of the biological effects of this molecule. More than 7000 published articles have shed light on the various aspects of curcumin including its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Apart from these well-known activities, this natural polyphenolic compound also exerts its beneficial effects by modulating different signalling molecules including transcription factors, chemokines, cytokines, tumour suppressor genes, adhesion molecules, microRNAs, etc. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pivotal role in various diseases like diabetes, cancer, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases. Curcumin, therefore, could be a therapeutic option for the treatment of these diseases, provided limitations in its oral bioavailability can be overcome. The current review provides an updated overview of the metabolism and mechanism of action of curcumin in various organ pathophysiologies. The review also discusses the potential for multifunctional therapeutic application of curcumin and its recent progress in clinical biology. PMID:26066364

  4. Does Curcumin or Pindolol Potentiate Fluoxetine's Antidepressant Effect by a Pharmacokinetic or Pharmacodynamic Interaction?

    PubMed Central

    Murad, H.A.S.; Suliaman, M. I.; Abdallah, H.; Abdulsattar, May

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to study potentiation of fluoxetine's antidepressant effect by curcumin or pindolol. Twenty eight groups of mice (n=8) were used in three sets of experiments. In the first set, 9 groups were subjected to the forced swimming test after being treated intraperitoneally with three vehicles, fluoxetine (5 and 20 mg/kg), curcumin (20 mg/kg), pindolol (32 mg/kg), curcumin+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) and pindolol+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg). One hour after the test, serum and brain fluoxetine and norfluoxetine levels were measured in mice receiving fluoxetine (5 and 20 mg/kg), curcumin+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) and pindolol+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg). In the second set, the test was done after pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine. In the third set, the locomotor activity was measured. The immobility duration was significantly decreased in fluoxetine (20 mg/kg), curcumin (20 mg/kg), curcumin+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) and pindolol+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) groups. These decreases were reversed with p-chlorophenylalanine. Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine levels were significantly higher in fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) group with no differences in fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), curcumin+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) and pindolol+fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) groups. Moreover, drugs failed to alter the locomotor activity indicating absence of central stimulation. In conclusion, curcumin, more than pindolol enhanced the antidepressant effect of a subeffective dose of fluoxetine in mice without increasing its serum or brain levels excluding any pharmacokinetic interaction. Reversal of this potentiation with p-chlorophenylalanine suggests a pharmacodynamic interaction through involvement of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:25035531

  5. Carnosine and taurine treatments decreased oxidative stress and tissue damage induced by D-galactose in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kalaz, Esra Betül; Çoban, Jale; Aydın, A Fatih; Doğan-Ekici, Işın; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Öztezcan, Serdar; Uysal, Müjdat

    2014-03-01

    D-galactose (GAL) causes aging-related changes and oxidative stress in the organism. We investigated the effect of carnosine (CAR) or taurine (TAU), having antioxidant effects, on hepatic injury and oxidative stress in GAL-treated rats. Rats received GAL (300 mg/kg; s.c.; 5 days/week) alone or together with CAR (250 mg/kg/daily; i.p.; 5 days/week) or TAU (2.5 % w/w; in rat chow) for 2 months. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-0050x), and glutathione transferase (GST) activities were determined. Hepatic expressions of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and Ki-67 were evaluated. Serum ALT, AST, hepatic MDA, and PC levels were observed to increase in GAL-treated rats. Hepatic Bax expression, but not Bcl-2, increased, Ki-67 expression decreased. GAL treatment caused decreases in GSH levels, SOD and GSH-Px activities in the liver. Hepatic mRNA expressions of SOD, but not GSH-Px, also diminished. CAR or TAU treatments caused significant decreases in serum ALT and AST activit