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Sample records for curcumin nanoparticles inhibit

  1. Curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles inhibit in vitro melanoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fernanda França; dos Santos, Michelly Christine; dos Passos, Debora Cristina Silva; Lima, Emilia Celma de Oliveira; Guillo, Lidia Andreu

    2011-09-01

    Curcumin is a natural product possessing therapeutic properties but the low water solubility of this compound limits its use. We have successfully incorporated curcumin into a bilayer of dodecanoic acid attached to magnetite nanoparticles in an effort to maximize solubility and delivery efficiency. Curcumin/magnetite nanoparticles were characterized using diffused reflectance infra-red fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles inhibited in vitro melanoma cell growth. An inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 66.0 +/- 3.0 microM (48 +/- 2.2 microg-iron/mL) was observed for the curcumin/magnetite nanoparticles. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles were internalized by the melanoma cells and remained in the cytoplasm. The curcumin/magnetic nanoparticles synthesized in this study possess magnetic and water solubility properties making this a novel curcumin formulation with therapeutic potential.

  2. Curcumin modified silver nanoparticles for highly efficient inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao Xi; Li, Chun Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between nanoparticles and viruses have attracted increasing attention due to the antiviral activity of nanoparticles and the resulting possibility to be employed as biomedical interventions. In this contribution, we developed a very simple route to prepare uniform and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antiviral properties by using curcumin, which is a member of the ginger family isolated from rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa and has a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, and acts as reducing and capping agents in this synthetic route. The tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay showed that the curcumin modified silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs) have a highly efficient inhibition effect against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, giving a decrease of viral titers about two orders of magnitude at the concentration of cAgNPs under which no toxicity was found to the host cells. Mechanism investigations showed that cAgNPs could prevent RSV from infecting the host cells by inactivating the virus directly, indicating that cAgNPs are a novel promising efficient virucide for RSV.Interactions between nanoparticles and viruses have attracted increasing attention due to the antiviral activity of nanoparticles and the resulting possibility to be employed as biomedical interventions. In this contribution, we developed a very simple route to prepare uniform and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antiviral properties by using curcumin, which is a member of the ginger family isolated from rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa and has a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, and acts as reducing and capping agents in this synthetic route. The tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay showed that the curcumin modified silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs) have a highly efficient inhibition

  3. Redox nanoparticles inhibit curcumin oxidative degradation and enhance its therapeutic effect on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Sindhu; Yoshitomi, Toru; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-07-10

    Curcumin is a phytochemical with diverse molecular targets and is well known for its anti-tumor potential. However, it has limited application in cancer therapy because curcumin undergoes rapid oxidative degradation at physiological conditions resulting in poor stability and bio-availability. In this study, we were able to suppress curcumin's oxidative degradation by encapsulating it in a nanoparticle that also acts as a radical scavenger. We prepared curcumin-loaded pH-sensitive redox nanoparticles (RNP(N)) by self-assembling amphiphilic block copolymers conjugated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging nitroxide radicals to ensure the delivery of minimally degraded curcumin to target regions. In vitro analysis confirmed that the entrapment of both curcumin and nitroxide radicals in the hydrophobic core of RNP(N) suppressed curcumin degradation in conditions mimicking the physiological environment. Evaluation of apoptosis-related molecules in the cells, such as ceramides, caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor, and acid ceramidase revealed that curcumin loaded RNP(N) induced strong apoptosis compared to free curcumin. Lastly, intravenous injection of curcumin loaded RNP(N) suppressed tumor growth in vivo, which is due to the increased bio-availability and significant ROS scavenging at tumor sites. These results demonstrated that RNP(N) is a promising drug carrier with unique ROS-scavenging abilities, and it is able to overcome the crucial hurdle of curcumin's limitations to enhance its therapeutic potential.

  4. Trichophyton rubrum is Inhibited by Free and Nanoparticle Encapsulated Curcumin by Induction of Nitrosative Stress after Photodynamic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Camila Oliveira; Adler, Brandon L.; Landriscina, Angelo; Musaev, Tagai; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inhibition (aPI) utilizes radical stress generated from the excitation of a photosensitizer (PS) with light to destroy pathogens. Its use against Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophytic fungus with increasing incidence and resistance, has not been well characterized. Our aim was to evaluate the mechanism of action of aPI against T. rubrum using curcumin as the PS in both free and nanoparticle (curc-np) form. Nanocarriers stabilize curcumin and allow for enhanced solubility and PS delivery. Curcumin aPI, at optimal conditions of 10 μg/mL of PS with 10 J/cm2 of blue light (417 ± 5 nm), completely inhibited fungal growth (p<0.0001) via induction of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), which was associated with fungal death by apoptosis. Interestingly, only scavengers of RNS impeded aPI efficacy, suggesting that curcumin acts potently via a nitrosative pathway. The curc-np induced greater NO• expression and enhanced apoptosis of fungal cells, highlighting curc-np aPI as a potential treatment for T. rubrum skin infections. PMID:25803281

  5. Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via curcumin-prebiotic inulin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fares, Mohammad M; Salem, Mu'taz Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution enhancement of curcumin via prebiotic inulin designed to orally deliver poorly water-soluble curcumin at duodenum low acidity (pH 5.5) was investigated. Different prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol-water binary system at different pre-adjusted pH values. Characterization via FTIR, XRD and TGA revealed the formation of curcumin-inulin conjugates, whereas surface morphology via SEM and TEM techniques implied the formation of nanoparticle beads and nanoclusters. Prebiotic inulin-curcumin nanoparticles prepared at pH 7.0 demonstrated a maximum curcumin dissolution enhancement of ≈90% with respect to 30% for curcumin alone at pH 5.5. Power law constant values were in accordance with dissolution enhancement investigations. All samples show Fickian diffusion mechanism. XRD investigations confirm that inulin maintain its crystalline structure in curcumin-inulin conjugate structure, which confirms that it can exert successfully its prebiotic role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, the use of curcumin-inulin nanoparticles can perform dual-mission in the GI tract at the duodenum environment; release of 90% of curcumin followed by prebiotic activity of inulin, which will probably play a significant role in cancer therapeutics for the coming generations.

  6. Oral delivery of curcumin bound to chitosan nanoparticles cured Plasmodium yoelii infected mice.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Feroz; Rizvi, M Moshahid Alam; Kar, Santosh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to have anti malarial activity, but poor bioavailability and chemical instability has hindered its development as a drug. We have bound curcumin to chitosan nanoparticles to improve its bioavailability and chemical stability. We found that curcumin bound to chitosan nanoparticles did not degrade that rapidly in comparison to free curcumin when such particles were incubated in mouse plasma in vitro at room temperature. The uptake of bound curcumin from chitosan nanoparticles by mouse RBC was much better than from free curcumin. Oral delivery of curcumin bound chitosan nanoparticles to normal mice showed that they can cross the mucosal barrier intact and confocal microscopy detected the nanoparticles in the blood. Curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles when delivered orally improved the bioavailability of curcumin in the plasma and RBC. While mice infected with a lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii (N-67) died between 8 and 9 days post infection, feeding of chitosan nanoparticles alone made them to survive for five more days. Feeding 1mg of native curcumin to infected mice per day for seven days resulted in survival of one third of mice but under the same condition when 1mg of curcumin bound to chitosan nanoparticles was fed all the mice survived. Like chloroquine, curcumin inhibited parasite lysate induced heme polymerization in vitro in a dose dependent manner and curcumin had a lower IC(50) value than chloroquine. We believe that binding of curcumin to chitosan nanoparticles increases its chemical stability and enhances its bioavailability when fed to mice. In vitro data suggest that it can inhibit hemozoin synthesis which is lethal for the parasite.

  7. Sustained release Curcumin loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jourghanian, Parisa; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Haghighat, Setareh; Mohammadnejad, Mahdieh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: curcumin is poorly water soluble drug with low bioavailability. Use of lipid systems in lipophilic substances increases solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The aim of this study was to prepare curcumin loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) with high loading efficiency, small particle size and prolonged release profile with enhanced antibacterial efficacy. Methods: to synthesize stable SLNs, freeze- Drying was done using mannitol as cryoprotectant. Cholesterol was used as carrier because of good tolerability and biocompatibility. SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization method. Results: optimized SLNs had 112 and 163 nm particle size before and after freeze drying, respectively. The prepared SLNs had 71% loading efficiency. 90% of loaded curcumin was released after 48 hours. Morphologic study for formulation was done by taking SEM pictures of curcumin SLNs. Results show the spherical shape of curcumin SLNs. DSC studies were performed to determine prolonged release mechanism. Antimicrobial studies were done to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of curcumin SLNs with free curcumin. DSC studies showed probability of formation of hydrogen bonds between cholesterol and curcumin which resulted in prolonged release of curcumin. Lipid structure of cholesterol could cause enhanced permeability in studied bacteria to increase antibacterial characteristics of curcumin. Conclusion: the designed curcumin SLNs could be candidate for formulation of different dosage forms or cosmeceutical products. PMID:27123413

  8. A polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin in combination with sorafenib synergistically inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Sun, Ding; Sun, Chao; Sun, Yun-Fan; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Xin-Rong; Gao, Ya-Bo; Tang, Wei-Guo; Fan, Jia; Maitra, Anirban; Anders, Robert A; Xu, Yang

    2015-12-25

    Curcumin, a yellow polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of turmeric root (Curcuma longa) has potent anti-cancer properties in many types of tumors with ability to reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. However, widespread clinical application of this agent in cancer and other diseases has been limited due to its poor aqueous solubility. The recent findings of polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NFC) have shown the potential for circumventing the problem of poor solubility, however evidences for NFC's anti-cancer and reverse multidrug resistance properties are lacking. Here we provide models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer, in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the efficacy of NFC alone and in combination with sorafenib, a kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of HCC. Results showed that NFC not only inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cell lines in vitro, but also drastically suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastases in vivo. Moreover, in combination with sorafenib, NFC induced HCC cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, NFC and sorafenib synergistically down-regulated the expression of MMP9 via NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased the population of CD133-positive HCC cells, which have been reported as cancer initiating cells in HCC. Taken together, NanoCurcumin provides an opportunity to expand the clinical repertoire of this agent. Additional studies utilizing a combination of NanoCurcumin and sorafenib in HCC are needed for further clinical development. PMID:26482853

  9. PNIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for curcumin against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zeighamian, Vahideh; Darabi, Masoud; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Badrzadeh, Fariba; Salehi, Roya; Mirakabad, Fatemeh Sadat Tabatabaei; Taheri-Anganeh, Mortaza

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women throughout the world. Natural compounds such as curcumin hold promise to treat a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, curcumin's therapeutic application is limited, due to its rapid degradation and poor aqueous solubility. On the other hand, previous studies have stated that drug delivery using nanoparticles might improve the therapeutic response to anticancer drugs. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (PNIPAAm-MAA) is one of the hydrogel copolymers utilized in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic potential of curcumin encapsulated within the NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticle, on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In this work, polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized through the free radical mechanism, and curcumin was encapsulated into NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles. Then, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was measured by MTT assays. The evaluation of the results showed that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA has more cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cell line and efficiently inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell population, compared with free curcumin. In conclusion, this study indicates that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA suppresses the growth of the MCF-7 cell line. Overall, it is concluded that encapsulating curcumin into the NIPAAm-MAA copolymer could open up new avenues for breast cancer treatment.

  10. Effect of curcumin caged silver nanoparticle on collagen stabilization for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Srivatsan, Kunnavakkam Vinjimur; Duraipandy, N; Begum, Shajitha; Lakra, Rachita; Ramamurthy, Usha; Korrapati, Purna Sai; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala

    2015-04-01

    The current study aims at understanding the influence of curcumin caged silver nanoparticle (CCSNP) on stability of collagen. The results indicated that curcumin caged silver nanoparticles efficiently stabilize collagen, indicated by enhanced tensile strength, fibril formation and viscosity. The tensile strength of curcumin caged silver nanoparticle cross-linked collagen and elongation at break was also found to be higher than glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen. The physicochemical characteristics of curcumin caged nanoparticle cross-linked collagen exhibited enhanced strength. The thermal properties were also good with both thermal degradation temperature and hydrothermal stability higher than native collagen. CD analysis showed no structural disparity in spite of superior physicochemical properties suggesting the significance of curcumin caged nanoparticle mediated cross-linking. The additional enhancement in the stabilization of collagen could be attributed to multiple sites for interaction with collagen molecule provided by curcumin caged silver nanoparticles. The results of cell proliferation and anti-microbial activity assays indicated that curcumin caged silver nanoparticles promoted cell proliferation and inhibited microbial growth making it an excellent biomaterial for wound dressing application. The study opens scope for nano-biotechnological strategies for the development of alternate non-toxic cross-linking agents facilitating multiple site interaction thereby improving therapeutic values to the collagen for biomedical application. PMID:25661876

  11. Bioenhanced oral curcumin nanoparticles: Role of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Anisha A; Devarajan, Padma V

    2016-01-20

    The paper discusses polysaccharide-adsorbed curcumin-Gantrez nanoparticles for bioenhancement of oral curcumin. Nanoparticles revealed no change in size over time in pH 1.2 and 7.4, and a rapid drug release in pH 1.2 and 7.4 medium containing surfactant. Without adsorbed polysaccharides, nanoparticles exhibited high Cmax (61.3 ± 22.3 ng/mL), sustained plasma concentration up to 24h and 117% absolute bioavailability, attributed to bioadhesion. In contrast galactose polysaccharides arabinogalactan and kappa-carrageenan adsorbed nanoparticles exhibited rapid absorption with higher Cmax of 109.5 ± 31.2 ng/mL and 92.3 ± 21.2 ng/mL, respectively, but faster elimination and absolute bioavailability of greater than 25%. The glucose polysaccharide pullulan adsorbed nanoparticles exhibited significantly lower Cmax (39.7 ± 20.6 ng/mL) and bioavailability (13%). Lower bioavailability of polysaccharide adsorbed nanoparticles was attributed to high metabolism of curcumin in the intestine as a result of faster gastric elimination and high intestinal localization. However polysaccharide-adsorbed nanoparticles could play an important role in bioenhancement of drugs specifically those exhibiting good stability across the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1

    PubMed Central

    Gunnink, Leesha K.; Alabi, Ola D.; Kuiper, Benjamin D.; Gunnink, Stephen M.; Schuiteman, Sam J.; Strohbehn, Lauren E.; Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Wrobel, Kathryn E.; Louters, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin’s inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. PMID:27039889

  13. Curcumin inhibits the proliferation and mineralization of cultured osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Notoya, Michitaka; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Woo, Je-Tae; Nagai, Kazuo; Ishihara, Yoko; Hagiwara, Hiromi

    2006-03-18

    The effects of curcumin, which is an important constituent of rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, on the metabolism of osteoblasts were examined in cultures of rat calvarial osteoblastic cells (ROB cells). The proliferation of cells was markedly inhibited upon exposure of cells to curcumin at 5x10(-6) to 1x10(-5) M. Curcumin at 1x10(-5) M did not induce apoptosis in ROB cells but arrested cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, curcumin stimulated the expression of mRNA for p21(WAF1/CIP1), which inhibits the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases, and inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H1. Furthermore, curcumin reduced the rate of deposition of calcium and the formation of mineralized nodules. Our results indicate that curcumin might inhibit the proliferation and mineralization of osteoblastic cells through the expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1). PMID:16476424

  14. Antiglioma activity of curcumin-loaded lipid nanoparticles and its enhanced bioavailability in brain tissue for effective glioblastoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Paromita; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of brain and central nervous system tumours, is characterized by high rates proliferation, migration and invasion. The major road block in the delivery of drugs to the brain is the blood-brain barrier, along with the expression of various multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins that cause the efflux of a wide range of chemotherapeutic drugs. Curcumin, a herbal drug, is known to inhibit cellular proliferation, migration and invasion and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. It also has the potential to modulate MDR in glioma cells. However, the greatest challenge in the administration of curcumin stems from its low bioavailability and high rate of metabolism. To circumvent the above pitfalls of curcumin we have developed curcumin-loaded glyceryl monooleate (GMO) nanoparticles (NP) coated with the surfactant Pluronic F-68 and vitamin E D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for brain delivery. We demonstrated that our curcumin-loaded NPs inhibit cellular proliferation, migration and invasion along with a higher percentage of cell cycle arrest and telomerase inhibition, thus leading to a greater percentage apoptotic cell death in glioma cells compared with native curcumin. An in vivo study demonstrated enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in blood serum and brain tissue when delivered by curcumin-loaded GMO NPs compared with native curcumin in a rat model. Thus, curcumin-loaded GMO NPs can be used as an effective delivery system to overcome the challenges of drug delivery to the brain, providing a new approach to glioblastoma therapy.

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26366056

  16. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities.

  17. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Kulkarni, Amol A; Lin, Xionghao; McLean, Charlee; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hipolito, Maria; Nekhai, Sergei; Nwulia, Evaristus

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM) T cells (IC50=0.7 μM). But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 μM) compared to curcumin (IC50=12 μM). Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that altering the core structure of curcumin could yield more stable compounds with potent antiretroviral and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26366056

  18. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Curcumin Using Phosphatidylserine-Containing Nanoparticles in Cultured Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji; Kang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Wen; Lei, Wan; Feng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are one kind of innate immune cells, and produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines in response to various stimuli, such as oxidized low density lipoprotein found in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effect of phosphatidylserine on anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers was investigated using macrophage cultures. Different amounts of phosphatidylserine were used in the preparation of curcumin nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties and biocompatibilities were then compared. Cellular uptake of the nanoparticles was investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry analysis in order to determine the optimal phosphatidylserine concentration. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in macrophages to test whether curcumin and phosphatidylserine have interactive effects on macrophage lipid uptake behavior and anti-inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that macrophage uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing nanostructured lipid carriers increased with increasing amount of phosphatidylserine in the range of 0%–8%, and decreased when the phosphatidylserine molar ratio reached over 12%. curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory factor production in cultured macrophages, and evidently promoted release of anti-inflammatory cytokines, when compared with curcumin or phosphatidylserine alone. These results suggest that the delivery system using PS-based nanoparticles has great potential for efficient delivery of drugs such as curcumin, specifically targeting macrophages and modulation of their anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:27331813

  19. Curcumin inhibits bovine herpesvirus type 1 entry into MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Ding, X; Zhang, D; Yuan, Ch; Wang, J; Ndegwa, E; Zhu, G

    2015-09-01

    The generation of antiviral drugs from herbs and other natural resources with traditionally long-confirmed effects is an efficient approach. So far, no herb or components from herbs that could inhibit bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) replication have been described. In this study, the antiviral effect of curcumin, a natural phenolic constituent of the spice turmeric, on BoHV-1 replication was evaluated in cell culture. We demonstrated that curcumin impairs BoHV-1 viral particles and affects the virus post-binding entry process. Furthermore, curcumin upregulated the proportion of the plasma membrane adopting a lipid raft conformation in MDBK cells, which supported the previous reports that curcumin can modulate the lipid bilayer. Though the antiviral mechanism of curcumin on BoHV-1 needs further study, we identified for the first time a component from herb that could inhibit BoHV-1 replication, in vitro.

  20. Curcumin inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ying; Lin, Lexun; Chen, Yang; Wu, Shuo; Si, Xiaoning; Wu, Heng; Zhai, Xia; Wang, Yan; Tong, Lei; Pan, Bo; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Tianying; Zhao, Wenran; Zhong, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. The epidemic of HFMD has been a public health problem in Asia-Pacific region for decades, and no vaccine and effective antiviral medicine are available. Curcumin has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries to treat a diversity of disorders including viral infections. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin showed potent antiviral effect again EV71. In Vero cells infected with EV71, the addition of curcumin significantly suppressed the synthesis of viral RNA, the expression of viral protein, and the overall production of viral progeny. Similar with the previous reports, curcumin reduced the production of ROS induced by viral infection. However, the antioxidant property of curcumin did not contribute to its antiviral activity, since N-acetyl-l-cysteine, the potent antioxidant failed to suppress viral replication. This study also showed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was activated by either viral infection or curcumin treatment, but the activated ERK did not interfere with the antiviral effect of curcumin, indicating ERK is not involved in the antiviral mechanism of curcumin. Unlike the previous reports that curcumin inhibited protein degradation through ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), we found that curcumin had no impact on UPS in control cells. However, curcumin did reduce the activity of proteasomes which was increased by viral infection. In addition, the accumulation of the short-lived proteins, p53 and p21, was increased by the treatment of curcumin in EV71-infected cells. We further probed the antiviral mechanism of curcumin by examining the expression of GBF1 and PI4KB, both of which are required for the formation of viral replication complex. We found that curcumin significantly reduced the level of both proteins. Moreover, the decreased expression of either GBF1 or PI4KB by the application of siRNAs was

  1. Enhanced bioavailability and efficiency of curcumin for the treatment of asthma by its formulation in solid lipid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenrui; Zhu, Rongrong; Xie, Qian; Li, Ang; Xiao, Yu; Li, Kun; Liu, Hui; Cui, Daxiang; Chen, Yihan; Wang, Shilong

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin has shown considerable pharmacological activity, including anti-inflammatory, but its poor bioavailability and rapid metabolization have limited its application. The purpose of the present study was to formulate curcumin-solid lipid nanoparticles (curcumin-SLNs) to improve its therapeutic efficacy in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rat model of asthma. A solvent injection method was used to prepare the curcumin-SLNs. Physiochemical properties of curcumin-SLNs were characterized, and release experiments were performed in vitro. The pharmacokinetics in tissue distribution was studied in mice, and the therapeutic effect of the formulation was evaluated in the model. The prepared formulation showed an average size of 190 nm with a zeta potential value of −20.7 mV and 75% drug entrapment efficiency. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the encapsulated curcumin. The release profile of curcumin-SLNs was an initial burst followed by sustained release. The curcumin concentrations in plasma suspension were significantly higher than those obtained with curcumin alone. Following administration of the curcumin-SLNs, all the tissue concentrations of curcumin increased, especially in lung and liver. In the animal model of asthma, curcumin-SLNs effectively suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory cell infiltration and also significantly inhibited the expression of T-helper-2-type cytokines, such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared to the asthma group and curcumin-treated group. These observations implied that curcumin-SLNs could be a promising candidate for asthma therapy. PMID:22888226

  2. Curcumin-Loaded PLA Nanoparticles: Formulation and Physical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Yanda, Yulia L.; Rahma, Annisa; Mase, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Curcuma domestica (Zingiberaceae) that possesses diverse pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic activities. Although phase I clinical trials have shown curcumin as a safe drug even at high doses (12 g/day) in humans, poor bioavaibility largely limits its pharmacological activity. Nanoencapsulation in biodegradable polymers is a promising alternative to improve curcumin bioavaibility. In this study, curcumin was encapsulated in biodegradable polymer poly-(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles via the emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Optimization of selected parameters of this method including the type of solvent, surfactant concentration, drug loading, sonication time, and centrifugation speed, were performed to obtain polymeric nano-carriers with optimum characteristics. Dichloromethane was used as the solvent and vitamin E polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) was used as the surfactant. Four minutes of sonication time and centrifugation at 10500 rpm were able to produce spherical nanoparticles with average size below 300 nm. The highest encapsulation efficiency was found on PLA nanoparticles containing 5% of curcumin at 89.42 ± 1.04%. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential of 5% curcumin-PLA nanoparticles were 387.50 ± 58.60 nm, 0.289 ± 0.047, and −1.12 mV, respectively. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies showed partial interaction between the drug and polymer. PMID:27110509

  3. Nanoparticles based on oleate alginate ester as curcumin delivery system.

    PubMed

    Raja, Mazhar Ali; Liu, Chenguang; Huang, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic alginate derivative was prepared by the modification of alginate with methyl oleate. The synthesized oleate alginate ester (OAE) conjugate was characterized by FTIR and (1)HNMR analysis. Results of critical aggregation concentration (CAC) revealed that OAE conjugate had low CAC and was prone to form self-assembled nanoparticles in aqueous medium. Curcumin loaded OAE nanoparticles (Cur-OAE Nps) were developed by a simple sonication method and the physicochemical parameters of the nanoparticles such as zeta potential, size distribution and drug encapsulation were characterized. The results showed that zeta potential of the prepared nanoparticles was -55.4±0.91 mV and the average size was about 200 nm. A significant enhancement in aqueous solubility and stability of curcumin were observed after encapsulation into OAE nanoparticles. With the increase of curcumin concentration, loading efficiency increased but encapsulation efficiency decreased. The in vitro release profile exhibited significant sustained release pattern with initial burst release followed by a slower release over a period of one week. Cytotoxicity assay against MCF-7cells showed that Cur-OAE Nps had slow and continuous cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, in vitro cell uptake study revealed that cell uptake of curcumin from OAE nanoparticles was sustained and both were time and concentration dependent. Therefore, the developed Cur-OAE Nps might be promising candidates for curcumin delivery to cancer cells.

  4. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  5. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected HEK-293T cells showed a dose and time dependent degradation of Tat protein. Contrary to this HIV-1 Gag which is a properly folded protein, remained unaffected with curcumin. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin treatment did not affect Tat gene transcription. Curcumin increased the rate of Tat protein degradation as shown by cycloheximide (CHX) chase assay. Degradation of the Tat protein is accomplished through proteasomal pathway as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 blocked Tat degradation. Curcumin also decreased Tat mediated LTR promoter transactivation and inhibited virus production from HIV-1 infected cells. Taken together our study reveals a novel observation that curcumin causes potent degradation of Tat which may be one of the major mechanisms behind its anti HIV activity. PMID:27283735

  6. Curcumin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles for enhanced anti-colorectal cancer applications.

    PubMed

    Udompornmongkol, Panisa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to fabricate polymeric nanoparticles as drug carriers for encapsulated curcumin with enhanced anti-colorectal cancer applications. Nanoparticles were formulated from chitosan and gum arabic, natural polysaccharides, via an emulsification solvent diffusion method. The formation of curcumin nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that curcumin was entrapped in carriers with +48 mV, 136 nm size, and high encapsulation efficiency (95%). Based on an in vitro release study, we inferred that curcumin nanoparticles could tolerate hydrolysis due to gastric juice or small intestinal enzymes, and therefore, it should reach the colon largely intact. In addition, curcumin nanoparticles had higher anti-colorectal cancer properties than free curcumin due to greater cellular uptake. Therefore, we concluded that curcumin was successfully encapsulated in chitosan-gum arabic nanoparticles with superior anti-colorectal cancer activity.

  7. Polymeric curcumin nanoparticle pharmacokinetics and metabolism in bile duct cannulated rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Helson, Lawrence; Maitra, Anirban; Stern, Stephan T; McNeil, Scott E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated (nanocurcumin) and solvent-solubilized curcumin formulations in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Nanocurcumin is currently under development for cancer therapy. Since free, unencapsulated curcumin is rapidly metabolized and excreted in rats, upon intravenous (i.v.) administration of nanocurcumin only nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin can be detected in plasma samples. Hence, the second objective of this study was to utilize the metabolic instability of curcumin to assess in vivo drug release from nanocurcumin. Nanocurcumin and solvent-solubilized curcumin were administered at 10 mg curcumin/kg by jugular vein to bile duct-cannulated male SD rats (n = 5). Nanocurcumin increased the plasma Cmax of curcumin 1749 fold relative to the solvent-solubilized curcumin. Nanocurcumin also increased the relative abundance of curcumin and glucuronides in bile but did not dramatically alter urine and tissue metabolite profiles. The observed increase in biliary and urinary excretion of both curcumin and metabolites for the nanocurcumin formulation suggested a rapid "burst" release of curcumin. Although the burst release observed in this study is a limitation for targeted tumor delivery, nanocurcumin still exhibits major advantages over solvent-solubilized curcumin, as the nanoformulation does not result in the lung accumulation observed for the solvent-solubilized curcumin and increases overall systemic curcumin exposure. Additionally, the remaining encapsulated curcumin fraction following burst release is available for tumor delivery via the enhanced permeation and retention effect commonly observed for nanoparticle formulations.

  8. Polymeric Curcumin Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Bile Duct Cannulated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Peng; Helson, Lawrence; Maitra, Anirban; Stern, Stephan T.; McNeil, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of polymeric nanoparticle encapsulated (nanocurcumin), and solvent solubilized curcumin formulations in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Nanocurcumin is currently under development for cancer therapy. Since free, unencapsulated curcumin is rapidly metabolized and excreted in rats, upon i.v. administration of nanocurcumin only nanoparticle encapsulated curcumin can be detected in plasma samples. Hence, the second objective of this study was to utilize the metabolic instability of curcumin to assess in vivo drug release from nanocurcumin. Nanocurcumin and solvent solubilized curcumin were administered at 10 mg curcumin/kg by jugular vein to bile duct-cannulated male SD rats (n = 5). Nanocurcumin increased the plasma Cmax of curcumin 1749 fold relative to the solvent solubilized curcumin. Nanocurcumin also increased the relative abundance of curcumin and glucuronides in bile, but did not dramatically alter urine and tissue metabolite profiles. The observed increase in biliary and urinary excretion of both curcumin and metabolites for the nanocurcumin formulation suggested rapid, “burst” release of curcumin. Although the burst release observed in this study is a limitation for targeted tumor delivery, nanocurcumin still exhibits major advantages over solvent solubilized curcumin, as the nanoformulation does not result in the lung accumulation observed for the solvent solubilized curcumin and increases overall systemic curcumin exposure. Additionally, the remaining encapsulated curcumin fraction following burst release is available for tumor delivery via the enhanced permeation and retention effect commonly observed for nanoparticle formulations. PMID:23534919

  9. Orally Administered Chitosan-Coated Polycaprolactone Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin Attenuate Metastatic Melanoma in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Loch-Neckel, Gecioni; Santos-Bubniak, Lorena; Mazzarino, Letícia; Jacques, Amanda V; Moccelin, Bárbara; Santos-Silva, Maria Claúdia; Lemos-Senna, Elenara

    2015-10-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of orally administered chitosan-coated nanoparticles containing curcumin on metastatic melanoma. Chitosan-coated nanoparticles containing curcumin were prepared, and their antimetastatic activity was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of B16F10 melanoma cells. We observed that curcumin significantly decreased the expression of metalloproteinases, which are known to be associated with migration and proliferation of cancer cells. Importantly, treatment with chitosan-coated nanoparticles containing curcumin decreased pulmonary tumor formation in a murine model of experimental metastasis. Histological analyses confirmed the macroscopic results in which lungs of mice treated with curcumin-loaded chitosan-coated polycaprolactone nanoparticles had only a few small nodules and most of them were free of melanoma. Our findings indicate that nanoparticles coated with the mucoadhesive polymer chitosan containing curcumin may be a promising approach and/or intervention for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  10. Active curcumin nanoparticles formed from a volatile microemulsion template.

    PubMed

    Margulis, K; Srinivasan, S; Ware, M J; Summers, H D; Godin, B; Magdassi, S

    2014-01-01

    We report on biological performance of organic nanoparticles formed by a simple method based on rapid solvent removal from a volatile microemulsion. The particular focus of the study was on testing the suitability of the method for substances soluble in partially water-miscible organic solvents as well as on evaluating the therapeutic activity of the resultant nanoparticles. Curcumin was employed as a model for hydrophobic drug, and, as it is soluble in water-miscible organic solvents, it was successfully incorporated into a new cyclopentanone-water microemulsion system. During rapid solvent removal by spray-drying, the nanometric droplets of the microemulsion were converted into nanoparticles containing amorphous curcumin with the average size of 20.2±3.4 nm, having ζ potential of -36.2 ±1.8 mV. These nanoparticles were dispersible in water and retained the high loading of the active substance. The therapeutic activity of the resulting nanoparticles was demonstrated in a pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. The effective concentration for reducing the metabolic activity was found to be 11.5 μM for nanoparticles compared with 19.5 μM for free curcumin. PMID:25485110

  11. A unique mechanism of curcumin inhibition on F1 ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Mizuki; Hisasaka, Ryosuke; Iwamoto-Kihara, Atsuko; Futai, Masamitsu; Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi

    2014-10-01

    ATP synthase (F-ATPase) function depends upon catalytic and rotation cycles of the F1 sector. Previously, we found that F1 ATPase activity is inhibited by the dietary polyphenols, curcumin, quercetin, and piceatannol, but that the inhibitory kinetics of curcumin differs from that of the other two polyphenols (Sekiya et al., 2012, 2014). In the present study, we analyzed Escherichia coli F1 ATPase rotational catalysis to identify differences in the inhibitory mechanism of curcumin versus quercetin and piceatannol. These compounds did not affect the 120° rotation step for ATP binding and ADP release, though they significantly increased the catalytic dwell duration for ATP hydrolysis. Analysis of wild-type F1 and a mutant lacking part of the piceatannol binding site (γΔ277-286) indicates that curcumin binds to F1 differently from piceatannol and quercetin. The unique inhibitory mechanism of curcumin is also suggested from its effect on F1 mutants with defective β-γ subunit interactions (γMet23 to Lys) or β conformational changes (βSer174 to Phe). These results confirm that smooth interaction between each β subunit and entire γ subunit in F1 is pertinent for rotational catalysis. PMID:25230139

  12. Recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhamoy; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Sankar Ghosh, Siddhartha

    2014-08-01

    The field of recombinant protein therapeutics has been evolving rapidly, making significant impact on clinical applications for several diseases, including cancer. However, the functional aspects of proteins rely exclusively on their structural integrity, in which nanoparticle mediated delivery offers unique advantages over free proteins. In the present work, a novel strategy has been developed where the nanoparticles (NPs) used for the delivery of the recombinant protein could contribute to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of the recombinant protein. The transcription factor, NFκB, involved in cell growth and its inhibitor, IκBα, regulates its proliferation. Another similar naturally available molecule, which inhibits the function of NFκB, is curcumin. Hence, we have developed a ‘green synthesis’ method for preparing water-soluble curcumin nanoparticles to stabilize recombinant IκBα protein. The NPs were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering before administration into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells. Experimental results demonstrated that this combined module had enhanced therapeutic efficacy, causing apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay and flowcytometry analyses. The expression of apoptotic genes studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR delineated the molecular pathways involved in cell death. Thus, our study revealed that the functional delivery of recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin NPs has promise as a natural-product-based protein therapeutics against cancer cells.

  13. Recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Subhamoy; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2014-08-29

    The field of recombinant protein therapeutics has been evolving rapidly, making significant impact on clinical applications for several diseases, including cancer. However, the functional aspects of proteins rely exclusively on their structural integrity, in which nanoparticle mediated delivery offers unique advantages over free proteins. In the present work, a novel strategy has been developed where the nanoparticles (NPs) used for the delivery of the recombinant protein could contribute to enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of the recombinant protein. The transcription factor, NFκB, involved in cell growth and its inhibitor, IκBα, regulates its proliferation. Another similar naturally available molecule, which inhibits the function of NFκB, is curcumin. Hence, we have developed a 'green synthesis' method for preparing water-soluble curcumin nanoparticles to stabilize recombinant IκBα protein. The NPs were characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering before administration into human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and glioblastoma (U87MG) cells. Experimental results demonstrated that this combined module had enhanced therapeutic efficacy, causing apoptotic cell death, which was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay and flowcytometry analyses. The expression of apoptotic genes studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR delineated the molecular pathways involved in cell death. Thus, our study revealed that the functional delivery of recombinant IκBα-loaded curcumin NPs has promise as a natural-product-based protein therapeutics against cancer cells.

  14. Inhibition of curcumin on myeloid-derived suppressor cells is requisite for controlling lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; You, Ming; Xu, Yujun; Li, Fanlin; Zhang, Dongya; Li, Xiujun; Hou, Yayi

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are potent immune-suppressive cells and present in most cancer patients. Recently, several studies have shown that curcumin inhibits the expansion of MDSCs in some cancers. However, it is not clear how curcumin modulates the suppressive function of MDSCs, and whether curcumin achieves anti-tumor effects via regulating the expansion of MDSCs in lung cancer. Here, our results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited tumor growth in a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) isogenic tumor model. Curcumin reduced the accumulation of MDSCs in spleen and tumor tissue in LLC isogenic model. And curcumin promoted the maturation and differentiation of MDSCs in tumor tissue. Notably, curcumin inhibited the expression level of immune suppressive factors of MDSCs, arginase-1 (Arg-1) and ROS, in purified MDSCs from tumor tissue in vivo. Expectedly, curcumin also inhibited the immunosuppressive function of isolated MDSCs from tumor tissue and spleen of tumor bearing mice in vitro. Moreover, curcumin decreased the level of IL-6 in the tumor tissue and serum from LLC-bearing mice. Taken together, curcumin indeed possesses anti-cancer effect and inhibits the accumulation and function of MDSCs. And curcumin reduces the level of IL-6 in tumor-bearing mice to impair the expansion and function of MDSCs. These results suggest that inhibition of MDSCs in tumor is requisite for controlling lung cancer. PMID:27497194

  15. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, E; Barritt, G J; Rychkov, G Y

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca(2+) entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca(2+)]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  16. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, E.; Barritt, G.J.; Rychkov, G.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels. PMID:26609559

  17. Curcumin Inhibits Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication in Human Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Senina, Svetlana; Lundberg, Lindsay; Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Das, Ravi; Baer, Alan; Bethel, Laura; Turell, Michael; Hartman, Amy Lynn; Das, Bhaskar; Bailey, Charles; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus that is classified as a select agent, an emerging infectious virus, and an agricultural pathogen. Understanding RVFV-host interactions is imperative to the design of novel therapeutics. Here, we report that an infection by the MP-12 strain of RVFV induces phosphorylation of the p65 component of the NFκB cascade. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of p65 (serine 536) involves phosphorylation of IκBα and occurs through the classical NFκB cascade. A unique, low molecular weight complex of the IKK-β subunit can be observed in MP-12-infected cells, which we have labeled IKK-β2. The IKK-β2 complex retains kinase activity and phosphorylates an IκBα substrate. Inhibition of the IKK complex using inhibitors impairs viral replication, thus alluding to the requirement of an active IKK complex to the viral life cycle. Curcumin strongly down-regulates levels of extracellular infectious virus. Our data demonstrated that curcumin binds to and inhibits kinase activity of the IKK-β2 complex in infected cells. Curcumin partially exerts its inhibitory influence on RVFV replication by interfering with IKK-β2-mediated phosphorylation of the viral protein NSs and by altering the cell cycle of treated cells. Curcumin also demonstrated efficacy against ZH501, the fully virulent version of RVFV. Curcumin treatment down-regulated viral replication in the liver of infected animals. Our data point to the possibility that RVFV infection may result in the generation of novel versions of host components (such as IKK-β2) that, by virtue of altered protein interaction and function, qualify as unique therapeutic targets. PMID:22847000

  18. Curcumin-incorporated albumin nanoparticles and its tumor image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guangming; Pan, Qinqin; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Rongchun; Sun, Yong; Lu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Albumin is an ideal carrier for hydrophobic drugs. This paper reports a facile route to develop human serum albumin (HSA)-curcumin (CCM) nanoparticles, in which β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) acted as an inducer and CCM acted as a bridge. Fluorescence quenching and conformational changes in HSA-CCM nanoparticles occurred during assembly. Disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions may play a key role in assembly. HSA-CCM nanoparticles were about 130 nm in size, and the solubility of CCM increased by more than 500 times. The HSA-CCM nanoparticles could accumulate at the cytoplasm of tumor cells and target the tumor tissues. Therefore, HSA nanoparticles fabricated by β-ME denaturation are promising nanocarriers for hydrophobic substances from chemotherapy drugs to imaging probes.

  19. A Comparison between the cytotoxic effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei Mirakabad, Fatemeh Sadat; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Milani, Morteza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Taheri-Anganeh, Mortaza; Zeighamian, Vahideh; Badrzadeh, Fariba; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Herbal medicines have tremendous potential as promising agents for the treatment of cancer. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol which has many anticancer effects. Because of its low aqueous solubility, low bioavailability, and quick degradation and metabolism, curcumin was released using PLGA-PEG nanoparticles. Herein, the efficiency of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded PLGA-PEG in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines was studied. (1)H NMR, FT-IR and SEM demonstrated PLGA-PEG structure and curcumin loaded on nanoparticles. Subsequently, the cytotoxic effects of free curcumin and curcumin-loaded PLGA-PEG were determined via an MTT assay. Our study confirmed that curcumin-loaded PLGA-PEG has more cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and could be exploited as a potential source for developing novel drugs against breast cancer.

  20. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Tian, Xuebi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin's mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling.

  1. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Tian, Xuebi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin's mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling. PMID:26744842

  2. Design of curcumin loaded cellulose nanoparticles for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yallapu, Murali Mohan; Dobberpuhl, Mitch Ray; Maher, Diane Michele; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash Chand

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most frequently diagnosed disease in men in the United States. Curcumin (CUR), a natural diphenol, has shown potent anti-cancer efficacy in various types of cancers. However, suboptimal pharmacokinetics and poor bioavailability limit its effective use in cancer therapeutics. Several successful CUR nanoformulations have recently been reported which improve upon these features; however, there is no personalized safe nanoformulation for prostate cancer. This study contributes two important scientific aspects of prostate cancer therapeutics. The first objective was to investigate the comparative cellular uptake and cytotoxicity evaluation of β-cyclodextrin (CD), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (cellulose), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), magnetic nanoparticles (MNP), and dendrimer based CUR nanoformulations in prostate cancer cells. Curcumin loaded cellulose nanoparticles (cellulose-CUR) formulation exhibited the highest cellular uptake and caused maximum ultrastructural changes related to apoptosis (presence of vacuoles) in prostate cancer cells. Secondly, the anti-cancer potential of the cellulose-CUR formulation was evaluated in cell culture models using cell proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis (7-AAD staining) assays. In these assays, the cellulose-CUR formulation showed improved anti-cancer efficacy compared to free curcumin. Our study shows, for the first time, the feasibility of cellulose-CUR formulation and its potential use in prostate cancer therapy.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of PEG-albumin-curcumin Nanoparticles Intended to Treat Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thadakapally, R.; Aafreen, Arshiya; Aukunuru, J.; Habibuddin, M.; Jogala, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present research was to prepare novel serum stable long circulating polymeric nanoparticles for curcumin with a modification to the well known and novel nanoparticle albumin bound technology. polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles were prepared using serum albumin and poly ethylene glycol using desolvation technique. Nanoparticles were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size and surface morphology. Drug excipient compatibility was determined using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Physical state of the drug in the formulations was known by differential scanning colorimetry. In vitro release and solubility of the drug from nanoparticles were determined. In vivo Drug release, tissue uptake and kupffer cell uptake was determined with optimized nanoformulation in rats after intravenous administration. Cell viability assay was determined using breast cancer cell line MD-MB-231. Entrapment efficiency for prepared nanoparticle was above 95%. The polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles exhibited an interesting release profile with small initial burst followed by slower and controlled release. Solubility of the drug from the formulation was increased. A sustained release of drug from nanoparticles was observed for 35 days in both in vitro and in vivo studies with the optimized formulation. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles showed lesser liver and kupffer cell uptake as compared to that of curcumin-albumin nanoparticles suggesting the bestowment of stealthness to nanoparticles with pegylation. Also, the antiproliferative activity of polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticle formulation was more as compared to native curcumin. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles thus developed can be conveniently used in breast cancer with improved efficacy compared to conventional therapies and as an alternate to nanoparticle albumin bound technology which is used in producing Abraxane, albumin

  4. Preparation and Characterization of PEG-albumin-curcumin Nanoparticles Intended to Treat Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thadakapally, R; Aafreen, Arshiya; Aukunuru, J; Habibuddin, M; Jogala, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present research was to prepare novel serum stable long circulating polymeric nanoparticles for curcumin with a modification to the well known and novel nanoparticle albumin bound technology. polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles were prepared using serum albumin and poly ethylene glycol using desolvation technique. Nanoparticles were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size and surface morphology. Drug excipient compatibility was determined using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Physical state of the drug in the formulations was known by differential scanning colorimetry. In vitro release and solubility of the drug from nanoparticles were determined. In vivo Drug release, tissue uptake and kupffer cell uptake was determined with optimized nanoformulation in rats after intravenous administration. Cell viability assay was determined using breast cancer cell line MD-MB-231. Entrapment efficiency for prepared nanoparticle was above 95%. The polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles exhibited an interesting release profile with small initial burst followed by slower and controlled release. Solubility of the drug from the formulation was increased. A sustained release of drug from nanoparticles was observed for 35 days in both in vitro and in vivo studies with the optimized formulation. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles showed lesser liver and kupffer cell uptake as compared to that of curcumin-albumin nanoparticles suggesting the bestowment of stealthness to nanoparticles with pegylation. Also, the antiproliferative activity of polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticle formulation was more as compared to native curcumin. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles thus developed can be conveniently used in breast cancer with improved efficacy compared to conventional therapies and as an alternate to nanoparticle albumin bound technology which is used in producing Abraxane, albumin

  5. Cathepsin L knockdown enhances curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yao; Xiong, Yajie; Zhao, Yifan; Wang, Wenjuan; Han, Meilin; Wang, Long; Tan, Caihong; Liang, Zhongqin

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin can be used to prevent and treat cancer. However, its exact underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is overexpressed in several cancer types. This study aimed to determine the role of cathepsin L in curcumin-mediated inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. Results revealed that the activity of cathepsin L was enhanced in curcumin-treated glioma cells. Cathepsin L knockdown induced by RNA interference significantly promoted curcumin-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. The knockdown also inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Our results suggested that the inhibition of cathepsin L can enhance the sensitivity of glioma cells to curcumin. Therefore, cathepsin L may be a new target to enhance the efficacy of curcumin against cancers. PMID:27373979

  6. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Tian, Xuebi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin’s mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling. PMID:26744842

  7. Formation of curcumin nanoparticles by flash nanoprecipitation from emulsions.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Katherine; Magdassi, Shlomo; Lee, Han Seung; Macosko, Christopher W

    2014-11-15

    Nanometric particles of a model hydrophobic substance curcumin were prepared by a novel method, namely, flash nanoprecipitation from a coarse oil-in-water emulsion. The method employs turbulent co-mixing of water with curcumin-loaded emulsion using manually-operated confined impingement jets mixer. A clear and stable dispersion of nanoparticles was formed in this process, and could be converted to dry, easily water-dispersible powder by spray drying. The mean size of the particles was about 40 nm by DLS, confirmed by Cryo-TEM. The obtained particles contained 20.4 wt% curcumin, X-ray analysis showed it was amorphous. The significant advantages of the studied process are its feasibility, speed and low cost. It does not require any special high-energy input equipment to reduce the droplet size of the initial emulsion as required by the vast majority of other methods, and relies on rapid turbulent mixing and on flow-induced shear stress formed in the simple, manually-operated mixer. Control experiments clearly indicate that employing emulsion, instead of a plain solution and flash nanoprecipitation instead of a simple antisolvent precipitation are advantageous in terms of particle size and stability. PMID:25168584

  8. Core-shell biopolymer nanoparticle delivery systems: synthesis and characterization of curcumin fortified zein-pectin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kun; Huang, Xiaoxia; Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Xulin; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymer core-shell nanoparticles were fabricated using a hydrophobic protein (zein) as the core and a hydrophilic polysaccharide (pectin) as the shell. Particles were prepared by coating cationic zein nanoparticles with anionic pectin molecules using electrostatic deposition (pH 4). The core-shell nanoparticles were fortified with curcumin (a hydrophobic bioactive molecule) at a high loading efficiency (>86%). The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, relatively small (diameter ≈ 250 nm), and had a narrow size distribution (polydispersity index ≈ 0.24). The encapsulated curcumin was in an amorphous (rather than crystalline form) as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra indicated that the encapsulated curcumin interacted with zein mainly through hydrophobic interactions. The nanoparticles were converted into a powdered form that had good water-dispersibility. These core-shell biopolymer nanoparticles could be useful for incorporating curcumin into functional foods and beverages, as well as dietary supplements and pharmaceutical products.

  9. Curcumin-Loaded Lipid Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles: Preparation, Optimization, Physicochemical Properties and Oral Absorption.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuli; Li, Qinghua; Liu, Xiuju; Wu, Guangsheng; Zhai, Guangxi

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve the oral absorption of curcumin, curcumin-loaded lipid cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The hot and high-pressure homogenization method was used to prepare the nanoparticles. The formulation and process were optimized by uniform design with drug loading and entrapment efficiency as index, and physicochemical properties were also investigated. Spherical nanoparticles were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM), with average particle size of 176.1 nm, zeta potential of -25.19 mV, average drug loading of (1.5 ± 0.2)% and entrapment efficiency of (95 ± 1.8)%. The in vitro release of curcumin from the nanoparticle formulation showed a sustained property, while the pharmacokinetics results after oral administration of curcumin loaded lipid cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles in rat showed that the oral absorption of curcumin fitted one-compartment model and relative bioavailability was 395.56% when compared to crude curcumin. It can be concluded from these results that the lipid cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles, as carriers, can markedly improve the oral absorption of curcumin.

  10. Curcumin regulates cell fate and metabolism by inhibiting hedgehog signaling in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Naqi; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Huanhuan; Lu, Chunfeng; Wu, Xiafei; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling becomes activated in chronic liver injury and plays a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are Hh-responsive cells and activation of the Hh pathway promotes transdifferentiation of HSCs into myofibroblasts. Targeting Hh signaling may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis. We previously reported that curcumin has potent antifibrotic effects in vivo and in vitro, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This study shows that curcumin downregulated Patched and Smoothened, two key elements in Hh signaling, but restored Hhip expression in rat liver with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis and in cultured HSCs. Curcumin also halted the nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcription activity of Gli1. Moreover, the Hh signaling inhibitor cyclopamine, like curcumin, arrested the cell cycle, induced mitochondrial apoptosis, reduced fibrotic gene expression, restored lipid accumulation, and inhibited invasion and migration in HSCs. However, curcumin's effects on cell fate and fibrogenic properties of HSCs were abolished by the Hh pathway agonist SAG. Furthermore, curcumin and cyclopamine decreased intracellular levels of adenosine triphosphate and lactate, and inhibited the expression and/or function of several key molecules controlling glycolysis. However, SAG abrogated the curcumin effects on these parameters of glycolysis. Animal data also showed that curcumin downregulated glycolysis-regulatory proteins in rat fibrotic liver. These aggregated data therefore indicate that curcumin modulated cell fate and metabolism by disrupting the Hh pathway in HSCs, providing novel molecular insights into curcumin reduction of HSC activation.

  11. Curcumin inhibition of angiogenesis and adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth of new blood vessels or angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Adipokines produced by fat cells stimulate this process. Some dietary polyphenols with antiangiogenic activity may suppress adipose tissue growth not only by inhibiting angiogenesis, but also by interferin...

  12. Drastic nickel ion removal from aqueous solution by curcumin-capped Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, S.; Pagano, R.; Valli, L.; Giancane, G.

    2014-08-01

    A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%.A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02583k

  13. Development and performance evaluation of novel nanoparticles of a grafted copolymer loaded with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Suthar, Neelam A; Managuli, Renuka S; Shetty, Pallavi K; Avadhani, Kiran; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2016-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory condition with mucosal ulceration, edema and hemorrhage of gastrointestinal tract. Curcumin has been shown to mitigate colitis in animal models. However, its usefulness is reduced due to poor pharmacokinetic behavior and low oral bioavailability. To address this, novel pH-sensitive hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-grafted-xanthan gum (PAAm-g-XG) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with curcumin were prepared for colonic delivery. Optimized nanoparticles (CN20) were spherical, with an average size of 425 nm. A negligible amount of curcumin (≈8%) was released from CN20 NPs in pH 1.2 and 4.5 solutions. When the pH was increased to 7.2, curcumin release was comparatively faster than that observed with pH 1.2 and 4.5 collectively. In pH 6.8 solution, excellent release of curcumin was observed. Highest curcumin release was observed when rat caecal contents were incorporated in pH 6.8 solution, indicating microflora-dependent drug release property of NPs. In acetic acid-induced IBD in rats, curcumin NPs reduced myeloperoxidase and nitrite levels, prevented weight loss and attenuated colonic inflammation. Curcumin was better absorbed systemically in nanoparticulate form with increased Cmax (∼3 fold) and AUC (∼2.5 fold) than when delivered as free curcumin. We demonstrate successful development of grafted co-polymeric NPs containing drug suitable for colon targeting. PMID:26851203

  14. The combined effect of encapsulating curcumin and C6 ceramide in liposomal nanoparticles against osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dhule, Santosh S; Penfornis, Patrice; He, Jibao; Harris, Michael R; Terry, Treniece; John, Vijay; Pochampally, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the antitumor potential of curcumin and C6 ceramide (C6) against osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines when both are encapsulated in the bilayer of liposomal nanoparticles. Three liposomal formulations were prepared: curcumin liposomes, C6 liposomes and C6-curcumin liposomes. Curcumin in combination with C6 showed 1.5 times enhanced cytotoxic effect in the case of MG-63 and KHOS OS cell lines, in comparison with curcumin liposomes alone. Importantly, C6-curcumin liposomes were found to be less toxic on untransformed primary human cells (human mesenchymal stem cells) in comparison to OS cell lines. In addition, cell cycle assays on a KHOS cell line after treatment revealed that curcumin only liposomes induced G2/M arrest by upregulation of cyclin B1, while C6 only liposomes induced G1 arrest by downregulation of cyclin D1. C6-curcumin liposomes induced G2/M arrest and showed a combined effect in the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. The efficiency of the preparations was tested in vivo using a human osteosarcoma xenograft assay. Using pegylated liposomes to increase the plasma half-life and tagging with folate (FA) for targeted delivery in vivo, a significant reduction in tumor size was observed with C6-curcumin-FA liposomes. The encapsulation of two water insoluble drugs, curcumin and C6, in the lipid bilayer of liposomes enhances the cytotoxic effect and validates the potential of combined drug therapy.

  15. Curcumin inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through iron chelation.

    PubMed

    Minear, Steven; O'Donnell, Allyson F; Ballew, Anna; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2011-11-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric, is an ancient therapeutic used in India for centuries to treat a wide array of ailments. Interest in curcumin has increased recently, with ongoing clinical trials exploring curcumin as an anticancer therapy and as a protectant against neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro, curcumin chelates metal ions. However, although diverse physiological effects have been documented for this compound, curcumin's mechanism of action on mammalian cells remains unclear. This study uses yeast as a model eukaryotic system to dissect the biological activity of curcumin. We found that yeast mutants lacking genes required for iron and copper homeostasis are hypersensitive to curcumin and that iron supplementation rescues this sensitivity. Curcumin penetrates yeast cells, concentrates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and reduces the intracellular iron pool. Curcumin-treated, iron-starved cultures are enriched in unbudded cells, suggesting that the G(1) phase of the cell cycle is lengthened. A delay in cell cycle progression could, in part, explain the antitumorigenic properties associated with curcumin. We also demonstrate that curcumin causes a growth lag in cultured human cells that is remediated by the addition of exogenous iron. These findings suggest that curcumin-induced iron starvation is conserved from yeast to humans and underlies curcumin's medicinal properties.

  16. Curcumin Suppresses Metastasis via Sp-1, FAK Inhibition, and E-Cadherin Upregulation in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Sureshbabul, Munisamy; Chen, Huei-Wen; Lin, Yu-Shuang; Lee, Jen-Yi; Hong, Qi-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Chien; Yu, Sung-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious public health problem that results due to changes of diet and various environmental stress factors in the world. Curcumin is a traditional medicine used for treatment of a wide variety of tumors. However, antimetastasis mechanism of curcumin on CRC has not yet been completely investigated. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms of curcumin on metastasis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin significantly inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony formation in vitro and reduces tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. We found that curcumin suppresses Sp-1 transcriptional activity and Sp-1 regulated genes including ADEM10, calmodulin, EPHB2, HDAC4, and SEPP1 in CRC cells. Curcumin inhibits focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and enhances the expressions of several extracellular matrix components which play a critical role in invasion and metastasis. Curcumin reduces CD24 expression in a dose-dependent manner in CRC cells. Moreover, E-cadherin expression is upregulated by curcumin and serves as an inhibitor of EMT. These results suggest that curcumin executes its antimetastasis function through downregulation of Sp-1, FAK, and CD24 and by promoting E-cadherin expression in CRC cells. PMID:23970932

  17. Microfluidic fabrication of cationic curcumin nanoparticles as an anti-cancer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Selvi; Prabhakaran, Praseetha; Filgueira, Luis; Iyer, K. Swaminathan; Raston, Colin L.

    2012-03-01

    Curcumin nanoparticles of less than 50 nm in diameter are accessible using a continuous flow microfluidic rotating tube processor (RTP) under scalable conditions, at room temperature. A mixture of DDAB and Pluronic F127 renders higher stability of the curcumin nanoparticles in physiological pH 7.4 for up to eight hours. The nanoparticles have enhanced cytotoxicity in estrogens receptor negative and positive breast cancer cell lines compared with free curcumin.Curcumin nanoparticles of less than 50 nm in diameter are accessible using a continuous flow microfluidic rotating tube processor (RTP) under scalable conditions, at room temperature. A mixture of DDAB and Pluronic F127 renders higher stability of the curcumin nanoparticles in physiological pH 7.4 for up to eight hours. The nanoparticles have enhanced cytotoxicity in estrogens receptor negative and positive breast cancer cell lines compared with free curcumin. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods, DLS, DSC, Fluorescence, UV. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11502f

  18. Preparation and anti-cancer activity of polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Huong Le, Mai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Quang Duong, Tuan; Tran, Thi Hong Ha; Tran, Dai Lam; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a yellow compound isolated from rhizome of the herb curcuma longa. Curcumin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial properties, and suppresses proliferation of many tumor cells. However, the clinical application of curcumin in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its serious poor delivery characteristics. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated curcumin into copolymer PLA-TPGS, 1,3-beta-glucan (Glu), O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs) and folate-conjugated OCMCs (OCMCs-Fol). These polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-PLA-TPGS, Cur-Glu, Cur-OCMCs and Cur-OCMCs-Fol) were characterized by infrared (IR), fluorescence (FL), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and found to be spherical particles with an average size of 50-100 nm, being suitable for drug delivery applications. They were much more soluble in water than not only free curcumin but also other biodegradable polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles. The anti-tumor promoting assay was carried out, showing the positive effects of Cur-Glu and Cur-PLA-TPGS on tumor promotion of Hep-G2 cell line in vitro. Confocal microscopy revealed that the nano-sized curcumin encapsulated by polymers OCMCs and OCMCs-Fol significantly enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell HT29 and HeLa).

  19. Preparation and anti-cancer activity of polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Huong Le, Mai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Quang Duong, Tuan; Tran, Thi Hong Ha; Tran, Dai Lam; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a yellow compound isolated from rhizome of the herb curcuma longa. Curcumin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial properties, and suppresses proliferation of many tumor cells. However, the clinical application of curcumin in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its serious poor delivery characteristics. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated curcumin into copolymer PLA-TPGS, 1,3-beta-glucan (Glu), O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs) and folate-conjugated OCMCs (OCMCs-Fol). These polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-PLA-TPGS, Cur-Glu, Cur-OCMCs and Cur-OCMCs-Fol) were characterized by infrared (IR), fluorescence (FL), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and found to be spherical particles with an average size of 50–100 nm, being suitable for drug delivery applications. They were much more soluble in water than not only free curcumin but also other biodegradable polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles. The anti-tumor promoting assay was carried out, showing the positive effects of Cur-Glu and Cur-PLA-TPGS on tumor promotion of Hep-G2 cell line in vitro. Confocal microscopy revealed that the nano-sized curcumin encapsulated by polymers OCMCs and OCMCs-Fol significantly enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell HT29 and HeLa).

  20. Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin Useful for Suppressing Macrophages In Vivo in Mice.

    PubMed

    Amano, Chie; Minematsu, Hideki; Fujita, Kazuyo; Iwashita, Shinki; Adachi, Masaki; Igarashi, Koichi; Hinuma, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    To explore a novel method using liposomes to suppress macrophages, we screened food constituents through cell culture assays. Curcumin was one of the strongest compounds exhibiting suppressive effects on macrophages. We subsequently tried various methods to prepare liposomal curcumin, and eventually succeeded in preparing liposomes with sufficient amounts of curcumin to suppress macrophages by incorporating a complex of curcumin and bovine serum albumin. The diameter of the resultant nanoparticles, the liposomes containing curcumin, ranged from 60 to 100 nm. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that after intraperitoneal administration of the liposomes containing curcumin into mice, these were incorporated mainly by macrophages positive for F4/80, CD36, and CD11b antigens. Peritoneal cells prepared from mice injected in vivo with the liposomes containing curcumin apparently decreased interleukin-6-producing activities. Major changes in body weight and survival rates in the mice were not observed after administrating the liposomes containing curcumin. These results indicate that the liposomes containing curcumin are safe and useful for the selective suppression of macrophages in vivo in mice. PMID:26361331

  1. Evaluation of Curcumin Capped Copper Nanoparticles as Possible Inhibitors of Human Breast Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis: a Comparative Study with Native Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sonali; Utage, Bhimashankar; Mogle, Pratima; Kamble, Rahul; Hese, Shrikant; Dawane, Bhaskar; Gacche, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles for improving therapeutic index and drug delivery is coming up as an attractive strategy in the mainstream of cancer therapeutic research. In the present study, curcumin-capped copper nanoparticles (CU-NPs) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of in vivo angiogenesis, pro-angiogenic cytokines involved in promoting tumor angiogenesis along with inhibition of cell proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The antiangiogenic potential was assessed using in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the effect of CU-NPs against proliferation of breast cancer cell line. The wound healing migration assay was used to evaluate the effects of CU-NPs on the migration ability of breast cancer cell line. Native curcumin (CU) was used as a reference compound for comparison purpose. The result of the present investigation indicates that CU-NPs could not demonstrate impressive antiangiogenic or anticancer activities significantly as compared to native CU. The possible mechanisms of experimental outcomes are discussed in the light of the methods of nanoparticle synthesis in concert with the current state of the art literature. PMID:26729534

  2. Evaluation of Curcumin Capped Copper Nanoparticles as Possible Inhibitors of Human Breast Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis: a Comparative Study with Native Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sonali; Utage, Bhimashankar; Mogle, Pratima; Kamble, Rahul; Hese, Shrikant; Dawane, Bhaskar; Gacche, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles for improving therapeutic index and drug delivery is coming up as an attractive strategy in the mainstream of cancer therapeutic research. In the present study, curcumin-capped copper nanoparticles (CU-NPs) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of in vivo angiogenesis, pro-angiogenic cytokines involved in promoting tumor angiogenesis along with inhibition of cell proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The antiangiogenic potential was assessed using in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the effect of CU-NPs against proliferation of breast cancer cell line. The wound healing migration assay was used to evaluate the effects of CU-NPs on the migration ability of breast cancer cell line. Native curcumin (CU) was used as a reference compound for comparison purpose. The result of the present investigation indicates that CU-NPs could not demonstrate impressive antiangiogenic or anticancer activities significantly as compared to native CU. The possible mechanisms of experimental outcomes are discussed in the light of the methods of nanoparticle synthesis in concert with the current state of the art literature.

  3. Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Soham P.; Tam, Alison Y.; Barr, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are used by thousands of patients all over the world. However, they can often cause adverse effects. Turmeric, made from the root of Curcuma, longa, is a yellow spice used throughout South Asia for its flavor as well as for its medicinal properties. Curcumin is the main ingredient in turmeric. It is known for downregulating the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines and has been studied for its antiinflammatory mechanism. However, it has also been reported to cause contact dermatitis. Kumkum, a turmeric-based powder applied by Hindu women on their foreheads, has also been found as an allergen. Objective: The authors have reviewed the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin and reports of contact dermatitis to understand the possible harmful effects of this commonly used spice, while also examining its beneficial role in dermatologic conditions. They aim to increase awareness regarding this common herb and its prevalent use not only in South Asia, but also in North America. Methods: A thorough literature search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify studies that examined the antiinflammatory role of curcumin and its role in contact dermatitis. Results: Eleven studies demonstrate that although curcumin does have antiinflammatory properties, it is an allergen. Conclusion: Curcumin has many valuable properties that can be exploited to treat dermatologic conditions. However, patients and dermatologists must be keen of possible allergic reactions. Further studies are needed to completely understand this widely used herb and its efficacy in dermatology. PMID:26705440

  4. Curcumin-induced histone acetylation inhibition improves stress-induced gastric ulcer disease in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Zhou, Renmin; Hu, Guorui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jin, Yu; Yang, Guang; Li, Mei; Lin, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin is known to possess anti‑inflammatory properties. Despite the fact that curcumin is known to be a strong inhibitor of H+, K+‑ATPase activity, the mechanism underlying the curcumin‑induced inhibition of the transcription of the H+, K+‑ATPase α subunit in gastric mucosal parietal cells remains unclear. The present study investigated the possible mechanism by which curcumin inhibits stomach H+, K+‑ATPase activity during the acute phase of gastric ulcer disease. A rat model of stress‑induced gastric ulcers was produced, in which the anti‑ulcer effects of curcumin were examined. Curcumin‑induced inhibition of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter via histone acetylation, was verified using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that curcumin improved stress‑induced gastric ulcer disease in rats, as demonstrated by increased pH values and reduced gastric mucosal hemorrhage and ulcer index. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in the level of histone H3 acetylation at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter and in the expression of the gastric H+,K+‑ATPase α subunit gene and protein. In conclusion, curcumin downregulated the acetylation of histone H3 at the site of the H+, K+‑ATPase promoter gene, thereby inhibiting the transcription and expression of the H+, K+‑ATPase gene. Curcumin was shown to have a preventive and therapeutic effect in gastric ulcer disease.

  5. Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc Le, Thi Minh; Phuc Pham, Van; Lua Dang, Thi Minh; Huyen La, Thi; Hanh Le, Thi; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be an effective delivery system with few side effects for anticancer drugs. In this study, curcumin-loaded NPs have been prepared by an ionic gelation method using chitosan (Chi) and pluronic®F-127 (PF) as carriers to deliver curcumin to the target cancer cells. Prepared NPs were characterized using Zetasizer, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was approximately 50%. The average size of curcumin-loaded PF/Chi NPs was 150.9 nm, while the zeta potential was 5.09 mV. Cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded NPs into HEK293 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy.

  6. Inhibition of nicotine-induced toxicity by curcumin and curcumin analog: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, C; Menon, Venugopal P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of curcumin and curcumin analog on blood oxidant-antioxidant status during nicotine-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. Lung toxicity was induced by subcutaneous injection of nicotine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight (5 days a week, for 22 weeks). The enhanced circulatory lipid peroxides in nicotine-treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. There was a reduction in the levels of zinc with an elevation of copper and ferritin in nicotine-treated rats. Administration of curcumin and curcumin analog significantly lowered the lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status with modulation in the levels of zinc, copper, and ferritin. However, the effect was more significant in curcumin analog-treated rats than in curcumin-treated rats. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin and curcumin analog exert their protective effects by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:15671691

  7. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  8. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  9. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids. PMID:25584520

  10. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  11. Curcumin-loaded γ-cyclodextrin liposomal nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Dhule, Santosh S.; Penfornis, Patrice; Frazier, Trivia; Walker, Ryan; Feldman, Joshua; Tan, Grace; He, Jibao; Alb, Alina; John, Vijay; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of curcumin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, has been explored in the form of liposomal nanoparticles to treat osteosarcoma (OS). Curcumin is water insoluble and an effective delivery route is through encapsulation in cyclodextrins followed by a second encapsulation in liposomes. Liposomal curcumin’s potential was evaluated against cancer models of mesenchymal (OS) and epithelial origin (breast cancer). The resulting 2-Hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin/curcumin - liposome complex shows promising anticancer potential both in vitro and in vivo against KHOS OS cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. An interesting aspect is that liposomal curcumin initiates the caspase cascade that leads to apoptotic cell death in vitro in comparison with DMSO-curcumin induced autophagic cell death. In addition, the efficiency of the liposomal curcumin formulation was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft OS model. Curcumin-loaded γ-cyclodextrin liposomes indicate significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of different tissue origin. From the Clinical Editor Curcumin-loaded γ-cyclodextrin liposomes were demonstrated in vitro to have significant potential as delivery vehicles for the treatment of cancers of mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Differences between mechanisms of cell death were also evaluated. PMID:21839055

  12. Tumor growth inhibition through targeting liposomally bound curcumin to tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Goutam; Barui, Sugata; Saha, Soumen; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2013-12-28

    Increasing number of Phase I/II clinical studies have demonstrated clinical potential of curcumin for treatment of various types of human cancers. Despite significant anti-tumor efficacies and bio-safety profiles of curcumin, poor systemic bioavailability is retarding its clinical success. Efforts are now being directed toward developing stable formulations of curcumin using various drug delivery systems. To this end, herein we report on the development of a new tumor vasculature targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin containing a lipopeptide with RGDK-head group and two stearyl tails, di-oleyolphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cholesterol. We show that essentially water insoluble curcumin can be solubilized in fairly high concentrations (~500 μg/mL) in such formulation. Findings in the Annexin V/Propidium iodide (PI) binding based flow cytometric assays showed significant apoptosis inducing properties of the present curcumin formulation in both endothelial (HUVEC) and tumor (B16F10) cells. Using syngeneic mouse tumor model, we show that growth of solid melanoma tumor can be inhibited by targeting such liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculature. Results in immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cryosections are consistent with tumor growth inhibition being mediated by apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells. Findings in both in vitro and in vivo mechanistic studies are consistent with the supposition that the presently described liposomal formulation of curcumin inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor endothelium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on inhibiting tumor growth through targeting liposomal formulation of curcumin to tumor vasculatures.

  13. Liposome-Encapsulated Curcumin Suppresses Neuroblastoma Growth Through Nuclear Factor-κB Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Orr, W. Shannon; Denbo, Jason W.; Saab, Karim R.; Myers, Adrianne L.; Ng, Catherine Y.; Zhou, Junfang; Morton, Christopher L.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation and survival, and tumor angiogenesis. We sought to evaluate the effects of curcumin, an inhibitor of NF-κB, on a xenograft model on disseminated neuroblastoma. Methods For in vitro studies, neuroblastoma cell lines, NB1691, CHLA-20, and SK-N-AS, were treated with varying doses of liposomal curcumin. Disseminated neuroblastoma was established in vivo by tail vein injection of NB1691-luc cells into SCID mice which were then treated with 50mg/kg/day of liposomal curcumin 5 days/week intraperitoneal. Results Curcumin suppressed NF-κB activation and proliferation of all neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro. In vivo, curcumin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in disseminated tumor burden. Curcumin treated tumors had decreased NF-κB activity and an associated significant decrease in tumor cell proliferation and an increase in tumor cell apoptosis, as well as a decrease in tumor VEGF levels and microvessel density. Conclusions Liposomal curcumin suppressed neuroblastoma growth, with treated tumors showing a decrease in NF-kB activity. Our results suggest that liposomal curcumin maybe a viable option for the treatment of neuroblastoma that works via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. PMID:22284765

  14. Increase of a group of PTC(+) transcripts by curcumin through inhibition of the NMD pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dairong; Su, Ruey-Chyi; Zou, Liping; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Huang, Shangzhi; Xie, Jiuyong

    2015-08-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an mRNA surveillance mechanism, eliminates premature termination codon-containing (PTC⁺) transcripts. For instance, it maintains the homeostasis of splicing factors and degrades aberrant transcripts of human genetic disease genes. Here we examine the inhibitory effect on the NMD pathway and consequent increase of PTC+ transcripts by the dietary compound curcumin. We have found that several PTC⁺ transcripts including that of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) were specifically increased in cells by curcumin. We also observed a similar curcumin effect on the PTC⁺ mutant transcript from a Tay-Sachs-causing HEXA allele or from a beta-globin reporter gene. The curcumin effect was accompanied by significantly reduced expression of the NMD factors UPF1, 2, 3A and 3B. Consistently, in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, curcumin specifically reduced the occupancy of acetyl-histone H3 and RNA polymerase II at the promoter region (-376 to -247nt) of human UPF1, in a time- and dosage-dependent way. Importantly, knocking down UPF1 abolished or substantially reduced the difference of PTC(+) transcript levels between control and curcumin-treated cells. The disrupted curcumin effect was efficiently rescued by expression of exogenous Myc-UPF1 in the knockdown cells. Together, our data demonstrate that a group of PTC⁺ transcripts are stabilized by a dietary compound curcumin through the inhibition of UPF factor expression and the NMD pathway. PMID:25934542

  15. Curcumin Inhibits Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Inflammation by Inhibiting IL-1beta and IL-6 Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinhong

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a selective phosphorylase kinase inhibitor, is a naturally occurring phytochemical present in turmeric. Curcumin has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory properties in addition to the ability to decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes. The interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17A cytokine axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we report that topical use of a curcumin gel formulation strongly inhibited imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation, the development of which was based on the IL-23/IL-17A axis. IMQ-induced epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation in BALB/c mouse ear was significantly inhibited following curcumin treatment. Real-time PCR showed that mRNA levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines were decreased significantly by curcumin in ear skin, an effect similar to that of clobetasol. In addition, we found that curcumin may enhance the proliferation of epidermis γδ T cells but inhibit dermal γδ T cell proliferation. We inferred that curcumin was capable of impacting the IL-23/IL-17A axis by inhibiting IL-1β/IL-6 and then indirectly down-regulating IL-17A/IL-22 production. In conclusion, curcumin can relieve the IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in a mouse model, similar to the effects of clobetasol. Therefore, we have every reason to expect that curcumin will be used in the treatment of psoriasis in the future. PMID:23825622

  16. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Jens U.; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Camacho, Lucrecia O. Arreguin; Pinna, Federico; Lee, Yun-Han; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Domínguez, Mayrel Palestino; Castven, Darko; Breuhahn, Kai; Conner, Elizabeth A.; Galle, Peter R.; Andersen, Jesper B.; Factor, Valentina M.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The cancer stem cells (CSCs) have important therapeutic implications for multi-resistant cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the key pathways frequently activated in liver CSCs is NF-kB signaling. Methods We evaluated the CSCs-depleting potential of NF-kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western blotting. Results HCC cell lines exposed to curcumin exhibited differential responses to curcumin and were classified as sensitive and resistant. In sensitive lines, curcumin-mediated induction of cell death was directly related to the extent of NF-kB inhibition. The treatment also led to a selective CSC-depletion as evidenced by a reduced SP size, decreased sphere formation, down-regulation of CSC markers and suppressed tumorigenicity. Similarly, NF-kB inhibition by SN50 and siRNA against p65 suppressed tumor cell growth. In contrast, curcumin-resistant cells displayed a paradoxical increase in proliferation and expression of CSC markers. Mechanistically, an important component of the CSC-depleting activity of curcumin could be attributed to a NF-kB-mediated HDAC inhibition. Co-administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor trichostatine sensitized resistant cells to curcumin. Further, integration of a predictive signature of curcumin sensitivity with human HCC database indicated that HCCs with poor prognosis and progenitor features are most likely to benefit from NF-kB inhibition. Conclusions These results demonstrate that blocking NF-kB can specifically target CSC populations and suggest a potential for combined inhibition of NF-kB and HDAC signaling for treatment of liver cancer patients with poor prognosis. PMID:25937435

  17. Curcumin as fluorescent probe for directly monitoring in vitro uptake of curcumin combined paclitaxel loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Thu Ha, Phuong; Sao Nguyen, Anh; Nguyen, Dac Tu; Doan Do, Hai; Nguyen Thi, Quy; Nhung Hoang Thi, My

    2016-06-01

    Theranostics, which is the combination of both therapeutic and diagnostic capacities in one dose, is a promising tool for both clinical application and research. Although there are many chromophores available for optical imaging, their applications are limited due to the photobleaching property or intrinsic toxicity. Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from the rhizome of curcuma longa, is well known thanks to its bio-pharmaceutical activities and strong fluorescence as biocompatible probe for bio-imaging. In this study, we aimed to fabricate a system with dual functions: diagnostic and therapeutic, based on poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS) micelles co-loaded curcumin (Cur) and paclitaxel (PTX). Two kinds of curcumin nanoparticle (NP) were fabricated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods. The cellular uptake and fluorescent activities of curcumin in these systems were also tested by bioassay studies, and were compared with paclitaxe-oregon. The results showed that (Cur + PTX)-PLA-TPGS NPs is a potential system for cancer theranostics.

  18. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis, and Decreases Hormone Levels and Secretion in Pituitary Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on pituitary tumor cell proliferation has not been determined. Our objectives were to: 1) determine whether curcumin inhibits proliferation of pituitary tumor cell lines; 2) identify the signaling intermediaries that mediate the effect of curcumin; 3) examine whether curcumin inhibited pituitary hormone production and release; and 4) examine whether curcumin could enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine. Using rat lactotroph cell lines, GH3 and MMQ cells, we report that curcumin had a robust dose and time-dependent inhibitory effect on GH3 and MMQ cell proliferation. Inhibitory effects of curcumin persisted, even on removal of curcumin, and curcumin also blocked colony formation ability of pituitary tumor cells. The growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D3 and ser 780 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, curcumin also induced apoptosis in both GH3 and MMQ cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses intracellular levels and release of both prolactin and GH. Finally, we show that low concentrations of curcumin enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MMQ cell proliferation. Taken together we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits pituitary tumor cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone production and release, and thus, we propose developing curcumin as a novel therapeutic tool in the management of prolactinomas. PMID:18450960

  19. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone levels and secretion in pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-08-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on pituitary tumor cell proliferation has not been determined. Our objectives were to: 1) determine whether curcumin inhibits proliferation of pituitary tumor cell lines; 2) identify the signaling intermediaries that mediate the effect of curcumin; 3) examine whether curcumin inhibited pituitary hormone production and release; and 4) examine whether curcumin could enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine. Using rat lactotroph cell lines, GH3 and MMQ cells, we report that curcumin had a robust dose and time-dependent inhibitory effect on GH3 and MMQ cell proliferation. Inhibitory effects of curcumin persisted, even on removal of curcumin, and curcumin also blocked colony formation ability of pituitary tumor cells. The growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D3 and ser 780 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, curcumin also induced apoptosis in both GH3 and MMQ cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses intracellular levels and release of both prolactin and GH. Finally, we show that low concentrations of curcumin enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MMQ cell proliferation. Taken together we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits pituitary tumor cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone production and release, and thus, we propose developing curcumin as a novel therapeutic tool in the management of prolactinomas.

  20. Physico-chemical characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation of curcumin loaded in chitosan/chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Katiúscia Vieira; Joanitti, Graziella Anselmo; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Parize, Alexandre Luis

    2015-11-01

    In this study, chitosan (CTS)/chondroitin sulfate (CS) nanoparticles, both pure and curcumin-loaded, were synthesized by ionic gelation. This method is simple and efficient for obtaining nanoparticles with a low polydispersity index (0.151±0.03 to 0.563±0.07) and hydrodynamic diameter in the range of 175.7±2.5 to 710.2±8.9nm, for this study. Samples have a relatively high zeta potential value, a fact that indicates that the colloidal system has good physical and chemical stabilities. The efficiency of the curcumin encapsulation in nanoparticles, which ranged from 62.4±0.61% to 68.3±0.88%, depends on the pH of the chitosan solution. The release of curcumin from the nanoparticles was enabled by a diffusion mechanism, with fast release in a phosphate buffer solution at pH6.8. The assaying of cell viability by the MTT test showed that the presence of both free curcumin and curcumin in the nanoencapsulated form leads to a statistically significant reduction in the viability of A549 cells, by comparison with the control group. The most significant reductions in cell viability of 41.1% and 60.4% (p<0.0001) were observed after 72h, by using 40μmol∙L(-1) free curcumin and curcumin encapsulated in CTS/CS nanoparticles with the chitosan solution at pH6.0, respectively.

  1. Inhibition of IL-6 Signaling Pathway by Curcumin in Uterine Decidual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Y. Sangeeta; DeVine, Majesta; DeKuiper, Justin; Ferguson, Susan; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2015-01-01

    IL-6 is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine and has been implicated in many gestational disorders including preterm birth. Currently, there are no appropriate therapeutic interventions available to circumvent inflammatory-mediated gestational disorders. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify a safe and effective pharmacological compound to counterbalance inflammatory responses in the uterus. Curcumin, a naturally-occuring polyphenolic compound, has been widely used in alternative medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin has not been explored in uterine decidual cells, a major source of IL-6. Therefore, we examined the effect of curcumin on IL-6 expression using two types of uterine decidual cells 1) HuF cells, primary human fibroblast cells obtained from the decidua parietalis; 2) UIII cells, a rodent non-transformed decidual cell line. Curcumin treatment completely abrogated the expression of IL-1β-induced IL-6 in these cells. Curcumin also strongly inhibited the expression of gp130, a critical molecule in IL-6 signaling, whereas expression of IL-6R and sIL-6R was not affected. Curcumin also inhibited phosphorylation and nuclear localization of STAT3, a well-known downstream mediator of IL-6 signaling. Furthermore, curcumin attenuated IL-1β-induced IL-6 promoter reporter activity suggesting transcriptional regulation. To further understand whether NF-ҡB is involved in this inhibition, we examined the effect of curcumin on the expression of p50 and p65 subunits of NF-ҡB in decidual cells. Expression of IL-1β-induced p50 mRNA was repressed by curcumin while p65 mRNA was not affected. However, curcumin treatment dramatically inhibited both p50 and p65 protein levels and prevented its nuclear localization. This effect is at least partly mediated through the deactivation of IKK, since IL-1β-induced IKKα/β phosphorylation is decreased upon curcumin treatment. Our results not only revealed

  2. Kinetics of Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase Using Curcumin and Ellagic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Dharmendra Kumar; Juvekar, Archana Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curcumin and ellagic are the natural polyphenols having a wide range of pharmacological actions. They have been reported to have their use in various neurological disorders. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin and ellagic acid on the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters which are pivotal for neuronal development and function. Materials and Methods: The in vitro effects of these selected polyphenols on MAO activities in mitochondria isolated from rat brains were examined. Brain mitochondria were assayed for MAO type-B (MAO-B) using benzylamine as substrates. Rat brain mitochondrial MAO preparation was used to study the kinetics of enzyme inhibition using double reciprocal Lineweaver–Burk plot. Results: MAO activity was inhibited by curcumin and ellagic acid; however, higher half maximal inhibitory concentrations of curcumin (500.46 nM) and ellagic acid (412.24 nM) were required compared to the known MAO-B inhibitor selegiline. It is observed that the curcumin and ellagic acid inhibit the MAO activity with both the competitive and noncompetitive type of inhibitions. Conclusions: Curcumin and ellagic acid can be considered a possible source of MAO inhibitor used in the treatment of Parkinson's and other neurological disorders. SUMMARY Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is involved in a variety of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD)Curcumin and ellagic acid inhibit the monoamine oxidase activityEllagic acid revealed more potent MAO type-B (MAO-B) inhibitory activity than curcuminKinetic studies of MAO inhibition using different concentrations of curcumin and ellagic acid were plotted as double reciprocal Lineweaver–Burk plotThe mode of inhibition of both compounds toward MAO-B is mixed (competitive and uncompetitive) type of inhibition with both the competitive and noncompetitive type of inhibitions. Abbreviations used: MAO: Monoamine oxidase

  3. Redox modulation and human bile duct cancer inhibition by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Suphim, Bunliang; Prawan, Auemduan; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kongpetch, Sarinya; Buranrat, Benjaporn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin, a major component from tumeric and well-known dietary spice, possesses various pharmacological effects. The cancer chemoprevention effect is suggested to act through its pro-oxidant property. The study was to clarify effects of curcumin on cholangiocarcinoma cells, a cancer of the bile duct that refractory to chemotherapeutic drugs. We examined time-course of oxidant formation in relation to antitumor and the adaptive antioxidant response of the cells. Curcumin induced antiproliferation and apoptosis in KKU-M214 CCA cells with concentration- and time- dependent manners. The antiproliferative effect of curcumin was observed at concentrations as low as 3 microM and was not necessarily associated with oxidative stress, while induction of apoptosis required significant production of superoxide anion, suppression of cellular redox and collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Western blot analysis showed a temporal relationship between the suppression of nuclear NF-kappaB with Bcl-XL protein levels. Up-regulation of p53 and Bax was associated with marked oxidative stress and apoptosis. Curcumin also induced Nrf2 protein expression with up-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase mRNA and increased cellular antioxidant, glutathione. The study suggests that curcumin could be developed into an effective chemoprevention against CCA.

  4. The dietary compound curcumin inhibits p300 histone acetyltransferase activity and prevents heart failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Tatsuya; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Takaya, Tomohide; Wada, Hiromichi; Nagasawa, Atsushi; Komeda, Masashi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Kita, Toru; Hasegawa, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Hemodynamic overload in the heart can trigger maladaptive hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. A key signaling event in this process is nuclear acetylation by histone deacetylases and p300, an intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT). It has been previously shown that curcumin, a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the spice turmeric, possesses HAT inhibitory activity with specificity for the p300/CREB-binding protein. We found that curcumin inhibited the hypertrophy-induced acetylation and DNA-binding abilities of GATA4, a hypertrophy-responsive transcription factor, in rat cardiomyocytes. Curcumin also disrupted the p300/GATA4 complex and repressed agonist- and p300-induced hypertrophic responses in these cells. Both the acetylated form of GATA4 and the relative levels of the p300/GATA4 complex markedly increased in rat hypertensive hearts in vivo. The effects of curcumin were examined in vivo in 2 different heart failure models: hypertensive heart disease in salt-sensitive Dahl rats and surgically induced myocardial infarction in rats. In both models, curcumin prevented deterioration of systolic function and heart failure–induced increases in both myocardial wall thickness and diameter. From these results, we conclude that inhibition of p300 HAT activity by the nontoxic dietary compound curcumin may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for heart failure in humans. PMID:18292809

  5. Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-induced migration in K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Lin, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Rong-Rong; Bao, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, traditionally used as food and medicinal purposes, has recently been reported to have protective efficacy against hypoxia. Hypoxia is one of the important reactive factors in tumor metastasis, which is a key problem in clinical thyroid cancer therapy. In present study, we investigate the anti-metastatic effect of curcumin on the K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells as well as its potential mechanisms. The results show that curcumin effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) upregulation and significantly decreases the mRNA and protein expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in K1 cells. Curcumin also decreases the DNA binding ability of HIF-1α to hypoxia response element (HRE). Furthermore, curcumin enhances E-cadherin expression, inhibits metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzyme activity, and weakens K1 cells migration under hypoxic conditions. In summary, these results indicate that curcumin possesses a potent anti-metastatic effect and might be an effective tumoristatic agent for the treatment of aggressive papillary thyroid cancers. PMID:25349216

  6. Curcumin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC-9 cells proliferation by regulating miR-9 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Can; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Lifang; Zhang, Chenping; Zhou, Jianhua

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • miR-9 expression level was significantly decreased in OSCC tissues. • Curcumin significantly inhibited SCC-9 cells proliferation. • miR-9 mediates the inhibition of SCC-9 proliferation by curcumin. • Curcumin suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling in SCC-9 cells. • miR-9 mediates the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by curcumin. - Abstract: Curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has shown anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of curcumin on the miR-9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and explored the potential relationships between miR-9 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in curcumin-mediated OSCC inhibition in vitro. As the results shown, the expression levels of miR-9 were significantly lower in clinical OSCC specimens than those in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, our results indicated that curcumin inhibited OSCC cells (SCC-9 cells) proliferation through up-regulating miR-9 expression, and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling by increasing the expression levels of the GSK-3β, phosphorylated GSK-3β and β-catenin, and decreasing the cyclin D1 level. Additionally, the up-regulation of miR-9 by curcumin in SCC-9 cells was significantly inhibited by delivering anti-miR-9 but not control oligonucleotides. Downregulation of miR-9 by anti-miR-9 not only attenuated the growth-suppressive effects of curcumin on SCC-9 cells, but also re-activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling that was inhibited by curcumin. Therefore, our findings would provide a new insight into the use of curcumin against OSCC in future.

  7. Curcumin/turmeric solubilized in sodium hydroxide inhibits HNE protein modification--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2007-03-21

    Free radical mediated lipid peroxidation has been implicated in multiple diseases. A major oxidation by-product of this deleterious process is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). HNE is cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic and is involved in disease pathogenesis. Curcumin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (occurring as the yellow pigment found in the rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa known as turmeric), has emerged as the newest "nutraceutical" agent that has been shown to be efficacious against colon cancer and other disorders, including correcting cystic fibrosis defects. Since curcumin has been reported to have anti-oxidant properties we hypothesized that it will inhibit HNE-modification of a protein substrate. Using an ELISA that employed HNE-modification of solid phase antigen following immobilization, we found that the curcumin solubilized in dilute alkali (5mM sodium hydroxide, pH 11) inhibited HNE-protein modification by 65%. Turmeric also inhibited HNE-protein modification similarly (65%) but at a much lower alkali level (130muM sodium hydroxide, pH 7.6). Alkali by itself (5mM sodium hydroxide, pH 11) was found to enhance HNE modification by as much as 267%. Curcumin/turmeric has to inhibit this alkali enhanced HNE-modification prior to inhibiting the normal HNE protein modification induced by HNE. Thus, inhibition of HNE-modification could be a mechanism by which curcumin exerts its antioxidant effects. The pH at which the inhibition of HNE modification of substrate was observed was close to the physiological pH, making this formulation of curcumin potentially useful practically.

  8. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Jozi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO) are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur) against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold), ALT (2.7-fold) and ALP (1.97-fold) activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01). NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01). Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%), increased SOD (156%) and GPx (26%) activities, and attenuated ALT (47%), AST (41%) and ALP (30%) activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  9. Some perspectives on dietary inhibition of carcinogenesis: studies with curcumin and tea.

    PubMed

    Conney, A H; Lou, Y R; Xie, J G; Osawa, T; Newmark, H L; Liu, Y; Chang, R L; Huang, M T

    1997-11-01

    Topical application of curcumin inhibits chemically induced carcinogenesis on mouse skin, and oral administration of curcumin inhibits chemically induced oral, forestomach, duodenal, and colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin and other inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase are thought to inhibit carcinogenesis by preventing the formation of arachidonic acid metabolites. In contrast to our expectation of a tumorigenic effect of arachidonic acid, we found that treatment of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated mouse skin with very high doses of arachidonic acid twice daily, 5 days a week for 26 weeks, failed to result in tumors. We considered the possibility that some of the cancer chemopreventive effects of curcumin may be related to an effect of this compound on cellular differentiation, and we investigated the effect of curcumin on differentiation in the human promyelocytic HL-60 leukemia cell model system. Although curcumin alone had little or no effect on cellular differentiation, when it was combined with all-trans retinoic acid or 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 a synergistic effect was observed. It is possible that many dietary chemicals in fruits, vegetables, and other edible plants can prevent cancer by synergizing with endogenously produced stimulators of differentiation such as all-trans retinoic acid, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and butyrate. More research is needed to test this hypothesis. Administration of green or black tea inhibits carcinogenesis in several animal models, and tumor growth is also inhibited. Several examples were presented of chemopreventive agents that inhibit carcinogenesis in one animal model but enhance carcinogenesis in a different animal model. Greater efforts should be made to understand mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention and to determine whether a potential chemopreventive agent is useful in many experimental settings or whether it is useful in only a limited number of experimental settings.

  10. Curcumin targets FOLFOX-surviving colon cancer cells via inhibition of EGFRs and IGF-1R.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhaumik B; Gupta, Deepshika; Elliott, Althea A; Sengupta, Vivek; Yu, Yingjie; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2010-02-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which has no discernible toxicity, inhibits initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) or 5-FU plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) remains the backbone of colorectal cancer chemotherapeutics, but produces an incomplete response resulting in survival of cells (chemo-surviving cells) that may lead to cancer recurrence. The present investigation was, therefore, undertaken to examine whether addition of curcumin to FOLFOX is a superior therapeutic strategy for chemo-surviving cells. Forty-eight-hour treatment of colon cancer HCT-116 and HT-29 cells with FOLFOX resulted in 60-70% survival, accompanied by a marked activation of insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and minor to moderate increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (HER-2) as well as v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclin-D1. However, inclusion of curcumin to continued FOLFOX treatment for another 48 h greatly reduced the survival of these cells, accompanied by a concomitant reduction in activation of EGFR, HER-2, IGF-1R and AKT, as well as expression of COX-2 and cyclin-D1. More importantly, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib or attenuation of IGF-1R expression by the corresponding si-RNA caused a 30-60% growth inhibition of chemo-surviving HCT-116 cells. However, curcumin alone was found to be more effective than both gefitinib and IGF-1R si-RNA mediated growth inhibition of chemo-surviving HCT-116 cells and addition of FOLFOX to curcumin did not increase the growth inhibitory effect of curcumin. Our data suggest that inclusion of curcumin in conventional chemotherapeutic regimens could be an effective strategy to prevent the emergence of chemoresistant colon cancer cells.

  11. Inhibition of 12/15 lipoxygenase by curcumin and an extract from Curcuma longa L.

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Lýdia; Košťálová, Daniela; Obložinský, Marek; Hoffman, Peter; Pekárová, Mária; Kollárová, Renáta; Holková, Ivana; Mošovská, Silvia; Sturdík, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an orange-yellow secondary metabolic compound from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), a spice often found in curry powder. It is one of the major curcuminoids of turmeric. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparations or as a food colouring agent. A variety of enzymes that are closely associated with inflammation and cancer were found to be modulated by curcumin. This paper summarized the results of the inhibitory effect of curcumin and a Curcuma longa L. ethanolic extract on lipoxygenase from the rat lung cytosolic fraction. The positional specificity determination of arachidonic acid dioxygenation by RP- and SP-HPLC methods showed that in a purified enzyme preparation from the rat lung cytosol the specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX) is present exhibiting 12/15-LOX dual specificity (with predominant 15-LOX activity). The inhibitory activity of curcumin and Curcuma longa extract on LOX from cytosolic fraction of rat lung was expressed in the percentage of inhibition and as IC50. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis has indicated that curcumin is the competitive inhibitor of 12/15 LOX from the rat lung cytosolic fraction.

  12. EGF and curcumin co-encapsulated nanoparticle/hydrogel system as potent skin regeneration agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Ye, Xianlong; Qi, Jianying; Fan, Rangrang; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Yunzhou; Zhou, Liangxue; Tong, Aiping; Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex multifactorial process that relies on coordinated signaling molecules to succeed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair; however, precise control over its application is necessary to reduce the side effects and achieve desired therapeutic benefits. Moreover, the extensive oxidative stress during the wound healing process generally inhibits repair of the injured tissues. Topical applications of antioxidants like curcumin (Cur) could protect tissues from oxidative damage and significantly improve tissue remodeling. To achieve much accelerated wound healing effects, we designed a novel dual drug co-loaded in situ gel-forming nanoparticle/hydrogel system (EGF-Cur-NP/H) which acted not only as a supportive matrix for the regenerative tissue, but also as a sustained drug depot for EGF and Cur. In the established excisional full-thickness wound model, EGF-Cur-NP/H treatment significantly enhanced wound closure through increasing granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, and angiogenesis, relative to normal saline, nanoparticle/hydrogel (NP/H), Cur-NP/H, and EGF-NP/H treated groups. In conclusion, this study provides a biocompatible in situ gel-forming system for efficient topical application of EGF and Cur in the landscape of tissue repair. PMID:27574428

  13. EGF and curcumin co-encapsulated nanoparticle/hydrogel system as potent skin regeneration agent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoling; Ye, Xianlong; Qi, Jianying; Fan, Rangrang; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Yunzhou; Zhou, Liangxue; Tong, Aiping; Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex multifactorial process that relies on coordinated signaling molecules to succeed. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair; however, precise control over its application is necessary to reduce the side effects and achieve desired therapeutic benefits. Moreover, the extensive oxidative stress during the wound healing process generally inhibits repair of the injured tissues. Topical applications of antioxidants like curcumin (Cur) could protect tissues from oxidative damage and significantly improve tissue remodeling. To achieve much accelerated wound healing effects, we designed a novel dual drug co-loaded in situ gel-forming nanoparticle/hydrogel system (EGF-Cur-NP/H) which acted not only as a supportive matrix for the regenerative tissue, but also as a sustained drug depot for EGF and Cur. In the established excisional full-thickness wound model, EGF-Cur-NP/H treatment significantly enhanced wound closure through increasing granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, and angiogenesis, relative to normal saline, nanoparticle/hydrogel (NP/H), Cur-NP/H, and EGF-NP/H treated groups. In conclusion, this study provides a biocompatible in situ gel-forming system for efficient topical application of EGF and Cur in the landscape of tissue repair. PMID:27574428

  14. Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Palanisamy; Gopal Telang, Avinash; Kalaivanan, Ramya; Karunakaran, Vijayakaran; Manikam, Kesavan; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (CUR-NP) against sodium arsenite-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats. The CUR-NP prepared by emulsion technique was spherical in shape with an encapsulation efficiency of 86.5%. The particle size ranged between 120 and 140 nm with the mean particle size being 130.8 nm. Rats were divided into five groups of six each. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (25 ppm) daily through drinking water for 42 days. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with arsenic as in group 2, however, they were administered, empty nanoparticles, curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) and CUR-NP (100 mg/kg bw), respectively, by oral gavage during the last 14 days of arsenic exposure. Arsenic increased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and caused histological alterations in liver indicating hepatotoxicity. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation, depleted reduced glutathione and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver. All these effects of arsenic were attenuated with both curcumin and CUR-NP. However, the magnitude of amelioration was more pronounced with CUR-NP. The results indicate that curcumin given in nano-encapsulated form caused better amelioration than free curcumin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 628-637, 2015.

  15. Effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on arsenic-induced liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Palanisamy; Gopal Telang, Avinash; Kalaivanan, Ramya; Karunakaran, Vijayakaran; Manikam, Kesavan; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effectiveness of the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (CUR-NP) against sodium arsenite-induced hepatic oxidative damage in rats. The CUR-NP prepared by emulsion technique was spherical in shape with an encapsulation efficiency of 86.5%. The particle size ranged between 120 and 140 nm with the mean particle size being 130.8 nm. Rats were divided into five groups of six each. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (25 ppm) daily through drinking water for 42 days. Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with arsenic as in group 2, however, they were administered, empty nanoparticles, curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) and CUR-NP (100 mg/kg bw), respectively, by oral gavage during the last 14 days of arsenic exposure. Arsenic increased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and caused histological alterations in liver indicating hepatotoxicity. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation, depleted reduced glutathione and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver. All these effects of arsenic were attenuated with both curcumin and CUR-NP. However, the magnitude of amelioration was more pronounced with CUR-NP. The results indicate that curcumin given in nano-encapsulated form caused better amelioration than free curcumin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 628-637, 2015. PMID:24347089

  16. A new method for pH triggered curcumin release by applying poly(L-lysine) mediated nanoparticle-congregation.

    PubMed

    Patra, Digambara; Sleem, Fatima

    2013-09-17

    We introduce a novel method for encapsulation of curcumin by synthesizing microcapsule containing self-assembled nanoparticles using poly (L-lysine), trisodium citrate and silica sol. Such microcapsules can only be prepared in neutral and alkaline environment and unencapsulated curcumin can be effectively removed by simple centrifugation with encapsulation efficiency 57.34%. The particle sizes are in the range 0.7-3 μm with an effective diameter 1.05 μm. The structure of the microcapsules is dependent upon the solubility of curcumin in the solvent environment, the microcapsule are spherical when prepared in 10% acetone and bowl-shaped/conical when prepared in water suspension, however, the size of these curcumin encapsulated microcapsules remain similar. Fluorescence microscope images confirm that curcumin is predominantly concentrated within the shell wall of the capsules. Photophysical behavior of Micro-curcumin with respect to curcumin alone is evaluated. Release of curcumin is found to be triggered by pH where acidic environment trigger maximum release compared to basic and neutral conditions. Micro-curcumin is as stable as curcumin. Drug release efficiency is found to be 61.44% and the drug release profile of Micro-curcumin follow Higuchi model. It is also revealed that β-diketone group of curcumin responsible for scavenging activity is retained in the Micro-curcumin, thus suggesting applicability of such system as a poorly water soluble drug delivery vehicle. In contrast to other curcumin delivery systems, the presented method is easy, fast and does not need flow rate monitoring device. In addition poly (L-lysine) as a non-toxic and highly stable material that prevents metabolic degradation is used in the present preparation method. PMID:23998538

  17. Electrospun composite nanofibers of poly vinyl pyrrolidone and zinc oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical detection of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Moslem; Mostafavi, Ali; Shamspur, Tayebeh

    2016-11-01

    A simple and novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode was developed to determine curcumin in a phosphate buffer solution at pH=8. ZnO nanoparticles were produced via a sonochemical process and composite nanofibers of PVP/ZnO were prepared by electrospinning. The characterization was performed by SEM, XRD and IR. The results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers having a large surface area promote electron transfer for the oxidation of curcumin and hence the FCNFCPE exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and performs well in regard to the oxidation of curcumin. The proposed method was successfully applied for measurement of curcumin in urine and turmeric as real samples.

  18. Anti-cancer effects of curcumin on lung cancer through the inhibition of EZH2 and NOTCH1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Wang, Xiao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Ai-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Ying; Chen, Yun; Chen, Xiao-Chen; Xiao, Jian-Yong; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Fu-Wei; Rui, Tao; Liao, Yi-Ji; Xie, Dan; Lu, Li-Qin; Huang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is potentially therapeutic for malignant diseases. The mechanisms of this effect might involve a combination of antioxidant, immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activities. However, the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we provided evidences that curcumin suppressed the expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in lung cancer cells both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Curcumin inhibited the expression of EZH2 through microRNA (miR)-let 7c and miR-101. Curcumin decreased the expression of NOTCH1 through the inhibition of EZH2. There was a reciprocal regulation between EZH2 and NOTCH1 in lung cancer cells. These observations suggest that curcumin inhibits lung cancer growth and metastasis at least partly through the inhibition of EZH2 and NOTCH1. PMID:27049834

  19. PLGA nanoparticles improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin in rats: characterizations and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoxia; Tao, Qing; Zou, Yina; Zhang, Fengyi; Guo, Miao; Wang, Ying; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Qian; Yu, Shuqin

    2011-09-14

    The overall goal of this paper was to develop poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) of curcumin (CUR), named CUR-PLGA-NPs, and to study the effect and mechanisms enhancing the oral bioavailability of CUR. CUR-PLGA-NPs were prepared according to a solid-in-oil-in-water (s/o/w) solvent evaporation method and exhibited a smooth and spherical shape with diameters of about 200 nm. Characterization of CUR-PLGA-NPs showed CUR was successfully encapsulated on the PLGA polymer. The entrapment efficiency and loading rate of CUR were 91.96 and 5.75%, respectively. CUR-PLGA-NPs showed about 640-fold in water solubility relative to that of n-CUR. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 77% was discovered from CUR-PLGA-NPs in artificial intestinal juice, but only about 48% in artificial gastric juice. After oral administration of CUR-PLGA-NPs, the relative bioavailability was 5.6-fold and had a longer half-life compared with that of native curcumin. The results showed that the effect in improving oral bioavailability of CUR may be associated with improved water solubility, higher release rate in the intestinal juice, enhanced absorption by improved permeability, inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, and increased residence time in the intestinal cavity. Thus, encapsulating hydrophobic drugs on PLGA polymer is a promising method for sustained and controlled drug delivery with improved bioavailability of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class IV, such as CUR. PMID:21797282

  20. Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongli; He, Yan; Li, Yu; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun; DiPaola, Robert; Goodin, Susan; Zheng, Xi

    2015-01-01

    α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer. PMID:26630272

  1. Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huarong; Chen, Xuan; Li, Dongli; He, Yan; Li, Yu; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun; DiPaola, Robert; Goodin, Susan; Zheng, Xi

    2015-01-01

    α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer. PMID:26630272

  2. Curcumin attenuates cyclosporine A‑induced renal fibrosis by inhibiting hypermethylation of the klotho promoter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Mou, Lijun; Yang, Fuye; Tu, Haiyan; Lin, Wanbing

    2016-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease is increasingly considered to be a worldwide public health problem and usually leads to renal fibrosis. In the present study, curcumin, a polyphenol pigment extracted from turmeric, was demonstrated to exert protective effects on renal fibrosis via the suppression of transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) downstream signaling, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor‑1 (PAI‑1), α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and collagen I (Col I) downregulation. The present findings demonstrate that curcumin exerted a protective effect on cyclosporine A‑induced renal fibrosis via a klotho (KL)‑dependent mechanism, which inhibits the TGF‑β signaling pathway. Further research indicated that curcumin induced KL expression in HK‑2 tubular epithelial cells by inhibiting CpG hypermethylation in the KL promoter, which mediates the loss of expression in cells. Methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with bisulfite sequencing identified numerous key CpG sites, such as 249, 240 and 236, whose methylation statuses are important for KL expression. A PCR reporter assay was utilized to further confirm these findings. In addition, the effects of curcumin on the regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) expression were evaluated, and the data suggest that curcumin inhibits Dnmt1 expression and restricts CpG hypermethylation. Thus, the current study reveals that curcumin attenuated renal fibrosis by suppressing CpG methylation in the KL promoter, thus inducing KL expression, which inhibited TGF‑β signaling, which may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of renal fibrosis. PMID:27510836

  3. Curcumin encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles: a novel strategy for the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Abhishek; Lomash, Vinay; Samim, M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2012-07-30

    Water-soluble nanoparticles of curcumin were synthesized, characterized and applied as a stable detoxifying agent for arsenic poisoning. Chitosan nanoparticles of less than 50 nm in diameter containing curcumin were prepared. The particles were characterized by TEM, DLS and FT-IR. The therapeutic efficacy of the encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (ECNPs) against arsenic-induced toxicity in rats was investigated. Sodium arsenite (2mg/kg) and ECNPs (1.5 or 15 mg/kg) were orally administered to male Wistar rats for 4 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ECNPs in blood and soft tissues. Arsenic significantly decreased blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased blood reactive oxygen species (ROS). These changes were accompanied by increases in hepatic total ROS, oxidized glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels. By contrast, hepatic GSH, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities significantly decreased on arsenic exposure, indicative of oxidative stress. Brain biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) levels also showed significant changes on arsenic exposure. Co-administration of ECNPs provided pronounced beneficial effects on the adverse changes in oxidative stress parameters induced by arsenic. The results indicate that ECNPs have better antioxidant and chelating potential (even at the lower dose of 1.5 mg/kg) compared to free curcumin at 15 mg/kg. The significant neurochemical and immunohistochemical protection afforded by ECNPs indicates their neuroprotective efficacy. The formulation provides a novel therapeutic regime for preventing arsenic toxicity.

  4. Curcumin inhibits ACTH- and angiotensin II-stimulated cortisol secretion and Ca(v)3.2 current.

    PubMed

    Enyeart, Judith A; Liu, Haiyan; Enyeart, John J

    2009-08-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone and angiotensin II stimulate cortisol secretion from bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells by the activation of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C-coupled receptors. Curcumin (1- 20 muM), a compound found in the spice turmeric, inhibited cortisol secretion stimulated by ACTH, AngII, and 8CPT-cAMP. Curcumin also suppressed ACTH-stimulated increases in mRNAs coding for steroid acute regulatory protein and CYP11a1 steroid hydroxylase. In whole cell patch clamp recordings from AZF cells, curcumin at slightly higher concentrations also inhibited Ca(v)3.2 current. These results identify curcumin as an effective inhibitor of ACTH- and AngII-stimulated cortisol secretion. The inhibition of Ca(v)3.2 current by curcumin may contribute to its suppression of secretion.

  5. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Limtrakul, Porn-ngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Lipigorngoson, Suwiwek; Dunn, Floyd W

    2001-01-01

    Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin. PMID:11231886

  6. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated.

  7. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. PMID:27107333

  8. Curcumin Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Metastasis through the Adiponectin/NF-κb/MMPs Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jong-Rung; Liu, Po-Len; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now considered as an endocrine organ involved in metabolic and inflammatory reactions. Adiponectin, a 244-amino acid peptide hormone, is associated with insulin resistance and carcinogenesis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, turmeric. Curcumin possesses antitumor effects, including the inhibition of neovascularization and regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the effects of adiponectin and curcumin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adiponectin in paired tumors and normal lung tissues from 77 patients with NSCLC using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low adiponectin expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.015). Curcumin inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells via the inhibition of adiponectin expression by blocking the adiponectin receptor 1. Curcumin treatment also inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of A549 cells and adiponectin expression. These results suggest that adiponectin can be a prognostic indicator of NSCLC. The effect of curcumin in decreasing the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells by inhibiting adiponectin expression is probably mediated through NF-κB/MMP pathways. Curcumin could be an important potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for lung cancer in the future. PMID:26656720

  9. Curcumin Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Metastasis through the Adiponectin/NF-κb/MMPs Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jong-Rung; Liu, Po-Len; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now considered as an endocrine organ involved in metabolic and inflammatory reactions. Adiponectin, a 244–amino acid peptide hormone, is associated with insulin resistance and carcinogenesis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, turmeric. Curcumin possesses antitumor effects, including the inhibition of neovascularization and regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the effects of adiponectin and curcumin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adiponectin in paired tumors and normal lung tissues from 77 patients with NSCLC using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low adiponectin expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.015). Curcumin inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells via the inhibition of adiponectin expression by blocking the adiponectin receptor 1. Curcumin treatment also inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of A549 cells and adiponectin expression. These results suggest that adiponectin can be a prognostic indicator of NSCLC. The effect of curcumin in decreasing the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells by inhibiting adiponectin expression is probably mediated through NF-κB/MMP pathways. Curcumin could be an important potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for lung cancer in the future. PMID:26656720

  10. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations.

  11. Curcumin Blocks Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcerations through Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation and Activation of Enzymatic Scavengers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jin, Soojung; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-08-28

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, which is used for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study was undertaken to determine the protective effect of curcumin against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations in rats. Different doses (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) of curcumin or vehicle (curcumin, 0 mg/kg) were pretreated for 3 days by oral gavage, and then gastric mucosal lesions were caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. Curcumin significantly inhibited the naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcer area and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, curcumin markedly increased activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, 100 mg/kg curcumin completely protected the gastric mucosa against the loss in the enzyme, resulting in a drastic increase of activities of radical scavenging enzymes up to more than the level of untreated normal rats. Histological examination obviously showed that curcumin prevents naproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration as a result of direct protection of the gastric mucosa. These results suggest that curcumin blocks naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcerations through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes, and it may offer a potential remedy of gastric antral ulcerations. PMID:27197667

  12. Curcumin treatment alters ERK-1/2 signaling in vitro and inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma proliferation in mouse xenografts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi-Qiang; Wu, Xian-Bo; Tang, Song-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a plant phenol, has been used for centuries in traditional medicines for its anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic properties. The compound is believed to act on a range of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effect of curcumin on ERK-1/2 pathway protein expression and on proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells was investigated. CNE-2Z nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were cultured with 10, 20, 40, or 80 μM curcumin for 24 h before proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetry. Cell proliferation was increasingly inhibited as the concentration of curcumin increased (P<0.005). Additionally, Western blotting revealed that expression of p-ERK-1/2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was altered following curcumin treatment, also in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of p-ERK-1/2 and MMP-9 decreased, while expression of TIMP-1 increased (P<0.05). Finally, CNE-2Z cells were xenografted under the skin of 18 nude mice. Mice were treated with vehicle only (control), 24 mg/kg curcumin (low-dose group), or 50 mg/kg curcumin (high-dose group) every other day for 40 days beginning 24 h after xenografting. Compared to tumors from the control group, the volume and weight of xenograft tumors was significantly lower in both curcumin groups, with a higher magnitude of difference in the high-dose curcumin group (P<0.05). These results indicate that curcumin treatment can inhibit proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and alter expression of proteins in the ERK-1/2 signaling pathway. Therefore, curcumin warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer.

  13. Anti-cancer activity of curcumin loaded nanoparticles in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yallapu, Murali M.; Khan, Sheema; Maher, Diane M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Sundram, Vasudha; Chauhan, Neeraj; Ganju, Aditya; Balakrishna, Swati; Gupta, Brij K.; Zafar, Nadeem; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer disease in men in the Unites States and its management remains challenge in everyday oncology practice. Thus, advanced therapeutic strategies are required to treat prostate cancer patients. Curcumin (CUR) is a promising anticancer agent for various cancer types. The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)- CUR nanoparticles (PLGA-CUR NPs) for prostate cancer treatment. Our results indicate that PLGA-CUR NPs efficiently internalize in prostate cancer cells and release biologically active CUR in cytosolic compartment of cells for effective therapeutic activity. Cell proliferation (MTS), clonogenic, and Western blot analyses reveal that PLGA-CUR NPs can effectively inhibit proliferation and colony formation ability of prostate cancer cells than free CUR. PLGA-CUR NPs showed superior tumor regression compared to CUR in xenograft mice. Further investigations reveal that PLGA-CUR NPs inhibit nuclear β-catenin and AR expression in cells and in tumor xenograft tissues. It also suppresses STAT3 and AKT phosphorylation and leads to apoptosis via inhibition of key anti-apoptotic proteins, MCL-1, Bcl-xL and caused induction of PARP cleavage. Additionally, PLGA-CUR NPs significant downregulation of oncogenic miR21 and up-regulation of miR-205 was observed with PLGA-CUR NPs treatment as determined by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. A superior anti-cancer potential was attained with PSMA antibody conjugated PLGA-CUR NPs in prostate cancer cells and a significant tumor targeting of 131I labelled PSMA antibody was achieved with PLGA-CUR NPs in prostate cancer xenograft mice model. In conclusion, PLGA-CUR NPs can significantly accumulate and exhibit superior anticancer activity in prostate cancer. PMID:25028336

  14. Inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis by curcumin in K-562 cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sutapa; Ghosh, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, N P; Bhattacharya, R K; Roy, Madhumita

    2006-04-11

    Telomerase, a reverse transcriptase that maintains telomere length, is highly activated in tumor cells and practically absent in somatic cells and hence considered a potential marker for tumorigenesis. A connection between telomerase activity and resistance to apoptosis has been established. Telomerase, therefore, has been proposed to represent a novel and potentially selective target for cancer therapy. Several synthetic compounds have been developed in recent years with a view to inhibit telomerase activity with telomere shortening below a critical length resulting in apoptosis. Such compounds are always highly toxic. Many plant-derived products act through the induction of apoptosis as a mechanism to suppress carcinogenesis. Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn., has been reported to possess anti-tumor, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic properties. Apoptosis has emerged as the major mechanism by which anti-tumor agents eliminate pre-neoplastic cells or cells progressed to malignancy. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cell line K-562 with particular emphasis on the role of curcumin on telomerase activity. Induction of apoptosis by curcumin is initiated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and evidenced by the increase in DNA content in the sub-G1 region as obtained from FACS analysis. Apoptosis is mediated by the activation of caspases 3 and 8, up-regulation of the apoptotic gene bax with concomitant down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2. Using TRAP assay it has been observed that curcumin inhibits telomerase activity in a dose and time-dependent manner, the inhibition being due to suppression of translocation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a catalytic subunit, from cytosol to nucleus. Most significantly, the inhibition of telomerase activity by curcumin correlates with several parameters of

  15. Curcumin induces apoptosis by inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase activity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Boyun; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Tsang, Benjamin K; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant increase in the expression levels of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis, has been observed in ovarian cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration through inhibition of SERCA activity, causing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE). Curcumin induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytosolic Ca(2+) flux was evident after the curcumin treatment (15 µM). Treatment with Ca(2+) chelator reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis, confirming the possible involvement of increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in this response. Basal mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer cells than in OSE. SERCA activity was suppressed by curcumin, with no effect on protein expression. Forced expression of the SERCA2b gene in ovarian cancer cells prevented curcumin-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation and subsequent apoptosis, supporting an important role of SERCA in curcumin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, inhibition of SERCA activity by curcumin disrupts the Ca(2+) homeostasis and thereby promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

  16. Curcumin induces apoptosis by inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase activity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Boyun; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Tsang, Benjamin K; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant increase in the expression levels of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis, has been observed in ovarian cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration through inhibition of SERCA activity, causing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE). Curcumin induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytosolic Ca(2+) flux was evident after the curcumin treatment (15 µM). Treatment with Ca(2+) chelator reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis, confirming the possible involvement of increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in this response. Basal mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer cells than in OSE. SERCA activity was suppressed by curcumin, with no effect on protein expression. Forced expression of the SERCA2b gene in ovarian cancer cells prevented curcumin-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation and subsequent apoptosis, supporting an important role of SERCA in curcumin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, inhibition of SERCA activity by curcumin disrupts the Ca(2+) homeostasis and thereby promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26607901

  17. Pharmacological inhibition of lipid droplet formation enhances the effectiveness of curcumin in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Issan; Cui, Yiming; Amiri, Abdolali; Ding, Yidan; Campbell, Robert E; Maysinger, Dusica

    2016-03-01

    Increased lipid droplet number and fatty acid synthesis allow glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive type of brain cancer, to withstand accelerated metabolic rates and resist therapeutic treatments. Lipid droplets are postulated to sequester hydrophobic therapeutic agents, thereby reducing drug effectiveness. We hypothesized that the inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation in glioblastoma cells using pyrrolidine-2, a cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 alpha inhibitor, can sensitize cancer cells to the killing effect of curcumin, a promising anticancer agent isolated from the turmeric spice. We observed that curcumin localized in the lipid droplets of human U251N glioblastoma cells. Reduction of lipid droplet number using pyrrolidine-2 drastically enhanced the therapeutic effect of curcumin in both 2D and 3D glioblastoma cell models. The mode of cell death involved was found to be mediated by caspase-3. Comparatively, the current clinical chemotherapeutic standard, temozolomide, was significantly less effective in inducing glioblastoma cell death. Together, our results suggest that the inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation is an effective way to enhance the chemotherapeutic effect of curcumin against glioblastoma multiforme.

  18. Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Curcumin Delivery to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mancarella, Serena; Greco, Valentina; Baldassarre, Francesca; Vergara, Daniele; Maffia, Michele; Leporatti, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The new goal of anticancer agent research is the screening of natural origin drugs with lower systemic adverse effects than synthetic compounds. Here, we focus on curcumin, an important polyphenolic pigment classically used as spice in the Indian cuisine. The molecule has high pleiotropic activities including strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical potential is limited due its low solubility and bioavailability. We have developed a layer by layer functionalization of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (nano-Fe3 O4 ) by coating biodegradable polyelectrolyte multilayers such as Dextran (DXS) and Poly(l-lysine) (PLL). Physico-chemical studies were performed to obtain a high upload of curcumin in Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Nano-Fe3 O4 were then tested against an ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV-3, to demonstrate their therapeutic efficacy.

  19. Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Curcumin Delivery to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mancarella, Serena; Greco, Valentina; Baldassarre, Francesca; Vergara, Daniele; Maffia, Michele; Leporatti, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The new goal of anticancer agent research is the screening of natural origin drugs with lower systemic adverse effects than synthetic compounds. Here, we focus on curcumin, an important polyphenolic pigment classically used as spice in the Indian cuisine. The molecule has high pleiotropic activities including strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical potential is limited due its low solubility and bioavailability. We have developed a layer by layer functionalization of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (nano-Fe3 O4 ) by coating biodegradable polyelectrolyte multilayers such as Dextran (DXS) and Poly(l-lysine) (PLL). Physico-chemical studies were performed to obtain a high upload of curcumin in Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Nano-Fe3 O4 were then tested against an ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV-3, to demonstrate their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26085082

  20. Curcumin inhibits the proliferation and invasion of human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 by regulating miR-138

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dazhi; An, Fengmei; He, Xu; Cao, Xuecheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we screened the different human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 miRNAs after the treatment of curcumin and explored the effects of curcumin on MG-63 cells and its mechanism. Methods: Affemitrix miRNA chip was used to detect the changes of miRNA expression profile in MG-63 cells before and after curcumin treatment, and screen different expression of miRNAs. The target gene of miRNA was analyzed by bioinformatics. The expression levels of miRNA-138 target genes Smad4, NFκB p65 and cyclin D3 were detected. MTT and Transwell Cell invasion assays were used to observe the effects of curcumin on MG-63 cells. Results: Curcumin could significantly inhibit the proliferation of MG-63 cells and the expression levels of miRNA-138 target genes Smad4, NFκB p65 and cyclin D3 in MG-63 cells (P<0.05); overexpression of hsa-miR-138 down-regulated the expression levels of Smad4, NFκB p65 and cyclin D3 compared with the treatment of curcumin, while inhibition of hsa-miR-138 up-regulated the expression levels of Smad4, NFκB p65 and cyclin D3. Conclusions: Curcumin could increase the expression of hsa-miR-138, hsa-miR-138 inhibited cell proliferation and invasive ability by inhibition of its target genes. PMID:26823826

  1. The curry spice curcumin selectively inhibits cancer cells growth in vitro and in preclinical model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Braganhol, Elizandra; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Behr, Guilherme A; Zanin, Rafael; Schröder, Rafael; Simões-Pires, André; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that curcumin is a potential agent against glioblastomas (GBMs). However, the in vivo efficacy of curcumin in gliomas remains not established. In this work, we examined the mechanisms underlying apoptosis, selectivity, efficacy and safety of curcumin from in vitro (U138MG, U87, U373 and C6 cell lines) and in vivo (C6 implants) models of GBM. In vitro, curcumin markedly inhibited proliferation and migration and induced cell death in liquid and soft agar models of GBM growth. Curcumin effects occurred irrespective of the p53 and PTEN mutational status of the cells. Interestingly, curcumin did not affect viability of primary astrocytes, suggesting that curcumin selectivity targeted transformed cells. In U138MG and C6 cells, curcumin decreased the constitutive activation of PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB survival pathways, down-regulated the antiapoptotic NFkappaB-regulated protein bcl-xl and induced mitochondrial dysfunction as a prelude to apoptosis. Cells developed an early G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by sub-G1 apoptosis and apoptotic bodies formation. Caspase-3 activation occurred in the p53-normal cell type C6, but not in the p53-mutant U138MG. Besides its apoptotic effect, curcumin also synergized with the chemotherapeutics cisplatin and doxorubicin to enhance GBM cells death. In C6-implanted rats, intraperitoneal curcumin (50 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) decreased brain tumors in 9/11 (81.8%) animals against 0/11 (0%) in the vehicle-treated group. Importantly, no evidence of tissue (transaminases, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase), metabolic (cholesterol and glucose), oxidative or hematological toxicity was observed. In summary, data presented here suggest curcumin as a potential agent for therapy of GBMs.

  2. Curcumin inhibits cell growth and invasion and induces apoptosis through down-regulation of Skp2 in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jingna; Zhou, Xiuxia; Wang, Lixia; Yin, Xuyuan; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Natural polyphenol compound curcumin has been found to exhibit its anticancer activity in a variety of human malignancies including pancreatic cancer (PC). However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Skp2 (S-phase kinase associated protein 2) plays an oncogenic role in the development and progression of human cancers. In this study, we aim to explore the molecular basis of curcumin-induced cell growth inhibition in PC cells.Multiple methods such as CTG assay, Flow cytometry, clonogenic assay, wound healing assay, Transwell invasion assay, Western blotting, and transfection were performed to validate the oncogenic role of curcumin in PC cells. We found that curcumin suppressed cell growth, clonogenic potential, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we observed thatover-expression of Skp2 significantly promoted cell growth, whereas down-regulation of Skp2 with siRNAs inhibited cell growth. The molecular basis of curcumin-mediated cell growth inhibition we identified is that curcumin significantly suppressed Skp2 expression and subsequently induced p21 expression. These findings suggested thattargeting Skp2 by curcumin could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PC patients. PMID:27725901

  3. Curcumin induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells via inhibition of AKT and Foxo3a nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Picone, P; Nuzzo, D; Caruana, L; Messina, E; Scafidi, V; Di Carlo, M

    2014-12-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most frequent extracranial solid tumors in children. It accounts for 8-10% of all childhood cancer deaths, and there is a need for development of new drugs for its treatment. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a major active component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been shown to exert anti-tumor activity on NB, but the specific mechanism by which curcumin inhibits cancer cells proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of curcumin in human LAN5 NB cells. Curcumin treatment causes a rapid increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential-events leading to apoptosis activation. Furthermore, curcumin induces decrease in haet shock protein (Hsp)60 and hexokinase II mitochondrial protein levels and increase in the pro-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 associated death promoter (BAD). Moreover, we demonstrate that curcumin modulates anti-tumor activity through modulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 and consequential inhibition of the survival Akt cell-signaling pathway. Inhibition of Akt causes its translocation into the cytoplasm and import of Foxo3a into the nucleus where it activates the expression of p27, Bim, and Fas-L pro-apoptotic genes. Together, these results take evidence for considering curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with NB.

  4. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO.

    PubMed

    Moussawi, Rasha N; Patra, Digambara

    2016-04-15

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed.

  5. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussawi, Rasha N.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed.

  6. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Rasha N.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed. PMID:27080002

  7. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO.

    PubMed

    Moussawi, Rasha N; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed. PMID:27080002

  8. Suppressing the cytotoxicity of CuO nanoparticles by uptake of curcumin/BSA particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Ying; Luo, Peihua; Li, Guanqun; Zheng, Botuo; Chen, Wei; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2016-05-01

    The adverse effects of metal-based nanoparticles on human beings and the environment have received extensive attention recently. It is urgently required to develop a simple and effective method to suppress the toxicity of metal-based nanomaterials. In this study, a hydrophobic antioxidant and a chelation agent curcumin (CUR) were encapsulated into bovine serum albumin (BSA) particles by a simple co-precipitation method, and followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The CUR/BSA particles had an average size of 300 nm in diameter with a negatively charged surface and sustained curcumin release properties. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of CUR/BSA particles were followed on A549 cells, HepG2 cells and RAW264.7 cells. The CUR/BSA particles had higher intracellular accumulation and lower cytotoxicity compared with the free curcumin at the same drug concentration. The CUR/BSA particles could suppress the cytotoxicity generated by CuO nanoparticles as a result of decrease of both the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and Cu(2+) concentration, while the free curcumin did not show any obvious detoxicating effect. The detoxicating effects of CUR/BSA particles were further studied in an intratracheal instillation model in vivo, demonstrating significant reduction of toxicity and inflammatory response in rat lungs induced by CuO nanoparticles. The concept-proving study demonstrates the potential of the CUR/BSA particles in suppressing cytotoxicity of metal-based nanomaterials, which is a paramount requirement for the safe application of nanotechnology.

  9. Suppressing the cytotoxicity of CuO nanoparticles by uptake of curcumin/BSA particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Ying; Luo, Peihua; Li, Guanqun; Zheng, Botuo; Chen, Wei; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2016-05-01

    The adverse effects of metal-based nanoparticles on human beings and the environment have received extensive attention recently. It is urgently required to develop a simple and effective method to suppress the toxicity of metal-based nanomaterials. In this study, a hydrophobic antioxidant and a chelation agent curcumin (CUR) were encapsulated into bovine serum albumin (BSA) particles by a simple co-precipitation method, and followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The CUR/BSA particles had an average size of 300 nm in diameter with a negatively charged surface and sustained curcumin release properties. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of CUR/BSA particles were followed on A549 cells, HepG2 cells and RAW264.7 cells. The CUR/BSA particles had higher intracellular accumulation and lower cytotoxicity compared with the free curcumin at the same drug concentration. The CUR/BSA particles could suppress the cytotoxicity generated by CuO nanoparticles as a result of decrease of both the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and Cu2+ concentration, while the free curcumin did not show any obvious detoxicating effect. The detoxicating effects of CUR/BSA particles were further studied in an intratracheal instillation model in vivo, demonstrating significant reduction of toxicity and inflammatory response in rat lungs induced by CuO nanoparticles. The concept-proving study demonstrates the potential of the CUR/BSA particles in suppressing cytotoxicity of metal-based nanomaterials, which is a paramount requirement for the safe application of nanotechnology.

  10. Validation of an Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) technique for the quantitative determination of curcumin in poly(L-lactic acid) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva-Buzanello, Rosana Aparecida da; Ferro, Ana Caroline; Bona, Evandro; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Araújo, Pedro Henrique Hermes de; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess

    2015-04-01

    Curcumin is a natural yellow-orange pigment extracted from turmeric and is a potential substitute of health-dangerous artificial dyes. Nanoencapsulation in biodegradable polymers is a promising alternative to improve curcumin stability and water solubility but curcumin concentration inside the nanoparticles must be precisely known. A reliable method to determine the actual curcumin concentration must be validated since the validation procedures warrant that the method is adequate and sufficient for the specific application involved. This work describes the validation parameters given by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines to adopt an analytical method based on Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of curcumin encapsulated in poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles. This method was validated in respect to linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, accuracy and precision. Studies on the analytical procedure validation warranted safety in final results obtained for the curcumin concentration in the nanoparticles. PMID:25442529

  11. Curcumin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Up-Regulating Bone Morphogenic Protein-7 in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dorai, Thambi; Diouri, Janane; O'Shea, Orla; Doty, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have focused on the beneficial properties of Curcumin (diferuloyl methane, used in South Asian cuisine and traditional medicine) such as the chemoprevention of cancer. Recent studies have also indicated that this material has significant benefits for the treatment of cancer and is currently undergoing several clinical trials. We have been interested in the application of this compound as a therapeutic agent for advanced prostate cancer, particularly the skeletal complications in this malignancy. Our earlier work indicated that this compound could inhibit the osteomimetic properties which occur in castration resistant prostate cancer cells, by interfering with the common denominators between these cancer cells and the bone cells in the metastatic tumor microenvironment, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclast. We predicted that curcumin could break the vicious cycle of reciprocal stimulation that results in uncontrolled osteolysis in the bony matrix. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of this compound in inhibiting the bone metastasis of hormone refractory prostate cancer cells in an established animal model. Our results strongly suggest that curcumin modulates the TGF-β signaling that occurs due to bone matrix degradation by up-regulating the metastasis inhibitory bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP- 7). This enhancement of BMP-7 in the context of TGF-βin the tumor microenvironment is shown to enhance the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Most importantly, we show that as a result of BMP-7 up-regulation, a novel brown/beige adipogenic differentiation program is also up-regu- lated which plays a role in the inhibition of bone metastasis. Our results suggest that curcumin may subvert the TGF-βsignaling to an alternative adipogenic differentiation program in addition to the previously established interference with the osteomimetic properties, thus inhibiting the bone metastatic processes in a chemopreventive as well as therapeutic

  12. Curcumin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Up-Regulating Bone Morphogenic Protein-7 in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Dorai, Thambi; Diouri, Janane; O'Shea, Orla; Doty, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies have focused on the beneficial properties of Curcumin (diferuloyl methane, used in South Asian cuisine and traditional medicine) such as the chemoprevention of cancer. Recent studies have also indicated that this material has significant benefits for the treatment of cancer and is currently undergoing several clinical trials. We have been interested in the application of this compound as a therapeutic agent for advanced prostate cancer, particularly the skeletal complications in this malignancy. Our earlier work indicated that this compound could inhibit the osteomimetic properties which occur in castration resistant prostate cancer cells, by interfering with the common denominators between these cancer cells and the bone cells in the metastatic tumor microenvironment, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclast. We predicted that curcumin could break the vicious cycle of reciprocal stimulation that results in uncontrolled osteolysis in the bony matrix. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of this compound in inhibiting the bone metastasis of hormone refractory prostate cancer cells in an established animal model. Our results strongly suggest that curcumin modulates the TGF-β signaling that occurs due to bone matrix degradation by up-regulating the metastasis inhibitory bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP- 7). This enhancement of BMP-7 in the context of TGF-βin the tumor microenvironment is shown to enhance the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Most importantly, we show that as a result of BMP-7 up-regulation, a novel brown/beige adipogenic differentiation program is also up-regu- lated which plays a role in the inhibition of bone metastasis. Our results suggest that curcumin may subvert the TGF-βsignaling to an alternative adipogenic differentiation program in addition to the previously established interference with the osteomimetic properties, thus inhibiting the bone metastatic processes in a chemopreventive as well as therapeutic

  13. New role of (-)-epicatechin in enhancing the induction of growth inhibition and apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Saha, Achinto; Kuzuhara, Takashi; Echigo, Noriko; Suganuma, Masami; Fujiki, Hirota

    2010-08-01

    Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from the plant Curcuma longa (Linn), is ingested every day in the Indian subcontinent and is well reported to possess cancer-preventive activity. To achieve effective cancer prevention with curcumin, we need to find a new method to enhance the effects of curcumin in the diet. Based on our evidence that (-)-epicatechin (EC), an inert catechin, enhances the cancer-preventive activity of green tea catechins, we studied the enhancing effects of EC on inductions of growth inhibition and apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines PC-9 and A549 with curcumin. The combination of curcumin with EC significantly increased the inhibition of cell growth compared with curcumin or EC alone. The combination similarly increased both apoptosis and expression of GADD153 and GADD45 genes, associated with their enhanced protein production. Knockdown of GADD153 or GADD45 by small interfering RNA abrogated the apoptosis induction and growth inhibition induced by the combination, indicating the crucial role of their upregulation. Treatments of PC-9 cells with c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase inhibitor SP600125, with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB202190 and with PD98059 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inhibitor) all increased the upregulation of GADD153 and GADD45 genes by the combination. Because EC was previously shown to enhance the incorporation of EGCG into PC-9 cells, we think that EC has similar effects on curcumin. This report is the first report on the enhancing effects of EC on curcumin, and the data suggest that EC plays a significant role in the enhancement of the cancer-preventive activity of curcumin in the diet. PMID:20606042

  14. Curcumin serves as a human kv1.3 blocker to inhibit effector memory T lymphocyte activities.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Yang, Yong; Yang, Ying; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liu, Kun

    2013-09-01

    Curcumin, the principal active component of turmeric, has long been used to treat various diseases in India and China. Recent studies show that curcumin can serve as a therapeutic agent for autoimmune diseases via a variety of mechanisms. Effector memory T cells (T(EM), CCR7⁻ CD45RO⁺ T lymphocyte) have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Kv1.3 channels are predominantly expressed in T(EM) cells and control T(EM) activities. In the present study, we examined the effect of curcumin on human Kv1.3 (hKv1.3) channels stably expressed in HEK-293 cells and its ability to inhibit proliferation and cytokine secretion of T(EM) cells isolated from patients with MS or RA. Curcumin exhibited a direct blockage of hKv1.3 channels in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the activation curve was shifted to a more positive potential, which was consistent with an open-channel blockade. Paralleling hKv1.3 inhibition, curcumin significantly inhibited proliferation and interferon-γ secretion of T(EM) cells. Our findings demonstrate that curcumin is able to inhibit proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion of T(EM) cells probably through inhibition of hKv1.3 channels, which contributes to the potency of curcumin for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This is probably one of pharmacological mechanisms of curcumin used to treat autoimmune diseases. PMID:23132777

  15. Curcumin-induced inhibition of cellular reactive oxygen species generation: novel therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, M; Koteswari, A Adaikala; Kumar, R Sampath; Monickaraj, S Finny; Maheswari, J Uma; Mohan, V

    2003-12-01

    There is evidence for increased levels of circulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetics, as indirectly inferred by the findings of increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant status. Direct measurements of intracellular generation of ROS using fluorescent dyes also demonstrate an association of oxidative stress with diabetes. Although phenolic compounds attenuate oxidative stress-related tissue damage, there are concerns over toxicity of synthetic phenolic antioxidants and this has considerably stimulated interest in investigating the role of natural phenolics in medicinal applications. Curcumin (the primary active principle in turmeric, Curcuma longa Linn.) has been claimed to represent a potential antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent with phytonutrient and bioprotective properties. However there are lack of molecular studies to demonstrate its cellular action and potential molecular targets. In this study the antioxidant effect of curcumin as a function of changes in cellular ROS generation was tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that curcumin abolished both phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA) and thapsigargin-induced ROS generation in cells from control and diabetic subjects. The pattern of these ROS inhibitory effects as a function of dose-dependency suggests that curcumin mechanistically interferes with protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium regulation. Simultaneous measurements of ROS and Ca2+ influx suggest that a rise in cytosolic Ca2+ may be a trigger for increased ROS generation. We suggest that the antioxidant and antiangeogenic actions of curcumin, as a mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+ entry and PKC activity, should be further exploited to develop suitable and novel drugs for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic complications. PMID:14660871

  16. Nano-curcumin inhibits proliferation of esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and enhances the T cell mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Milano, Francesca; Mari, Luigi; van de Luijtgaarden, Wendy; Parikh, Kaushal; Calpe, Silvia; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2013-01-01

    In Western countries the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen at a more rapid rate than that of any other malignancy. Despite intensive therapies this cancer is associated with extreme high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel effective therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Dendritic Cell (DC)-based immunotherapy is a promising novel treatment strategy, which combined with other anti-cancer strategies has been proven to be beneficial for cancer patients. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a natural polyphenol that is known for its anti-cancer effects however, in it's free form, curcumin has poor bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using a highly absorptive form of curcumin, dispersed with colloidal nano-particles, named Theracurmin would be more effective against EAC cells and to analyze if this new compound affects DC-induced T cell response. As a result, we show efficient uptake of nano-curcumin by the EAC cell lines, OE33, and OE19. Moreover, nano-curcumin significantly decreased the proliferation of the EAC cells, while did not affect the normal esophageal cell line HET-1A. We also found that nano-curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 in DCs and significantly decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from in vitro activated T cells. When we combined T cells with nano-curcumin treatment in OE19 and OE33, we found that the basic levels of T cell induced cytotoxicity of 6.4 and 4.1%, increased to 15 and 13%, respectively. In conclusion, we found that nano-curcumin is effective against EAC, sensitizes EAC cells to T cell induced cytotoxicity and decreases the pro-inflammatory signals from T cells. Combining DC immunotherapy with nano-curcumin is potentially a promising approach for future treatment of EAC. PMID:23755374

  17. Curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro by reducing the activity of specificity protein-1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qiaohua; Chen, Anping

    2009-12-01

    Elevated levels of cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are a risk factor for the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and its associated hepatic fibrosis. However, underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously reported that curcumin induced gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and stimulated its activity, leading to the inhibition of the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the major effector cells during hepatic fibrogenesis. We recently showed that curcumin suppressed gene expression of LDL receptor in activated HSCs in vitro by repressing gene expression of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), leading to the reduction in the level of intracellular cholesterol in HSCs and to the attenuation of the stimulatory effects of LDL on HSCs activation. The current study aimed at exploring molecular mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in HSCs. Promoter deletion assays, mutagenesis assays, and EMSAs localize a specificity protein-1 (SP-1) binding GC-box in the srebp-2 promoter, which is responsible for enhancing the promoter activity and responding to curcumin in HSCs. Curcumin suppresses gene expression of SP-1 and reduces its trans-activation activity, which are mediated by the activation of PPARgamma. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on SP-1 binding to the GC-box is confirmed by chromatin immuno-precipitation. In summary, our results demonstrate that curcumin inhibits srebp-2 expression in cultured HSCs by activating PPARgamma and reducing the SP-1 activity, leading to the repression of ldlr expression. These results provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits LDL-induced HSC activation.

  18. Curcumin inhibits intracellular fatty acid synthase and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huijin; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Li, Xiabing; Xun, Hang; Sun, Jia; He, Wei; Lau, Hay Tong; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-05-01

    High levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression have been found in many tumors, including prostate, breast, and ovarian cancers, and inhibition of FAS has been reported to obstruct tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin is one of the major active ingredients of Curcuma longa, which has been proven to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the potential activity of curcumin as a FAS inhibitor for chemoprevention of breast cancer. As a result, curcumin induced human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis with the half-inhibitory concentration value of 3.63 ± 0.26 µg/ml, and blocked FAS activity, expression and mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin also regulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax and p-Akt protein expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, FAS knockdown showed similar effect as curcumin. All these results suggested that curcumin may induce cell apoptosis via inhibiting FAS. PMID:26985864

  19. Electrospun composite nanofibers of poly vinyl pyrrolidone and zinc oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical detection of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Moslem; Mostafavi, Ali; Shamspur, Tayebeh

    2016-11-01

    A simple and novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode was developed to determine curcumin in a phosphate buffer solution at pH=8. ZnO nanoparticles were produced via a sonochemical process and composite nanofibers of PVP/ZnO were prepared by electrospinning. The characterization was performed by SEM, XRD and IR. The results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers having a large surface area promote electron transfer for the oxidation of curcumin and hence the FCNFCPE exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and performs well in regard to the oxidation of curcumin. The proposed method was successfully applied for measurement of curcumin in urine and turmeric as real samples. PMID:27524081

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Curcumin-Functionalized HP-β-CD-Modified GoldMag Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Agents.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ting; Peng, Mingli; Vermorken, Alphons J M; Jin, Yanyan; Luo, Zhiyi; Van de Ven, Wim J M; Wan, Yinsheng; Hou, Peng; Cui, Yali

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has emerged as a potent multimodal cancer-preventing agent. It may attenuate the spread of cancer and render chemotherapy more effective. However, curcumin is neither well absorbed nor well retained in the blood, resulting in low efficacy. In an attempt to enhance the potency and to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, new delivery agents, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD)-modified GoldMag nanoparticles (CD-GMNs) were designed and synthesized to incorporate curcumin. The CD-GMNs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering measurements (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analyses. For the magnetic carrier of CD-GMNs, the content of HP-β-CD was 26.9 wt%. CD-GMNs have a saturation magnetization of 22.7 emu/g with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 80 nm. The curcumin loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties in vitro were also investigated. The results showed that the drug encapsulation ratio was 88% and the maximum curcumin loading capacity of CD-GMNs was 660 μg/5 mg. In vitro drug release studies showed a controlled and pH-sensitive curcumin release over a period of one week. Collectively, our data suggest that HP-β-CD-modified GoldMag nanoparticles can be considered to form a promising delivery system for curcumin to tumor sites. Targeting can be achieved by the combined effects of the application of an external magnetic field and the effect on drug release of lower pH values often found in the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Curcumin-Functionalized HP-β-CD-Modified GoldMag Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Agents.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ting; Peng, Mingli; Vermorken, Alphons J M; Jin, Yanyan; Luo, Zhiyi; Van de Ven, Wim J M; Wan, Yinsheng; Hou, Peng; Cui, Yali

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has emerged as a potent multimodal cancer-preventing agent. It may attenuate the spread of cancer and render chemotherapy more effective. However, curcumin is neither well absorbed nor well retained in the blood, resulting in low efficacy. In an attempt to enhance the potency and to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, new delivery agents, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD)-modified GoldMag nanoparticles (CD-GMNs) were designed and synthesized to incorporate curcumin. The CD-GMNs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering measurements (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analyses. For the magnetic carrier of CD-GMNs, the content of HP-β-CD was 26.9 wt%. CD-GMNs have a saturation magnetization of 22.7 emu/g with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 80 nm. The curcumin loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties in vitro were also investigated. The results showed that the drug encapsulation ratio was 88% and the maximum curcumin loading capacity of CD-GMNs was 660 μg/5 mg. In vitro drug release studies showed a controlled and pH-sensitive curcumin release over a period of one week. Collectively, our data suggest that HP-β-CD-modified GoldMag nanoparticles can be considered to form a promising delivery system for curcumin to tumor sites. Targeting can be achieved by the combined effects of the application of an external magnetic field and the effect on drug release of lower pH values often found in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27427699

  2. Folate decorated dual drug loaded nanoparticle: role of curcumin in enhancing therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by reversing multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Das, Manasi; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. Malfunctioning of many signaling pathways regulating cell survival or apoptosis, make the disease more vulnerable. Notably, resistance to chemotherapy mediated by MRP-1, lung-resistance protein (LRP) is the most challenging aspect to treat this disease. Presently, much attention has been given to the recently developed anticancer drug nutlin-3a because of its non-genotoxic nature and potency to activate tumor suppressor protein p53. However, being a substrate of multidrug resistance protein MRP1 and Pgp its application has become limited. Currently, research has step towards reversing Multi drug resistance (MDR) by using curcumin, however its clinical relevance is restricted by plasma instability and poor bioavailability. In the present investigation we tried to encapsulate nutlin-3a and curcumin in PLGA nanoparticle (NPs) surface functionalized with folate to enhance therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by modulating MDR. We document that curcumin can inhibit the expression of MRP-1 and LRP gene/protein in a concentration dependent manner in Y79 cells. In vitro cellular cytotoxicity, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis studies were done to compare the effectiveness of native drugs (single or combined) and single or dual drug loaded nanoparticles (unconjugated/folate conjugated). The result demonstrated an augmented therapeutic efficacy of targeted dual drug loaded NPs (Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs) over other formulation. Enhanced expression or down regulation of proapoptotic/antiapoptotic proteins respectively and down-regulation of bcl2 and NFκB gene/protein by Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs substantiate the above findings. This is the first investigation exploring the role of curcumin as MDR modulator to enhance the therapeutic potentiality of nutlin-3a, which may opens new direction for targeting cancer with multidrug resistance phenotype. PMID:22470431

  3. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M.; Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D.; Furlong, Suzanne J.; Lin, Tong-Jun; Hoskin, David W.

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  4. Curcumin blocks prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis through direct inhibition of the microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Koeberle, Andreas; Northoff, Hinnak; Werz, Oliver

    2009-08-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays a crucial role in the apparent link between tumor growth and chronic inflammation. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1, which are overexpressed in many cancers, are functionally coupled and thus produce massive PGE(2) in various tumors. Curcumin, a polyphenolic beta-diketone from tumeric with anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, was shown to suppress PGE(2) formation and to block the expression of COX-2 and of microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1. Here, we identified microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 as a molecular target of curcumin and we show that inhibition of microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 activity is the predominant mechanism of curcumin to suppress PGE(2) biosynthesis. Curcumin reversibly inhibited the conversion of PGH(2) to PGE(2) by microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 in microsomes of interleukin-1beta-stimulated A549 lung carcinoma cells with an IC(50) of 0.2 to 0.3 micromol/L. Closely related polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol, coniferyl alcohol, eugenol, rosmarinic acid) failed in this respect, and isolated ovine COX-1 and human recombinant COX-2 were not inhibited by curcumin up to 30 micromol/L. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human whole blood, curcumin inhibited COX-2-derived PGE(2) formation from endogenous or from exogenous arachidonic acid, whereas the concomitant formation of COX-2-mediated 6-keto PGF(1)alpha and COX-1-derived 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid was suppressed only at significant higher concentrations. Based on the key function of PGE(2) in inflammation and carcinogenesis, inhibition of microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 by curcumin provides a molecular basis for its anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  5. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Wu, Dayong; Kwan, Paul; Meydani, Mohsen

    2009-05-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Dietary polyphenols may suppress growth of adipose tissue through their antiangiogenic activity and by modulating adipocyte metabolism. We investigated the effect of curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, on angiogenesis, adipogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, and gene expression involved in lipid and energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte in cell culture systems and on body weight gain and adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet (22%) supplemented with 500 mg curcumin/kg diet for 12 wk. Curcumin (5-20 micromol/L) suppressed 3T3-L1 differentiation, caused apoptosis, and inhibited adipokine-induced angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Supplementing the high-fat diet of mice with curcumin did not affect food intake but reduced body weight gain, adiposity, and microvessel density in adipose tissue, which coincided with reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2. Curcumin increased 5'AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase-1, and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 expression, which led to increased oxidation and decreased fatty acid esterification. The in vivo effect of curcumin on the expression of these enzymes was also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and expression of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, 2 key transcription factors in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The curcumin suppression of angiogenesis in adipose tissue together with its effect on lipid metabolism in adipocytes may contribute to lower body fat and body weight gain. Our findings suggest that dietary curcumin may have a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

  6. Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin - an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Priya, Selvam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2014-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is caused primarily by the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming ability of uropathogens. In the present investigation, an anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) agent curcumin from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was shown to inhibit the biofilm formation of uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, possibly by interfering with their QS systems. The antibiofilm potential of curcumin on uropathogens as well as its efficacy in disturbing the mature biofilms was examined under light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The treatment with curcumin was also found to attenuate the QS-dependent factors, such as exopolysaccharide production, alginate production, swimming and swarming motility of uropathogens. Furthermore, it was documented that curcumin enhanced the susceptibility of a marker strain and uropathogens to conventional antibiotics. PMID:24262582

  7. Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin - an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Priya, Selvam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2014-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is caused primarily by the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming ability of uropathogens. In the present investigation, an anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) agent curcumin from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was shown to inhibit the biofilm formation of uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, possibly by interfering with their QS systems. The antibiofilm potential of curcumin on uropathogens as well as its efficacy in disturbing the mature biofilms was examined under light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The treatment with curcumin was also found to attenuate the QS-dependent factors, such as exopolysaccharide production, alginate production, swimming and swarming motility of uropathogens. Furthermore, it was documented that curcumin enhanced the susceptibility of a marker strain and uropathogens to conventional antibiotics.

  8. Optimization and evaluation of a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jie; Hu, Wenjing; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Jia, Yuntao; Zhang, Jingqing; Zhang, Liangke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize and evaluate a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles (Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel). Albumin nanoparticles were prepared via a desolvation method, and the gels were prepared via a cold method. The central composite design and response surface method was used to evaluate the effects of varying Pluronic® F127 and Pluronic® F68 concentrations on the sol–gel transition temperature, which is an indicator of optimum formulations. The optimized formulation was a free-flowing liquid below 30.9°C that transformed into a semi-solid gel above 34.2°C after dilution with simulated tear fluid. Results of the in vitro release and erosion behavior study indicated that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel achieved superior sustained-release effects and that incorporation of albumin nanoparticles exerted minimal effects on the gel structure. In addition, in vivo ophthalmic experiments employing Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel were subsequently performed in rabbits. In vivo eye irritation results showed that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel might be considered safe for ophthalmic drug delivery. The in vivo study also revealed that the formulation could significantly increase curcumin bioavailability in the aqueous humor. In conclusion, the optimized in situ gel formulation developed in this work has significant potential for ocular application. PMID:24904211

  9. Optimization and evaluation of a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie; Hu, Wenjing; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Hua; Jia, Yuntao; Zhang, Jingqing; Zhang, Liangke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize and evaluate a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles (Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel). Albumin nanoparticles were prepared via a desolvation method, and the gels were prepared via a cold method. The central composite design and response surface method was used to evaluate the effects of varying Pluronic F127 and Pluronic F68 concentrations on the sol-gel transition temperature, which is an indicator of optimum formulations. The optimized formulation was a free-flowing liquid below 30.9°C that transformed into a semi-solid gel above 34.2°C after dilution with simulated tear fluid. Results of the in vitro release and erosion behavior study indicated that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel achieved superior sustained-release effects and that incorporation of albumin nanoparticles exerted minimal effects on the gel structure. In addition, in vivo ophthalmic experiments employing Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel were subsequently performed in rabbits. In vivo eye irritation results showed that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel might be considered safe for ophthalmic drug delivery. The in vivo study also revealed that the formulation could significantly increase curcumin bioavailability in the aqueous humor. In conclusion, the optimized in situ gel formulation developed in this work has significant potential for ocular application.

  10. Codelivery of doxorubicin and curcumin with lipid nanoparticles results in improved efficacy of chemotherapy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Chen, Qi; Liu, Wei; Li, Yusang; Tang, Hebin; Liu, Xuhan; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The combination therapy of cytotoxic and chemosensitizing agents loaded in nanoparticles has been highlighted as an effective treatment for different cancers. However, such studies in liver cancer remain very limited. In our study, we aim to develop a novel lipid nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (an effective drug for liver cancer) and curcumin (Cur) (a chemosensitizer) simultaneously, and we examined the efficacy of chemotherapy in liver cancer. DOX and Cur codelivery lipid nanoparticles (DOX/Cur-NPs) were successfully prepared using a high-pressure microfluidics technique, showing a mean particle size of around 90 nm, a polydispersity index <0.3, and a zeta potential <-10 mV. The encapsulation efficacy was >90% for both DOX and Cur. The blank lipid nanoparticles were nontoxic, as determined by a cell cytotoxicity study in human normal liver cells L02 and liver cancer cells HepG2. In vitro DOX release studies revealed a sustained-release pattern until 48 hours in DOX/Cur-NPs. We found enhanced cytotoxicity and decreased inhibitory concentration (IC)50 in HepG2 cells and reduced cytotoxicity in L02 cells treated with DOX/Cur-NPs, suggesting the synergistic effects of DOX/Cur-NPs compared with free DOX and DOX nanoparticles (NPs). The optimal weight ratio of DOX and Cur was 1:1. Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining showed enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells treated with DOX/Cur-NPs compared with free DOX and DOX-NPs. An in vivo experiment showed the synergistic effect of DOX/Cur-NPs compared with DOX-NPs on liver tumor growth inhibition. Taken together, the simultaneous delivery of DOX and Cur by DOX/Cur-NPs might be a promising treatment for liver cancer.

  11. Curcumin Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Survival of Human Renal Cancer Cells by Negative Modulation of the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Weili; Li, Baolin; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Yudong; Xu, Haidong; Wang, Junyong; Zhang, Jun; Fan, Rui; Wei, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin possesses anti-cancer effects. In the current study, we tested the effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, viability, apoptosis, cell cycle phases, and activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line RCC-949. We observed that cell proliferation and viability were markedly inhibited by curcumin, while cell apoptosis was promoted. The latter effect was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and diminished expression of Bax (both: mRNA and protein). The cells treated with curcumin increasingly went into cell cycle arrest, which was likely mediated by diminished expression of cyclin B1, as seen in curcumin-treated cells. In addition, curcumin decreased activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that curcumin exerts anti-cancer effects by negative modulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and may represent a promising new drug to treat RCC. PMID:27259310

  12. Curcumin exerts inhibitory effects on undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma by inhibiting the expression of miR-125a-5p.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Wong, Thian-Sze

    2014-11-01

    Curcumin suppresses proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis by regulating multiple signalling pathways and miRNAs in a wide variety of human malignancies. miRNAs play crucial roles in various steps of carcinogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); thus, they could serve as critical therapeutic targets for NPC treatment. Curcumin could provide a novel strategy to block or induce specific miRNAs for miRNA-based gene therapies. Nevertheless, there are no reports to date on the miRNAs regulated by curcumin in NPC. In the present study, we have carried out an miRNA microarray to identify the miRNAs regulated by curcumin in NPC. Curcumin treatment down-regulated the expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-574-3p and hsa-miR-210 as determined by miRNA microarray analysis and qPCR (real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR). Forced expression of miR-125a-5p enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of HONE1 cells. Primary NPC exhibited a significantly higher expression level of miR-125a-5p than healthy controls. miR-125a-5p inhibited the expression of tumour protein 53 (TP53), and curcumin treatment up-regulated the expression of TP53. Taken together, these results indicate that curcumin exerted inhibitory effects on NPC by inhibiting the expression of miR-125a-5p and, subsequently, enhancing the expression of TP53. Curcumin could provide a novel strategy to block miR-125a-5p for miRNA-based gene therapies in NPC. PMID:24896104

  13. A modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method for the preparation of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dan-Tong; Chen, Chao-Long; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2014-12-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of hydrophobic drug curcumin, we prepared curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Cur NPs) through a modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (modified-SESD) method. The influence of main preparation parameters was investigated, such as the volume ratio of binary organic solvents and the concentration of surfactant. Results indicated that the synthesized regular spherical PLGA NPs with the average diameter of 189.7 nm exhibited relatively higher yield (58.9%), drug loading (11.0% (w/w)) and encapsulation efficiency (33.5%), and also a controllable drug release profile. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the prepared NPs, MTT assay was conducted, and results showed that the NPs could effectively inhibit HL60 and HepG2 cells with lower IC50 values compared with free curcumin. Furthermore, confocal microscopy together with flow cytometry analysis proved the enhanced apoptosis-inducing ability of PLGA-Cur NPs. Polymeric NP formulations are potential to be used for hydrophobic drug delivery systems in cancer therapy.

  14. Heat-solubilized curry spice curcumin inhibits antibody-antigen interaction in in vitro studies: A possible therapy to alleviate autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; D'Souza, Anil; Scofield, R. Hal

    2010-01-01

    Chronic and complex autoimmune diseases, currently treated palliatively with immunosuppressives, require multi-targeted therapy for greater effectiveness. The naturally occurring polyphenol curcumin has emerged as a powerful “nutraceutical” that interacts with multiple targets to regress diseases safely and inexpensively. Upto 8 g/day of curcumin for 18 months was non-toxic to humans. However, curcumin's utility is limited by its aqueous insolubility. We have demonstrated a heat-mediated 12-fold increase in curcumin's aqueous solubility. Here we show by, SDS-PAGE and SPR, that heat-solubilized curcumin binds to proteins. Based on this binding we hypothesized that heat-solubilized curcumin or turmeric would prevent autoantibody targeting of cognate autoantigens. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric significantly decreased binding of autoantibodies from Sjögren's syndrome (SS) (up to 43/70 % respectively) and SLE (up to 52/70 % respectively) patients as well as an animal model of SS (up to 50/60 % respectively) to their cognate antigens. However, inhibition was not specific to autoimmunity. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric also inhibited binding of polyclonal anti-spectrin to spectrin (50/56 % respectively). Thus, we suggest that the multifaceted heat-solubilized curcumin can ameliorate autoimmune disorders. In addition, the non-toxic curcumin could serve as a new protein stain in SDS-PAGE even though it is less sensitive than the Coomassie system which involves toxic chemicals. PMID:20146265

  15. pH-driven encapsulation of curcumin in self-assembled casein nanoparticles for enhanced dispersibility and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Luo, Yangchao; Gan, Yundi; Baek, Seung J; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-09-21

    The poor water solubility and bioactivity of lipophilic phytochemicals can be potentially improved by delivery systems. In this study, a low-cost, low-energy, and organic solvent-free encapsulation technology was studied by utilizing the pH-dependent solubility properties of curcumin and self-assembly properties of sodium caseinate (NaCas). Curcumin was deprotonated and dissolved, while NaCas was dissociated at pH 12 and 21 °C for 30 min. The subsequent neutralization enabled the encapsulation of curcumin in self-assembled casein nanoparticles. The degradation of curcumin under encapsulation conditions was negligible based on visible light and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The dissociation of NaCas at pH 12 and reassociation after neutralization were confirmed using dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation. The curcumin encapsulated in casein nanoparticles showed significantly improved anti-proliferation activity against human colorectal and pancreatic cancer cells. The studied encapsulation method is promising to utilize lipophilic compounds in food or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25082426

  16. Curcumin Prevents Formation of Polyglutamine Aggregates by Inhibiting Vps36, a Component of the ESCRT-II Complex

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Abhishek; Naidu, Swarna; Bhadra, Ankan Kumar; Kukreti, Ritushree; Taneja, Vibha

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules with antioxidative properties have been implicated in amyloid disorders. Curcumin is the active ingredient present in turmeric and known for several biological and medicinal effects. Adequate evidence substantiates the importance of curcumin in Alzheimer's disease and recent evidence suggests its role in Prion and Parkinson's disease. However, contradictory effects have been suggested for Huntington's disease. This difference provided a compelling reason to investigate the effect of curcumin on glutamine-rich (Q-rich) and non-glutamine-rich (non Q-rich) amyloid aggregates in the well established yeast model system. Curcumin significantly inhibited the formation of htt72Q-GFP (a Q-rich) and Het-s-GFP (a non Q-rich) aggregates in yeast. We show that curcumin prevents htt72Q-GFP aggregation by down regulating Vps36, a component of the ESCRT-II (Endosomal sorting complex required for transport). Moreover, curcumin disrupted the htt72Q-GFP aggregates that were pre-formed in yeast and cured the yeast prion, [PSI+]. PMID:22880132

  17. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity.

  18. Curcumin inhibits lung cancer invasion and metastasis by attenuating GLUT1/MT1-MMP/MMP2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hehe; Wang, Zhouquan; Deng, Zhiping; Ren, Hong; Li, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 is found highly expressed in malignant tumors and considered a mediator inducing cancer metastasis. Curcumin is a natural product which exerts anti-invasion and metastasis effects in cancer. This study aimed at evaluating whether attenuating GLUT1 was involved in curcumin’s anti-invasion and metastasis effects. In the in vitro part, constricted pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 vector was transfected into A549 cells. MTT assay was used to assess the curcumin’s effects on proliferation in lung cancer A549 cells. Transwell assay was used to evaluate the anti-invasion effect of curcumin on A549 cells. Real-time PCR and Western-blotting were employed to examine the expression levels of GLUT1, membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 in curcumin- incubated A549 cells. In the in vivo part, tumor weight and metastatic rate were assessed in nude mice bearing untransfected, empty vector transfected and pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 transfected A549 cells originated tumors. In this study, we found that curcumin began to show significant cytotoxicity against proliferation effect at 45 μmol/L. Curcumin inhibited invasion and expressions of GLUT1, MT1-MMP and MMP2 untransfected A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 transfected A549 cells exhibited resistance to curcumin’s anti-invasion effect by up-regulating expressions of GLUT2, MT1-MMP and MMP2. Furthermore, curcumin failed to decrease the metastatic rate in nude mice bearing pcDNA3.1-GLUT1 transfected A549 cells originated tumors. These results suggested that curcumin inhibit lung cancer invasion and metastasis by attenuating GLUT1/MT1-MMP/MMP2 pathway. PMID:26309547

  19. Preparation and characterization of curcumin-piperine dual drug loaded nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Moorthi, C; Krishnan, Kiran; Manavalan, R; Kathiresan, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare curcumin-piperine (Cu-Pi) nanoparticles by various methods and to study the effect of various manufacturing parameters on Cu-Pi nanoparticles and to identify a suitable method for the preparation of Cu-Pi nanoparticles to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer. Methods Cu-Pi nanoparticles were prepared by thin film hydration method, solid dispersion method, emulsion polymerization method and Fessi method. Optimization was carried out to study the effect of various manufacturing parameter on the Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Results Out of four methods, Fessi method produced a minimum average particle size of 85.43 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.183 and zeta potential of 29.7 mV. Change of organic solvent (acetone or ethanol) did not have any significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. However, increase in sonication time, stirring speed, viscosity, use of 1:10:10 ratio of drug/polymer/surfactant, and use of anionic surfactant or combination of anionic surfactant with cationic polymer or combination of non-ionic surfactant with cationic polymer had a significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Conclusions Cu-Pi nanoparticles coated with PEG containing copolymer produced by Fessi method had a minimum average particle size, excellent polydispersity index and optimal zeta potential which fall within the acceptable limits of the study. This dual nanoparticulate drug delivery system appears to be promising to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer. PMID:23569859

  20. Curcumin Inhibits Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through Iron Chelation ▿ ††

    PubMed Central

    Minear, Steven; O'Donnell, Allyson F.; Ballew, Anna; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric, is an ancient therapeutic used in India for centuries to treat a wide array of ailments. Interest in curcumin has increased recently, with ongoing clinical trials exploring curcumin as an anticancer therapy and as a protectant against neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro, curcumin chelates metal ions. However, although diverse physiological effects have been documented for this compound, curcumin's mechanism of action on mammalian cells remains unclear. This study uses yeast as a model eukaryotic system to dissect the biological activity of curcumin. We found that yeast mutants lacking genes required for iron and copper homeostasis are hypersensitive to curcumin and that iron supplementation rescues this sensitivity. Curcumin penetrates yeast cells, concentrates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and reduces the intracellular iron pool. Curcumin-treated, iron-starved cultures are enriched in unbudded cells, suggesting that the G1 phase of the cell cycle is lengthened. A delay in cell cycle progression could, in part, explain the antitumorigenic properties associated with curcumin. We also demonstrate that curcumin causes a growth lag in cultured human cells that is remediated by the addition of exogenous iron. These findings suggest that curcumin-induced iron starvation is conserved from yeast to humans and underlies curcumin's medicinal properties. PMID:21908599

  1. Curcumin inhibits metastasis in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells via down-regulation of the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Gao, Yanyan; Zhang, Chiyu; Bao, Jiandong; Guan, Haixia; Yu, Huixin; Lu, Rongrong; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-02-15

    Thyroid cancers usually possess a good prognosis while the risks of recurrence and metastasis turn out to be a disturbing issue. Curcumin [bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] is a natural polyphenolic compound mainly found in turmeric (Curcuma longa). Our previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin showed proliferation-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying the inhibition effects of curcumin on thyroid cancer cells remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that curcumin remarkably increased the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and repressed the expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells. Curcumin also suppressed multiple metastatic steps of BCPAP cells, including cell attachment, spreading as well as migration. In addition, the transcription, secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in BCPAP cells were mitigated upon curcumin treatment. Further evidence showed that curcumin decreased TGF-β1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. These results revealed that curcumin inhibited the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via down-regulation of Smad2/3 signaling pathways. Our findings provide new evidence that the anti-metastatic and anti-EMT activities of curcumin may contribute to the development of chemo-preventive agents for thyroid cancer treatment.

  2. Codelivery of sorafenib and curcumin by directed self-assembled nanoparticles enhances therapeutic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiqiang; Wang, Yixin; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yin, Qi; Chen, Yi; Yu, Haijun; Huang, Yongzhuo; Chen, Lingli; Xu, Minghua; Gu, Wangwen; Li, Yaping

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Herein, we first reported the codelivery of sorafenib and curcumin by directed self-assembled nanoparticles (SCN) to enhance the therapeutic effect on HCC. SCN was formed by employing the hydrophobic interactions among the lipophilic structure in sorafenib, curcumin, and similar hydrophobic segments of polyethylene glycol derivative of vitamin E succinate (PEG-VES), which comprised uniform spherical particles with particle size of 84.97 ± 6.03 nm. SCN presented superior effects over sorafenib, curcumin, and their physical mixture (Sora + Cur) on enhancing in vitro cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells and Hep G2 cells, and antiangiogenesis activities in tube formation and microvessel formation from aortic rings. Moreover, the tissue concentration of sorafenib and curcumin in gastrointestinal tract and major organs were significantly improved after their coassembly into SCN. In particular, in BEL-7402 cells induced tumor xenograft, SCN treatment displayed the obviously enhanced inhibitory effect on tumor progression over free drug monotherapy or their physical mixture, with significantly increased antiproliferation and antiangiogenesis capability. Thereby, the codelivered nanoassemblies of sorafenib and curcumin provided a promising strategy to enhance the combinational therapy of HCC.

  3. In situ synthesis and surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles with curcumin and their antioxidant properties: an experimental and density functional theory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dheeraj K.; Jagannathan, Ramya; Khandelwal, Puneet; Abraham, Priya Mary; Poddar, Pankaj

    2013-02-01

    Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is an active component of turmeric; it is responsible for its characteristic yellow color and therapeutic potential, but its poor bioavailability remains a major challenge. In order to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, various approaches have been used. One of the possible approaches to increase the bioavailability of curcumin is its conjugation on the surface of metal nanoparticles. Therefore, in the present study, we report the binding of curcumin on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs were synthesized by the direct reduction of HAuCl4 using curcumin in the aqueous phase, without the use of any other reducing agents. We found that curcumin acts both as a reducing and capping agent, stabilizing the gold sol for many months. Moreover, these curcumin-capped AuNPs also show good antioxidant activity which was confirmed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) radical test. Thus, the surface functionalization of AuNPs with curcumin may pave a new way of using the curcuminoids towards possible drug delivery and therapeutics. Apart from the experimental study, a detailed quantum chemical calculation using density functional theory (DFT) has been performed, in order to investigate the formation of a complex of curcumin with Au3+ ions in different possible conformational isomeric forms. Our theoretical calculations indicate the evidence of electron transfer from curcumin into the Au center and essentially indicate that as a consequence of complexation, Au3+ ions are reduced to Au0. Our theoretical results also propose that it is the breakage of intramolecular H-bonding that probably leads to the increased availability of curcumin in the presence of gold ions and water molecules.Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) is an active component of turmeric; it is responsible for its characteristic yellow color and therapeutic

  4. Curcumin Inhibits Glyoxalase 1—A Possible Link to Its Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Santel, Thore; Pflug, Gabi; Hemdan, Nasr Y. A.; Schäfer, Angelika; Hollenbach, Marcus; Buchold, Martin; Hintersdorf, Anja; Lindner, Inge; Otto, Andreas; Bigl, Marina; Oerlecke, Ilka; Hutschenreuter, Antje; Sack, Ulrich; Huse, Klaus; Groth, Marco; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Gebhardt, Rolf; Platzer, Mathias; Weiss, Thomas; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A.; Krüger, Monika; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background Glyoxalases (Glo1 and Glo2) are involved in the glycolytic pathway by detoxifying the reactive methylglyoxal (MGO) into D-lactate in a two-step reaction using glutathione (GSH) as cofactor. Inhibitors of glyoxalases are considered as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic agents. The recent finding that various polyphenols modulate Glo1 activity has prompted us to assess curcumin's potency as an Glo1 inhibitor. Methodology/Principal Findings Cultures of whole blood cells and tumor cell lines (PC-3, JIM-1, MDA-MD 231 and 1321N1) were set up to investigate the effect of selected polyphenols, including curcumin, on the LPS-induced cytokine production (cytometric bead-based array), cell proliferation (WST-1 assay), cytosolic Glo1 and Glo2 enzymatic activity, apoptosis/necrosis (annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining; flow cytometric analysis) as well as GSH and ATP content. Results of enzyme kinetics revealed that curcumin, compared to the polyphenols quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, luteolin and rutin, elicited a stronger competitive inhibitory effect on Glo1 (Ki = 5.1±1.4 µM). Applying a whole blood assay, IC50 values of pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β) were found to be positively correlated with the Ki-values of the aforementioned polyphenols. Moreover, whereas curcumin was found to hamper the growth of breast cancer (JIMT-1, MDA-MB-231), prostate cancer PC-3 and brain astrocytoma 1321N1 cells, no effect on growth or vitality of human primary hepatocytes was elucidated. Curcumin decreased D-lactate release by tumor cells, another clue for inhibition of intracellular Glo1. Conclusions/Significance The results described herein provide new insights into curcumin's biological activities as they indicate that inhibition of Glo1 by curcumin may result in non-tolerable levels of MGO and GSH, which, in turn, modulate various metabolic cellular pathways including depletion of cellular ATP and GSH content. This may account

  5. Gelsolin Amyloidogenesis Is Effectively Modulated by Curcumin and Emetine Conjugated PLGA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Surbhi; Kundu, Bishwajit; Mishra, Prashant; Fnu, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule based therapeutic intervention of amyloids has been limited by their low solubility and poor pharmacokinetic characteristics. We report here, the use of water soluble poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated curcumin and emetine nanoparticles (Cm-NPs and Em-NPs, respectively), as potential modulators of gelsolin amyloidogenesis. Using the amyloid-specific dye Thioflavin T (ThT) as an indicator along with electron microscopic imaging we show that the presence of Cm-NPs augmented amyloid formation in gelsolin by skipping the pre-fibrillar assemblies, while Em-NPs induced non-fibrillar aggregates. These two types of aggregates differed in their morphologies, surface hydrophobicity and secondary structural signatures, confirming that they followed distinct pathways. In spite of differences, both these aggregates displayed reduced toxicity against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells as compared to control gelsolin amyloids. We conclude that the cytotoxicity of gelsolin amyloids can be reduced by either stalling or accelerating its fibrillation process. In addition, Cm-NPs increased the fibrillar bulk while Em-NPs defibrillated the pre-formed gelsolin amyloids. Moreover, amyloid modulation happened at a much lower concentration and at a faster rate by the PLGA encapsulated compounds as compared to their free forms. Thus, besides improving pharmacokinetic and biocompatible properties of curcumin and emetine, PLGA conjugation elevates the therapeutic potential of both small molecules against amyloid fibrillation and toxicity. PMID:25996685

  6. Dual ACE-inhibition and angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonism with curcumin attenuate maladaptive cardiac repair and improve ventricular systolic function after myocardial infarctionin rat heart.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xue-Fen; Zhang, Li-Hui; Bai, Feng; Wang, Ning-Ping; Ijaz Shah, Ahmed; Garner, Ron; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to improve cardiac function by reducing degradation of extracellular matrix and inhibiting synthesis of collagen after ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that attenuation of maladaptive cardiac repair with curcumin is associated with a dual ACE-inhibition and angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonism after myocardial infarction. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45min ischemia followed by 7 and 42 days of reperfusion, respectively. Curcumin was fed orally at a dose of 150mg/kg/day only during reperfusion. Relative to the control animals, dietary treatment with curcumin significantly reduced levels of ACE and AT1 receptor protein as determined by Western blot assay, coincident with less locally-expressed ACE and AT1 receptor in myocardium and coronary vessels as identified by immunohistochemistry. Along with this inhibition, curcumin significantly increased protein level of AT2 receptor and its expression compared with the control. As evidenced by less collagen deposition in fibrotic myocardium, curcumin also reduced the extent of collagen-rich scar and increased mass of viable myocardium detected by Masson׳s trichrome staining. Echocardiography showed that the wall thickness of the infarcted anterior septum in the curcumin group was significantly greater than that in the control group. Cardiac contractile function was improved in the curcumin treated animals as measured by fraction shortening and ejection fraction. In cultured cardiac muscle cells, curcumin inhibited oxidant-induced AT1 receptor expression and promoted cell survival. These results suggest that curcumin attenuates maladaptive cardiac repair and enhances cardiac function, primarily mediated by a dual ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism after myocardial infarction.

  7. Curcumin loaded PLGA-poloxamer blend nanoparticles induce cell cycle arrest in mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Mayol, Laura; Serri, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Crispi, Stefania; Piccolo, Maria Teresa; Mita, Luigi; Giarra, Simona; Forte, Maurizio; Saija, Antonina; Biondi, Marco; Mita, Damiano Gustavo

    2015-06-01

    The pharmacological potential of curcumin (CURC) is severely restricted because of its low water solubility/absorption, short half-life and poor bioavailability. To overcome these issues, CURC-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by a double emulsion technique. In particular, NPs were made up of an amphiphilic blend of poloxamers and PLGA to confer stealth properties to the NPs to take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Different surface properties of NPs made up of bare PLGA and PLGA/poloxamer blend were confirmed by the different interactions of these NPs with serum proteins and also by their ability to be internalized by mesothelioma cell line. The uptake of PLGA/poloxamer NPs induces a persistent block in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle up to 72 h, thus overcoming the drug tolerance phenomenon, normally evidenced with free CURC.

  8. Targeted Theranostic Approach for Glioma Using Dendrimer-Based Curcumin Nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Gamage, NH; Jing, Li; Worsham, MJ; Ali, MM

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of anti-cancer agents to brain tumors represent a challenge because the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) effectively limits the delivery of many agents. A new generation 3 (G3) dendrimer-based curcumin (Curc) conjugate was synthesized. The synthesized G3-Curc conjugate demonstrated full solubility in aqueous media. The in vitro study revealed that G3-Curc nanoparticles were internalized into glioma U-251 cells. Systemic delivery of G3-Curc conjugate led to preferentially accumulation in an orthotopic preclinical glioma model minimizing systemic toxic effect. Multicolor microscopy images of the tumor tissue showed that G3-Curc particles were internalized inside tumor cells selectively and further localized within nuclei. Enhanced bioavailability of G3-Curc conjugate was also observed with improved therapeutic efficacy against different cancers cells. PMID:27699139

  9. Targeted Theranostic Approach for Glioma Using Dendrimer-Based Curcumin Nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Gamage, NH; Jing, Li; Worsham, MJ; Ali, MM

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of anti-cancer agents to brain tumors represent a challenge because the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) effectively limits the delivery of many agents. A new generation 3 (G3) dendrimer-based curcumin (Curc) conjugate was synthesized. The synthesized G3-Curc conjugate demonstrated full solubility in aqueous media. The in vitro study revealed that G3-Curc nanoparticles were internalized into glioma U-251 cells. Systemic delivery of G3-Curc conjugate led to preferentially accumulation in an orthotopic preclinical glioma model minimizing systemic toxic effect. Multicolor microscopy images of the tumor tissue showed that G3-Curc particles were internalized inside tumor cells selectively and further localized within nuclei. Enhanced bioavailability of G3-Curc conjugate was also observed with improved therapeutic efficacy against different cancers cells.

  10. Curcumin loaded PLGA-poloxamer blend nanoparticles induce cell cycle arrest in mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Mayol, Laura; Serri, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Crispi, Stefania; Piccolo, Maria Teresa; Mita, Luigi; Giarra, Simona; Forte, Maurizio; Saija, Antonina; Biondi, Marco; Mita, Damiano Gustavo

    2015-06-01

    The pharmacological potential of curcumin (CURC) is severely restricted because of its low water solubility/absorption, short half-life and poor bioavailability. To overcome these issues, CURC-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were produced by a double emulsion technique. In particular, NPs were made up of an amphiphilic blend of poloxamers and PLGA to confer stealth properties to the NPs to take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Different surface properties of NPs made up of bare PLGA and PLGA/poloxamer blend were confirmed by the different interactions of these NPs with serum proteins and also by their ability to be internalized by mesothelioma cell line. The uptake of PLGA/poloxamer NPs induces a persistent block in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle up to 72 h, thus overcoming the drug tolerance phenomenon, normally evidenced with free CURC. PMID:25794477

  11. Photoprotective efficiency of PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles versus curcumin through the involvement of ERK/AKT pathway under ambient UV-R exposure in HaCaT cell line.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Deepti; Ray, Lipika; Dwivedi, Ashish; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Krishna P; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Jahan, Sadaf; Pandey, Ankita; Gupta, Shailendra K; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Ray, Ratan Singh; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin (Cur) has been demonstrated to have wide pharmacological window including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, phototoxicity under sunlight exposure and poor biological availability limits its applicability. We have synthesized biodegradable and non-toxic polymer-poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) encapsulated formulation of curcumin (PLGA-Cur-NPs) of 150 nm size range. Photochemically free curcumin generates ROS, lipid peroxidation and induces significant UVA and UVB mediated impaired mitochondrial functions leading to apoptosis/necrosis and cell injury in two different origin cell lines viz., mouse fibroblasts-NIH-3T3 and human keratinocytes-HaCaT as compared to PLGA-Cur-NPs. Molecular docking studies suggested that intact curcumin from nanoparticles, bind with BAX in BIM SAHB site and attenuate it to undergo apoptosis while upregulating anti-apoptotic genes like BCL2. Real time studies and western blot analysis with specific phosphorylation inhibitor of ERK1 and AKT1/2/3 confirm the involvement of ERK/AKT signaling molecules to trigger the survival cascade in case of PLGA-Cur-NPs. Our finding demonstrates that low level sustained release of curcumin from PLGA-Cur-NPs could be a promising way to protect the adverse biological interactions of photo-degradation products of curcumin upon the exposure of UVA and UVB. Hence, the applicability of PLGA-Cur-NPs could be suggested as prolonged radical scavenging ingredient in curcumin containing products. PMID:26803409

  12. Liposomal co-delivery of curcumin and albumin/paclitaxel nanoparticle for enhanced synergistic antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ruttala, Hima Bindu; Ko, Young Tag

    2015-04-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) and curcumin (CUR) are potent chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer. In the present study, hybrid polymer-lipid nanoparticles co-loaded with PTX and CUR were developed to investigate the therapeutic potential of a combination drug regimen. For this purpose, PTX-loaded albumin nanoparticles (APN) were prepared and encapsulated in PEGylated hybrid liposomes containing CUR (CL-APN) via a thin-film hydration technique. CL-APN was nanosized with a uniform spherical morphology. PTX and CUR release was sustained and occurred in a sequential manner, wherein CUR was expected to downregulate the nuclear factor NF-κB and Akt pathways and increase the therapeutic efficacy of PTX. The ratiometric combination of PTX and CUR was significantly more cytotoxic than the individual drugs. Importantly, dual-drug-loaded nanocarriers exhibited a superior cytotoxic effect than a cocktail combination at a lower dose. CL-APN induced significantly higher early and late apoptosis, induced a stronger G2/M arrest, and significantly increased the subG1 cell population. By combining CUR, an effective NF-κB inhibitor, with PTX, a powerful anticancer drug, in a polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticle system, we could improve the therapeutic efficacy in cancer treatments. Our results showed that such co-loaded delivery systems could serve as a promising therapeutic approach to improve clinical outcomes against various malignancies.

  13. Curcumin suppresses human papillomavirus oncoproteins, restores p53, Rb, and PTPN13 proteins and inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced upregulation of HPV E7.

    PubMed

    Maher, Diane M; Bell, Maria C; O'Donnell, Emmylu A; Gupta, Brij K; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin has great potential as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent; however, its effects on human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated molecular events are inadequately explored. This study examined the effects of curcumin on HPV-associated pathways involved in developing cervical cancer. We demonstrate for the first time that curcumin treatment suppresses cervical cancer cell growth in a three-dimensional raft culture system. Curcumin also inhibits tumorigenic characteristics as shown by decreases in both clonogenic potential and cell motility. Additionally, our findings show that curcumin treatment inhibits the transcription of HPV16 E6/E7 as early as 6 h posttreatment and restores the expression of tumor suppressor proteins p53, retinoblastoma protein, and PTPN13. While smoking is a recognized risk factor for cervical cancer, the molecular effects of smoke carcinogens on the expression of HPV E6/E7 oncogenes are not well known. We show for the first time that exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a tobacco carcinogen, increases the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein suggesting a molecular link between smoking and cervical cancer. Importantly, curcumin decreases the BaP induced increase in the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that curcumin alters HPV-associated molecular pathways in cervical cancer cells. These novel findings imply that curcumin may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for cervical cancer prevention and treatment.

  14. Curcumin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy partially by inhibition of NADPH oxidase mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Liao, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Xuan; He, Wan-You; Wang, Han-Bing; Yang, Cheng-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are the main enzymes that produce oxidative stress, which plays an important role in painful diabetic neuropathy. Curcumin has been reported to exert an antinociceptive effect in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy by suppressing oxidative stress in the spinal cord. However, it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which curcumin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy can be attributed to spinal NADPH oxidases. This study was designed to determine the effect of curcumin on diabetic neuropathy and to investigate its precise mechanism in relation to NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord. Diabetic neuropathy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with 1% streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). After the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a subset of the diabetic rats received daily intragastric administrations of curcumin (200mg/kg) or intraperitoneal injections of apocynin (2.5mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, whereas other diabetic rats received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS). STZ resulted in diabetic neuropathy with hyperglycemia and a lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), accompanied by elevations in the expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox) and in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05) in the spinal cord. Both curcumin and apocynin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain in diabetic rats, at least partly by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

  15. Relief of Oxidative Stress Using Curcumin and Glutathione Functionalized ZnO Nanoparticles in HEK-293 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Zafaryab, Md; Umar, Ahmad; Rizvi, M M A; Fouad, H; Ansari, Z A; Ansari, S G

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) with different surface modifications in relieving the oxidative stress in cultured human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) following investigation was performed. Oxidative stress was artificially induced by hydrogen peroxide in HEK-293 cell culture and its management was studied. Alkyl amines modified ZnO-NPs with curcumin and reduced glutathione (GSH) functionalization was used in managing oxidative stress and had shown promising results. ZnO-NPs used in this study were synthesized via non-aqueous sol-gel method and FESEM characterisation showed them of spherical shape of about 20-50 nm size with amine, curcumin and GSH functionalization. UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopic characterizations confirmed functionalization of ZnO-NPs. Decrease in oxidative stress was found with the dose-dependent culture of HEK-293 cells with these functionalized ZnO-NPs. Cell viability and morphology, as observed using AFM and inverted microscope, was retained with the prescribed dosages of the functionalized nanoparticles while at higher dosages they caused cytotoxicity and death. Diethylamine (DEA) modified ZnO-NPs and their functionalization with GSH and curcumin were found more effective in managing oxidative stress in cells. Present study could help in designing economical and bio-compatible functionalized non-toxic nanoparticles designed for managing oxidative stress leading to possible therapeutical and medicinal uses. PMID:26554152

  16. Highly stabilized curcumin nanoparticles tested in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model and in Alzheimer's disease Tg2576 mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwok Kin; Yeung, Chin Fung; Ho, Shuk Wai; Chow, Shing Fung; Chow, Albert H L; Baum, Larry

    2013-04-01

    The therapeutic effects of curcumin in treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) depend on the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The latest nanoparticle technology can help to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, which is affected by the final particle size and stability. We developed a stable curcumin nanoparticle formulation to test in vitro and in AD model Tg2576 mice. Flash nanoprecipitation of curcumin, polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid co-block polymer, and polyvinylpyrrolidone in a multi-inlet vortex mixer, followed by freeze drying with β-cyclodextrin, produced dry nanocurcumin with mean particle size <80 nm. Nanocurcumin powder, unformulated curcumin, or placebo was orally administered to Tg2576 mice for 3 months. Before and after treatment, memory was measured by radial arm maze and contextual fear conditioning tests. Nanocurcumin produced significantly (p=0.04) better cue memory in the contextual fear conditioning test than placebo and tendencies toward better working memory in the radial arm maze test than ordinary curcumin (p=0.14) or placebo (p=0.12). Amyloid plaque density, pharmacokinetics, and Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayer penetration were measured to further understand in vivo and in vitro mechanisms. Nanocurcumin produced significantly higher curcumin concentration in plasma and six times higher area under the curve and mean residence time in brain than ordinary curcumin. The P(app) of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin were 1.8×10(-6) and 1.6×10(-5)cm/s, respectively, for nanocurcumin. Our novel nanocurcumin formulation produced highly stabilized nanoparticles with positive treatment effects in Tg2576 mice. PMID:23229335

  17. Mechanism of curcumin-induced trypsin inhibition: Computational and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Kang, Yi-Jun; Gu, Yun-Lan; Cao, Jian

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the experimental and theoretical methods were used to analyze the binding interaction of food dye, curcumin with trypsin. The results of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements indicated that curcumin binding resulted in the obviously intrinsic fluorescence quenching with the increase concentration of curcumin. This binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being -15.70 kJ mol-1 and 40.25 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces played an important role in the complex formation between curcumin and trypsin. Moreover, curcumin could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket and makes the activity of trypsin decrease remarkably with the increasing concentration of curcumin.

  18. Mechanism of curcumin-induced trypsin inhibition: Computational and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Kang, Yi-Jun; Gu, Yun-Lan; Cao, Jian

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the experimental and theoretical methods were used to analyze the binding interaction of food dye, curcumin with trypsin. The results of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements indicated that curcumin binding resulted in the obviously intrinsic fluorescence quenching with the increase concentration of curcumin. This binding interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being -15.70 kJ mol-1 and 40.25 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces played an important role in the complex formation between curcumin and trypsin. Moreover, curcumin could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket and makes the activity of trypsin decrease remarkably with the increasing concentration of curcumin.

  19. Curcumin-induced downregulation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase inhibits cell proliferation and circumvents chemoresistance in non-small lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Chuhee

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is still in the first place in terms of both incidence and mortality. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of curcumin, a phytochemical of the plant Curcuma longa, on expression and activation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) which plays an important role in cell survival, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. Curcumin treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 and H460 cells, was found to decrease Axl protein as well as mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Axl promoter activity was also reduced by curcumin, indicating that curcumin downregulates Axl expression at the transcriptional level. Moreover, Axl phosphorylation in response to binding of its ligand, Gas6, was abrogated by curcumin, suggesting the inhibitory effect of curcumin on Gas6-induced Axl activation. We next found cytotoxic effect of cucumin on both the parental A549 and H460 cells, and their variants which are resistant to cisplatin (A549/CisR and H460/CisR) and paclitaxel (A549/TR and H460/TR). Exposure of these cells to curcumin resulted in dose-dependent decline of cell viability and clonogenic ability. It is further observed that the anti-proliferative effect of curcumin on A549 cells overexpressing Axl protein was reduced, while that on H460 cells transfected Axl specific siRNA was augmented, confirming that curcumin inhibits cell proliferation via downregulation of Axl expression. In addition, curcumin was found to cause the induction of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and reduction of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), an anti-apoptotic molecule, in parental H460 cells as well as chemoresistant cells, H460/CisR and H460/TR. Taken together, our data imply that Axl RTK is a novel target of curcumin through which it exerts anti-proliferative effect in both parental and chemoresistant NSCLC cells.

  20. Curcumin improves sclerosing cholangitis in Mdr2−/− mice by inhibition of cholangiocyte inflammatory response and portal myofibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Baghdasaryan, Anna; Claudel, Thierry; Kosters, Astrid; Gumhold, Judith; Silbert, Dagmar; Thüringer, Andrea; Leski, Katharina; Fickert, Peter; Karpen, Saul J.; Trauner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Chronic cholangiopathies have limited therapeutic options and represent an important indication for liver transplantation. Curcumin, the yellow pigment of the spice turmeric, has pleiotropic actions and attenuates hepatic damage in animal models of chemically-induced liver injury. Whether curcumin has beneficial effects in cholangiopathies is unknown. Methods Potential anti-cholestatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic mechanisms of curcumin were explored in vivo in Mdr2−/− mice as a murine model of chronic cholangiopathy; as well as in vitro in a cholangiocyte cell line (HuCCT1) and portal myofibroblasts (MFBs) isolated from Mdr2−/− mice. Results Liver damage, cholestasis and fibrosis were reduced in Mdr2−/− mice after curcumin feeding. Moreover, curcumin inhibited cholangiocyte proliferation and expression of activation marker Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in Mdr2−/− mice. Curcumin - similar to PPARγ synthetic agonist troglitazone - directly inhibited TNF-α induced inflammatory activation of cholangiocytes in vitro, whereas these beneficial effects of curcumin were largely blocked by a PPARγ synthetic antagonist. In addition, curcumin blocked proliferation and activation of portal MFBs by inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation, thus contributing to reduced fibrogenesis. Conclusions These results show that curcumin may have multiple targets in liver including activation of PPARγ in cholangiocytes and inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling in MFBs, thereby modulating several central cellular events in a mouse model of cholangiopathy. Targeting these pathways may be a promising therapeutic approach to cholangiopathies. PMID:20332524

  1. Photocatalytic performance of Ag doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified with curcumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignesh, K.; Hariharan, R.; Rajarajan, M.; Suganthi, A.

    2013-07-01

    Visible light active Ag doped SnO2 nanoparticles modified with curcumin (Cur-Ag-SnO2) have been prepared by a combined precipitation and chemical impregnation route. The optical properties, phase structures and morphologies of the as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface area was measured by Brunauer. Emmett. Teller (B.E.T) analysis. Compared to bare SnO2, the surface modified photocatalysts (Ag-SnO2 and Cur-Ag-SnO2) showed a red shift in the visible region. The photocatalytic activity was monitored via the degradation of rose bengal (RB) dye and the results revealed that Cur-Ag-SnO2 shows better photocatalytic activity than that of Ag-SnO2 and SnO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of Cur-Ag-SnO2 could be attributed to the effective electron-hole separation by surface modification. The effect of photocatalyst concentration, initial dye concentration and electron scavenger on the photocatalytic activity was examined in detail. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of the photocatalysts and the reusability of Cur-Ag-SnO2 were tested.

  2. [Preparation and anti-cancer activity in vitro of curcumin loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle].

    PubMed

    He, Li-li; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    This paper is to prepare curcumin (Cur) loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Cur-MSN), evaluate its release behavior and anti-cancer activity in vitro. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) was prepared by polymerization method and Cur-MSN was obtained using solvent evaporation method and impregnation centrifugation method. The preparation method was optimized using entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading efficiency (LE) as indexes. Cur-MSN was characterized with scanning electron microscope and its particle size and zeta potential were determined. Finally, in vitro release behavior in 0.2% SDS solution and its cell-killing effect on HeLa cells were also evaluated. The Cur-MSN prepared with process optimization method was round and uniform and exhibited typical mesoporous characterization. The mean particle size and Zeta potential of Cur-MSN were 75.8 nm and -30.1 mV, respectively. EE and LE of three batches of Cur-MSN were (72.55 ± 2.01)% and (16.21 ± 1.12)%, respectively. In vitro release behavior of Cur-MSN showed a sustained release profile with 83.5% cumulative release within 96 h. The killing effect of Cur-MSN on HeLa cells was dose-dependent with IC50 of 19.40 mg x L(-1), which was similar to that of Cur. PMID:27071254

  3. Curcumin inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human osteoclastoma cell through MMP-9, NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fujiang; Liu, Tao; Xu, Yunqiang; Xu, Dongdong; Feng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol compound extracted from ginger plant, turmeric, commonly used in a variety of food coloring and flavoring additives. Curcumin has many effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-microbial effects. However, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effect of curcumin on human osteoclastoma (Giant cell tumor, GCT) cells remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of curcumin on proliferation and apoptosis of GCT cells and its related mechanisms. In our study, cell viability, cellular apoptosis and caspase-3 activity of GCT cells were analyzed using 3.3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry (FCM) assay and commercial kits, respectively. Next, MMP-9 gene expression quantity, NF-κB activity and JNK protein expression of GCT cells were tested with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), commercial kits and western blotting assay, respectively. Firstly, MMP-9, NF-κB and JNK inhibitors were added into GCT cells and which was researched the mechanism of curcumin on human GCT cells. In this study, the efficacy of curcumin reduced cell viability, induced cellular apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activity of GCT cells. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the MMP-9 gene expression quantity and NF-κB activity, and activated JNK protein expression in GCT cells. Meanwhile, down-regulation of MMP-9 gene expression quantity and NF-κB activity could promote the anti-cancer effect of curcumin on cell viability of GCT cells. Interesting, down-regulation of JNK protein expression could also reversed the anti-cancer effect of curcumin on cell viability of GCT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in osteoclastoma cell through suppression of MMP-9 and NF-κB, and activation JNK signaling pathways. PMID:26261481

  4. Selenium nanoparticles inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong A; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a key bacterium commonly found in numerous infections. S. aureus infections are difficult to treat due to their biofilm formation and documented antibiotic resistance. While selenium has been used for a wide range of applications including anticancer applications, the effects of selenium nanoparticles on microorganisms remain largely unknown to date. The objective of this in vitro study was thus to examine the growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Results of this study provided the first evidence of strongly inhibited growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles after 3, 4, and 5 hours at 7.8, 15.5, and 31 μg/mL. The percentage of live bacteria also decreased in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Therefore, this study suggests that selenium nanoparticles may be used to effectively prevent and treat S. aureus infections and thus should be further studied for such applications.

  5. Induction of G2/M arrest and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity by curcumin in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol; Kim, Gi Young; Kim, Gun Do; Choi, Byung Tae; Park, Yeong-Min; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2006-05-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol compound derived from Curcuma longa Linn, has been recognized as a promising anti-cancer drug due to its multiple properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. To elucidate the mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits human bladder carcinoma T24 cell proliferation, we tested the effects of curcumin on specific cell cycle pathways and on the expression of cyclooxygenases (COXs). Curcumin inhibited the growth of T24 cells and induced G2/M arrest in a concentration-dependent manner, effects associated with the down-regulation of cyclin A and up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1). However, other G2/M regulatory molecules, such as cyclin A, Cdc2, Cdk2, Wee1 and Cdc25C, were not modulated by curcumin treatment. Furthermore, curcumin decreased the levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein expression without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which correlated with a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. These observations suggest that curcumin may have therapeutic potential for bladder cancer patients. PMID:16596191

  6. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

  7. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. PMID:26611396

  8. Triple combination MPT vaginal microbicide using curcumin and efavirenz loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Yeruva Samrajya; Kumar, Prashant; Kishore, Golla; Bhaskar, C; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    We report that a combination of anti-HIV-1 drug efavirenz (EFV), anti-microbial-spermicidal curcumin (Cur) and lactoferrin nanoparticles (ECNPs) act as MPT formulation. These nanoparticles are of well dispersed spherical shape with 40–70 nm size, with encapsulation efficiency of 63 ± 1.9% of Cur & 61.5% ± 1.6 of EFV, significantly higher than that of single drug nanoparticles (Cur, 59 ± 1.34%; EFV: 58.4 ± 1.79). ECNPs were found to be sensitive at pH 5 and 6 and have not effected viability of vaginal micro-flora, Lactobacillus. Studies in rats showed that ECNPs delivers 88–124% more drugs in vaginal lavage as compared to its soluble form, either as single or combination of EFV and Cur. The ECNPs also shows 1.39–4.73 fold lower concentration of absorption in vaginal tissue and plasma compared to soluble EFV + Cur. Furthermore, ECNPs show significant reduction in inflammatory responses by 1.6–3.0 fold in terms of IL-6 and TNF-α in vaginal tissue and plasma compared to soluble EFV + Cur. ECNPs showed improved pharmacokinetics profiles in vaginal lavage with more than 50% of enhancement in AUC, AUMC, Cmax and t1/2 suggesting longer exposure of Cur and EFV in vaginal lavage compared to soluble EFV + Cur. Histopathological analysis of vaginal tissue shows remarkably lower toxicity of ECNPs compared to soluble EFV + Cur. In conclusion, ECNPs are significantly safe and exhibit higher bioavailability thus constitute an effective MPT against HIV. PMID:27151598

  9. Triple combination MPT vaginal microbicide using curcumin and efavirenz loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Yeruva Samrajya; Kumar, Prashant; Kishore, Golla; Bhaskar, C; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    We report that a combination of anti-HIV-1 drug efavirenz (EFV), anti-microbial-spermicidal curcumin (Cur) and lactoferrin nanoparticles (ECNPs) act as MPT formulation. These nanoparticles are of well dispersed spherical shape with 40-70 nm size, with encapsulation efficiency of 63 ± 1.9% of Cur &61.5% ± 1.6 of EFV, significantly higher than that of single drug nanoparticles (Cur, 59 ± 1.34%; EFV: 58.4 ± 1.79). ECNPs were found to be sensitive at pH 5 and 6 and have not effected viability of vaginal micro-flora, Lactobacillus. Studies in rats showed that ECNPs delivers 88-124% more drugs in vaginal lavage as compared to its soluble form, either as single or combination of EFV and Cur. The ECNPs also shows 1.39-4.73 fold lower concentration of absorption in vaginal tissue and plasma compared to soluble EFV + Cur. Furthermore, ECNPs show significant reduction in inflammatory responses by 1.6-3.0 fold in terms of IL-6 and TNF-α in vaginal tissue and plasma compared to soluble EFV + Cur. ECNPs showed improved pharmacokinetics profiles in vaginal lavage with more than 50% of enhancement in AUC, AUMC, Cmax and t1/2 suggesting longer exposure of Cur and EFV in vaginal lavage compared to soluble EFV + Cur. Histopathological analysis of vaginal tissue shows remarkably lower toxicity of ECNPs compared to soluble EFV + Cur. In conclusion, ECNPs are significantly safe and exhibit higher bioavailability thus constitute an effective MPT against HIV. PMID:27151598

  10. Curcumin loaded poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanoparticles from gelled ionic liquid--in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-cancer activity in SKOV-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sathish Sundar Dhilip; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan; Vijayaraghavan, R; Mandal, Asit Baran; MacFarlane, D R

    2014-01-23

    The main focus of this study is to encapsulate hydrophobic drug curcumin in hydrophilic polymeric core such as poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] nanoparticles from gelled ionic liquid (IL) to improve its efficacy. We have achieved 26.4% drug loading in a biocompatible hydrophilic polymer. Curcumin loaded PHEMA nanoparticles (C-PHEMA-NPs) were prepared by nano-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape and free from aggregation. The size and zeta potential of prepared C-PHEMA-NPs were about 300 nm and -33.4 mV respectively. C-PHEMA-NPs were further characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy which confirmed the existence of curcumin in the nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that curcumin present in the PHEMA nanoparticles were found to be amorphous in nature. The anticancer activity of C-PHEMA-NPs was measured in ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3) in vitro, and the results revealed that the C-PHEMA-NPs had better tumor cells regression activity than free curcumin. Flow cytometry showed the significant reduction in G0/G1 cells after treatment with C-PHEMA-NPs and molecular level of apoptosis were also studied using western blotting. Toxicity of PHEMA nanoparticles were studied in zebrafish embryo model and results revealed the material to be highly biocompatible. The present study demonstrates the curcumin loaded PHEMA nanoparticles have potential therapeutic values in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24012589

  11. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Demin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Mou, Hao; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:27525306

  12. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Demin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Mou, Hao; Chen, Qing-yong

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:27525306

  13. Cardioprotective effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Rengarajulu, Puvanakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, is extracted from the powdered dry rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae) and it has been used for centuries in indigenous medicine. We have shown that curcumin has a protective role against myocardial necrosis in rats. The antioxidant activity of curcumin could be attributed to the phenolic and methoxy groups in conjunction with the 1,3-diketone-conjugated diene system, for scavenging of the oxygen radicals. In addition, curcumin is shown to enhance the activities of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase in vivo. We have also shown that oxygen free radicals exacerbate cardiac damage and curcumin induces cardioprotective effect and it also inhibits free-radical generation in myocardial ischemia in rats. This chapter on the cardioprotective effects of curcumin covers the following aspects: (1) the history of curcumin and its discovery as a potent drug with relevance to cardiovascular diseases; (2) mechanistic role of curcumin in vitro, emphasizing the antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects; (3) cardiovascular properties of curcumin; (4) application of curcumin in different animal models (viz. myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmia in vitro and in vivo); (5) curcumin free-radical scavenging activity, particularly against O2 radical and depletion of the oxidative stress. PMID:17569220

  14. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  15. Curcumin combined with FAPαc vaccine elicits effective antitumor response by targeting indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase and inhibiting EMT induced by TNF-α in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guan-Min; Xie, Wan-Ying; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Du, Jun; Wu, Bai-Ping; Xu, Wei; Liu, Hui-Fang; Xiao, Ping; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Yin, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Qiu-Gui; Liang, Jian-Ping; Huang, Hong-Jun

    2015-09-22

    Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is a potential target for cancer therapy. However, elimination of FAPα+ fibroblasts activates secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α. IFN-γ can in turn induce expression indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), thereby contributing to immunosuppression, while TNF-α can induce EMT. These two reactive effects would limit the efficacy of a tumor vaccine. We found that curcumin can inhibit IDO expression and TNF-α-induced EMT. Moreover, FAPαc vaccine and CpG combined with curcumin lavage inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of mice implanted with melanoma cells. The combination of FAPαc vaccine, CpG and curcumin stimulated FAPα antibody production and CD8+ T cell-mediated killing of FAPα-expressing stromal cells without adverse reactive effects. We suggest a combination of curcumin and FAPαc vaccine for melanoma therapy. PMID:26305550

  16. Curcumin inhibits the invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the PKCα/Nox-2/ROS/ATF-2/MMP-9 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhigang; Duan, Xiaoyi; Cai, Hui; Wang, Li; Li, Min; Qu, Jingkun; Li, Wanjun; Wang, Yongheng; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-08-01

    Invasion and metastasis are the major causes of tumor-related mortality in lung cancer. It is believed that curcumin is an effective drug possessing anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities in the treatment of cancer. However, the specific mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the PKCα/Nox-2/ATF-2/MMP-9 signaling pathway is involved in the invasive behavior of lung cancer and whether curcumin could inhibit invasion by modulating this pathway. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin was evaluated by MTT assay and the capacity of invasion was assessed by Transwell assay. siRNA and plasmid transfection techniques were used to study the function of targeted genes. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to evaluate the expression levels of PKCα, Nox-2, MMP-9 and the phosphorylation of ATF-2. The results showed that curcumin inhibited the proliferation and invasion of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of MMP-9 enhanced the invasion of A549 cells. However, inhibition of MMP-9 by siRNA or curcumin suppressed cell invasion. Moreover, we also demonstrated the catalytic role of PKCα in expression of MMP-9 and cellular invasion in A549 cells, which was dependent on the expression of Nox-2 and phosphorylation of ATF-2. Finally, we also showed that curcumin dose-dependently reduced the expression of PKCα, P47phox, Nox-2 and phosphorylated ATF-2, as well as intracellular ROS generation, suggesting the inhibitory effect of curcumin on the activation of the PKCα/Nox-2/ROS/ATF-2 pathway. In conclusion, the PKCα/Nox-2/ROS/ATF-2/MMP-9 signaling pathway is activated in lung cancer A549 cells, which could be modulated by curcumin to inhibit cell invasiveness.

  17. Curcumin inhibits LPA-induced invasion by attenuating RhoA/ROCK/MMPs pathway in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Duan, Xiaoyi; Cai, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Yang, Ya; Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jiansheng

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer generally shows poor prognosis because of its invasion and metastasis. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces and aggravates cancer invasion and metastasis by activating its downstream signal pathways. RhoA/ROCK/MMP signaling was found one of the LPA-induced pathways, which may be involved in invasion of breast cancer. Furthermore, we investigated whether this pathway was involved in curcumin's effect against LPA-induced invasion. LPA incubation was used to enhance invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. RhoA expression was knocked-down by siRNA technique. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation. Transwell assay was utilized to investigate the invasion ability of MCF-7 cells. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess the expressions of RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, MMP2 and MMP9 at both translational and transcriptional levels. The RhoA and ROCK activities were also evaluated. LPA incubation significantly boosted invasion rate of MCF-7. RhoA silencing by siRNA dramatically inhibited LPA-enhanced invasion. Concurrently, RhoA and ROCK activities and expression levels of RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, MMP2 and MMP9 were down-regulated by RhoA siRNA transfection. In order to avoid influence of cytotoxicity of curcumin, concentrations below 45 μmol/L were selected to further investigate the mechanism of curcumin's anti-invasion effect. Invasion of LPA-incubated MCF-7 cells was impaired by curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner. Concurrently, RhoA and ROCK activities and expression levels of RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, MMP2 and MMP9 were down-regulated by curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, RhoA/ROCK/MMPs pathway activation is involved in LPA-induced invasion in MCF-7 cells; curcumin inhibited LPA-induced invasion in MCF-7 cells by attenuating RhoA/ROCK/MMPs pathway.

  18. Curcumin inhibits cancer-associated fibroblast-driven prostate cancer invasion through MAOA/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuefeng; Long, Qingzhi; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Ying; Liu, Xioagang; Li, Xudong; Guan, Bin; Tian, Yanchao; Wang, Xinyang; Li, Lei; He, Dalin

    2015-12-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key determinants in the malignant progression of cancer, supporting tumorigenesis and metastasis. CAFs also mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells and their achievement of stem cell traits. Curcumin has recently been found to possess anticancer activities via its effect on a variety of biological pathways involved in cancer progression. In this study, we found that CAFs could induce prostate cancer cell EMT and invasion through a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling pathway, which exploits reactive oxygen species (ROS) to drive a migratory and aggressive phenotype of prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, CAFs was able to increase CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor expression in prostate cancer cells. However, curcumin abrogated CAF-induced invasion and EMT, and inhibited ROS production and CXCR4 and IL-6 receptor expression in prostate cancer cells through inhibiting MAOA/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling, thereby supporting the therapeutic effect of curcumin in prostate cancer. PMID:26499200

  19. Curcumin inhibits cancer-associated fibroblast-driven prostate cancer invasion through MAOA/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling

    PubMed Central

    DU, YUEFENG; LONG, QINGZHI; ZHANG, LIN; SHI, YING; LIU, XIOAGANG; LI, XUDONG; GUAN, BIN; TIAN, YANCHAO; WANG, XINYANG; LI, LEI; HE, DALIN

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are key determinants in the malignant progression of cancer, supporting tumorigenesis and metastasis. CAFs also mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells and their achievement of stem cell traits. Curcumin has recently been found to possess anticancer activities via its effect on a variety of biological pathways involved in cancer progression. In this study, we found that CAFs could induce prostate cancer cell EMT and invasion through a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling pathway, which exploits reactive oxygen species (ROS) to drive a migratory and aggressive phenotype of prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, CAFs was able to increase CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor expression in prostate cancer cells. However, curcumin abrogated CAF-induced invasion and EMT, and inhibited ROS production and CXCR4 and IL-6 receptor expression in prostate cancer cells through inhibiting MAOA/mTOR/HIF-1α signaling, thereby supporting the therapeutic effect of curcumin in prostate cancer. PMID:26499200

  20. Curcumin augments lung maturation, preventing neonatal lung injury by inhibiting TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Reiko; Li, Yishi; Torday, John S.

    2011-01-01

    There is no effective intervention to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Curcumin has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it modulates signaling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), an important molecule in the pathobiology of BPD. However, its role in the prevention of BPD is not known. We determined 1) if curcumin enhances neonatal lung maturation, 2) if curcumin protects against hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury, and 3) if this protection is mediated by blocking TGF-β. Embryonic day 19 fetal rat lung fibroblasts were exposed to 21% or 95% O2 for 24 h following 1 h of treatment with curcumin. Curcumin dose dependently accelerated e19 fibroblast differentiation [increased parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor, PPARγ, and adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) levels and triolein uptake] and proliferation (increased thymidine incorporation). Pretreatment with curcumin blocked the hyperoxia-induced decrease (PPARγ and ADRP) and increase (α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin) in markers of lung injury/repair, as well as the activation of TGF-β signaling. In a separate set of experiments, neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 21% or 95% O2 for 7 days with or without intraperitoneal administration of curcumin. Analysis for markers of lung injury/repair [PTHrP receptor, PPARγ, ADRP, fibronectin, TGF-β receptor (activin receptor-like kinase 5), and Smad3] and lung morphology (radial alveolar count) demonstrated that curcumin effectively blocks TGF-β activation and hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Therefore, curcumin accelerates lung maturation by stimulating key alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and prevents hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury, possibly by blocking TGF-β activation, suggesting that it is a potential intervention against BPD. PMID:21821729

  1. Curcumin Ameliorates Furazolidone-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocyte L02 Cells by Inhibiting ROS Production and Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Daowen; Gong, Lijing; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Furazolidone (FZD), a synthetic nitrofuran derivative, has been widely used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent. Recently, the potential toxicity of FZD has raised concerns, but its mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on FZD-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated FZD-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde formation, and increased superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and glutathione contents. In addition, curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activations of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis caused by FZD. Alkaline comet assay showed that curcumin markedly reduced FZD-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin pre-treatment consistently and markedly down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and -3 and up-regulated the mRNA expression level of Bcl-2. Taken together, these results reveal that curcumin protects against FZD-induced DNA damage and apoptosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway. Our study indicated that curcumin may be a promising combiner with FZD to reduce FZD-related toxicity in clinical applications. PMID:27556439

  2. Pyridine analogues of curcumin exhibit high activity for inhibiting CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cell growth and androgen receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, DAI-YING; ZHAO, SU-QING; DU, ZHI-YUN; ZHENG, XI; ZHANG, KUN

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations required for curcumin to exert its anticancer activity (IC50, 20 µM) are difficult to achieve in the blood plasma of patients, due to the low bioavailability of the compound. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to the development of curcumin analogues that exhibit stronger anticancer activity and a lower IC50 than curcumin. The present study investigated twelve pyridine analogues of curcumin, labeled as groups AN, BN, EN and FN, to determine their effects in CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on testosterone (TT)-induced androgen receptor (AR) activity was determined by performing an AR-linked luciferase assay and by TT-induced expression of prostate-specific antigen. The results of the current study suggested that the FN group of analogues had the strongest inhibitory effect of growth on CWR-22Rv1 cultured cells, and were the most potent inhibitor of AR activity compared with curcumin, and the AN, BN and EN analogues. Thus, the results of the present study indicate the inhibition of the AR pathways as a potential mechanism for the anticancer effect of curcumin analogues in human prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, curcumin analogues with pyridine as a distal ring and tetrahydrothiopyran-4-one as a linker may be good candidates for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer, by targeting the AR signaling pathway. PMID:27313760

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles inhibit cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhimin; Morrow, Matthew P; Asefa, Tewodros; Sharma, Krishna K; Duncan, Cole; Anan, Abhishek; Penefsky, Harvey S; Goodisman, Jerry; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2008-05-01

    We studied the effect of two types of mesoporous silica nanoparticles, MCM-41 and SBA-15, on mitochondrial O 2 consumption (respiration) in HL-60 (myeloid) cells, Jurkat (lymphoid) cells, and isolated mitochondria. SBA-15 inhibited cellular respiration at 25-500 microg/mL; the inhibition was concentration-dependent and time-dependent. The cellular ATP profile paralleled that of respiration. MCM-41 had no noticeable effect on respiration rate. In cells depleted of metabolic fuels, 50 microg/mL SBA-15 delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration by 12 min and 200 microg/mL SBA-15 by 34 min; MCM-41 also delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration. Neither SBA-15 nor MCM-41 affected cellular glutathione. Both nanoparticles inhibited respiration of isolated mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

  4. Xanthan gum stabilized PEGylated gold nanoparticles for improved delivery of curcumin in cancer.

    PubMed

    Muddineti, Omkara Swami; Kumari, Preeti; Ajjarapu, Srinivas; Lakhani, Prit Manish; Bahl, Rishabh; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2016-08-12

    In recent years, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have received immense interest in various biomedical applications including drug delivery, photothermal ablation of cancer and imaging agent for cancer diagnosis. However, the synthesis of AuNPs poses challenges due to the poor reproducibility and stability of the colloidal system. In the present work, we developed a one step, facile procedure for the synthesis of AuNPs from hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4. 3H2O) by using ascorbic acid and xanthan gum (XG) as reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The effect of concentrations of HAuCl4, 3H2O, ascorbic acid and methoxy polyethylene glycol-thiol (mPEG800-SH) were optimized and it was observed that stable AuNPs were formed at concentrations of 0.25 mM, 50 μM and 1 mM for HAuCl4.3H2O, ascorbic acid, and mPEG800-SH, respectively. The XG stabilized, deep red wine colored AuNPs (XG-AuNPs) were obtained by drop-wise addition of aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (50 mM) and XG (1.5 mg ml(-1)). Synthesized XG-AuNPs showed λmax at 540 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 80 ± 3 nm. PEGylation was performed with mPEG800-SH to obtain PEGylated XG-AuNPs (PX-AuNPs) and confirmed by Ellman's assay. No significant shift observed in λmax and hydrodynamic diameter between XG-AuNPs and PX-AuNPs. Colloidal stability of PX-AuNPs was studied in normal saline, buffers within a pH range of 1.2-7.4, DMEM complete medium and in normal storage condition at 4 ˚C. Further, water soluble curcumin was prepared using PVP-K30 as solid dispersion and loaded on to PX-AuNPs (CPX-AuNPs), and evaluated for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in Murine melanoma (B16F10) cells. Time and concentration dependent studies using CPX-AuNPs showed efficient uptake and decreased cell viability compared to free curcumin. PMID:27348749

  5. Xanthan gum stabilized PEGylated gold nanoparticles for improved delivery of curcumin in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami Muddineti, Omkara; Kumari, Preeti; Ajjarapu, Srinivas; Manish Lakhani, Prit; Bahl, Rishabh; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have received immense interest in various biomedical applications including drug delivery, photothermal ablation of cancer and imaging agent for cancer diagnosis. However, the synthesis of AuNPs poses challenges due to the poor reproducibility and stability of the colloidal system. In the present work, we developed a one step, facile procedure for the synthesis of AuNPs from hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4. 3H2O) by using ascorbic acid and xanthan gum (XG) as reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The effect of concentrations of HAuCl4, 3H2O, ascorbic acid and methoxy polyethylene glycol-thiol (mPEG800-SH) were optimized and it was observed that stable AuNPs were formed at concentrations of 0.25 mM, 50 μM and 1 mM for HAuCl4.3H2O, ascorbic acid, and mPEG800-SH, respectively. The XG stabilized, deep red wine colored AuNPs (XG-AuNPs) were obtained by drop-wise addition of aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (50 mM) and XG (1.5 mg ml‑1). Synthesized XG-AuNPs showed λmax at 540 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 80 ± 3 nm. PEGylation was performed with mPEG800-SH to obtain PEGylated XG-AuNPs (PX-AuNPs) and confirmed by Ellman’s assay. No significant shift observed in λmax and hydrodynamic diameter between XG-AuNPs and PX-AuNPs. Colloidal stability of PX-AuNPs was studied in normal saline, buffers within a pH range of 1.2–7.4, DMEM complete medium and in normal storage condition at 4 ˚C. Further, water soluble curcumin was prepared using PVP-K30 as solid dispersion and loaded on to PX-AuNPs (CPX-AuNPs), and evaluated for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in Murine melanoma (B16F10) cells. Time and concentration dependent studies using CPX-AuNPs showed efficient uptake and decreased cell viability compared to free curcumin.

  6. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Harigae, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Taiki; Inoue, Nao; Kimura, Fumiko; Ikeda, Ikuo; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin (CUR), the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP) have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG), the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability. Methods Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Results Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with other organs. Thus, CUR-NP increased intestinal absorption of CUR rather than decreasing metabolic degradation and conversion to other metabolites. In vitro, CUR encapsulated in CUR-NP was solubilized in mixed micelles; however, whether the micelles contained CUR or CUR-NP had little influence on cellular uptake efficiency. Therefore, we suggest that the high solubilization capacity of CUR-NP in mixed micelles, rather than cellular uptake efficiency, explains the high intestinal absorption of CUR-NP in vivo. Conclusion These findings provide a better understanding of the bioavailability of CUR and CUR-NP following oral administration. To improve

  7. Xanthan gum stabilized PEGylated gold nanoparticles for improved delivery of curcumin in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami Muddineti, Omkara; Kumari, Preeti; Ajjarapu, Srinivas; Manish Lakhani, Prit; Bahl, Rishabh; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have received immense interest in various biomedical applications including drug delivery, photothermal ablation of cancer and imaging agent for cancer diagnosis. However, the synthesis of AuNPs poses challenges due to the poor reproducibility and stability of the colloidal system. In the present work, we developed a one step, facile procedure for the synthesis of AuNPs from hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4. 3H2O) by using ascorbic acid and xanthan gum (XG) as reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The effect of concentrations of HAuCl4, 3H2O, ascorbic acid and methoxy polyethylene glycol-thiol (mPEG800-SH) were optimized and it was observed that stable AuNPs were formed at concentrations of 0.25 mM, 50 μM and 1 mM for HAuCl4.3H2O, ascorbic acid, and mPEG800-SH, respectively. The XG stabilized, deep red wine colored AuNPs (XG-AuNPs) were obtained by drop-wise addition of aqueous solution of ascorbic acid (50 mM) and XG (1.5 mg ml-1). Synthesized XG-AuNPs showed λmax at 540 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 80 ± 3 nm. PEGylation was performed with mPEG800-SH to obtain PEGylated XG-AuNPs (PX-AuNPs) and confirmed by Ellman’s assay. No significant shift observed in λmax and hydrodynamic diameter between XG-AuNPs and PX-AuNPs. Colloidal stability of PX-AuNPs was studied in normal saline, buffers within a pH range of 1.2-7.4, DMEM complete medium and in normal storage condition at 4 ˚C. Further, water soluble curcumin was prepared using PVP-K30 as solid dispersion and loaded on to PX-AuNPs (CPX-AuNPs), and evaluated for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in Murine melanoma (B16F10) cells. Time and concentration dependent studies using CPX-AuNPs showed efficient uptake and decreased cell viability compared to free curcumin.

  8. Curcumin inhibits tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition by downregulating the Wnt signaling pathway and upregulating NKD2 expression in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZEWEI; CHEN, HAITAO; XU, CHAO; SONG, LU; HUANG, LULU; LAI, YUEBIAO; WANG, YUQI; CHEN, HANLU; GU, DANLIN; REN, LILI; YAO, QINGHUA

    2016-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are closely associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT refers to epithelial cells under physiological and pathological conditions that are specific to mesenchymal transition. Curcumin inhibits EMT progression via Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is a conservative EMT-related signaling pathway that is involved in the development of various tumors. In the present study, MTS assays were employed to analyze the proliferation of curcumin-treated cells. Naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2), chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and antibodies associated with EMT were examined in SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines using western blot analysis and real-time qPCR. NKD2 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and CXCR4 expression plasmid was synthesized and transfected into the colorectal cancer cell lines, and NKD2 and CXCR4 expression levels were detected. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and upregulated the expression of NKD2 in SW620 colorectal cancer cells and in the xenograft, resulting in the downregulation of key markers in the Wnt signaling. In addition, the progression of ETM was inhibited due to the overexpression of E-cadherin as well as the downregulation of vimentin. Curcumin also inhibited tumor metastasis by downregulating the expression of CXCR4 significantly. The results suggested involvement of the NKD2-Wnt-CXCR4 signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. In addition, curcumin is inhibit this signaling and the development of colorectal cancer. PMID:26985708

  9. Curcumin-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for detecting amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease mice using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwok Kin; Chan, Pui Shan; Fan, Shujuan; Kwan, Siu Ming; Yeung, King Lun; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Chow, Albert Hee Lum; Wu, Ed X; Baum, Larry

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be performed with the assistance of amyloid imaging. The current method relies on positron emission tomography (PET), which is expensive and exposes people to radiation, undesirable features for a population screening method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is cheaper and is not radioactive. Our approach uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) made of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) conjugated with curcumin, a natural compound that specifically binds to amyloid plaques. Coating of curcumin-conjugated MNPs with polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid block copolymer and polyvinylpyrrolidone by antisolvent precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer produces stable and biocompatible curcumin magnetic nanoparticles (Cur-MNPs) with mean diameter <100 nm. These nanoparticles were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and their structure and chemistry were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cur-MNPs exhibited no cytotoxicity in either Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). The Papp of Cur-MNPs was 1.03 × 10(-6) cm/s in an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Amyloid plaques could be visualized in ex vivo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Tg2576 mouse brains after injection of Cur-MNPs, and no plaques could be found in non-transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical examination of the mouse brains revealed that Cur-MNPs were co-localized with amyloid plaques. Thus, Cur-MNPs have the potential for non-invasive diagnosis of AD using MRI.

  10. Curcumin-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for detecting amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease mice using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwok Kin; Chan, Pui Shan; Fan, Shujuan; Kwan, Siu Ming; Yeung, King Lun; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Chow, Albert Hee Lum; Wu, Ed X; Baum, Larry

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be performed with the assistance of amyloid imaging. The current method relies on positron emission tomography (PET), which is expensive and exposes people to radiation, undesirable features for a population screening method. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is cheaper and is not radioactive. Our approach uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) made of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) conjugated with curcumin, a natural compound that specifically binds to amyloid plaques. Coating of curcumin-conjugated MNPs with polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid block copolymer and polyvinylpyrrolidone by antisolvent precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer produces stable and biocompatible curcumin magnetic nanoparticles (Cur-MNPs) with mean diameter <100 nm. These nanoparticles were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and their structure and chemistry were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cur-MNPs exhibited no cytotoxicity in either Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). The Papp of Cur-MNPs was 1.03 × 10(-6) cm/s in an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Amyloid plaques could be visualized in ex vivo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Tg2576 mouse brains after injection of Cur-MNPs, and no plaques could be found in non-transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical examination of the mouse brains revealed that Cur-MNPs were co-localized with amyloid plaques. Thus, Cur-MNPs have the potential for non-invasive diagnosis of AD using MRI. PMID:25617135

  11. Curcumin Inhibits The Adverse Effects of Sodium Arsenite in Mouse Epididymal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Hamid Reza; Eskandari, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on epididy- mal sperm parameters in adult male Navel Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ex- posed to sodium arsenite. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided the animals into four groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg), curcumin (100 mg/kg) and curcumin+sodium arsenite. Exposures were performed by intraperitoneal injections for a 5-week period. After the exposure period, we recorded the animals’ body and left testes weights. The left caudal epididymis was used to count the sperm number and analyze motility, viability, morphological abnormalities, acrosome reaction, DNA integrity, and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey’s test was used to assess the statistical significance of the data with SPSS 16.0. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Mice exposed to sodium arsenite showed a significant decrease in the num- ber, motility, viability, normal sperm morphology and acrosome integrity of spermato- zoa compared to the control group. In the curcumin+sodium arsenite group, curcumin significantly reversed these adverse effects to the point where they approximated the control. In addition, the application of curcumin alone had no significant difference in these parameters compared to the control and curcumin+sodium arsenite groups. However, we observed no significant differences in the body and the testis weight as well as the DNA integrity and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa of the four groups. Conclusion Curcumin compensated for the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on a number of sperm parameters in adult mice. PMID:27441059

  12. Curcumin Protects against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Ion- and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytotoxicities in the Mouse Mesencephalic Astrocyte via Inhibiting the Cytochrome P450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Hai-Yan; Chen, Rui-Ni; Peng, Yan; Hu, Jin-Hua; Mao, Zhao; Ning, Rui; Shang, Wei; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Jing; Hu, Gang; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is extracted from the rhizomes of the ginger family plant Curcuma longa L., which has a good protection for liver, kidney, and immune system. However, there is little information about its contribution in protection of astrocytes recently. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the protective effect of curcumin, an herbal antioxidant, on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion- (MPP+-) and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced cytotoxicities, as well as the underlying mechanisms by using primary mouse mesencephalic astrocytes. The results showed that curcumin protected the mesencephalic astrocytes from MPP+- and LPS-induced toxicities along with reducing reactive oxygen species (P < 0.05) and maleic dialdehyde (P < 0.05) sufficiently. Moreover, curcumin significantly inhibited the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression (P < 0.01 at mRNA level, P < 0.05 at protein level) and its activity (P < 0.05) sufficiently induced by MPP+ and LPS in the mouse mesencephalic astrocytes. And curcumin as well as diallyl sulphide, a CYP2E1 positive inhibitor, ameliorated MPP+- and LPS-induced mouse mesencephalic astrocytes damage. Accordingly, curcumin protects against MPP+- and LPS-induced cytotoxicities in the mouse mesencephalic astrocyte via inhibiting the CYP2E1 expression and activity. PMID:23843878

  13. Inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin analogs induces G0/G1 arrest and downregulates thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rajitha, Balney; Belalcazar, Astrid; Nagaraju, Ganji Purnachandra; Shaib, Walid L; Snyder, James P; Shoji, Mamoru; Pattnaik, Subasini; Alam, Afroz; El-Rayes, Bassel F

    2016-04-10

    Cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis are essential steps in cancer cell growth and resistance. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a therapeutic target for 5FU. Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB. EF31 and UBS109 are potent synthetic analogues of curcumin. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin and its analogs EF31 and UBS109 can inhibit cell cycle progression and downregulate TS levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Two CRC cell lines (HCT116 and HT-29) were either untreated (control) or treated with IC50 concentrations of curcumin, EF31 UBS109 led to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Treatment with curcumin, EF31 or UBS109 inhibited NF-κB, downregulated survival pathways and inhibited cell cycle progression. Arrest in the G0/G1 phase was associated with downregulation of the transcription factor E2F-1 and its target gene TS. NF-κB over-expression induced E2F-1 and TS protein and mRNA levels in both cell lines. EF31 and UBS109 treatment significantly decreased tumor growth in compared to untreated tumors. EF31 and UBS109 are promising agents for the prevention and treatment of CRC.

  14. Inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin analogs induces G0/G1 arrest and downregulates thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rajitha, Balney; Belalcazar, Astrid; Nagaraju, Ganji Purnachandra; Shaib, Walid L; Snyder, James P; Shoji, Mamoru; Pattnaik, Subasini; Alam, Afroz; El-Rayes, Bassel F

    2016-04-10

    Cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis are essential steps in cancer cell growth and resistance. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a therapeutic target for 5FU. Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB. EF31 and UBS109 are potent synthetic analogues of curcumin. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin and its analogs EF31 and UBS109 can inhibit cell cycle progression and downregulate TS levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Two CRC cell lines (HCT116 and HT-29) were either untreated (control) or treated with IC50 concentrations of curcumin, EF31 UBS109 led to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Treatment with curcumin, EF31 or UBS109 inhibited NF-κB, downregulated survival pathways and inhibited cell cycle progression. Arrest in the G0/G1 phase was associated with downregulation of the transcription factor E2F-1 and its target gene TS. NF-κB over-expression induced E2F-1 and TS protein and mRNA levels in both cell lines. EF31 and UBS109 treatment significantly decreased tumor growth in compared to untreated tumors. EF31 and UBS109 are promising agents for the prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:26850372

  15. Curcumin inhibits invasive capabilities through epithelial mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is an antioxidant that exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects and has anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Evidence strongly implicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in malignant progression affecting genes such as Slug, AXL and Twist1. These genes are abnormally expressed in many tumors and favor metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effect of curcumin on EMT, migration and invasion. Triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER/neu were used: i) MCF-10F, a normal immortalized breast epithelial cell line (negative), ii) Tumor2, a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (positive) derived from Alpha5 cell line injected into the immunologically depressed mice and transformed by 60/60 cGy doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α particles (150 keV/µm) of radiation and estrogen, and iii) a commercially available MDA-MB‑231 (negative). The effect of curcumin (30 µM for 48 h) was evaluated on expression of EMT-related genes by RT-qPCR. Results showed that curcumin decreased E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Slug, AXL, Twist1, Vimentin and Fibronectin protein expression, independently of the positivity of the markers in the cell lines. Curcumin also decreased migration and invasive capabilities in comparison to their own controls. It can be concluded that curcumin influenced biochemical changes associated with EMT-related genes that seems to promote such transition and are at the core of several signaling pathways that mediate the transition. Thus, it can be suggested that curcumin is able to prevent or delay cancer progression through the interruption of this process. PMID:27573203

  16. Curcumin inhibits invasive capabilities through epithelial mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Marcela; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is an antioxidant that exerts antiproliferative and apoptotic effects and has anti-invasive and anti-metastatic properties. Evidence strongly implicates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in malignant progression affecting genes such as Slug, AXL and Twist1. These genes are abnormally expressed in many tumors and favor metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effect of curcumin on EMT, migration and invasion. Triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER/neu were used: i) MCF-10F, a normal immortalized breast epithelial cell line (negative), ii) Tumor2, a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (positive) derived from Alpha5 cell line injected into the immunologically depressed mice and transformed by 60/60 cGy doses of high LET (linear energy transfer) α particles (150 keV/µm) of radiation and estrogen, and iii) a commercially available MDA-MB‑231 (negative). The effect of curcumin (30 µM for 48 h) was evaluated on expression of EMT-related genes by RT-qPCR. Results showed that curcumin decreased E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Slug, AXL, Twist1, Vimentin and Fibronectin protein expression, independently of the positivity of the markers in the cell lines. Curcumin also decreased migration and invasive capabilities in comparison to their own controls. It can be concluded that curcumin influenced biochemical changes associated with EMT-related genes that seems to promote such transition and are at the core of several signaling pathways that mediate the transition. Thus, it can be suggested that curcumin is able to prevent or delay cancer progression through the interruption of this process.

  17. Curcumin Pyrazole and its derivative (N-(3-Nitrophenylpyrazole) Curcumin inhibit aggregation, disrupt fibrils and modulate toxicity of Wild type and Mutant α-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Nuzhat; Mishra, Satyendra; Jain, Manish Kumar; Surolia, Avadhesha; Gupta, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of neurotoxic α-synuclein aggregates in the brain during the development of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease can be curbed by anti-aggregation strategies that either disrupt or eliminate toxic aggregates. Curcumin, a dietary polyphenol exhibits anti-amyloid activity but the use of this polyphenol is limited owing to its instability. As chemical modifications in curcumin confiscate this limitation, such efforts are intensively performed to discover molecules with similar but enhanced stability and superior properties. This study focuses on the inhibitory effect of two stable analogs of curcumin viz. curcumin pyrazole and curcumin isoxazole and their derivatives against α-synuclein aggregation, fibrillization and toxicity. Employing biochemical, biophysical and cell based assays we discovered that curcumin pyrazole (3) and its derivative N-(3-Nitrophenylpyrazole) curcumin (15) exhibit remarkable potency in not only arresting fibrillization and disrupting preformed fibrils but also preventing formation of A11 conformation in the protein that imparts toxic effects. Compounds 3 and 15 also decreased neurotoxicity associated with fast aggregating A53T mutant form of α-synuclein. These two analogues of curcumin described here may therefore be useful therapeutic inhibitors for the treatment of α-synuclein amyloidosis and toxicity in Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. PMID:25985292

  18. Curcumin inhibits H2O2-induced invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer via suppression of the ERK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Liu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Lun; Xiao, Xue; Li, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural polyphenol present in turmeric, possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and antitumor metastatic activities. However, the underlying mechanisms by which curcumin suppresses the metastasis of pancreatic cancer are still not fully elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that a moderate amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is able to promote pancreatic cancer invasion. The aim of this study was to determine whether curcumin can suppress H2O2-induced tumor invasive and migratory abilities. Human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cells were exposed to H2O2 with or without curcumin or N-acetylcysteine (NAC; a scavenger of free radicals). The effects of curcumin on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation was analyzed using MTT assay. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorecein diacetate. The cellular invasive and migratory abilities were analyzed using Transwell Matrigel invasion assay and wound healing assay, respectively. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined using qT-PCR and western blotting at mRNA and protein level. The activation of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were measured by western blotting. Our data showed that curcumin inhibited cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin and NAC were able to inhibit H2O2-induced ROS production, reduce the migration and invasion, and decrease the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, the H2O2‑induced elevation of p-ERK and p-NF-κB in BxPC-3 and Panc-1 cells were reduced by curcumin, NAC and PD 98059 (an ERK inhibitor). These data indicate that curcumin suppresses pancreatic cancer migration and invasion through the inhibition of the ROS/ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. This study suggests that curcumin may be a potential anticancer agent for

  19. Novel curcumin-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles surface functionalized with folate: characterization and in vitro/vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiwang; Lu, Yonglin; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Haiping; Han, Junyi; Dong, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Folate-conjugated, curcumin-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (F-CM-HSANPs) were obtained by the chemical conjugation of folate to the surface of the curcumin (CM)-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs were characterized by various parameters, including size, polydispersity, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release profile. The mean particle size of F-CM-HSANPs was 165.6±15.7 nm (polydispersity index <0.28), and the average encapsulation efficiency percentage and drug loading percentage of the F-CM-HSANPs were 88.7%±4.8% and 7.9%±0.4%, respectively. Applied in vitro, the CM NPs, after conjugation with folate, maintained sustained release, and a faster release of CM was more visibly observed than the unconjugated NPs. F-CM-HSANPs can prolong the retention time of CM significantly in vivo. However, after intravenous injection of F-CM-HSANPs, the pharmacokinetic parameters of CM were not significantly different from those of CM-loaded human serum albumin NPs. The improved antitumor activity of F-CM-HSANPs may be attributable to the protection of drug from enzymatic deactivation followed by the selective localization at the desired site. These results suggest that the intravenous injection of F-CM-HSANPs is likely to have an advantage in the current clinical CM formulation, because it does not require the use of a solubilization agent and it is better able to target the tumor tissue. PMID:27574403

  20. Novel curcumin-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles surface functionalized with folate: characterization and in vitro/vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiwang; Lu, Yonglin; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Haiping; Han, Junyi; Dong, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Folate-conjugated, curcumin-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (F-CM-HSANPs) were obtained by the chemical conjugation of folate to the surface of the curcumin (CM)-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs were characterized by various parameters, including size, polydispersity, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release profile. The mean particle size of F-CM-HSANPs was 165.6±15.7 nm (polydispersity index <0.28), and the average encapsulation efficiency percentage and drug loading percentage of the F-CM-HSANPs were 88.7%±4.8% and 7.9%±0.4%, respectively. Applied in vitro, the CM NPs, after conjugation with folate, maintained sustained release, and a faster release of CM was more visibly observed than the unconjugated NPs. F-CM-HSANPs can prolong the retention time of CM significantly in vivo. However, after intravenous injection of F-CM-HSANPs, the pharmacokinetic parameters of CM were not significantly different from those of CM-loaded human serum albumin NPs. The improved antitumor activity of F-CM-HSANPs may be attributable to the protection of drug from enzymatic deactivation followed by the selective localization at the desired site. These results suggest that the intravenous injection of F-CM-HSANPs is likely to have an advantage in the current clinical CM formulation, because it does not require the use of a solubilization agent and it is better able to target the tumor tissue. PMID:27574403

  1. Curcumin inhibits B[a]PDE-induced procarcinogenic signals in lung cancer cells, and curbs B[a]P-induced mutagenesis and lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Puliyappadamba, Vineshkumar T; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Vijayakurup, Vinod; Antony, Jayesh; Bava, Smitha V; Anwar, Shabna; Sundaram, Sankar; Anto, Ruby John

    2015-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene is a procarcinogen present in environment and cigarette smoke, which could be bio-transformed in vivo to B[a]PDE, a potent carcinogen known to form DNA adducts and induce mutations. We observed that curcumin, a known chemopreventive, could significantly inhibit the survival of lung cancer cells exposed to B[a]PDE. It also downregulates B[a]PDE-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB as assessed by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and NF-κB-dependent reporter gene assay. Ames assay demonstrated its ability to revert the mutagenic property of benzo[a]pyrene. These observations prompted us to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin in preventing B[a]P-induced lung carcinogenesis in vivo and to explore the molecular mechanism associated with it. The average number of tumor nodules present in the lungs of the Swiss albino mice, which received benzo[a]pyrene, was significantly high compared to that received curcumin as 2% diet along with B[a]P. Curcumin treatment significantly reverted histopathological deviations in the lung tissues due to benzo[a]pyrene ingestion. Moreover, curcumin diet reduced benzo[a]pyrene-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling and Cox-2 transcription in lung tissues of mice. Taken together, this study illustrates multifaceted efficacy of curcumin in preventing lung cancer.

  2. The inhibition of PI3K and NFκB promoted curcumin-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M via altering polyamine metabolism in Bcl-2 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Berrak, Özge; Akkoç, Yunus; Arısan, Elif Damla; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Obakan-Yerlikaya, Pınar; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2016-02-01

    Bcl-2 protein has been contributed with number of genes which are involved in oncogenesis. Among the many targets of Bcl-2, NFκB have potential role in induction of cell cycle arrest. Curcumin has potential therapeutic effects against breast cancer through multiple signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the role of curcumin in induction of cell cycle arrest via regulating of NFκB and polyamine biosynthesis in wt and Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. To examine the effect of curcumin on cell cycle regulatory proteins, PI3K/Akt, NFκB pathways and polyamine catabolism, we performed immunoblotting assay. In addition, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The results indicated that curcumin induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by downregulation of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 and inhibited colony formation in MCF-7wt cells. However, Bcl-2 overexpression prevented the inhibition of cell cycle associated proteins after curcumin treatment. The combination of LY294002, PI3K inhibitor, and curcumin induced cell cycle arrest by decreasing CDK4, CDK2 and cyclin E2 in Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. Moreover, LY294002 further inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt in Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. Curcumin could suppress the nuclear transport of NFκB through decreasing the interaction of P-IκB-NFκB. The combination of wedelolactone, NFκB inhibitor, and curcumin acted different on SSAT expression in wt MCF-7 and Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. NFκB inhibition increased the SSAT after curcumin treatment in Bcl-2 overexpressed MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of NFκB activity as well as suppression of ROS generation with NAC resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint after curcumin treatment in wt MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, the potential role of curcumin in induction of cell cycle arrest is related with NFκB-regulated polyamine biosynthesis.

  3. The inhibition of PI3K and NFκB promoted curcumin-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M via altering polyamine metabolism in Bcl-2 overexpressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Berrak, Özge; Akkoç, Yunus; Arısan, Elif Damla; Çoker-Gürkan, Ajda; Obakan-Yerlikaya, Pınar; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2016-02-01

    Bcl-2 protein has been contributed with number of genes which are involved in oncogenesis. Among the many targets of Bcl-2, NFκB have potential role in induction of cell cycle arrest. Curcumin has potential therapeutic effects against breast cancer through multiple signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the role of curcumin in induction of cell cycle arrest via regulating of NFκB and polyamine biosynthesis in wt and Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. To examine the effect of curcumin on cell cycle regulatory proteins, PI3K/Akt, NFκB pathways and polyamine catabolism, we performed immunoblotting assay. In addition, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The results indicated that curcumin induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by downregulation of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 and inhibited colony formation in MCF-7wt cells. However, Bcl-2 overexpression prevented the inhibition of cell cycle associated proteins after curcumin treatment. The combination of LY294002, PI3K inhibitor, and curcumin induced cell cycle arrest by decreasing CDK4, CDK2 and cyclin E2 in Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. Moreover, LY294002 further inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt in Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. Curcumin could suppress the nuclear transport of NFκB through decreasing the interaction of P-IκB-NFκB. The combination of wedelolactone, NFκB inhibitor, and curcumin acted different on SSAT expression in wt MCF-7 and Bcl-2+ MCF-7 cells. NFκB inhibition increased the SSAT after curcumin treatment in Bcl-2 overexpressed MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of NFκB activity as well as suppression of ROS generation with NAC resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint after curcumin treatment in wt MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, the potential role of curcumin in induction of cell cycle arrest is related with NFκB-regulated polyamine biosynthesis. PMID:26796279

  4. Curcumin Inhibits Angiogenesis and Adipogenesis in Cell Culture System and in Mice Fed High Fat Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Dietary polyphenols may suppress growth of adipose tissue through their antiangiogenic activity and by modulating adipocyte metabolism. In the present study, we examined the effect of curcumin on angiogenesis and adipocyte development in a ...

  5. REVIEW: Curcumin and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin has a long history of use as a traditional remedy and food in Asia. Many studies have reported that curcumin has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antitumor. Because of the reported effects of curcumin on tumors, many clinical trials have been performed to elucidate curcumin's effects on cancers. Recent reports have suggested therapeutic potential of curcumin in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In in vitro studies, curcumin has been reported to inhibit amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, and Aβ-induced inflammation, as well as the activities of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase. In in vivo studies, oral administration of curcumin has resulted in the inhibition of Aβ deposition, Aβ oligomerization, and tau phosphorylation in the brains of AD animal models, and improvements in behavioral impairment in animal models. These findings suggest that curcumin might be one of the most promising compounds for the development of AD therapies. At present, four clinical trials concerning the effects of curcumin on AD has been conducted. Two of them that were performed in China and USA have been reported no significant differences in changes in cognitive function between placebo and curcumin groups, and no results have been reported from two other clinical studies. Additional trials are necessary to determine the clinical usefulness of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:20406252

  6. REVIEW: Curcumin and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin has a long history of use as a traditional remedy and food in Asia. Many studies have reported that curcumin has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antitumor. Because of the reported effects of curcumin on tumors, many clinical trials have been performed to elucidate curcumin's effects on cancers. Recent reports have suggested therapeutic potential of curcumin in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In in vitro studies, curcumin has been reported to inhibit amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, and Aβ-induced inflammation, as well as the activities of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase. In in vivo studies, oral administration of curcumin has resulted in the inhibition of Aβ deposition, Aβ oligomerization, and tau phosphorylation in the brains of AD animal models, and improvements in behavioral impairment in animal models. These findings suggest that curcumin might be one of the most promising compounds for the development of AD therapies. At present, four clinical trials concerning the effects of curcumin on AD has been conducted. Two of them that were performed in China and USA have been reported no significant differences in changes in cognitive function between placebo and curcumin groups, and no results have been reported from two other clinical studies. Additional trials are necessary to determine the clinical usefulness of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of AD.

  7. Self-assembled nanoparticles based on amphiphilic chitosan derivative and arginine for oral curcumin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Mazhar Ali; Zeenat, Shah; Arif, Muhammad; Liu, Chenguang

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a striking anticancer agent, but its low aqueous solubility, poor absorption, hasty metabolism, and elimination limit its oral bioavailability and consequently hinder its development as a drug. To redress these limitations, amphiphilic chitosan (CS) conjugate with improved mucoadhesion and solubility over a wider pH range was developed by modification with hydrophobic acrylonitrile (AN) and hydrophilic arginine (Arg); the synthesized conjugate (AN–CS–Arg), which was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results of critical aggregation concentration revealed that the AN–CS–Arg conjugate had low critical aggregation concentration and was prone to form self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous medium. Cur-encapsulated AN–CS–Arg NPs (AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs) were developed by a simple sonication method and characterized for the physicochemical parameters such as zeta potential, particle size, and drug encapsulation. The results showed that zeta potential of the prepared NPs was 40.1±2.81 mV and the average size was ~218 nm. A considerable improvement in the aqueous solubility of Cur was observed after encapsulation into AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs. With the increase in Cur concentration, loading efficiency increased but encapsulation efficiency decreased. The in vitro release profile exhibited sustained release pattern from the AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs in typical biological buffers. The ex vivo mucoadhesion study revealed that AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs had greater mucoadhesion than the control CS NPs. Compared with free Cur solution, AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs showed stronger dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells. In addition, it was observed that cell uptake of AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs was much higher compared with free Cur. Furthermore, the in vivo pharmacokinetic results in rats demonstrated that the AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs could remarkably improve the oral bioavailability of Cur

  8. Self-assembled nanoparticles based on amphiphilic chitosan derivative and arginine for oral curcumin delivery

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Mazhar Ali; Zeenat, Shah; Arif, Muhammad; Liu, Chenguang

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a striking anticancer agent, but its low aqueous solubility, poor absorption, hasty metabolism, and elimination limit its oral bioavailability and consequently hinder its development as a drug. To redress these limitations, amphiphilic chitosan (CS) conjugate with improved mucoadhesion and solubility over a wider pH range was developed by modification with hydrophobic acrylonitrile (AN) and hydrophilic arginine (Arg); the synthesized conjugate (AN–CS–Arg), which was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results of critical aggregation concentration revealed that the AN–CS–Arg conjugate had low critical aggregation concentration and was prone to form self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous medium. Cur-encapsulated AN–CS–Arg NPs (AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs) were developed by a simple sonication method and characterized for the physicochemical parameters such as zeta potential, particle size, and drug encapsulation. The results showed that zeta potential of the prepared NPs was 40.1±2.81 mV and the average size was ~218 nm. A considerable improvement in the aqueous solubility of Cur was observed after encapsulation into AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs. With the increase in Cur concentration, loading efficiency increased but encapsulation efficiency decreased. The in vitro release profile exhibited sustained release pattern from the AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs in typical biological buffers. The ex vivo mucoadhesion study revealed that AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs had greater mucoadhesion than the control CS NPs. Compared with free Cur solution, AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs showed stronger dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells. In addition, it was observed that cell uptake of AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs was much higher compared with free Cur. Furthermore, the in vivo pharmacokinetic results in rats demonstrated that the AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs could remarkably improve the oral bioavailability of Cur

  9. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin by pH-sensitive prodrug nanoparticle for combination therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumin; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jinjian; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Fan; Chu, Liping; Gao, Honglin; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Liu, Qian; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff's base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff's base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy. PMID:26876480

  10. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin by pH-sensitive prodrug nanoparticle for combination therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumin; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jinjian; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Fan; Chu, Liping; Gao, Honglin; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Liu, Qian; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-02-01

    Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff’s base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff’s base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy.

  11. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin by pH-sensitive prodrug nanoparticle for combination therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumin; Yang, Cuihong; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jinjian; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Fan; Chu, Liping; Gao, Honglin; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Liu, Qian; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Ample attention has focused on cancer drug delivery via prodrug nanoparticles due to their high drug loading property and comparatively lower side effects. In this study, we designed a PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle for simultaneous delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) as a combination therapy to treat cancer. DOX was conjugated to PEG by Schiff’s base reaction. The obtained prodrug conjugate could self-assemble in water at pH 7.4 into nanoparticles (PEG-DOX NPs) and encapsulate Cur into the core through hydrophobic interaction (PEG-DOX-Cur NPs). When the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs are internalized by tumor cells, the Schiff’s base linker between PEG and DOX would break in the acidic environment that is often observed in tumors, causing disassembling of the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs and releasing both DOX and Cur into the nuclei and cytoplasma of the tumor cells, respectively. Compared with free DOX, free Cur, free DOX-Cur combination, or PEG-DOX NPs, PEG-DOX-Cur NPs exhibited higher anti-tumor activity in vitro. In addition, the PEG-DOX-Cur NPs also showed prolonged blood circulation time, elevated local drug accumulation and increased tumor penetration. Enhanced anti-tumor activity was also observed from the PEG-DOX-Cur-treated animals, demonstrating better tumor inhibitory property of the NPs. Thus, the PEG-DOX-Cur prodrug nanoparticle system provides a simple yet efficient approach of drug delivery for chemotherapy. PMID:26876480

  12. Codelivery of SH-aspirin and curcumin by mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced antitumor activity by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Duan, Xingmei; Zeng, Shi; Men, Ke; Zhang, Xueyan; Yang, Li; Li, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Natural product curcumin (Cur) and H2S-releasing prodrug SH-aspirin (SH-ASA) are potential anticancer agents with diverse mechanisms, but their clinical application prospects are restricted by hydrophobicity and limited efficiency. In this work, we coencapsulated SH-ASA and Cur into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide-coglycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles through a modified oil-in-water single-emulsion solvent evaporation process. The prepared SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 122.3±6.8 nm and were monodispersed (polydispersity index =0.179±0.016) in water, with high drug-loading capacity and stability. Intriguingly, by treating with SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles, obvious synergistic anticancer effects on ES-2 and SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells were observed in vitro, and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was indicated. Our results demonstrated that SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles could have potential clinical advantages for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26316750

  13. Codelivery of SH-aspirin and curcumin by mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced antitumor activity by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Duan, Xingmei; Zeng, Shi; Men, Ke; Zhang, Xueyan; Yang, Li; Li, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Natural product curcumin (Cur) and H2S-releasing prodrug SH-aspirin (SH-ASA) are potential anticancer agents with diverse mechanisms, but their clinical application prospects are restricted by hydrophobicity and limited efficiency. In this work, we coencapsulated SH-ASA and Cur into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide-coglycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles through a modified oil-in-water single-emulsion solvent evaporation process. The prepared SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 122.3±6.8 nm and were monodispersed (polydispersity index =0.179±0.016) in water, with high drug-loading capacity and stability. Intriguingly, by treating with SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles, obvious synergistic anticancer effects on ES-2 and SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells were observed in vitro, and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was indicated. Our results demonstrated that SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles could have potential clinical advantages for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  14. Diamond Nanoparticles Modify Curcumin Activity: In Vitro Studies on Cancer and Normal Cells and In Ovo Studies on Chicken Embryo Model

    PubMed Central

    Strojny, Barbara; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Winnicka, Anna; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Urbańska, Kaja; Hotowy, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Chwalibog, André

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has been studied broadly for its wide range of biological activities, including anticancer properties. The major problem with curcumin is its poor bioavailability, which can be improved by the addition of carriers, such as diamond nanoparticles (DN). They are carbon allotropes, and are therefore biocompatible and easily taken up by cells. DN are non-toxic and have antiangiogenic properties with potential applications in cancer therapy. Their large surface makes them promising compounds in a drug delivery system for bioactive agents, as DN create bio-complexes in a fast and simple process of self-organisation. We investigated the cytotoxicity of such bio-complexes against liver cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, revealing that conjugation of curcumin with DN significantly improves its activity. The experiment performed in a chicken embryo model demonstrated that neither curcumin nor DN nor bio-complexes affect embryo development, even though DN can form deposits in tissues. Preliminary results confirmed the applicability of DN as an efficient carrier of curcumin, which improves its performance against cancer cells in vitro, yet is not toxic to an organism, which makes the bio-complex a promising anticancer agent. PMID:27736939

  15. Core-shell microcapsules of solid lipid nanoparticles and mesoporous silica for enhanced oral delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghoon; Diab, Roudayna; Joubert, Olivier; Canilho, Nadia; Pasc, Andreea

    2016-04-01

    Newly designed microcapsules (MC) combining a core of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and a mesoporous silica shell have been developed and explored as oral delivery system of curcumin (CU). CU-loaded MC (MC-CU) are 2 μm sized and have a mesoporous silica shell of 0.3 μm thickness with a wormlike structure as characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), nitrogen adsorption/desorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that SLN acts as reservoir of curcumin while the mesoporous shell insures the protection and the controlled release of the drug. MC-CU displayed a pH-dependent in vitro release profile with marked drug retention at pH 2.8. Neutral red uptake assay together with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed a good cell tolerance to MC-CU at relatively high concentration of inert materials. Besides, the cell-uptake test revealed that fluorescent-MC were well internalized into Caco-2 cells, confirming the possibility to use MC for gut cells targeting. These findings suggest that organic core-silica shell microcapsules are promising drug delivery systems with enhanced bioavailability for poorly soluble drugs. PMID:26752213

  16. Curcumin inhibits gastric inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Santos, António M; Lopes, Teresa; Oleastro, Mónica; Gato, Inês Vale; Floch, Pauline; Benejat, Lucie; Chaves, Paula; Pereira, Teresa; Seixas, Elsa; Machado, Jorge; Guerreiro, António S

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection triggers a sequence of gastric alterations starting with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa that, in some cases, evolves to gastric cancer. Efficient vaccination has not been achieved, thus it is essential to find alternative therapies, particularly in the nutritional field. The current study evaluated whether curcumin could attenuate inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to H. pylori infection. Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice, were inoculated with the H. pylori SS1 strain; ten non-infected mice were used as controls. H. pylori infection in live mice was followed-up using a modified 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histologically confirmed, gastritis was observed in 42% of infected non-treated mice at both 6 and 18 weeks post-infection. These mice showed an up-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and MyD88, at both time points. Treatment with curcumin decreased the expression of all these mediators. No inflammation was observed by histology in this group. Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation while the eradication or prevention of colonization by effective vaccine is not available. PMID:25569625

  17. Curcumin inhibits gastric inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Santos, António M; Lopes, Teresa; Oleastro, Mónica; Gato, Inês Vale; Floch, Pauline; Benejat, Lucie; Chaves, Paula; Pereira, Teresa; Seixas, Elsa; Machado, Jorge; Guerreiro, António S

    2015-01-06

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection triggers a sequence of gastric alterations starting with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa that, in some cases, evolves to gastric cancer. Efficient vaccination has not been achieved, thus it is essential to find alternative therapies, particularly in the nutritional field. The current study evaluated whether curcumin could attenuate inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to H. pylori infection. Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice, were inoculated with the H. pylori SS1 strain; ten non-infected mice were used as controls. H. pylori infection in live mice was followed-up using a modified 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histologically confirmed, gastritis was observed in 42% of infected non-treated mice at both 6 and 18 weeks post-infection. These mice showed an up-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and MyD88, at both time points. Treatment with curcumin decreased the expression of all these mediators. No inflammation was observed by histology in this group. Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation while the eradication or prevention of colonization by effective vaccine is not available.

  18. Curcumin Inhibits Gastric Inflammation Induced by Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António M.; Lopes, Teresa; Oleastro, Mónica; Gato, Inês Vale; Floch, Pauline; Benejat, Lucie; Chaves, Paula; Pereira, Teresa; Seixas, Elsa; Machado, Jorge; Guerreiro, António S.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection triggers a sequence of gastric alterations starting with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa that, in some cases, evolves to gastric cancer. Efficient vaccination has not been achieved, thus it is essential to find alternative therapies, particularly in the nutritional field. The current study evaluated whether curcumin could attenuate inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to H. pylori infection. Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice, were inoculated with the H. pylori SS1 strain; ten non-infected mice were used as controls. H. pylori infection in live mice was followed-up using a modified 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histologically confirmed, gastritis was observed in 42% of infected non-treated mice at both 6 and 18 weeks post-infection. These mice showed an up-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and MyD88, at both time points. Treatment with curcumin decreased the expression of all these mediators. No inflammation was observed by histology in this group. Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation while the eradication or prevention of colonization by effective vaccine is not available. PMID:25569625

  19. Curcumin inhibits transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT via PPARγ pathway, not Smad pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wang, Yunman; Liu, Yujun; Chen, Qijing; Fu, Wencheng; Wang, Hao; Cai, Hui; Peng, Wen; Zhang, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the final common pathway in the end-stage renal disease. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a major contributor to the TIF by increasing the number of myofibroblasts. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from rhizomes of Curcuma, has been shown to possess potent anti-fibrotic properties but the mechanism remains elusive. We found that curcumin inhibited the EMT as assessed by reduced expression of α-SMA and PAI-1, and increased E-cadherin in TGF-β1 treated proximal tubular epithelial cell HK-2 cells. Both of the conventional TGF-β1/Smad pathway and non-Smad pathway were investigated. Curcumin reduced TGF-β receptor type I (TβR-I) and TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II), but had no effect on phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. On the other hand, in non-Smad pathway curcumin reduced TGF-β1-induced ERK phosphorylation and PPARγ phosphorylation, and promoted nuclear translocation of PPARγ. Further, the effect of curcumin on α-SMA, PAI-1, E-cadherin, TβR I and TβR II were reversed by ERK inhibitor U0126 or PPARγ inhibitor BADGE, or PPARγ shRNA. Blocking PPARγ signaling pathway by inhibitor BADGE or shRNA had no effect on the phosphorylation of ERK whereas the suppression of ERK signaling pathway inhibited the phosphorylation of PPARγ. We conclude that curcumin counteracted TGF-β1-induced EMT in renal tubular epithelial cells via ERK-dependent and then PPARγ-dependent pathway.

  20. Dimethoxy Curcumin Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing Survivin and Inhibits Invasion by Enhancing E-Cadherin in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Dai, Fang; Chen, Zhehang; Wang, Saisai; Cheng, Xiaobin; Sheng, Qinsong; Lin, Jianjiang; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a kind of lipophilic analog of curcumin with great improvement in chemical and metabolic stability. DMC has been studied in breast and renal cancer, but no research in colon cancer has been found yet. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two colon cancer cells (HT-29 and SW480) and one normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell (NCM460) were used in this study. We studied the effect of DMC on the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Transwell migration assay was used to estimate the inhibition of DMC on invasion. Moreover, the expressions of PARP, caspase-3, survivin and E-cadherin were detected to uncover the related signaling pathways by western blotting assay both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS DMC significantly inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in dose-dependent manner; IC50 for DMC was calculated to be 43.4, 28.2 and 454.8µM on HT-29, SW480 and NCM460. DMC significantly increased the apoptosis in both HT-29 (p=0.0051) and SW480 (p=0.0013) cells in vitro, and significantly suppressed the growth of both cell lines in vivo. Moreover, DMC reduced the number of migrated cells in both HT-29 (p=0.007) and SW480 (p=0.004) cells. By western blotting analysis, the cleavage of pro-caspases-3 and PARP were clearly induced by DMC to their active form, while the expression of survivin was reduced and E-cadherin was enhanced in both cells in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS DMC may exert an effective anti-tumor effect in colon cancer cells by down-regulating survivin and upregulating E-cadherin. PMID:27614381

  1. Dimethoxy Curcumin Induces Apoptosis by Suppressing Survivin and Inhibits Invasion by Enhancing E-Cadherin in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Dai, Fang; Chen, Zhehang; Wang, Saisai; Cheng, Xiaobin; Sheng, Qinsong; Lin, Jianjiang; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Background Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a kind of lipophilic analog of curcumin with great improvement in chemical and metabolic stability. DMC has been studied in breast and renal cancer, but no research in colon cancer has been found yet. Material/Methods Two colon cancer cells (HT-29 and SW480) and one normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell (NCM460) were used in this study. We studied the effect of DMC on the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Transwell migration assay was used to estimate the inhibition of DMC on invasion. Moreover, the expressions of PARP, caspase-3, survivin and E-cadherin were detected to uncover the related signaling pathways by western blotting assay both in vitro and in vivo. Results DMC significantly inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells in dose-dependent manner; IC50 for DMC was calculated to be 43.4, 28.2 and 454.8μM on HT-29, SW480 and NCM460. DMC significantly increased the apoptosis in both HT-29 (p=0.0051) and SW480 (p=0.0013) cells in vitro, and significantly suppressed the growth of both cell lines in vivo. Moreover, DMC reduced the number of migrated cells in both HT-29 (p=0.007) and SW480 (p=0.004) cells. By western blotting analysis, the cleavage of pro-caspases-3 and PARP were clearly induced by DMC to their active form, while the expression of survivin was reduced and E-cadherin was enhanced in both cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions DMC may exert an effective anti-tumor effect in colon cancer cells by down-regulating survivin and upregulating E-cadherin. PMID:27614381

  2. Curcumin inhibits osteoclastogenic potential in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients via the suppression of MAPK/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei; Zhao, Ling-Jie; Dong, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Hui

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of curcumin on the osteoclastogenic potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. PBMCs from patients with RA (n=12) and healthy controls (n=10) were cultured to assess osteoclastogenic potential. The number of tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase‑positive osteoclasts differentiated from PBMCs isolated from patients with RA was significantly increased compared with that of the healthy controls. In addition, the osteoclast number in patients with RA was correlated with the clinical indicators, Sharp score (r=0.810; P=0.001) and lumbar T‑score (r=‑0.685; P=0.014). Furthermore, the resorption area was increased in the RA group compared with the healthy controls. The mRNA and protein expression levels in PBMC‑derived osteoclasts treated with curcumin were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Curcumin inhibited the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs, potentially by suppressing activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38 and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase, and inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), c‑Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. The results of the present study demonstrated that curcumin may inhibit the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs from patients with RA through the suppression of the mitogen‑activated protein kinase/RANK/c‑Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways, and that curcumin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone deterioration in inflammatory diseases such as RA. PMID:27572279

  3. Curcumin inhibits osteoclastogenic potential in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients via the suppression of MAPK/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Wei; Zhao, Ling-Jie; Dong, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of curcumin on the osteoclastogenic potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. PBMCs from patients with RA (n=12) and healthy controls (n=10) were cultured to assess osteoclastogenic potential. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts differentiated from PBMCs isolated from patients with RA was significantly increased compared with that of the healthy controls. In addition, the osteoclast number in patients with RA was correlated with the clinical indicators, Sharp score (r=0.810; P=0.001) and lumbar T-score (r=−0.685; P=0.014). Furthermore, the resorption area was increased in the RA group compared with the healthy controls. The mRNA and protein expression levels in PBMC-derived osteoclasts treated with curcumin were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Curcumin inhibited the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs, potentially by suppressing activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. The results of the present study demonstrated that curcumin may inhibit the osteoclastogenic potential of PBMCs from patients with RA through the suppression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/RANK/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways, and that curcumin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone deterioration in inflammatory diseases such as RA. PMID:27572279

  4. Cellular Binding of Anionic Nanoparticles is Inhibited by Serum Proteins Independent of Nanoparticle Composition.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Candace C; Kumar, Umesh; Payne, Christine K

    2013-09-01

    Nanoparticles used in biological applications encounter a complex mixture of extracellular proteins. Adsorption of these proteins on the nanoparticle surface results in the formation of a "protein corona," which can dominate the interaction of the nanoparticle with the cellular environment. The goal of this research was to determine how nanoparticle composition and surface modification affect the cellular binding of protein-nanoparticle complexes. We examined the cellular binding of a collection of commonly used anionic nanoparticles: quantum dots, colloidal gold nanoparticles, and low-density lipoprotein particles, in the presence and absence of extracellular proteins. These experiments have the advantage of comparing different nanoparticles under identical conditions. Using a combination of fluorescence and dark field microscopy, flow cytometry, and spectroscopy, we find that cellular binding of these anionic nanoparticles is inhibited by serum proteins independent of nanoparticle composition or surface modification. We expect these results will aid in the design of nanoparticles for in vivo applications.

  5. Interaction of metallic clusters with biologically active curcumin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K.; He, Haiying; Liu, Chunhui; Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Ravindra

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the interaction of subnano metallic Gd and Au clusters with curcumin, an important biomolecule having pharmacological activity. Gd clusters show different site preference to curcumin and much stronger interaction strength, in support of the successful synthesis of highly stable curcumin-coated Gd nanoparticles as reported recently. It can be attributed to significant charge transfer from the Gd cluster to curcumin together with a relatively strong hybridization of the Gd df-orbitals with curcumin p-orbitals. These results suggest that Gd nanoparticles can effectively be used as delivery carriers for curcumin at the cellular level for therapy and medical imaging applications.

  6. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. PMID:23281076

  7. Inhibition of Autophagy Enhances Curcumin United light irradiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Tumor Growth Suppression in Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Tianhui; Tian, Yan; Mei, Zhusong; Guo, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin carcinoma, which possesses fast propagating and highly invasive characteristics. Curcumin is a natural phenol compound that has various biological activities, such as anti-proliferative and apoptosis-accelerating impacts on tumor cells. Unfortunately, the therapeutical activities of Cur are severely hindered due to its extremely low bioavailability. In this study, a cooperative therapy of low concentration Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation was performed to inspect the synergistic effects on the apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy in human melanoma A375 cell. The results showed that red united blue light irradiation efficaciously synergized with Cur to trigger oxidative stress-mediated cell death, induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. Meanwhile, Western blotting revealed that combined disposure induced the formation of autophagosomes. Conversely, inhibition of the autophagy enhanced apoptosis, obstructed cell cycle arrest and induced reversible proliferation arrest to senescence. These findings suggest that Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation could generate photochemo-preventive effects via enhancing apoptosis and triggering autophagy, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy convert reversible arrested cells to senescence, therefore reducing the possibility that damaged cells might escape programmed death. PMID:27502897

  8. Inhibition of Autophagy Enhances Curcumin United light irradiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Tumor Growth Suppression in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Tianhui; Tian, Yan; Mei, Zhusong; Guo, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin carcinoma, which possesses fast propagating and highly invasive characteristics. Curcumin is a natural phenol compound that has various biological activities, such as anti-proliferative and apoptosis-accelerating impacts on tumor cells. Unfortunately, the therapeutical activities of Cur are severely hindered due to its extremely low bioavailability. In this study, a cooperative therapy of low concentration Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation was performed to inspect the synergistic effects on the apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy in human melanoma A375 cell. The results showed that red united blue light irradiation efficaciously synergized with Cur to trigger oxidative stress-mediated cell death, induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. Meanwhile, Western blotting revealed that combined disposure induced the formation of autophagosomes. Conversely, inhibition of the autophagy enhanced apoptosis, obstructed cell cycle arrest and induced reversible proliferation arrest to senescence. These findings suggest that Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation could generate photochemo-preventive effects via enhancing apoptosis and triggering autophagy, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy convert reversible arrested cells to senescence, therefore reducing the possibility that damaged cells might escape programmed death. PMID:27502897

  9. Heterocyclic cyclohexanone monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin can inhibit the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cancer multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a phytochemical that inhibits the xenobiotic ABC efflux transporters implicated in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 5 (MRP1 and MRP5). The use of CUR in the clinic however, is complicated by its instability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Monocarbonyl analogs of CUR (MACs) are compounds without CUR's unstable β-diketone moiety and were reported to have improved stability and in vivo disposition. Whether the MACs can be used as MDR reversal agents is less clear, as the absence of a β-diketone may negatively impact transporter inhibition. In this study, we investigated 23 heterocyclic cyclohexanone MACs for inhibitory effects against P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP5. Using flow cytometry and resistance reversal assays, we found that many of these compounds inhibited the transport activity of the ABC transporters investigated, often with much greater potency than CUR. Overall the analogs were most effective at inhibiting BCRP and we identified three compounds, A12 (2,6-bis((E)-2,5-dimethoxy-benzylidene)cyclohexanone), A13 (2,6-bis((E)-4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone) and B11 (3,5-bis((E)-2-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one), as the most promising BCRP inhibitors. These compounds inhibited BCRP activity in a non-cell line, non-substrate-specific manner. Their inhibition occurred by direct transporter interaction rather than modulating protein or cell surface expression. From these results, we concluded that MACs, such as the heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogs in this study, also have potential as MDR reversal agents and may be superior alternatives to the unstable parent compound, CUR.

  10. Novel Curcumin Diclofenac Conjugate Enhanced Curcumin Bioavailability and Efficacy in Streptococcal Cell Wall-induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Gill, M S; Pawar, H S; Suresh, Sarasija

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin-diclofenac conjugate as been synthesized by esterification of phenolic group of curcumin with the acid moiety of diclofenac, and characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, FTIR, DSC, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. The relative solubility of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate, curcumin and diclofenac; stability of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate in intestinal extract; permeability study of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate using the everted rat intestinal sac method; stability of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate in gastrointestinal fluids and in vitro efficacy have been evaluated. In vivo bioavailability of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate and curcumin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and antiarthritic activity of curcumin-diclofenac conjugate, curcumin and diclofenac in modified streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model in Balb/c mice to mimic rheumatoid arthritis in humans have also been studied. In all of the above studies, curcumin-diclofenac conjugate exhibited enhanced stability as compared to curcumin; its activity was twice that of diclofenac in inhibiting thermal protein denaturation taken as a measure of in vitro antiinflammatory activity; it enhanced the bioavailability of curcumin by more than five folds, and significantly (P<0.01) alleviated the symptoms of arthritis in streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model as compared to both diclofenac and curcumin. PMID:25425755

  11. Curcumin attenuated acute Propionibacterium acnes-induced liver injury through inhibition of HMGB1 expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qiaoli; Guan, Honggeng; Shi, Qin; Zhang, Yanyun; Yang, Huilin

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has protective effects on inflammatory diseases. Here we investigated the protective effect of curcumin in acute Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)-induced inflammatory liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were primed with P. acnes followed by LPS challenge to induce fulminant hepatitis. Curcumin or vehicle control was administered perorally by gavage once daily starting 2days before P. acnes priming. We found that curcumin significantly improved mouse mortality. Then, to investigate the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in this acute inflammatory liver injury model, we primed C57BL/6 mice with P. acnes only. We found that curcumin treatment attenuated P. acnes-induced liver injury as evidenced by decreased production of ALT. In addition, curcumin treatment reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, accompanied by reduced hepatocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, curcumin treatment significantly reduced HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and expression by down-regulating acetylation of lysine. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin protects mice from P. acnes-induced liver injury through reduction of HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and expression.

  12. Development of curcumin nanocrystal: physical aspects.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Al Shaal, Loaye; Müller, Rainer H; Keck, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occuring polyphenolic phytoconstituent, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). It is water insoluble under acidic or neutral conditions but dissolves in alkaline environment. In neutral or alkaline conditions, curcumin is highly unstable undergoing rapid hydrolytic degradation to feruloyl methane and ferulic acid. Thus, the use of curcumin is limited by its poor aqueous solubility in acidic or neutral conditions and instability in alkaline pH. In the present study, curcumin nanocrystals were prepared using high-pressure homogenization, to improve its solubility. Five different stabilizers [polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt] possessing different stabilization mechanism were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized with regard to size, surface charge, shape and morphology, thermal property, and crystallinity. A short-term stability study was performed storing the differently stabilized nanoparticles at 4°C and room temperature. PVA, PVP, TPGS, and SDS successfully produced curcumin nanoparticle with the particle size in the range of 500-700 nm. PVA, PVP, and TPGS showed similar performance in preserving the curcumin nanosuspension stability. However, PVP is the most efficient polymer to stabilize curcumin nanoparticle. This study illustrates that the developed curcumin nanoparticle held great potential as a possible approach to improve the curcumin solubility then enhancing bioavailability. PMID:23047816

  13. Curcumin suppresses NTHi-induced CXCL5 expression via inhibition of positive IKKβ pathway and up-regulation of negative MKP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Konduru, Anuhya S; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Li, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection, and leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major bacterial pathogen for OM. OM characterized by the presence of overactive inflammatory responses is due to the aberrant production of inflammatory mediators including C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5). The molecular mechanism underlying induction of CXCL5 by NTHi is unknown. Here we show that NTHi up-regulates CXCL5 expression by activating IKKβ-IκBα and p38 MAPK pathways via NF-κB nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanism in middle ear epithelial cells. Current therapies for OM are ineffective due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant NTHi strains and risk of side effects with prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. In this study, we show that curcumin, derived from Curcuma longa plant, long known for its medicinal properties, inhibited NTHi-induced CXCL5 expression in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin suppressed CXCL5 expression by direct inhibition of IKKβ phosphorylation, and inhibition of p38 MAPK via induction of negative regulator MKP-1. Thus, identification of curcumin as a potential therapeutic for treating OM is of particular translational significance due to the attractiveness of targeting overactive inflammation without significant adverse effects. PMID:27538525

  14. Curcumin suppresses NTHi-induced CXCL5 expression via inhibition of positive IKKβ pathway and up-regulation of negative MKP-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Konduru, Anuhya S.; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Li, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection, and leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major bacterial pathogen for OM. OM characterized by the presence of overactive inflammatory responses is due to the aberrant production of inflammatory mediators including C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5). The molecular mechanism underlying induction of CXCL5 by NTHi is unknown. Here we show that NTHi up-regulates CXCL5 expression by activating IKKβ-IκBα and p38 MAPK pathways via NF-κB nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanism in middle ear epithelial cells. Current therapies for OM are ineffective due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant NTHi strains and risk of side effects with prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. In this study, we show that curcumin, derived from Curcuma longa plant, long known for its medicinal properties, inhibited NTHi-induced CXCL5 expression in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin suppressed CXCL5 expression by direct inhibition of IKKβ phosphorylation, and inhibition of p38 MAPK via induction of negative regulator MKP-1. Thus, identification of curcumin as a potential therapeutic for treating OM is of particular translational significance due to the attractiveness of targeting overactive inflammation without significant adverse effects. PMID:27538525

  15. Analysis of the Antiproliferative Effects of Curcumin and Nanocurcumin in MDA-MB231 as a Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Khosropanah, Mohammad Hossein; Dinarvand, Amin; Nezhadhosseini, Afsaneh; Haghighi, Alireza; Hashemi, Sima; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Khatamsaz, Sepideh; Entezari, Maliheh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Dehghani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world which appears by the effect of enviromental physico-chemical mutagen and carcinogen agents. The identification of new cytotoxic drug with low sid effects on immune system has developed as important area in new studies of immunopharmacology. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Its therapeutic potential is substantially hindered by the rather low water solubility and bioavailability, hence the need for suitable carriers. In this report we employed nanogel-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness. Myristic acid-chitosan (MA-chitosan) nanogels were prepared by the technique of self-assembly. Curcumin was loaded into the nanogels. The surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was determined using SEM and TEM. The other objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activity of cell death of curcumin and nanocurcumin on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB231). Cytotoxicity and viability of curcumin and nanocurcumin were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dye exclusion assay. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the particle diameter was between 150 to 200 nm. Proliferation of MDA-MB231 cells was significantly inhibited by curcumin and nanocurcumin in a concentration-dependent manner in defined times. There were significant differences in IC50 curcumin and nanocurcumin. curcumin -loaded nanoparticles proved more effective compared to TQ solution. The high drug-targeting potential and efficiency demonstrates the significant role of the anticancer properties of curcumin -loaded nanoparticles. PMID:27610163

  16. Analysis of the Antiproliferative Effects of Curcumin and Nanocurcumin in MDA-MB231 as a Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Khosropanah, Mohammad Hossein; Dinarvand, Amin; Nezhadhosseini, Afsaneh; Haghighi, Alireza; Hashemi, Sima; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Khatamsaz, Sepideh; Entezari, Maliheh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Dehghani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world which appears by the effect of enviromental physico-chemical mutagen and carcinogen agents. The identification of new cytotoxic drug with low sid effects on immune system has developed as important area in new studies of immunopharmacology. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Its therapeutic potential is substantially hindered by the rather low water solubility and bioavailability, hence the need for suitable carriers. In this report we employed nanogel-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness. Myristic acid-chitosan (MA-chitosan) nanogels were prepared by the technique of self-assembly. Curcumin was loaded into the nanogels. The surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was determined using SEM and TEM. The other objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activity of cell death of curcumin and nanocurcumin on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB231). Cytotoxicity and viability of curcumin and nanocurcumin were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dye exclusion assay. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the particle diameter was between 150 to 200 nm. Proliferation of MDA-MB231 cells was significantly inhibited by curcumin and nanocurcumin in a concentration-dependent manner in defined times. There were significant differences in IC50 curcumin and nanocurcumin. curcumin -loaded nanoparticles proved more effective compared to TQ solution. The high drug-targeting potential and efficiency demonstrates the significant role of the anticancer properties of curcumin -loaded nanoparticles. PMID:27610163

  17. Analysis of the Antiproliferative Effects of Curcumin and Nanocurcumin in MDA-MB231 as a Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Khosropanah, Mohammad Hossein; Dinarvand, Amin; Nezhadhosseini, Afsaneh; Haghighi, Alireza; Hashemi, Sima; Nirouzad, Fereidon; Khatamsaz, Sepideh; Entezari, Maliheh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Dehghani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world which appears by the effect of enviromental physico-chemical mutagen and carcinogen agents. The identification of new cytotoxic drug with low sid effects on immune system has developed as important area in new studies of immunopharmacology. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Its therapeutic potential is substantially hindered by the rather low water solubility and bioavailability, hence the need for suitable carriers. In this report we employed nanogel-based nanoparticle approach to improve upon its effectiveness. Myristic acid-chitosan (MA-chitosan) nanogels were prepared by the technique of self-assembly. Curcumin was loaded into the nanogels. The surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was determined using SEM and TEM. The other objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activity of cell death of curcumin and nanocurcumin on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB231). Cytotoxicity and viability of curcumin and nanocurcumin were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dye exclusion assay. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the particle diameter was between 150 to 200 nm. Proliferation of MDA-MB231 cells was significantly inhibited by curcumin and nanocurcumin in a concentration-dependent manner in defined times. There were significant differences in IC50 curcumin and nanocurcumin. curcumin -loaded nanoparticles proved more effective compared to TQ solution. The high drug-targeting potential and efficiency demonstrates the significant role of the anticancer properties of curcumin -loaded nanoparticles.

  18. Curcumin is an in vivo inhibitor of angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arbiser, J. L.; Klauber, N.; Rohan, R.; van Leeuwen, R.; Huang, M. T.; Fisher, C.; Flynn, E.; Byers, H. R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a small-molecular-weight compound that is isolated from the commonly used spice turmeric. In animal models, curcumin and its derivatives have been shown to inhibit the progression of chemically induced colon and skin cancers. The genetic changes in carcinogenesis in these organs involve different genes, but curcumin is effective in preventing carcinogenesis in both organs. A possible explanation for this finding is that curcumin may inhibit angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Curcumin was tested for its ability to inhibit the proliferation of primary endothelial cells in the presence and absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), as well as its ability to inhibit proliferation of an immortalized endothelial cell line. Curcumin and its derivatives were subsequently tested for their ability to inhibit bFGF-induced corneal neovascularization in the mouse cornea. Finally, curcumin was tested for its ability to inhibit phorbol ester-stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA production. RESULTS: Curcumin effectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin and its derivatives demonstrated significant inhibition of bFGF-mediated corneal neovascularization in the mouse. Curcumin had no effect on phorbol ester-stimulated VEGF production. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that curcumin has direct antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. The activity of curcumin in inhibiting carcinogenesis in diverse organs such as the skin and colon may be mediated in part through angiogenesis inhibition. Images Fig. 2 PMID:10780880

  19. Enhanced accumulation of curcumin and temozolomide loaded magnetic nanoparticles executes profound cytotoxic effect in glioblastoma spheroid model.

    PubMed

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly lethal primary brain tumours. Treatment of these malignant gliomas remains ineffective as these are extremely resistant to chemotherapeutic applications. Furthermore, combination therapy for cancer treatment is becoming more popular because it generates synergistic anticancer effects, by reducing individual drug-related toxicity and associated side effects. Currently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based drug delivery system has attracted much more attention owing to its intrinsic magnetic properties and drug loading capacity. In the present study, MNPs based drug delivery approach for co-delivering of potent chemotherapeutic drugs such as Curcumin (herbal drug) and Temozolomide (DNA methylating agent) has been implemented. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations were evaluated in two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture and three-dimensional (3-D) tumour spheroid culture of T-98G cells for understanding the therapeutic discrepancy. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations demonstrated higher cytotoxic effect than single drug loaded MNPs formulations as compared to their corresponding native drugs in 2-D and 3-D culture. The combination index (CI) analysis revealed synergistic mode of action of dual drug loaded MNPs formulations, which was further confirmed by cell death induction assay mediated by acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining, illustrating higher efficacy of the formulation towards GBM therapy.

  20. Application of curcumin nanoparticles in a lab-on-paper device as a simple and green pH probe.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Golmohammadi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the design and fabrication of a novel lab-on-paper device for pH sensing using curcumin nanoparticles (CURNs). In order to fabricate the lab-on-paper, the wax dipping method was used. The color of loaded paper with CURNs changed from yellow to orange and red to brown in the pH range of 7-13. The image of the lab-on-paper was taken by a digital camera and the picture was processed and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop software. The change in mean color intensity with pH was recorded and employed as an analytical signal for quantitative sensing of pH. The parameters affecting the pH sensor were optimized to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Under optimum conditions, the mean color intensity was linearly proportional to the pH in the range of 8-13. The relative standard deviations of 10 replicate measurements of pH 9 and pH 12 were 2.3% and 1.5%, respectively. The developed sensor was successfully applied to the determination of pH in different water samples with satisfactory results.

  1. Curcumin mediates reversion of HGF-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via inhibition of c-Met expression in DU145 cells

    PubMed Central

    HU, HUI-JUN; LIN, XIAO-LONG; LIU, MI-HUA; FAN, XIAO-JUAN; ZOU, WEI-WEN

    2016-01-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling pathway results in cancer cell scattering and invasion, and has been reported to participate in several types of cancer, including prostate and colorectal cancer. The downstream phosphorylation cascade of HGF, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway, regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanism by which these signaling pathways govern EMT, and whether certain kinases are able to respond to specific EMT effectors, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, an increase in the levels of vimentin, rather than co-regulation of certain EMT marker proteins, was observed in response to HGF-induced EMT in DU145 prostate cancer cells. In addition, it was observed that curcumin abrogated HGF-induced DU145 cell scattering and invasion. Furthermore, curcumin was able to effectively inhibit the HGF-induced increase in the levels of vimentin by downregulating the expression of phosphorylated c-Met, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Snail. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that curcumin was able to reverse HGF-induced EMT, possibly by inhibiting c-Met expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. PMID:26893768

  2. Curcumin: therapeutical potential in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Giannotti, Rossella; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Pascarella, Antonia; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In the last 50 years, in vitro and in vivo experiments supported the main role of polyphenols and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of many different inflammatory diseases and tumors.The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties of curcumin are due to different cellular mechanisms: this compound, in fact, produces different responses in different cell types. Unfortunately, because of its low solubility and oral bioavailability, the biomedical potential of curcumin is not easy to exploit; for this reason more attention has been given to nanoparticles and liposomes, which are able to improve curcumin's bioavailability. Pharmacologically, curcumin does not show any dose-limiting toxicity when it is administered at doses of up to 8 g/day for three months. It has been demonstrated that curcumin has beneficial effects on several ocular diseases, such as chronic anterior uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. The purpose of this review is to report what has so far been elucidated about curcumin properties and its potential use in ophthalmology. PMID:24323538

  3. Curcumin: therapeutical potential in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Giannotti, Rossella; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Pascarella, Antonia; Nebbioso, Marcella

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In the last 50 years, in vitro and in vivo experiments supported the main role of polyphenols and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of many different inflammatory diseases and tumors.The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties of curcumin are due to different cellular mechanisms: this compound, in fact, produces different responses in different cell types. Unfortunately, because of its low solubility and oral bioavailability, the biomedical potential of curcumin is not easy to exploit; for this reason more attention has been given to nanoparticles and liposomes, which are able to improve curcumin's bioavailability. Pharmacologically, curcumin does not show any dose-limiting toxicity when it is administered at doses of up to 8 g/day for three months. It has been demonstrated that curcumin has beneficial effects on several ocular diseases, such as chronic anterior uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. The purpose of this review is to report what has so far been elucidated about curcumin properties and its potential use in ophthalmology.

  4. Bioavailability of curcumin and curcumin glucuronide in the central nervous system of mice after oral delivery of nano-curcumin.

    PubMed

    Szymusiak, Magdalena; Hu, Xiaoyu; Leon Plata, Paola A; Ciupinski, Paulina; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Liu, Ying

    2016-09-10

    Curcumin is a bioactive molecule extracted from Turmeric roots that has been recognized to possess a wide variety of important biological activities. Despite its great pharmacological activities, curcumin is highly hydrophobic, which results in poor bioavailability. We have formulated this hydrophobic compound into stable polymeric nanoparticles (nano-curcumin) to enhance its oral absorption. Pharmacokinetic analysis after oral delivery of nano-curcumin in mice demonstrated approximately 20-fold reduction in dose requirement when compared to unformulated curcumin to achieve comparable plasma and central nervous system (CNS) tissue concentrations. This investigation corroborated our previous study of curcumin functionality of attenuating opioid tolerance and dependence, which shows equivalent efficacy of low-dose (20mg/kg) nano-curcumin and high-dose (400mg/kg) pure curcumin in mice. Furthermore, the highly selective and validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to quantify curcumin glucuronide, the major metabolite of curcumin. The results suggest that the presence of curcumin in the CNS is essential for prevention and reversal of opioid tolerance and dependence. PMID:27426105

  5. Effects of curcumin in pediatric epithelial liver tumors: inhibition of tumor growth and alpha-fetoprotein in vitro and in vivo involving the NFkappaB- and the beta-catenin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bortel, Nicola; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; Schmid, Evi; Kirchner, Bettina; Frank, Jan; Kocher, Alexa; Schiborr, Christina; Warmann, Steven; Fuchs, Jörg; Ellerkamp, Verena

    2015-01-01

    In children with hepatocellular carcinoma (pHCC) the 5-year overall survival rate is poor. Effects of cytostatic therapies such as cisplatin and doxorubicin are limited due to chemoresistance and tumor relapse. In adult HCC, several antitumor properties are described for the use of curcumin. Curcumin is one of the best-investigated phytochemicals in complementary oncology without relevant side effects. Its use is limited by low bioavailability. Little is known about the influence of curcumin on pediatric epithelial hepatic malignancies. We investigated the effects of curcumin in combination with cisplatin on two pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines. As mechanisms of action inhibition of NFkappaB, beta-catenin, and decrease of cyclin D were identified. Using a mouse xenograft model we could show a significant decrease of alpha-fetoprotein after combination therapy of oral micellar curcumin and cisplatin. Significant concentrations of curcuminoids were found in blood samples, organ lysates, and tumor tissue after oral micellar curcumin administration. Micellar curcumin in combination with cisplatin can be a promising strategy for treatment of pediatric HCC. PMID:26515460

  6. Effects of curcumin in pediatric epithelial liver tumors: inhibition of tumor growth and alpha-fetoprotein in vitro and in vivo involving the NFkappaB- and the beta-catenin pathways.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Nicola; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; Schmid, Evi; Kirchner, Bettina; Frank, Jan; Kocher, Alexa; Schiborr, Christina; Warmann, Steven; Fuchs, Jörg; Ellerkamp, Verena

    2015-12-01

    In children with hepatocellular carcinoma (pHCC) the 5-year overall survival rate is poor. Effects of cytostatic therapies such as cisplatin and doxorubicin are limited due to chemoresistance and tumor relapse. In adult HCC, several antitumor properties are described for the use of curcumin. Curcumin is one of the best-investigated phytochemicals in complementary oncology without relevant side effects. Its use is limited by low bioavailability. Little is known about the influence of curcumin on pediatric epithelial hepatic malignancies. We investigated the effects of curcumin in combination with cisplatin on two pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines. As mechanisms of action inhibition of NFkappaB, beta-catenin, and decrease of cyclin D were identified. Using a mouse xenograft model we could show a significant decrease of alpha-fetoprotein after combination therapy of oral micellar curcumin and cisplatin. Significant concentrations of curcuminoids were found in blood samples, organ lysates, and tumor tissue after oral micellar curcumin administration. Micellar curcumin in combination with cisplatin can be a promising strategy for treatment of pediatric HCC.

  7. The Protective Effects of Curcumin on Experimental Acute Liver Lesion Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion through Inhibiting the Pathway of NF-κB in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhe; Jing, Huirong; Yao, Jihong; Li, Yang; Hu, Xiaowei; Shao, Huizhu; Shen, Gang; Pan, Jiyong; Luo, Fuwen; Tian, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and mechanism of curcumin on a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which induces an acute liver lesion. Methods. Curcumin was injected into rats in the curcumin groups through left femoral vein. The same volume of vehicle (0.9% normal saline) was injected into sham and I/R groups. Blood and liver tissue were gathered for serological and histopathological determination. Results. Intestinal I/R led to severe liver injury manifested as a significant increase in serum AST and ALT levels; all of those were reduced by treatment with curcumin. Simultaneously, the activity of SOD in liver decreased after intestinal I/R, which was increased by curcumin treatment. On the other hand, curcumin reduced MPO activity of liver tissue, as well as serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels observably. This is in parallel with the decreased level of liver intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that curcumin treatment attenuates liver lesion induced by intestinal I/R, attributable to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:25215173

  8. Effect of polymer architecture on curcumin encapsulation and release from PEGylated polymer nanoparticles: Toward a drug delivery nano-platform to the CNS.

    PubMed

    Rabanel, Jean-Michel; Faivre, Jimmy; Paka, Ghislain Djiokeng; Ramassamy, Charles; Hildgen, Patrice; Banquy, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    We developed a nanoparticles (NPs) library from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly lactic acid comb-like polymers with variable amount of PEG. Curcumin was encapsulated in the NPs with a view to develop a delivery platform to treat diseases involving oxidative stress affecting the CNS. We observed a sharp decrease in size between 15 and 20% w/w of PEG which corresponds to a transition from a large solid particle structure to a "micelle-like" or "polymer nano-aggregate" structure. Drug loading, loading efficacy and release kinetics were determined. The diffusion coefficients of curcumin in NPs were determined using a mathematical modeling. The higher diffusion was observed for solid particles compared to "polymer nano-aggregate" particles. NPs did not present any significant toxicity when tested in vitro on a neuronal cell line. Moreover, the ability of NPs carrying curcumin to prevent oxidative stress was evidenced and linked to polymer architecture and NPs organization. Our study showed the intimate relationship between the polymer architecture and the biophysical properties of the resulting NPs and sheds light on new approaches to design efficient NP-based drug carriers.

  9. Curcumin inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in endothelial cell damage via trapping methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan Ping; Gu, Jun Fei; Tan, Xiao Bin; Wang, Chun Fei; Jia, Xiao Bin; Feng, Liang; Liu, Ji Ping

    2016-02-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses have been suggested to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa L., may protect endothelial cells against carbonyl stress-induced damage by trapping dicarbonyl compounds such as MGO. However, Cur-MGO adducts have not been studied in depth to date and it remains to be known whether Cur-MGO adducts are able to attenuate endothelial damage by trapping MGO. In the present study, 1,2-diaminobenzene was reacted with MGO to ensure the reliability of the reaction system. Cur was demonstrated to trap MGO at a 1:1 ratio to form adducts 1, 2 and 3 within 720 min. The structures of these adducts were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The kinetic curves of Cur (10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) were measured from 0-168 h by fluorescent intensity. Cur significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The differences in oxidative damage and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines following MGO + HSA or Cur-MGO treatment were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to the Cur-MGO reaction adducts significantly reduced the intracellular ROS levels and improved cell viability compared with MGO alone. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and intercellular adhesion molecule(-1) following treatment with Cur-MGO adducts compared with MGO alone. These results provide further evidence that the trapping of MGO by Cur inhibits the formation of AGEs. The current study indicates that the protective effect of Cur on carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial damage occurs via the trapping of MGO. PMID:26718010

  10. Curcumin inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in endothelial cell damage via trapping methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YAN PING; GU, JUN FEI; TAN, XIAO BIN; WANG, CHUN FEI; JIA, XIAO BIN; FENG, LIANG; LIU, JI PING

    2016-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses have been suggested to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa L., may protect endothelial cells against carbonyl stress-induced damage by trapping dicarbonyl compounds such as MGO. However, Cur-MGO adducts have not been studied in depth to date and it remains to be known whether Cur-MGO adducts are able to attenuate endothelial damage by trapping MGO. In the present study, 1,2-diaminobenzene was reacted with MGO to ensure the reliability of the reaction system. Cur was demonstrated to trap MGO at a 1:1 ratio to form adducts 1, 2 and 3 within 720 min. The structures of these adducts were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The kinetic curves of Cur (10−7, 10−6 and 10−5 M) were measured from 0–168 h by fluorescent intensity. Cur significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The differences in oxidative damage and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines following MGO + HSA or Cur-MGO treatment were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to the Cur-MGO reaction adducts significantly reduced the intracellular ROS levels and improved cell viability compared with MGO alone. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 following treatment with Cur-MGO adducts compared with MGO alone. These results provide further evidence that the trapping of MGO by Cur inhibits the formation of AGEs. The current study indicates that the protective effect of Cur on carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial damage occurs via the trapping of MGO. PMID:26718010

  11. Curcumin suppresses invasiveness and vasculogenic mimicry of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx through the inhibition of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, An; Huang, Jing-Juan; Jin, Xiao-Jie; Li, Ji-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Jia; Huang, Xin-Fang; Cui, Hui-Juan; Xu, Wei-Hua; Sun, Guang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To determine the role of JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway in invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HEp-2 cells were treated with 1 or 10 μmol/L curcumin and AG490 (the inhibitor of JAK-2) for 48 h, the invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of tumor cells were tested with Transwell chamber test and tube formation experiment. RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF. Western blot assay was employed to determine the expression of JAK-2, STAT3, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF. Compared to control group,there were less tumor cells permeating membrane and less formed tubes after curcumin or AG490 treatment, RT-PCR showed that the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF at mRNA level were decreased (P < 0.01). Western blotting indicated that the expression of JAK-2, p-STAT3, MMP-2 and VEGF at protein levels were decreased (P < 0.01), while that of STAT-3 protein had no difference among each group (P > 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the expression of eNOS was down-regulated (P < 0.01). Curcumin and AG490 significantly inhibits invasion and vasculogenic mimicry of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, and JAK-2/STAT-3 signaling pathway promotes above processes.

  12. Perspectives on New Synthetic Curcumin Analogs and their Potential Anticancer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Alok; Dandawate, Prasad; Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is the active component of dried rhizome of Curcuma longa, a perennial herb belonging to ginger family, cultivated extensively in south and southeastern tropical Asia. It is widely consumed in the Indian subcontinent, south Asia and Japan in traditional food recipes. Extensive research over last few decades has shown that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent with powerful therapeutic potential against a variety of cancers. It suppresses proliferation and metastasis of human tumors through regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases and other enzymes. It induces apoptotic cell death and also inhibits proliferation of cancer cells by cell cycle arrest. Pharmacokinetic data has shown that curcumin undergoes rapid metabolism leading to glucuronidation and sulfation in the liver and excretion in the feces, which accounts for its poor systemic bioavailability. The compound has, therefore, been formulated and administered using different drug delivery systems such as liposomes, micelles, polysaccharides, phospholipid complexes and nanoparticles that can overcome the limitation of bioavailability to some extent. Attempts to avoid rapid metabolism of curcumin until now have been met with limited success. This has prompted researchers to look for new synthetic curcumin analogs in order to overcome the drawbacks of limited bioavailability and rapid metabolism, and gain efficacy with reduced toxicity. In this review we provide a summarized account of novel synthetic curcumin formulations and analogs, and the recent progress in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:23116312

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles surface-functionalized with glycyrrhetinic acid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Tong; Deng, Feng; Wan, Jingyuan; Tang, Yalan; Yuan, Pei; Zhang, Liangke

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and developed curcumin (Ccn)-loaded albumin nanoparticles (BNPs) surface-functionalized with glycyrrhetinic acid (Ccn-BNP-GA) for GA receptor-mediated targeting. Ccn-BNP-GA was prepared by conjugating GA as a hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule onto the surface of BNPs. Ccn-BNP-GA showed a narrow distribution with an average size of 258.8±6.4 nm, a regularly spherical shape, an entrapment efficiency of 88.55%±5.54%, and drug loading of 25.30%±1.58%. The density of GA as the ligand conjugated to BNPs was 140.48±2.784 μg/g bovine serum albumin. Cytotoxicity assay results indicated that Ccn-BNP-GA was significantly more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells and in a concentration-dependent manner. Ccn-BNP-GA also appeared to be taken up to a greater extent by HepG2 cells than undecorated groups, which might be due to the high affinity of GA for GA receptors on the HepG2 cell surface. These cytotoxicity assay results were corroborated by analysis of cell apoptosis and the cell cycle. Further, Ccn-BNP-GA showed an approximately twofold higher rate of cell apoptosis than the other groups. Moreover, proliferation of HepG2 cells was arrested in G2/M phase based on cell cycle analysis. These results, which were supported by the GA receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism, indicate that BNPs surface-functionalized with GA could be used in targeted cancer treatment with high efficacy, sufficient targeting, and reduced toxicity. PMID:26346750

  14. Encapsulated curcumin results in prolonged curcumin activity in vitro and radical scavenging activity ex vivo on skin after UVB-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Suwannateep, N; Wanichwecharungruang, S; Haag, S F; Devahastin, S; Groth, N; Fluhr, J W; Lademann, J; Meinke, M C

    2012-11-01

    The phytochemical curcumin possesses antioxidant activity; however, it becomes unstable after being exposed to light or heat or loses activity during storage. This is especially important when curcumin is applied to the skin within a cosmetic or pharmaceutical formulation, since sun exposure is unavoidable. This drawback can be directly addressed by encapsulation of curcumin in photo-stable nanospheres. Therefore, curcumin was encapsulated into nanoparticles consisting of ethyl cellulose and/or methyl cellulose. Nanoparticles were subjected to processing conditions commonly used in industry, for example, temperature and pressure and thus retained their morphology. Furthermore, sun exposure resulted in the protection of curcumin by nanoparticles, whereas non-encapsulated curcumin degraded completely. Determination of the radical protection factor resulted in similar antioxidant activity of encapsulated and non-encapsulated curcumin indicating that curcumin maintains its antioxidant activity. Application of lotions containing curcumin or curcumin nanoparticles to the skin and subsequent UVB-irradiation resulted in less radical formation compared to lotion application only. Moreover, radical formation was even less after nanoparticle application compared to free curcumin. Nanoencapsulation protects curcumin from photo degradation and can therefore prolong the antioxidant activity of curcumin.

  15. Gold Nanoparticles and Microwave Irradiation Inhibit Beta-Amyloid Amyloidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Peptide-Gold nanoparticles selectively attached to β-amyloid protein (Aβ) amyloidogenic aggregates were irradiated with microwave. This treatment produces dramatic effects on the Aβ aggregates, inhibiting both the amyloidogenesis and the restoration of the amyloidogenic potential. This novel approach offers a new strategy to inhibit, locally and remotely, the amyloidogenic process, which could have application in Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We have studied the irradiation effect on the amyloidogenic process in the presence of conjugates peptide-nanoparticle by transmission electronic microscopy observations and by Thioflavine T assays to quantify the amount of fibrils in suspension. The amyloidogenic aggregates rather than the amyloid fibrils seem to be better targets for the treatment of the disease. Our results could contribute to the development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit the amyloidogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease.

  16. Gold Nanoparticles and Microwave Irradiation Inhibit Beta-Amyloid Amyloidogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Eyleen; Olmedo, Ivonne; Bastus, Neus G.; Guerrero, Simón; Puntes, Víctor F.; Giralt, Ernest; Kogan, Marcelo J.

    2008-11-01

    Peptide-Gold nanoparticles selectively attached to β-amyloid protein (Aβ) amyloidogenic aggregates were irradiated with microwave. This treatment produces dramatic effects on the Aβ aggregates, inhibiting both the amyloidogenesis and the restoration of the amyloidogenic potential. This novel approach offers a new strategy to inhibit, locally and remotely, the amyloidogenic process, which could have application in Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We have studied the irradiation effect on the amyloidogenic process in the presence of conjugates peptide-nanoparticle by transmission electronic microscopy observations and by Thioflavine T assays to quantify the amount of fibrils in suspension. The amyloidogenic aggregates rather than the amyloid fibrils seem to be better targets for the treatment of the disease. Our results could contribute to the development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit the amyloidogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease.

  17. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daohui; Xing, Baoshan

    2007-11-01

    Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Effects of five types of nanoparticles (multi-walled carbon nanotube, aluminum, alumina, zinc, and zinc oxide) on seed germination and root growth of six higher plant species (radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, corn, and cucumber) were investigated. Seed germination was not affected except for the inhibition of nanoscale zinc (nano-Zn) on ryegrass and zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) on corn at 2000 mg/L. Inhibition on root growth varied greatly among nanoparticles and plants. Suspensions of 2000 mg/L nano-Zn or nano-ZnO practically terminated root elongation of the tested plant species. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnO were estimated to be near 50mg/L for radish, and about 20mg/L for rape and ryegrass. The inhibition occurred during the seed incubation process rather than seed soaking stage. These results are significant in terms of use and disposal of engineered nanoparticles.

  18. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth of new blood vessels or angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Dietary polyphenols may suppress growth of adipose tissue through their antiangiogenic activity and by modulating adipocyte metabolism. In the present study, we examined the effect of curcumin, a polyphen...

  19. The synthesis of poly(lactide)-vitamin E TPGS (PLA-TPGS) copolymer and its utilization to formulate a curcumin nanocarrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Nguyet Tran, Thi Minh; Duong Pham, Hong; Huan Nguyen, Quang; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2010-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural substance that exhibits the ability to inhibit and/or treat carcinogenesis in a variety of cell lines, but because of its poor solubility in water the treatment efficacy is limited. In this paper we report on the fabrication of self-assembled micelle nanoparticles loaded with a curcumin drug by use of a biocompatible copolymer of PLA-TPGS (d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate—vitamin E TPGS) conjugate. The polylactide (PLA)-TPGS copolymer synthesized by ring-opening polymerization was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) techniques. The surface morphology of PLA-TPGS and curcumin loaded PLA-TPGS was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The absorption and fluorescence examinations indicated that due to micellar capsulation the intensity of both types of spectra increased by about 4 times in comparison with those of the free curcumin sample.

  20. Can small hydrophobic gold nanoparticles inhibit β2-microglobulin fibrillation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancolini, Giorgia; Toroz, Dimitrios; Corni, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles stabilized by a shell of organic ligands can enhance or suppress the natural propensity of proteins to form fibrils. Functionalization facilitates targeted delivery of the nanoparticles to various cell types, bioimaging, drug delivery and other therapeutic and diagnostic applications. In this study, we provide a computational model of the effect of a prototypical thiol-protected gold nanoparticle, Au25L18- (L = S(CH2)2Ph) on the β2-microglobulin natural fibrillation propensity. To reveal the molecular basis of the protein-nanoparticle association process, we performed various simulations at multiple levels (Classical Molecular Dynamics and Brownian Dynamics) that cover multiple length- and timescales. The results provide a model of the ensemble of structures constituting the protein-gold nanoparticle complexes, and insights into the driving forces for the binding of β2-microglobulin to hydrophobic small size gold nanoparticles. We have found that the small nanoparticles can bind the protein to form persistent complexes. This binding of nanoparticles is able to block the active sites of domains from binding to another protein, thus leading to potential inhibition of the fibrillation activity. A comparison with the binding patches identified for the interaction of the protein with a known inhibitor of fibrillation, supports our conclusion.Inorganic nanoparticles stabilized by a shell of organic ligands can enhance or suppress the natural propensity of proteins to form fibrils. Functionalization facilitates targeted delivery of the nanoparticles to various cell types, bioimaging, drug delivery and other therapeutic and diagnostic applications. In this study, we provide a computational model of the effect of a prototypical thiol-protected gold nanoparticle, Au25L18- (L = S(CH2)2Ph) on the β2-microglobulin natural fibrillation propensity. To reveal the molecular basis of the protein-nanoparticle association process, we performed various

  1. Curcuma Contra Cancer? Curcumin and Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kewitz, Stefanie; Volkmer, Ines; Staege, Martin S

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a phytochemical isolated from curcuma plants which are used as coloring ingredient for the preparation of curry powder, has several activities which suggest that it might be an interesting drug for the treatment or prevention of cancer. Curcumin targets different pathways which are involved in the malignant phenotype of tumor cells, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) pathway. This pathway is deregulated in multiple tumor entities, including Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Indeed, curcumin can inhibit growth of HL cell lines and increases the sensitivity of these cells for cisplatin. In this review we summarize curcumin activities with special focus on possible activities against HL cells.

  2. Curcumin, Silybin Phytosome(®) and α-R-Lipoic Acid Mitigate Chronic Hepatitis in Rat by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines Production.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa O; Darwish, Hebatallah A; Ismail, Nabila A

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis is recognized as a worldwide health problem that gradually progresses towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the large number of experiments using animal models for allergic hepatitis, it is still difficult to produce a picture of chronic hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted to introduce an animal model approximating to the mechanism of chronicity in human hepatitis. The study also aimed to examine the hepatoprotective effects of curcumin, silybin phytosome(®) and α-R-lipoic acid against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatitis in rat model. TAA was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 200 mg/kg three times weekly for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, a group of rats was killed to assess the development of chronic hepatitis in comparison with their respective control group. TAA administration was then discontinued, and the remaining animals were subsequently allocated into four groups. Group 1 was left untreated, whereas groups 2-4 were allowed to receive daily oral doses of curcumin, silybin phytosome(®) or α-R-lipoic acid, respectively, for 7 weeks. Increases in hepatic levels of malondialdehyde associated with TAA administration were inhibited in groups receiving supplements. Furthermore, glutathione depletion, collagen deposition, macrophage activation and nuclear factor κappa-B expression as well as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels were significantly decreased in response to supplements administration. Serological analysis of liver function and liver histopathological examination reinforced the results. The above evidence collectively indicates that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin, silybin phytosome(®) and α-R-lipoic acid may confer therapeutic efficacy against chronic hepatitis.

  3. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  4. Inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway by the curcumin analog, 3,5-Bis(2-pyridinylmethylidene)-4-piperidone (EF31): anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Anlys; Moore, Terry W.; Hu, Fang; Brown, Andrew P.; Sun, Aiming; Liotta, Dennis C.; Snyder, James P.; Yoon, Younghyoun; Shim, Hyunsuk; Marcus, Adam I.; Miller, Andrew H.; Pace, Thaddeus W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a key signaling molecule in the elaboration of the inflammatory response. Data indicate that curcumin, a natural ingredient of the curry spice turmeric, acts as a NF-κB inhibitor and exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Curcumin analogues with enhanced activity on the NF-κB and other inflammatory signaling pathways have been developed including the synthetic monoketone compound termed 3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24). 3,5-Bis(2-pyridinylmethylidene)-4-piperidone (EF31) is a structurally-related curcumin analogue whose potency for NF-κB inhibition has yet to be determined. To examine the activity of EF31 compared to EF24 and curcumin, mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with EF31, EF24, curcumin (1–100µM) or vehicle (DMSO 1%) for 1 hour. NF-κB pathway activity was assessed following treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1µg/mL). EF31 (IC50 ~5µM) exhibited significantly more potent inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB DNA binding compared to both EF24 (IC50~35µM) and curcumin (IC50 >50µM). In addition, EF31 exhibited significantly greater inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as the induction of downstream inflammatory mediators including pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6). Regarding the mechanism of these effects on NF-κB activity, EF31 (IC50~1.92µM) exhibited significantly greater inhibition of IκB kinase β compared to EF24 (IC50~131µM). Finally, EF31 demonstrated potent toxicity in NF-κB-dependent cancer cell lines while having minimal and reversible toxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. These data indicate that EF31 is a more potent inhibitor of NF-κB activity than either EF24 or curcumin while exhibiting both anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Thus, EF31 represents a promising curcumin analogue for further therapeutic development. PMID:22197802

  5. Curcumin improves the efficacy of cisplatin by targeting cancer stem-like cells through p21 and cyclin D1-mediated tumour cell inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Puteri; Satar, Nazilah; Fakiruddin, Kamal Shaik; Zakaria, Norashikin; Lim, Moon Nian; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds such as curcumin have the ability to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of common chemotherapy agents through cancer stem-like cell (CSC) sensitisation. In the present study, we showed that curcumin enhanced the sensitivity of the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549 and H2170) to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibition of metastasis. Our results revealed that initial exposure of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin (10-40 µM) markedly reduced the percentage of viability to an average of ~51 and ~54% compared to treatment with low dose cisplatin (3 µM) with only 94 and 86% in both the A549 and H2170 cells. Moreover, sensitisation of NSCLC cell lines to curcumin through combined treatment enhanced the single effect induced by low dose cisplatin on the apoptosis of the double-positive CSC subpopulation by 18 and 20% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we found that curcumin enhanced the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on the highly migratory CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation, marked by a reduction in cell migration to 9 and 21% in the A549 and H2170 cells, respectively, indicating that curcumin may increase the sensitivity of CSCs to cisplatin-induced migratory inhibition. We also observed that the mRNA expression of cyclin D1 was downregulated, while a substantial increased in p21 expression was noted, followed by Apaf1 and caspase-9 activation in the double-positive (CD166+/EpCAM+) CSC subpopulation of A549 cells, suggested that the combined treatments induced cell cycle arrest, therefore triggering CSC growth inhibition via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, we provided novel evidence of the previously unknown therapeutic effects of curcumin, either alone or in combination with cisplatin on the inhibition of the CD166+/EpCAM+ subpopulation of NSCLC cell lines. This finding demonstrated the potential therapeutic approach of using curcumin that may

  6. Inhibition effect of engineered silver nanoparticles to bloom forming cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuy Duong, Thi; Son Le, Thanh; Thu Huong Tran, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Ho, Cuong Tu; Hien Dao, Trong; Phuong Quynh Le, Thi; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Dang, Dinh Kim; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Thu Ha, Phuong

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has a wide range antibacterial effect and is extensively used in different aspects of medicine, food storage, household products, disinfectants, biomonitoring and environmental remediation etc. In the present study, we examined the growth inhibition effect of engineered silver nanoparticles against bloom forming cyanobacterial M. aeruginosa strain. AgNPs were synthesized by a chemical reduction method at room temperature and UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that they presented a maximum absorption at 410 nm and size range between 10 and 18 nm. M. aeruginosa cells exposed during 10 d to AgNPs to a range of concentrations from 0 to 1 mg l-1. The changes in cell density and morphology were used to measure the responses of the M. aeruginosa to AgNPs. The control and treatment units had a significant difference in terms of cell density and growth inhibition (p < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of AgNPs, a reduction of the cell growths in all treatment was observed. The inhibition efficiency was reached 98.7% at higher concentration of AgNPs nanoparticles. The term half maximal effective concentration (EC50) based on the cell growth measured by absorbance at 680 nm (A680) was 0.0075 mg l-1. The inhibition efficiency was 98.7% at high concentration of AgNPs (1 mg l-1). Image of SEM and TEM reflected a shrunk and damaged cell wall indicating toxicity of silver nanoparticles toward M. aeruginosa.

  7. Inhibition effect of engineered silver nanoparticles to bloom forming cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuy Duong, Thi; Son Le, Thanh; Thu Huong Tran, Thi; Kien Nguyen, Trung; Ho, Cuong Tu; Hien Dao, Trong; Phuong Quynh Le, Thi; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Dang, Dinh Kim; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Thu Ha, Phuong

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has a wide range antibacterial effect and is extensively used in different aspects of medicine, food storage, household products, disinfectants, biomonitoring and environmental remediation etc. In the present study, we examined the growth inhibition effect of engineered silver nanoparticles against bloom forming cyanobacterial M. aeruginosa strain. AgNPs were synthesized by a chemical reduction method at room temperature and UV–Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that they presented a maximum absorption at 410 nm and size range between 10 and 18 nm. M. aeruginosa cells exposed during 10 d to AgNPs to a range of concentrations from 0 to 1 mg l‑1. The changes in cell density and morphology were used to measure the responses of the M. aeruginosa to AgNPs. The control and treatment units had a significant difference in terms of cell density and growth inhibition (p < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of AgNPs, a reduction of the cell growths in all treatment was observed. The inhibition efficiency was reached 98.7% at higher concentration of AgNPs nanoparticles. The term half maximal effective concentration (EC50) based on the cell growth measured by absorbance at 680 nm (A680) was 0.0075 mg l‑1. The inhibition efficiency was 98.7% at high concentration of AgNPs (1 mg l‑1). Image of SEM and TEM reflected a shrunk and damaged cell wall indicating toxicity of silver nanoparticles toward M. aeruginosa.

  8. Oral bioavailability of curcumin: problems and advancements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weidong; Zhai, Yingjie; Heng, Xueyuan; Che, Feng Yuan; Chen, Wenjun; Sun, Dezhong; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin is a natural compound of Curcuma longa L. and has shown many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant in both preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, curcumin has hepatoprotective, neuroprotective activities and protects against myocardial infarction. Particularly, curcumin has also demonstrated favorite anticancer efficacy. But limiting factors such as its extremely low oral bioavailability hampers its application as therapeutic agent. Therefore, many technologies have been developed and applied to overcome this limitation. This review described the main physicochemical properties of curcumin and summarized the recent studies in the design and development of oral delivery systems for curcumin to enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability, including liposomes, nanoparticles and polymeric micelles, phospholipid complexes, and microemulsions. PMID:26942997

  9. Curcumin inhibits in vitro and in vivo chronic myelogenous leukemia cells growth: a possible role for exosomal disposal of miR-21.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Simona; Giallombardo, Marco; Pucci, Marzia; Flugy, Anna; Manno, Mauro; Raccosta, Samuele; Rolfo, Christian; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are nanosize vesicles released from cancer cells containing microRNAs that can influence gene expression in target cells. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antitumor activities in a wide spectrum of human cancer. The addition of Curcumin, to Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) cells, caused a dose-dependent increase of PTEN, target of miR-21. Curcumin treatment also decreased AKT phosphorylation and VEGF expression and release. Colony formation assays indicated that Curcumin affects the survival of CML cells. Some observation suggest a possible cellular disposal of miRNAs by exosomes. To elucidate if Curcumin caused a decrease of miR-21 in CML cells and its packaging in exosomes, we analyzed miR-21 content in K562 and LAMA84 cells and exosomes, after treatment with Curcumin. Furthermore, we showed that addition of Curcumin to CML cells caused a downregulation of Bcr-Abl expression through the cellular increase of miR-196b.The effects of Curcumin was then investigated on a CML xenograft in SCID mice. We observed that animals treated with Curcumin, developed smaller tumors compared to mice control. Real time PCR analysis showed that exosomes, released in the plasma of the Curcumin-treated mice, were enriched in miR-21 with respect control. Taken together, our results suggested that a selective packaging of miR-21 in exosomes may contribute to the antileukemic effect of Curcumin in CML.

  10. Improved bioavailability of targeted Curcumin delivery efficiently regressed cardiac hypertrophy by modulating apoptotic load within cardiac microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ray, Aramita; Rana, Santanu; Banerjee, Durba; Mitra, Arkadeep; Datta, Ritwik; Naskar, Shaon; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis acts as a prime modulator of cardiac hypertrophy leading to heart failure, a major cause of human mortality worldwide. Recent therapeutic interventions have focussed on translational applications of diverse pharmaceutical regimes among which, Curcumin (from Curcuma longa) is known to have an anti-hypertrophic potential but with limited pharmacological efficacies due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. In this study, Curcumin encapsulated by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) nanoparticle conjugated to a myocyte specific homing peptide was successfully delivered in bioactive form to pathological myocardium for effective regression of cardiac hypertrophy in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) model. Targeted nanotization showed higher cardiac bioavailability of Curcumin at a low dose of 5 mg/kg body weight compared to free Curcumin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Moreover, Curcumin/CMC-peptide treatment during hypertrophy significantly improved cardiac function by downregulating expression of hypertrophy marker genes (ANF, β-MHC), apoptotic mediators (Bax, Cytochrome-c) and activity of apoptotic markers (Caspase 3 and PARP); whereas free Curcumin in much higher dose showed minimal improvement during compromised cardiac function. Targeted Curcumin treatment significantly lowered p53 expression and activation in diseased myocardium via inhibited interaction of p53 with p300-HAT. Thus attenuated acetylation of p53 facilitated p53 ubiquitination and reduced the apoptotic load in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes; thereby limiting cardiomyocytes' need to enter the regeneration cycle during hypertrophy. This study elucidates for the first time an efficient targeted delivery regimen for Curcumin and also attributes towards probable mechanistic insight into its therapeutic potential as a cardio-protective agent for regression of cardiac hypertrophy.

  11. Improved bioavailability of targeted Curcumin delivery efficiently regressed cardiac hypertrophy by modulating apoptotic load within cardiac microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Ray, Aramita; Rana, Santanu; Banerjee, Durba; Mitra, Arkadeep; Datta, Ritwik; Naskar, Shaon; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis acts as a prime modulator of cardiac hypertrophy leading to heart failure, a major cause of human mortality worldwide. Recent therapeutic interventions have focussed on translational applications of diverse pharmaceutical regimes among which, Curcumin (from Curcuma longa) is known to have an anti-hypertrophic potential but with limited pharmacological efficacies due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. In this study, Curcumin encapsulated by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) nanoparticle conjugated to a myocyte specific homing peptide was successfully delivered in bioactive form to pathological myocardium for effective regression of cardiac hypertrophy in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) model. Targeted nanotization showed higher cardiac bioavailability of Curcumin at a low dose of 5 mg/kg body weight compared to free Curcumin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Moreover, Curcumin/CMC-peptide treatment during hypertrophy significantly improved cardiac function by downregulating expression of hypertrophy marker genes (ANF, β-MHC), apoptotic mediators (Bax, Cytochrome-c) and activity of apoptotic markers (Caspase 3 and PARP); whereas free Curcumin in much higher dose showed minimal improvement during compromised cardiac function. Targeted Curcumin treatment significantly lowered p53 expression and activation in diseased myocardium via inhibited interaction of p53 with p300-HAT. Thus attenuated acetylation of p53 facilitated p53 ubiquitination and reduced the apoptotic load in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes; thereby limiting cardiomyocytes' need to enter the regeneration cycle during hypertrophy. This study elucidates for the first time an efficient targeted delivery regimen for Curcumin and also attributes towards probable mechanistic insight into its therapeutic potential as a cardio-protective agent for regression of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26612707

  12. Layer-by-layer engineered nanocapsules of curcumin with improved cell activity.

    PubMed

    Kittitheeranun, Paveenuch; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Phanpee, Sarunya; Treetong, Alongkot; Wutikhun, Tuksadon; Suktham, Kunat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong

    2015-08-15

    Nanocarriers based on electrostatic Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of CaCO3 nanoparticles (CaCO3 NPs) was investigated. These inorganic nanoparticles was used as templates to construct nanocapsules made from films based on two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), and poly (sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate sodium salt), followed by core dissolution. The naked CaCO3 NPs, CaCO3 NPs coated with the polyelectrolytes and hollow nanocapsules were found with hexagonal shape with average sizes of 350-400 nm. A reversal of the surface charge between positive to negative zeta potential values was found, confirming the adsorption of polyelectrolytes. The loading efficiency and release of curcumin were controlled by the hydrophobic interactions between the drug and the polyelectrolyte matrix of the hollow nanocapsules. The quantity of curcumin released from hollow nanocapsules was found to increase under acidic environments, which is a desirable for anti-cancer drug delivery. The hollow nanocapsules were found to localize in the cytoplasm and nucleus compartment of Hela cancer cells after 24 h of incubation. Hollow nanocapsules were non-toxic to human fibroblast cells. Furthermore, curcumin loaded hollow nanocapsules exhibited higher in vitro cell inhibition against Hela cells than that of free curcumin, suggesting that polyelectrolyte based-hollow nanocapsules can be utilized as new carriers for drug delivery. PMID:26143232

  13. Combined Effects of Curcumin and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on Inhibition of N-Acylhomoserine Lactone-Mediated Biofilm Formation in Wastewater Bacteria from Membrane Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2015-11-01

    This work investigated the potential of curcumin (CCM) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to inhibit N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated biofilm formation in gramnegative bacteria from membrane bioreactor (MBR) activated sludge. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CCM alone against all the tested bacteria were 200-350 μg/ml, whereas those for EGCG were 300-600 μg/ml. Biofilm formation at one-half MICs indicated that CCM and EGCG alone respectively inhibited 52-68% and 59-78% of biofilm formation among all the tested bacteria. However, their combination resulted in 95-99% of biofilm reduction. Quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) assay with known biosensor strains demonstrated that CCM inhibited the expression of C4 and C6 homoserine lactones (HSLs)-mediated phenotypes, whereas EGCG inhibited C4, C6, and C10 HSLs-based phenotypes. The Center for Disease Control biofilm reactor containing a multispecies culture of nine bacteria with onehalf MIC of CCM (150 μg/ml) and EGCG (275 μg/ml) showed 17 and 14 μg/cm(2) of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on polyvinylidene fluoride membrane surface, whereas their combination (100 μg/ml of each) exhibited much lower EPS content (3 μg/cm(2)). Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations also illustrated that the combination of compounds tremendously reduced the biofilm thickness. The combined effect of CCM with EGCG clearly reveals for the first time the enhanced inhibition of AHL-mediated biofilm formation in bacteria from activated sludge. Thus, such combined natural QSI approach could be used for the inhibition of membrane biofouling in MBRs treating wastewaters.

  14. Curcumin Nanoformulation for Cervical Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohd S.; Chauhan, Neeraj; Yallapu, Murali M.; Gara, Rishi K.; Maher, Diane M.; Kumari, Sonam; Sikander, Mohammed; Khan, Sheema; Zafar, Nadeem; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Current standards of care for cervical cancer includes surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Conventional chemotherapy fails to elicit therapeutic responses and causes severe systemic toxicity. Thus, developing a natural product based, safe treatment modality would be a highly viable option. Curcumin (CUR) is a well-known natural compound, which exhibits excellent anti-cancer potential by regulating many proliferative, oncogenic, and chemo-resistance associated genes/proteins. However, due to rapid degradation and poor bioavailability, its translational and clinical use has been limited. To improve these clinically relevant parameters, we report a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based curcumin nanoparticle formulation (Nano-CUR). This study demonstrates that in comparison to free CUR, Nano-CUR effectively inhibits cell growth, induces apoptosis, and arrests the cell cycle in cervical cancer cell lines. Nano-CUR treatment modulated entities such as miRNAs, transcription factors, and proteins associated with carcinogenesis. Moreover, Nano-CUR effectively reduced the tumor burden in a pre-clinical orthotopic mouse model of cervical cancer by decreasing oncogenic miRNA-21, suppressing nuclear β-catenin, and abrogating expression of E6/E7 HPV oncoproteins including smoking compound benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced E6/E7 and IL-6 expression. These superior pre-clinical data suggest that Nano-CUR may be an effective therapeutic modality for cervical cancer. PMID:26837852

  15. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  16. Curcumin Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Limb Injury Through Immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Lianyu; Shen, Yi; Tan, Tao; Xie, Nanzi; Luo, Ming; Li, Zhihong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is increasing worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PAD. Curcumin is an ingredient of turmeric that has antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anticancer properties. In the present study we investigated the potential effect of curcumin in protecting against ischemic limb injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used an established hindlimb ischemia mouse model in our study. Curcumin was administrated through intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection. Immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. Treadmill training was used to evaluate skeletal muscle functions of animals. RESULTS Our experiments using in vivo treadmill training showed that curcumin treatment improved the running capacity of animals after ischemic injury. Histological analysis revealed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced the skeletal muscle damage and fibrosis associated with ischemic injury. In order to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated tissue protection, immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. The results showed that curcumin treatment led to less macrophage infiltration and less local inflammatory responses as demonstrated by decreasing TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 levels. Further immunofluorescent staining of tissue slides indicated that curcumin treatment inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, curcumin can inhibit NF-kB activation induced by LPS in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS Our study results show that curcumin treatment can ameliorate hindlimb injury following ischemic surgery, which suggests that curcumin could be used for PAD treatment. PMID:27302110

  17. Curcumin Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Limb Injury Through Immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Lianyu; Shen, Yi; Tan, Tao; Xie, Nanzi; Luo, Ming; Li, Zhihong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is increasing worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PAD. Curcumin is an ingredient of turmeric that has antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anticancer properties. In the present study we investigated the potential effect of curcumin in protecting against ischemic limb injury. Material/Methods We used an established hindlimb ischemia mouse model in our study. Curcumin was administrated through intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection. Immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. Treadmill training was used to evaluate skeletal muscle functions of animals. Results Our experiments using in vivo treadmill training showed that curcumin treatment improved the running capacity of animals after ischemic injury. Histological analysis revealed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced the skeletal muscle damage and fibrosis associated with ischemic injury. In order to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated tissue protection, immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. The results showed that curcumin treatment led to less macrophage infiltration and less local inflammatory responses as demonstrated by decreasing TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 levels. Further immunofluorescent staining of tissue slides indicated that curcumin treatment inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, curcumin can inhibit NF-κB activation induced by LPS in macrophages. Conclusions Our study results show that curcumin treatment can ameliorate hindlimb injury following ischemic surgery, which suggests that curcumin could be used for PAD treatment. PMID:27302110

  18. Antidepressant effects of curcumin and HU-211 coencapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles against corticosterone-induced cellular and animal models of major depression

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaolie; Zhu, Yanjing; Wang, Mei; Jing, Guoxin; Zhu, Rongrong; Wang, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Major depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with few treatment approaches. The use of nontargeted antidepressants induced many side effects with their low efficacy. A more precise targeting strategy is to develop nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems; hence, we employed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to encapsulate HU-211 and curcumin (Cur). The antidepressant effects of the dual-drug nanoparticles (Cur/SLNs-HU-211) for major depression treatment were investigated in corticosterone-induced cellular and animal models of major depression. Cur/SLNs-HU-211 can effectively protect PC12 cells from corticosterone-induced apoptosis and can release more dopamine, which may be associated with the higher uptake of Cur/SLNs-HU-211 shown by cellular uptake behavior analysis. Additionally, Cur/SLNs-HU-211 significantly reduced the immobility time in forced swim test, enhanced fall latency in rotarod test, and improved the level of dopamine in mice blood. Cur/SLNs-HU-211 can deliver more Cur to the brain and thus produce a significant increase in neurotransmitters level in brain tissue, especially in the hippocampus and striatum. The results of Western blot and immunofluorescence revealed that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 can significantly enhance the expression of CB1, p-MEK1, and p-ERK1/2. Our study suggests that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 may have great potential for major depression treatment. PMID:27757031

  19. BDMC33, A Curcumin Derivative Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Macrophage-Like Cellular System: Role of Inhibition in NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ka-Heng; Chow, Yuh-Lit; Sharmili, Vidyadaran; Abas, Faridah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Shaari, Khozirah; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Lajis, Nordin Haji; Syahida, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Our preliminary screening has shown that curcumin derivative BDMC33 [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] exerted promising nitric oxide inhibitory activity in activated macrophages. However, the molecular basis and mechanism for its pharmacological action is yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 and elucidate its underlying mechanism action in macrophage cells. Our current study demonstrated that BDMC33 inhibits the secretion of major pro-inflammatory mediators in stimulated macrophages, and includes NO, TNF-α and IL-1β through interference in both nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen activator protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, BDMC33 also interrupted LPS signaling through inhibiting the surface expression of CD-14 accessory molecules. In addition, the inhibitory action of BDMC33 not only restricted the macrophages cell (RAW264.7), but also inhibited the secretion of NO and TNF-α in IFN-γ/LPS-challenged microglial cells (BV-2). The experimental data suggests the inflammatory action of BDMC33 on activated macrophage-like cellular systems, which could be used as a future therapeutic agent in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22489138

  20. Synthesis of biocompatible nanoparticle drug complexes for inhibition of mycobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhave, Tejashree; Ghoderao, Prachi; Sanghavi, Sonali; Babrekar, Harshada; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Ganesan, V.; Kulkarni, Anjali

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most critical infectious diseases affecting the world today. Current TB treatment involves six months long daily administration of four oral doses of antibiotics. Due to severe side effects and the long treatment, a patient's adherence is low and this results in relapse of symptoms causing an alarming increase in the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Hence, it is imperative to develop a new drug delivery technology wherein these effects can be reduced. Rifampicin (RIF) is one of the widely used anti-tubercular drugs (ATD). The present study discusses the development of biocompatible nanoparticle-RIF complexes with superior inhibitory activity against both Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by gas phase condensation and NP-RIF complexes were tested against M. smegmatis SN2 strain as well as M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain. These complexes showed significantly better inhibition of M. smegmatis SN2 strain at a much lower effective concentration (27.5 μg ml-1) as compared to neat RIF (125 μg ml-1). Similarly M. tuberculosis H37Rv laboratory strain was susceptible to both nanoparticle-RIF complex and neat RIF at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.22 and 1 μg ml-1, respectively. Further studies are underway to determine the efficacy of NPs-RIF complexes in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis as well as MDR isolates.

  1. Synthesis of unsymmetrical monocarbonyl curcumin analogues with potent inhibition on prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-induced murine and human macrophages cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mohd Aluwi, Mohd Fadhlizil Fasihi; Rullah, Kamal; Yamin, Bohari M; Leong, Sze Wei; Abdul Bahari, Mohd Nazri; Lim, Sock Jin; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Munirah; Jalil, Juriyati; Abas, Faridah; Mohd Fauzi, Norsyahida; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Jantan, Ibrahim; Lam, Kok Wai

    2016-05-15

    The syntheses and bioactivities of symmetrical curcumin and its analogues have been the subject of interest by many medicinal chemists and pharmacologists over the years. To improve our understanding, we have synthesized a series of unsymmetrical monocarbonyl curcumin analogues and evaluated their effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 and U937 cells. Initially, compounds 8b and 8c exhibited strong inhibition on the production of PGE2 in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 (8b, IC50=12.01μM and 8c, IC50=4.86μM) and U937 (8b, IC50=3.44μM and 8c, IC50=1.65μM) cells. Placing vanillin at position Ar2 further improved the potency when both compounds 15a and 15b significantly lowered the PGE2 secretion level (RAW264.7: 15a, IC50=0.78μM and 15b, IC50=1.9μM while U937: 15a, IC50=0.95μM and 15b, IC50=0.92μM). Further experiment showed that compounds 8b, 8c, 15a and 15b did not target the activity of downstream inflammatory COX-2 mediator. Finally, docking simulation on protein targets COX-2, IKK-β, ERK, JNK2, p38α and p38β were performed using the conformation of 15a determined by single-crystal XRD. PMID:27040659

  2. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  3. Inhibition of autophagy enhances the anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Huang, Zhihai; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Wei; Jin, Peipei; Wei, Pengfei; Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Jiqian; Xu, Jing; Hu, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Yajuan; Gu, Ning; Wen, Longping

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells and possess excellent potential as an antitumor agent. A variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce autophagy, a critical cellular degradation process, and the elevated autophagy in most of these situations promotes cell death. Whether Ag NPs can induce autophagy and how it might affect the anticancer activity of Ag NPs has not been reported. Here we show that Ag NPs induced autophagy in cancer cells by activating the PtdIns3K signaling pathway. The autophagy induced by Ag NPs was characterized by enhanced autophagosome formation, normal cargo degradation, and no disruption of lysosomal function. Consistent with these properties, the autophagy induced by Ag NPs promoted cell survival, as inhibition of autophagy by either chemical inhibitors or ATG5 siRNA enhanced Ag NPs-elicited cancer cell killing. We further demonstrated that wortmannin, a widely used inhibitor of autophagy, significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of Ag NPs in the B16 mouse melanoma cell model. Our results revealed a novel biological activity of Ag NPs in inducing cytoprotective autophagy, and inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy for improving the efficacy of Ag NPs in anticancer therapy. PMID:25484080

  4. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin can chelate metal ions, forming metallocomplexes. We compared the effects of Zn(II)-curcumin with curcumin against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-induced elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reductions in glutathione level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Zn(II)-curcumin also inhibited ethanol-induced liver injury. Additionally, Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently inhibited hemorheological abnormalities, including the ethanol-induced elevation of whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity at corrected hematocrit (45%), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index and hematocrit. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively elevated SOD activity, ameliorated liver injury and improved hemorheological variables. These results suggest that Zn(II)-curcumin protected the rats from ethanol-induced liver injury and hemorheological abnormalities via the synergistic effect of curcumin and zinc.

  5. Suppressing the formation of lipid raft-associated Rac1/PI3K/Akt signaling complexes by curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced invasion of human esophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Lu, Yao-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Yi; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a ligand for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which contributes to the metastasis of cancer cells by promoting cell migration. Here, we show that the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis can significantly increase invasion of esophageal carcinoma (EC) cells. We accomplished this by examining the effects of CXCR4 knockdown as well as treatment with a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody and the CXCR4-specific inhibitor AMD3100. Curcumin suppressed SDF-1α-induced cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) promoter activity, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, and lipid raft-associated ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α/Akt signaling. Curcumin inhibited SDF-1α-induced cell invasion by suppressing the Rac1-PI3K signaling complex at lipid rafts but did not abrogate lipid raft formation. We further demonstrate that the attenuation of lipid raft-associated Rac1 activity by curcumin was critical for the inhibition of SDF-1α-induced PI3K/Akt/NF-κB activation, cell surface localization of CXCR4 at lipid rafts, MMP-2 promoter activity, and cell invasion. Collectively, our results indicate that curcumin inhibits SDF-1α-induced EC cell invasion by suppressing the formation of the lipid raft-associated Rac1-PI3K-Akt signaling complex, the localization of CXCR4 with lipid rafts at the cell surface, and MMP-2 promoter activity, likely through the inhibition of Rac1 activity.

  6. Self-carried curcumin nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo cancer therapy with real-time monitoring of drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Li, Shengliang; An, Fei-Fei; Liu, Juan; Jin, Shubin; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2015-08-01

    The use of different nanocarriers for delivering hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents to tumor sites has garnered major attention. Despite the merits of these nanocarriers, further studies are needed to improve their drug loading capacities (which are typically <10%) and reduce their potential systemic toxicity. Therefore, the development of alternative self-carried nanodrug delivery strategies without using inert carriers is highly desirable. In this study, we developed a self-carried curcumin (Cur) nanodrug for highly effective cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo with real-time monitoring of drug release. With a biocompatible C18PMH-PEG functionalization, the Cur nanoparticles (NPs) showed excellent dispersibility and outstanding stability in physiological environments with drug loading capacities >78 wt%. Both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed the cellular fluorescence ``OFF-ON'' activation and real-time monitoring of the Cur molecule release. In vitro and in vivo experiments clearly show that the therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated Cur NPs is considerably better than that of free Cur. This self-carried strategy with real-time monitoring of drug release may open a new way for simultaneous cancer therapy and monitoring.The use of different nanocarriers for delivering hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents to tumor sites has garnered major attention. Despite the merits of these nanocarriers, further studies are needed to improve their drug loading capacities (which are typically <10%) and reduce their potential systemic toxicity. Therefore, the development of alternative self-carried nanodrug delivery strategies without using inert carriers is highly desirable. In this study, we developed a self-carried curcumin (Cur) nanodrug for highly effective cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo with real-time monitoring of drug release. With a biocompatible C18PMH-PEG functionalization, the Cur nanoparticles (NPs) showed excellent dispersibility and outstanding

  7. The anti-inflammatory compound curcumin inhibits Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced NF-kappaB signaling, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and attenuates adhesion in late infection.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Silja; Muenzner, Petra; Meyer, Thomas F; Naumann, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of diseases ranging from urethritis to disseminated gonococcal infections. Early events in the establishment of infection involve interactions between Ngo and the mucosal epithelium, which induce a local inflammatory response. Here we analyzed the molecular mechanism involved in the Ngo-induced induction of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8. We identified the immediate early response transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) as a key molecule for the induction of cytokine release. Ngo-induced activation of direct upstream signaling molecules was demonstrated for IkappaB kinase alpha and beta (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) by phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha as a substrate and IKK autophosphorylation. Using dominant negative cDNAs encoding kinase-dead IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), Ngo-induced NF-kappaB activity was significantly inhibited. Curcumin, the yellow pigment derived from Curcuma longa, inhibited IKKalpha, IKKbeta and NIK, indicating its strong potential to block NF-kappaB-mediated cytokine release and the innate immune response. In addition to the inhibition of Ngo-induced signaling, curcumin treatment of cells completely abolished the adherence of bacteria to cells in late infection, underlining the high potential of curcumin as an anti-microbial compound without cytotoxic side effects. PMID:15927892

  8. Design, synthesis, and antihypertensive activity of curcumin-inspired compounds via ACE inhibition and vasodilation, along with a bioavailability study for possible benefit in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiao-dong; Liao, Li-zhen; Dong, Xiao-bian; Hu, Xun; Guo, Yue; Du, Zhi-min; Liao, Xin-xue; Wang, Li-chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis of a novel series of curcumin-inspired compounds via a facile synthetic route. The structures of these derivatives were ascertained using various spectroscopic and analytic techniques. The pharmacological effects of the target analogs were assessed by assaying their inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). All of the synthesized derivatives exhibited considerable inhibition of ACE, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 1.23 to 120.32 μM. In a docking analysis with testicular ACE (tACE), the most promising inhibitor (4j) was efficiently accommodated in the deep cleft of the protein cavity, making close interatomic contacts with Glu162, His353, and Ala356, comparable with lisinopril. Compounds 4i, 4j, 4k, and 4l were further selected for determination of their vasodilator activity (cardiac output and stroke volume) on isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. The bioavailability of compound 4j was determined in experimental mice. PMID:26792980

  9. Curcumin nanoformulations: a future nanomedicine for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yallapu, Murali M; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural diphenolic compound derived from turmeric Curcuma longa, has proven to be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, inflammation, invasion, apoptosis and cell death, revealing its anticancer potential. In this review, we focus on the design and development of nanoparticles, self-assemblies, nanogels, liposomes and complex fabrication for sustained and efficient curcumin delivery. We also discuss the anticancer applications and clinical benefits of nanocurcumin formulations. Only a few novel multifunctional and composite nanosystem strategies offer simultaneous therapy as well as imaging characteristics. We also summarize the challenges to developing curcumin delivery platforms and up-to-date solutions for improving curcumin bioavailability and anticancer potential for therapy. PMID:21959306

  10. Nanotechnology-Applied Curcumin for Different Diseases Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ghalandarlaki, Negar; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin is a lipophilic molecule with an active ingredient in the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It is used by different folks for treatment of many diseases. Recent studies have discussed poor bioavailability of curcumin because of poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that is potentially changing the way we can treat diseases through drug delivery with curcumin. The recent investigations established several approaches to improve the bioavailability, to increase the plasma concentration, and to enhance the cellular permeability processes of curcumin. Several types of nanoparticles have been found to be suitable for the encapsulation or loading of curcumin to improve its therapeutic effects in different diseases. Nanoparticles such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, niosomes, cyclodextrins, dendrimers, silvers, and solid lipids are emerging as one of the useful alternatives that have been shown to deliver therapeutic concentrations of curcumin. This review shows that curcumin's therapeutic effects may increase to some extent in the presence of nanotechnology. The presented board of evidence focuses on the valuable special effects of curcumin on different diseases and candidates it for future clinical studies in the realm of these diseases. PMID:24995293

  11. Curcumin inhibits cancer stem cell phenotypes in ex vivo models of colorectal liver metastases, and is clinically safe and tolerable in combination with FOLFOX chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    James, Mark I; Iwuji, Chinenye; Irving, Glen; Karmokar, Ankur; Higgins, Jennifer A; Griffin-Teal, Nicola; Thomas, Anne; Greaves, Peter; Cai, Hong; Patel, Samita R; Morgan, Bruno; Dennison, Ashley; Metcalfe, Matthew; Garcea, Giuseppe; Lloyd, David M; Berry, David P; Steward, William P; Howells, Lynne M; Brown, Karen

    2015-08-10

    In vitro and pre-clinical studies have suggested that addition of the diet-derived agent curcumin may provide a suitable adjunct to enhance efficacy of chemotherapy in models of colorectal cancer. However, the majority of evidence for this currently derives from established cell lines. Here, we utilised patient-derived colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) to assess whether curcumin may provide added benefit over 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in cancer stem cell (CSC) models. Combination of curcumin with FOLFOX chemotherapy was then assessed clinically in a phase I dose escalation study. Curcumin alone and in combination significantly reduced spheroid number in CRLM CSC models, and decreased the number of cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(high)/CD133(-)). Addition of curcumin to oxaliplatin/5-FU enhanced anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in a proportion of patient-derived explants, whilst reducing expression of stem cell-associated markers ALDH and CD133. The phase I dose escalation study revealed curcumin to be a safe and tolerable adjunct to FOLFOX chemotherapy in patients with CRLM (n = 12) at doses up to 2 grams daily. Curcumin may provide added benefit in subsets of patients when administered with FOLFOX, and is a well-tolerated chemotherapy adjunct.

  12. Curcumin inhibits cancer stem cell phenotypes in ex vivo models of colorectal liver metastases, and is clinically safe and tolerable in combination with FOLFOX chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    James, Mark I.; Iwuji, Chinenye; Irving, Glen; Karmokar, Ankur; Higgins, Jennifer A.; Griffin-Teal, Nicola; Thomas, Anne; Greaves, Peter; Cai, Hong; Patel, Samita R.; Morgan, Bruno; Dennison, Ashley; Metcalfe, Matthew; Garcea, Giuseppe; Lloyd, David M.; Berry, David P.; Steward, William P.; Howells, Lynne M.; Brown, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In vitro and pre-clinical studies have suggested that addition of the diet-derived agent curcumin may provide a suitable adjunct to enhance efficacy of chemotherapy in models of colorectal cancer. However, the majority of evidence for this currently derives from established cell lines. Here, we utilised patient-derived colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) to assess whether curcumin may provide added benefit over 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in cancer stem cell (CSC) models. Combination of curcumin with FOLFOX chemotherapy was then assessed clinically in a phase I dose escalation study. Curcumin alone and in combination significantly reduced spheroid number in CRLM CSC models, and decreased the number of cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhigh/CD133−). Addition of curcumin to oxaliplatin/5-FU enhanced anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in a proportion of patient-derived explants, whilst reducing expression of stem cell-associated markers ALDH and CD133. The phase I dose escalation study revealed curcumin to be a safe and tolerable adjunct to FOLFOX chemotherapy in patients with CRLM (n = 12) at doses up to 2 grams daily. Curcumin may provide added benefit in subsets of patients when administered with FOLFOX, and is a well-tolerated chemotherapy adjunct. PMID:25979230

  13. Curcumin Analog DM-1 in Monotherapy or Combinatory Treatment with Dacarbazine as a Strategy to Inhibit In Vivo Melanoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Quincoces Suarez, José Agustín; Fruet, Andréa Costa; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Pardi, Paulo Celso; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer with a high mortality rate if not discovered in early stages. Although a limited number of treatment options for melanoma currently exist, patients with a more aggressive form of this cancer frequently decline treatment. DM-1 is a sodium phenolate and curcumin analog with proven anticancer, anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic properties. In this paper, the DM-1 compound showed in vivo antitumor activity alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic DTIC in B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice. Beneficial effects such as melanoma tumor burden reduction with pyknotic nuclei, decreased nuclei/cytoplasmic ratio and nuclear degradation occurred after DM-1 treatment. No toxicological changes were observed in the liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs after DM-1 monotherapy or DTIC combined therapy. DTIC+DM-1 treatment induced the recovery of anemia arising from melanoma and immunomodulation. Both DM-1 treatment alone and in combination with DTIC induced apoptosis with the cleavage of caspase-3, -8 and -9. Furthermore, melanoma tumors treated with DM-1 showed a preferential apoptotic intrinsic pathway by decreasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Considering the chemoresistance exhibited by melanoma towards conventional chemotherapy drugs, DM-1 compound in monotherapy or in combination therapy provides a promising improvement in melanoma treatment with a reduction of side effects. PMID:25742310

  14. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Alihosseini, Faezeh; Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Haghighat, Setareh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains. PMID:27766232

  15. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles inhibit Staphylococcus aureus adherence on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sonkusre, Praveen; Singh Cameotra, Swaranjit

    2015-12-01

    The global issue of nosocomial infection is owing to bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on medical devices which primarily affects critically ill and/or immuno-compromised patients and also leads to malfunctioning of the devices. Therefore, it is desirable to prevent bacterial colonization on these devices by coating with a non toxic antimicrobial agent or bacterial adherence inhibitor. Here we have shown Bacillus licheniformis JS2 derived selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) inhibit Staphylococcus aureus adherence and micro-colony formation on polystyrene, glass, and catheter surface. Results indicated that, the coating of these non toxic biogenic SeNPs, at a concentration of 0.5 mgSe/ml, prohibits bacterial load to more than 60% on glass and catheter surface, when incubated at 4 °C for 24h in phosphate buffered saline. Furthermore, confocal and electron microscopic observations strongly suggested the inhibition of biofilm and micro-colony formation on SeNP coated glass and catheter surfaces when cultured at 37 °C for 72 h in a nutrient rich medium. The study suggests that coating of biogenic SeNPs on medical devices could be an alternative approach for prevention of biofilm related infections. PMID:26590898

  16. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs.

  17. Curcuma Contra Cancer? Curcumin and Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kewitz, Stefanie; Volkmer, Ines; Staege, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a phytochemical isolated from curcuma plants which are used as coloring ingredient for the preparation of curry powder, has several activities which suggest that it might be an interesting drug for the treatment or prevention of cancer. Curcumin targets different pathways which are involved in the malignant phenotype of tumor cells, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) pathway. This pathway is deregulated in multiple tumor entities, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL). Indeed, curcumin can inhibit growth of HL cell lines and increases the sensitivity of these cells for cisplatin. In this review we summarize curcumin activities with special focus on possible activities against HL cells. PMID:24665206

  18. Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of superoxide dismutase expression in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum by PTU-induced hypothyroidism and its reversal by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Jena, Srikanta; Anand, Chinmay; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effectiveness of curcumin in ameliorating the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rat brain under 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism. Induction of hypothyroidism in adult rats by PTU resulted in augmentation of lipid peroxidation (LPx), an index of oxidative stress in cerebellum but not in cerebral cortex. Curcumin-supplementation to PTU-treated (hypothyroid) rats showed significant reduction in the level of LPx in both the regions of brain. The decreased translated products (SOD1 and SOD2) and the unchanged activity of SOD in cerebral cortex of PTU-treated rats were increased on supplementation of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Declined translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats were alleviated on administration of curcumin to hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, the decreased activity of SOD in cerebellum of PTU-treated rats was further declined on administration of curcumin to the hypothyroid rats. Results of the present investigation indicate that curcumin differentially modulates the expression of superoxide dismutase in rat brain cortex and cerebellum under PTU-induced hypothyroidism.

  19. Curcumin inhibits apoptosis by regulating intracellular calcium release, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial depolarization levels in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Öz, Ahmi; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are incurable progressive neurological disorders caused by the degeneration of neuronal cells and characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Curcumin, a turmeric product, is an anti-inflammatory agent and an effective reactive oxygen and nitrogen species scavenging molecule. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the main source of oxidative stress, which is claimed to be the major source of neurological disorders. Hence, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on Ca(2+) signaling, oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial depolarization levels and caspase-3 and -9 activities that are induced by the H2O2 model of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were divided into four groups namely, the control, curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups. The dose and duration of curcumin and H2O2 were determined from published data. The cells in the curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups were incubated for 24 h with 5 µM curcumin and 100 µM H2O2. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentrations were higher in the H2O2 group than in the control group; however, their levels were lower in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group alone. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were lower in the H2O2 group although they were higher in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group. Caspase-3 activity was lower in the curcumin group than in the H2O2 group. In conclusion, curcumin strongly induced modulator effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and the caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in SH-SY5Y cells.

  20. Fabrication of nanocomposite particles using a two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle for use in an inhaled curcumin formulation.

    PubMed

    Taki, Moeko; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Fukushige, Kaori; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2016-09-10

    A unique two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle is useful for producing nanocomposite particles (microparticles containing drug nanoparticles) in one step. The nanocomposite particles can prevent nanoparticle aggregation. Curcumin has many reported pharmacological effects. Curcumin was entrapped in mannitol microparticles using a spray dryer coupled with a two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle to prepare "curcumin nanocomposite particles" and the application of these particles for inhalation formulations was investigated. Spray drying conditions (flow rate, concentration and inlet temperature) affected the size of both the resulting curcumin nanocomposite particles and the curcumin nanoparticles in the nanocomposite particles. The aerosol performance of the curcumin nanocomposite particles changed depending on the spray drying conditions and several conditions provided better deposition compared with the curcumin original powder. The curcumin nanocomposite particles showed an improved dissolution profile of curcumin compared with the original powder. Furthermore, the curcumin nanocomposite particles showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared with the curcumin original powder towards three cancer cell lines. Curcumin nanocomposite particles containing curcumin nanoparticles show promise as an inhalation formulation for treating lung-related diseases including cancer. PMID:27374204

  1. Preclinical systemic toxicity evaluation of chitosan-solid lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated aspirin and curcumin in combination with free sulforaphane in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Arvind; Chenreddy, Sushma; Thio, Astrid; Khamas, Wael; Wang, Jeffrey; Prabhu, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have established the efficacy of chemopreventive regimens of aspirin and curcumin (CUR) encapsulated within solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in combination with free sulforaphane (ACS combination) to prevent or delay the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, classified as one of the deadliest diseases with very low chances of survival upon diagnosis. Although toxicity of individual drugs and SLN has been studied previously, there are no studies in current literature that evaluate the potential toxicity of a combined regimen of ACS, especially when encapsulated within chitosan-SLNs (c-SLNs). Hence, objective of the current study was to investigate the potential toxic effects of ACS c-SLN combined chemopreventive regimens following acute (3 days), subacute (28 days), and subchronic (90 days) administrations by oral gavage in BALB/c mice. Mice were administered the following regimens: saline, blank c-SLN, low-dose ACS c-SLN (2+4.5+0.16 mg/kg), medium-dose ACS c-SLN (20+45+1.6 mg/kg), and high-dose ACS c-SLN (60+135+4.8 mg/kg). The potential toxicity was evaluated based on animal survival, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and organ histopathology. During 3-day, 28-day, and 90-day study periods, no animal deaths were observed. Treatment with ACS c-SLNs did not cause alteration in complete blood counts and blood chemistry data. Histopathological examination of various organ sections (pancreas, heart, liver, kidney, and brain) appeared normal. Based on the results of this study, no signs of toxicity in acute, subacute, and subchronic studies following oral administration of ACS c-SLNs were found indicating that the oral dosing regimens were safe at the levels tested for long-term administration to prevent the onset of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27499621

  2. Photo-induced green synthesis and antimicrobial efficacy of poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/curcumin/grape leaf extract-silver hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; El-Shibiny, Ayman; Salih, Ehab

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the photo-induced green synthesis and antimicrobial assessment of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/curcumin/grape leaf extract-Ag hybrid nanoparticles (PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag NPs). PCL/Cur/GLE NPs were synthesized via emulsion-solvent evaporation in the presence of PVA as a capping agent, then used as active nano-supports for the green synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs on their surfaces. Both Cur and GLE were selected and incorporated into the PCL nano-supports due to their reported promising antimicrobial activity that would further enhance that of the synthesized AgNPs. The developed PCL/Cur/GLE NPs and PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag hybrid NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HRTEM images showed that the PCL/Cur/GLE NPs are monodispersed and spherical with size of about 270nm, and the AgNPs were formed mainly on their surfaces with average size in the range 10-30nm. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. The antimicrobial characteristics of the newly developed NPs were investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in addition to two fungal strains. The results demonstrated that the PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag hybrid NPs have a potential antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacterial species and could be considered as an alternative antibacterial agent. PMID:27183490

  3. Preclinical systemic toxicity evaluation of chitosan-solid lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated aspirin and curcumin in combination with free sulforaphane in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Arvind; Chenreddy, Sushma; Thio, Astrid; Khamas, Wael; Wang, Jeffrey; Prabhu, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have established the efficacy of chemopreventive regimens of aspirin and curcumin (CUR) encapsulated within solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in combination with free sulforaphane (ACS combination) to prevent or delay the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, classified as one of the deadliest diseases with very low chances of survival upon diagnosis. Although toxicity of individual drugs and SLN has been studied previously, there are no studies in current literature that evaluate the potential toxicity of a combined regimen of ACS, especially when encapsulated within chitosan-SLNs (c-SLNs). Hence, objective of the current study was to investigate the potential toxic effects of ACS c-SLN combined chemopreventive regimens following acute (3 days), subacute (28 days), and subchronic (90 days) administrations by oral gavage in BALB/c mice. Mice were administered the following regimens: saline, blank c-SLN, low-dose ACS c-SLN (2+4.5+0.16 mg/kg), medium-dose ACS c-SLN (20+45+1.6 mg/kg), and high-dose ACS c-SLN (60+135+4.8 mg/kg). The potential toxicity was evaluated based on animal survival, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and organ histopathology. During 3-day, 28-day, and 90-day study periods, no animal deaths were observed. Treatment with ACS c-SLNs did not cause alteration in complete blood counts and blood chemistry data. Histopathological examination of various organ sections (pancreas, heart, liver, kidney, and brain) appeared normal. Based on the results of this study, no signs of toxicity in acute, subacute, and subchronic studies following oral administration of ACS c-SLNs were found indicating that the oral dosing regimens were safe at the levels tested for long-term administration to prevent the onset of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27499621

  4. Curcumin and aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Curcumin has been used commonly as a spice, food additive, and an herbal medicine worldwide. Known as a bioactive polyphenolic, curcumin has a broad range of beneficial properties to human health. Recently, active research on curcumin with respect to aging and related traits in model organisms has d...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The bactericidal properties of myristic acid and curcumin were revealed in a number of studies. However, whether curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions can be used to inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis, which causes nosocomial infections, has not been reported. Our aim was to develop curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsions to inhibit S. epidermidis on the skin. The interfacial tension, size distribution, and viscosity data of the microemulsions were characterized to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the curcumin microemulsions. Curcumin distribution in neonate pig skin was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dermal curcumin accumulation (326 µg/g skin) and transdermal curcumin penetration (87 µg/cm(2)/d) were obtained with the microemulsions developed herein. Curcumin at the concentration of 0.86 µg/mL in the myristic acid microemulsion could inhibit 50% of the bacterial growth, which was 12 times more effective than curcumin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cocktail combination of myristic acid and curcumin in the microemulsion carrier synergistically inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis. The results we obtained highlight the potential of using curcumin-loaded microemulsions as an alternative treatment for S. epidermidis-associated diseases and acne vulgaris. PMID:22976319

  6. The chemistry of curcumin: from extraction to therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Kavirayani Indira

    2014-12-01

    Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one of the very few promising natural products that has been extensively investigated by researchers from both the biological and chemical point of view. While there are several reviews on the biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin, chemistry reviews are comparatively scarcer. In this article, an overview of different aspects of the unique chemistry research on curcumin will be discussed. These include methods for the extraction from turmeric, laboratory synthesis methods, chemical and photochemical degradation and the chemistry behind its metabolism. Additionally other chemical reactions that have biological relevance like nucleophilic addition reactions, and metal chelation will be discussed. Recent advances in the preparation of new curcumin nanoconjugates with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles will also be mentioned. Directions for future investigations to be undertaken in the chemistry of curcumin have also been suggested.

  7. Curcumin induces growth-arrest and apoptosis in association with the inhibition of constitutively active JAK-STAT pathway in T cell leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasingh, Johnson; Raikwar, Himanshu P.; Muthian, Gladson; Johnson, Caroline; Bright, John J. . E-mail: jbright1@clarian.org

    2006-02-10

    Adult T cell leukemia is an aggressive and frequently fatal malignancy that expressess constitutively activated growth-signaling pathways in association with deregulated growth and resistance to apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a naturally occurring yellow pigment, isolated from the rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa that has traditionally been used in the treatment of injury and inflammation. But the effect and mechanism of action of curcumin on T cell leukemia is not known. To investigate the antitumor activity of curcumin in T cell leukemia, we examined its effect on constitutive phosphorylation of JAK and STAT proteins, proliferation, and apoptosis in HTLV-I-transformed T cell lines. HTLV-I-transformed T cell leukemia lines, MT-2, HuT-102, and SLB-1, express constitutively phosphorylated JAK3, TYK2, STAT3, and STAT5 signaling proteins. In vitro treatment with curcumin induced a dose-dependent decrease in JAK and STAT phosphorylation resulting in the induction of growth-arrest and apoptosis in T cell leukemia. The induction of growth-arrest and apoptosis in association with the blockade of constitutively active JAK-STAT pathway suggests this be a mechanism by which curcumin induces antitumor activity in T cell leukemia.

  8. Celastrol nanoparticles inhibit corneal neovascularization induced by suturing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanrong; Yao, Lin; Li, Jingguo; Zhang, Wenxin; Wu, Xianghua; Liu, Yi; Lin, Miaoli; Su, Wenru; Li, Yongping; Liang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Celastrol, a traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis research. However, the poor water solubility of celastrol restricts its further application. This paper aims to study the effect of celastrol nanoparticles (CNPs) on corneal neovascularization (CNV) and determine the possible mechanism. Methods To improve the hydrophilicity of celastrol, celastrol-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) nanopolymeric micelles were developed. The characterization of CNPs was measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Celastrol loading content and release were assessed by ultraviolet-visible analysis and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and capillary-like tube formation were assayed. In vivo, suture-induced CNV was chosen to evaluate the effect of CNPs on CNV in rats. Immunohistochemistry for CD68 assessed the macrophage infiltration of the cornea on day 6 after surgery. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to evaluate the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels, respectively, of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in the cornea. Results The mean diameter of CNPs with spherical shape was 48 nm. The celastrol loading content was 7.36%. The release behavior of CNPs in buffered solution (pH 7.4) showed a typical two-phase release profile. CNPs inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-independent manner and suppressed the capillary structure formation. After treatment with CNPs, the length and area of CNV reduced from 1.16 ± 0.18 mm to 0.49 ± 0.12 mm and from 7.71 ± 0.94 mm2 to 2.29 ± 0.61 mm2, respectively. Macrophage infiltration decreased significantly in the CNP-treated corneas. CNPs reduced

  9. Curcumin: potential for hepatic fibrosis therapy?

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, M A; Rushworth, S A

    2007-01-01

    The beneficial antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects of curcumin have been well documented in relation to cancer and other chronic diseases. Recent evidence suggests that it may be of therapeutic interest in chronic liver disease. Hepatic fibrosis (scarring) occurs in advanced liver disease, where normal hepatic tissue is replaced with collagen-rich extracellular matrix and, if left untreated, results in cirrhosis. Curcumin inhibits liver cirrhosis in a rodent model and exerts multiple biological effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which play a central role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In response to liver injury, these cells proliferate producing pro-inflammatory mediators and extracellular matrix. Curcumin induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation in HSCs. In addition, it inhibits extracellular matrix formation by enhancing HSC matrix metalloproteinase expression via PPARγ and suppressing connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression. In this issue, Chen and co-workers propose that curcumin suppresses CTGF expression in HSC by inhibiting ERK and NF-κB activation. These studies suggest that curcumin modulates several intracellular signalling pathways in HSC and may be of future interest in hepatic fibrosis therapy. PMID:18037917

  10. Inhibition of tumor-cell invasion with chlorotoxin-bound superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Veiseh, Omid; Gunn, Jonathan W; Kievit, Forrest M; Sun, Conroy; Fang, Chen; Lee, Jerry S H; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-02-01

    Nanoparticles have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles, contrast agents, and multifunctional devices for patient care. Current nanoparticle-based therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment are mainly based on delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to induce apoptosis or DNA/siRNA to regulate oncogene expression. Here, a nanoparticle system that demonstrates an alternative approach to the treatment of cancers through the inhibition of cell invasion, while serving as a magnetic resonance and optical imaging contrast agent, is presented. The nanoparticle comprises an iron oxide nanoparticle core conjugated with an amine-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) silane and a small peptide, chlorotoxin (CTX), which enables the tumor cell-specific binding of the nanoparticle. It is shown that the nanoparticle exhibits substantially enhanced cellular uptake and an invasion inhibition rate of approximately 98% compared to unbound CTX ( approximately 45%). Significantly, the investigation from flow cytometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent imaging reveals that the CTX-enabled nanoparticles deactivated the membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and induced increased internalization of lipid rafts that contain surface-expressed MMP-2 and volume-regulating ion channels through receptor-mediated endocytosis, leading to enhanced prohibitory effects. Since upregulation and activity of MMP-2 have been observed in tumors of neuroectodermal origin, and in cancers of the breast, colon, skin, lung, prostate, ovaries, and a host of others, this nanoparticle system can be potentially used for non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of a variety of cancer types.

  11. Enhanced solubility and targeted delivery of curcumin by lipopeptide micelles.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ju; Wu, Wenlan; Lai, Danyu; Li, Junbo; Fang, Cailin

    2015-01-01

    A lipopeptide (LP)-containing KKGRGDS as the hydrophilic heads and lauric acid (C12) as the hydrophobic tails has been designed and prepared by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis technique. LP can self-assemble into spherical micelles with the size of ~30 nm in PBS (phosphate buffer saline) (pH 7.4). Curcumin-loaded LP micelles were prepared in order to increase the water solubility, sustain the releasing rate, and improve the tumor targeted delivery of curcumin. Water solubility, cytotoxicity, in vitro release behavior, and intracellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LP micelles were investigated. The results showed that LP micelles can increase the water solubility of curcumin 1.1 × 10(3) times and sustain the release of curcumin in a low rate. Curcumin-loaded LP micelles showed much higher cell inhibition than free curcumin on human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) and HepG2 cells. When incubating these curcumin-loaded micelles with HeLa and COS7 cells, due to the over-expression of integrins on cancer cells, the micelles can efficiently use the tumor-targeting function of RGD (functionalized peptide sequences: Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence to deliver the drug into HeLa cells, and better efficiency of the self-assembled LP micelles for curcumin delivery than crude curcumin was also confirmed by LCSM (laser confocal scanning microscope) assays. Combined with the enhanced solubility and higher cell inhibition, LP micelles reported in this study may be promising in clinical application for targeted curcumin delivery.

  12. Novel delivery system for natural products: Nano-curcumin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Nikdoust, Shima; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even it has wound healing. Oral bioavailability of curcumin is rather poor, which would certainly put some boundaries in the employment of this drug. Materials and Methods: Bibliographical searches were performed using MEDLINE/ScienceDirect/OVID up to February 2015 using the following keywords (all fields): (“Curcumin” OR “Curcuma longa”) AND [(nanoparticles) OR (Nanomicelles) OR (micro emulsions) OR (liposome) OR (phospholipid). Results: Consequently, for any developments of curcumin in the future, analogues of curcumin that have better bioavailability or substitute formulations are needed crucially. Conclusion: These studies indicated that nanotechnology can formulate curcumin effectively, and this nano-formulated curcumin with a potent ability against various cancer cells, were represented to have better efficacy and bioavailability under in vivo conditions. PMID:27516979

  13. A magnetically drivable nanovehicle for curcumin with antioxidant capacity and MRI relaxation properties.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, René; Baratella, Davide; Lima, Giuseppina; Holà, Katerina; Divoky, Clemens; Stollberger, Rudolf; Malina, Ondrej; Aparicio, Claudia; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zbořil, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin possesses wide-ranging anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties and its biological activity can be linked to its potent antioxidant capacity. Superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ), called surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) were surface-modified with curcumin molecules, due to the presence of under-coordinated Fe(III) atoms on the nanoparticle surface. The so-obtained curcumin-modified SAMNs (SAMN@curcumin) had a mean size of 13±4 nm. SAMN@curcumin was characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, UV/Vis, FTIR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, bulk susceptibility (SQUID), and relaxometry measurements (MRI imaging). The high negative contrast proclivity of SAMN@curcumin to act as potential contrast agent in MRI screenings was also tested. Moreover, the redox properties of bound curcumin were probed by electrochemistry. SAMN@curcumin was studied in the presence of different electroactive molecules, namely hydroquinone, NADH and ferrocyanide, to assess its redox behavior. Finally, SAMN@curcumin was electrochemically probed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, demonstrating the stability and reactivity of bound curcumin.

  14. Gadolinium metallofullerenol nanoparticles inhibit cancer metastasis through matrix metalloproteinase inhibition: imprisoning instead of poisoning cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Huan; Xing, Gengmei; Blanco, Elvin; Song, Yan; Zhao, Lina; Sun, Baoyun; Li, Xiaoda; Wang, Paul C.; Korotcov, Alexandru; Li, Wei; Liang, Xing-Jie; Chen, Chunying; Yuan, Hui; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Tong; Chai, Zhifang; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the antimetastasis activity of gadolinium metallofullerenol nanoparticles (f-NPs) in malignant and invasive human breast cancer models. We demonstrated that f-NPs inhibited the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes and further interfered with the invasiveness of cancer cells in tissue culture condition. In the tissue invasion animal model, the invasive primary tumor treated with f-NPs showed significantly less metastasis to the ectopic site along with the decreased MMP expression. In the same animal model, we observed the formation of a fibrous cage that may serve as a physical barrier capable of cancer tissue encapsulation that cuts the communication between cancer- and tumor-associated macrophages, which produce MMP enzymes. In another animal model, the blood transfer model, f-NPs potently suppressed the establishment of tumor foci in lung. Based on these data, we conclude that f-NPs have antimetastasis effects and speculate that utilization of f-NPs may provide a new strategy for the treatment of tumor metastasis. PMID:21930111

  15. Comparison of pharmaceutical nanoformulations for curcumin: Enhancement of aqueous solubility and carrier retention.

    PubMed

    Allijn, Iris E; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Storm, Gert

    2016-06-15

    Curcumin, originally used in traditional medicine and as a spice, is one of the most studied and most popular natural products of the past decade. It has been described to be an effective anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug and protects against chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Despite these promising pharmacological properties, curcumin is also very lipophilic, which makes its formulation challenging. Ideally the nanocarrier should additionally also retain the encapsulated curcumin to provide target tissue accumulation. In this study we aimed to tackle this aqueous solubility and carrier retention challenge of curcumin by encapsulating curcumin in different nanoparticles. We successfully loaded LDL (30nm), polymeric micelles (80nm), liposomes (180nm) and Intralipid (280nm) with curcumin. The relative loading capacity was inversely related to the size of the particle. The stability for all formulations was determined in fetal bovine serum over a course of 24h. Although all curcumin-nanoparticles were stable in buffer solution, all leaked more than 70% of curcumin under physiological conditions. Altogether, tested nanoparticles do solve the aqueous insolubility problem of curcumin, however, because of their leaky nature, the challenge of carrier retention remains. PMID:27139142

  16. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  17. Biophysical inhibition of synthetic vs. naturally-derived pulmonary surfactant preparations by polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Reasonable suspicion has accumulated that inhaled nano-scale particulate matter influences the biophysical function of the pulmonary surfactant system. Hence, it is evident to provide novel insights into the extent and mechanisms of nanoparticle-surfactant interactions in order to facilitate the fabrication of safe nanomedicines suitable for pulmonary applications. Negatively- and positively-charged poly(styrene) nanoparticles (diameters of ~100nm) served as model carriers. Nanoparticles were incubated with several synthetic and naturally-derived pulmonary surfactants to characterize the sensitivity of each preparation to biophysical inactivation. Changes in surface properties (i.e. adsorption and dynamic surface tension behavior) were monitored in a pulsating bubble surfactometer. Both nanoparticle formulations revealed a dose-dependent influence on the biophysical behavior of all investigated pulmonary surfactants. However, the surfactant sensitivity towards inhibition depended on both the carrier type, where negatively-charged nanoparticles showed increased inactivation potency compared to their positively-charged counterparts, and surfactant composition. Among the surfactants tested, synthetic mixtures (i.e. phospholipids, phospholipids supplemented with surfactant protein B, and Venticute®) were more susceptible to surface-activity inhibition as the more complex naturally-derived preparations (i.e. Alveofact® and large surfactant aggregates isolated from rabbit bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). Overall, nanoparticle characteristics and surfactant constitution both influence the extent of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactants.

  18. Engineered polymer nanoparticles containing hydrophobic dipeptide for inhibition of amyloid-β fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Skaat, Hadas; Chen, Ravit; Grinberg, Igor; Margel, Shlomo

    2012-09-10

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Engineered nanoparticles have emerged as a potential approach to alter the kinetics of protein fibrillation process. Yet, there are only a few reports describing the use of nanoparticles for inhibition of amyloid-β 40 (Aβ(40)) peptide aggregation, involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we designed new uniform biocompatible amino-acid-based polymer nanoparticles containing hydrophobic dipeptides in the polymer side chains. The dipeptide residues were designed similarly to the hydrophobic core sequence of Aβ. Poly(N-acryloyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) (polyA-FF-ME) nanoparticles of 57 ± 6 nm were synthesized by dispersion polymerization of the monomer A-FF-ME in 2-methoxy ethanol, followed by precipitation of the obtained polymer in aqueous solution. Cell viability assay confirmed that no significant cytotoxic effect of the polyA-FF-ME nanoparticles on different human cell lines, e.g., PC-12 and SH-SY5Y, was observed. A significantly slow secondary structure transition from random coil to β-sheets during Aβ(40) fibril formation was observed in the presence of these nanoparticles, resulting in significant inhibition of Aβ(40) fibrillation kinetics. However, the polyA-FF-ME analogous nanoparticles containing the L-alanyl-L-alanine (AA) dipeptide in the polymer side groups, polyA-AA-ME nanoparticles, accelerate the Aβ(40) fibrillation kinetics. The polyA-FF-ME nanoparticles and the polyA-AA-ME nanoparticles may therefore contribute to a mechanistic understanding of the fibrillation process, leading to the development of therapeutic strategies against amyloid-related diseases. PMID:22897679

  19. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z. Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-10-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 {mu}g/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  20. Curcumin Reduces Amyloid Fibrillation of Prion Protein and Decreases Reactive Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Fen; Yu, Kun-Hua; Jheng, Cheng-Ping; Chung, Raymond; Lee, Cheng-I

    2013-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation into amyloids of the prion protein (PrP) is responsible for the development of fatal transmissible neurodegenerative diseases. Various studies on curcumin demonstrate promise for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and inhibition of PrPres accumulation. To evaluate the effect of curcumin on amyloid fibrillation of prion protein, we first investigated the effect of curcumin on mouse prion protein (mPrP) in a cell-free system. Curcumin reduced the prion fibril formation significantly. Furthermore, we monitored the change in apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level upon curcumin treatment in mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a). Curcumin effectively rescues the cells from apoptosis and decreases the ROS level caused by subsequent co-incubation with prion amyloid fibrils. The assays in cell-free mPrP and in N2a cells of this work verified the promising effect of curcumin on the prevention of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25437204

  1. Curcumin-loaded biodegradable polymeric micelles for colon cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Maling; Men, Ke; Shi, Huashan; Xiang, Mingli; Zhang, Juan; Song, Jia; Long, Jianlin; Wan, Yang; Luo, Feng; Zhao, Xia; Qian, Zhiyong

    2011-04-01

    Curcumin is an effective and safe anticancer agent, but its hydrophobicity inhibits its clinical application. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to improve the water solubility of hydrophobic drug. In this work, curcumin was encapsulated into monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, creating curcumin-loaded MPEG-PCL (Cur/MPEG-PCL) micelles. These Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles were monodisperse (PDI = 0.097 +/- 0.011) with a mean particle size of 27.3 +/- 1.3 nm, good re-solubility after freeze-drying, an encapsulation efficiency of 99.16 +/- 1.02%, and drug loading of 12.95 +/- 0.15%. Moreover, these micelles were prepared by a simple and reproducible procedure, making them potentially suitable for scale-up. Curcumin was molecularly dispersed in the PCL core of MPEG-PCL micelles, and could be slow-released in vitro. Encapsulation of curcumin in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the t1/2 and AUC of curcuminin vivo. As well as free curcumin, Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles efficiently inhibited the angiogenesis on transgenic zebrafish model. In an alginate-encapsulated cancer cell assay, intravenous application of Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles more efficiently inhibited the tumor cell-induced angiogenesisin vivo than that of free curcumin. MPEG-PCL micelle-encapsulated curcumin maintained the cytotoxicity of curcumin on C-26 colon carcinoma cellsin vitro. Intravenous application of Cur/MPEG-PCL micelle (25 mg kg-1curcumin) inhibited the growth of subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma in vivo (p < 0.01), and induced a stronger anticancer effect than that of free curcumin (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles are an excellent intravenously injectable aqueous formulation of curcumin; this formulation can inhibit the growth of colon carcinoma through inhibiting angiogenesis and directly killing cancer cells.

  2. Multi-ligand poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles inhibit activation of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Kona, Soujanya; Su, Lee-Chun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Dong, Jing-Fei; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Tang, Liping; Banerjee, Subhash; Nguyen, Kytai T

    2013-08-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) activation and inflammation is a key step in the initiation and progression of many cardiovascular diseases. Targeted delivery of therapeutic reagents to inflamed EC using nanoparticles is challenging as nanoparticles do not arrest on EC efficiently under high shear stress. In this study, we developed a novel polymeric platelet-mimicking nanoparticle for strong particle adhesion onto ECs and enhanced particle internalization by ECs. This nanoparticle was encapsulated with dexamethasone as the anti-inflammatory drug, and conjugated with polyethylene glycol, glycoprotein 1b, and trans-activating transcriptional peptide. The multi-ligand nanoparticle showed significantly greater adhesion on P-selectin, von Willebrand Factor, than the unmodified particles, and activated EC in vitro under both static and flow conditions. Treatment of injured rat carotid arteries with these multi-ligand nanoparticles suppressed neointimal stenosis more than unconjugated nanoparticles did. These results indicate that this novel multi-ligand nanoparticle is efficient to target inflamed EC and inhibit inflammation and subsequent stenosis.

  3. C19 odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUfas) are metabolized to C21-PUfas in a rat liver cell line, and curcumin, gallic acid, and their related compounds inhibit their desaturation.

    PubMed

    Nakano, N; Shirasaka, N; Koyama, H; Hino, M; Murakami, T; Shimizu, S; Yoshizumi, H

    2000-08-01

    It was demonstrated that the rat liver cell line BRL-3A converted exogenous C19 odd chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the corresponding C21- and C23-PUFAs as follows: 21:3n-8, 21:4n-8, 23:3n-8, and 23:4n-8 (from 19:3n-8); 21:4n-5, 21:5n-5, 23:4n-5, and 23:5n-5 (from 19:4n-5); 21:5n-2, 21:6n-2, 23:5n-2, and 23:6n-2 (from 19:5n-2). It presumed that these C19 PUFAs were converted through the mimic route to docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). In addition, the characterization of the change of fatty acid composition of cellular lipids in rat liver cells were examined, using 19:4n-5 and several fatty acid desaturation inhibitors. Curcumin related compounds, curcumin, capsaicin, isoeugenol, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one, and gallic acid esters with near five carbon numbered alcohol had great changes of fatty acid composition of cellular lipids based on inhibition of the A6 desaturation of C24-PUFAs in rat liver cells.

  4. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  5. Conundrum and therapeutic potential of curcumin in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2010-01-01

    Turmeric, the source of the polyphenolic active compound curcumin (diferuloylmethane), has been used extensively in traditional medicine since ancient times as a household remedy against various diseases, including hepatic disorders, cough, sinusitis, rheumatism, and biliary disorders. In the past few decades, a number of studies have been done on curcumin showing its potential role in treating inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, AIDS, and neurological disorders. However, the main drawback associated with curcumin is its poor aqueous solubility and stability in gastrointestinal fluids, which leads to poor bioavailability. Multifarious novel drug-delivery approaches, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, microspheres, solid dispersion, polymeric nanoparticles, and self-microemulsifying drug-delivery systems have been used to enhance the bioavailability and tissue-targeting ability of curcumin. These attempts have revealed promising results for enhanced bioavailability and targeting to disease such as cancer, but more extensive research on tissue-targeting and stability-related issues is needed. Tissue targeting and enhanced bioavailability of curcumin using novel drug-delivery methods with minimum side effects will in the near future bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapy for the treatment of human diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular ailments. We provide a detailed analysis of prominent research in the field of curcumin drug delivery with special emphasis on bioavailability-enhancement approaches and novel drug-delivery system approaches. PMID:20932240

  6. Curcumin Resource Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs.

  7. Curcumin Resource Database

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs. Database URL: http://www.crdb.in PMID:26220923

  8. Curcumin Resource Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs. PMID:26220923

  9. Curcumin Induces Apoptosis of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer Cells by Targeting Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; Haque, Abedul; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Khuri, Fadlo Raja; Shin, Dong Moon

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the Indian spice "Haldi" or "curry powder", has been used for centuries as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, the potential use of curcumin in cancer prevention and therapy urges studies to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. In the current manuscript, we investigated the mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis in upper aerodigestive tract cancer cell lines and showed that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated by the modulation of multiple pathways such as induction of p73, and inhibition of p-AKT and Bcl-2. Treatment of cells with curcumin induced both p53 and the related protein p73 in head and neck and lung cancer cell lines. Inactivation of p73 by dominant negative p73 significantly protected cells from curcumin-induced apoptosis, whereas ablation of p53 by shRNA had no effect. Curcumin treatment also strongly inhibited p-AKT and Bcl-2 and overexpression of constitutively active AKT or Bcl-2 significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated via activating tumor suppressor p73 and inhibiting p-AKT and Bcl-2. PMID:25910231

  10. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin against Helicobacter pylori isolates from India and during infections in mice.

    PubMed

    De, Ronita; Kundu, Parag; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Ramamurthy, T; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Nair, G Balakrish; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2009-04-01

    Treatment failure is a major cause of concern for the Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases like gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Curcumin, diferuloylmethane from turmeric, has recently been shown to arrest H. pylori growth. The antibacterial activity of curcumin against 65 clinical isolates of H. pylori in vitro and during protection against H. pylori infection in vivo was examined. The MIC of curcumin ranges from 5 microg/ml to 50 microg/ml, showing its effectiveness in inhibiting H. pylori growth in vitro irrespective of the genetic makeup of the strains. The nucleotide sequences of the aroE genes, encoding shikimate dehydrogenase, against which curcumin seems to act as a noncompetitive inhibitor, from H. pylori strains presenting differential curcumin MICs showed that curcumin-mediated growth inhibition of Indian H. pylori strains may not be always dependent on the shikimate pathway. The antimicrobial effect of curcumin in H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice and its efficacy in reducing the gastric damage due to infection were examined histologically. Curcumin showed immense therapeutic potential against H. pylori infection as it was highly effective in eradication of H. pylori from infected mice as well as in restoration of H. pylori-induced gastric damage. This study provides novel insights into the therapeutic effect of curcumin against H. pylori infection, suggesting its potential as an alternative therapy, and opens the way for further studies on identification of novel antimicrobial targets of curcumin. PMID:19204190

  11. [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles inhibit the migration and adhesion of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JING; GU, FENG; DING, TING; LIU, XIAOLI; XING, GENGMEI; ZHAO, YULIANG; ZHANG, NING; MA, YONGJIE

    2010-01-01

    In our previous study, [Gd@C82(OH)22]n, a fullerene-based nanoparticle, exhibited potent anti-tumor effects in mouse tumor-bearing models without detectable toxicity. The mechanism involved in the anti-tumor effect exerted by [Gd@C82(OH)22]n remains to be elucidated. This study found that glioblastoma cells treated with [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles showed a significant impairment in migration and adhesion by cell chemotaxis, scratch and adhesion assays in vitro. Furthermore, our data showed that the key proteins, CD40 and ICAM-1, were involved in the inhibition of adhesion in the [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle-treated glioblastoma cells. Thus, our study suggests that the [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle is a new potential anti-tumor effector and a therapeutic component for malignant glioblastoma infiltration. PMID:22966378

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, induce biofilm formation, and inhibit antimicrobial peptide function.

    PubMed

    Borcherding, Jennifer; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Stebounova, Larissa; Wu, Chia-Ming; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H; Comellas, Alejandro P

    2014-04-01

    Given the increased use of iron-containing nanoparticles in a number of applications, it is important to understand any effects that iron-containing nanoparticles can have on the environment and human health. Since iron concentrations are extremely low in body fluids, there is potential that iron-containing nanoparticles may influence the ability of bacteria to scavenge iron for growth, affect virulence and inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) function. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and AMPs were exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles, hematite (α-Fe2O3), of different sizes ranging from 2 to 540 nm (2 ± 1, 43 ± 6, 85 ± 25 and 540 ± 90 nm) in diameter. Here we show that the greatest effect on bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and AMP function impairment is found when exposed to the smallest particles. These results are attributed in large part to enhanced dissolution observed for the smallest particles and an increase in the amount of bioavailable iron. Furthermore, AMP function can be additionally impaired by adsorption onto nanoparticle surfaces. In particular, lysozyme readily adsorbs onto the nanoparticle surface which can lead to loss of peptide activity. Thus, this current study shows that co-exposure of nanoparticles and known pathogens can impact host innate immunity. Therefore, it is important that future studies be designed to further understand these types of impacts. PMID:25221673

  13. Inhibition of biological TCE and sulphate reduction in the presence of iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Robert J; Riba, Olga; Gardner, Murray N; Singer, Andrew C; Jackman, Simon A; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-07-01

    Iron (Fe) nanoparticles are increasingly being employed for the remediation of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon (CAH) contaminated sites. However, these particles have recently been reported to be cytotoxic to bacterial cells, and may therefore have a negative impact on exposed microbial communities. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Fe nanoparticles on the biodegradation of CAHs by an indigenous dechlorinating bacterial community. Also, to determine the most appropriate combination and/or application of bimetallic (Ni/Fe) nanoparticles and dechlorinating bacteria for the remediation of CAH contaminated sites. Addition of Fe nanoparticles to groundwater collected from a CAH contaminated site in Derby, UK, led to a decrease in the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and an increase in pH. The biological degradation rate of TCE was observed to progressively decrease in the presence of increasing Fe nanoparticle concentrations; which ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 gL(-1), and cease completely at concentrations of 0.3 gL(-1) or above. Concentrations greater than 0.3 gL(-1) led to a decline in viable bacterial counts and the inhibition of biological sulphate reduction. The most appropriate means of combining bimetallic (Ni/Fe) nanoparticles and indigenous dechlorinating bacteria was to employ a two step process: initially stimulating the biodegradation of TCE using acetate, followed by the addition of bimetallic nanoparticles to degrade the remaining cis-1,2-DCE and VC.

  14. Activation of microbubbles by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances the cytotoxicity of curcumin involving apoptosis induction and cell motility inhibition in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiang; Wang, Pan; Chen, Xiyang; Hu, Jianmin; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasound and microbubbles-mediated drug delivery has become a promising strategy to promote drug delivery and its therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of microbubbles (MBs)-combined low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LPUS) on the delivery and cytotoxicity of curcumin (Cur) to human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Under the experimental condition, MBs raised the level of acoustic cavitation and enhanced plasma membrane permeability; and cellular uptake of Cur was notably improved by LPUS-MBs treatment, aggravating Cur-induced MDA-MB-231 cells death. The combined treatment markedly caused more obvious changes of cell morphology, F-actin cytoskeleton damage and cell migration inhibition. Our results demonstrated that combination of MBs and LPUS may be an efficient strategy for improving anti-tumor effect of Cur, suggesting a potential effective method for antineoplastic therapy. PMID:27245953

  15. Activation of microbubbles by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances the cytotoxicity of curcumin involving apoptosis induction and cell motility inhibition in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiang; Wang, Pan; Chen, Xiyang; Hu, Jianmin; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasound and microbubbles-mediated drug delivery has become a promising strategy to promote drug delivery and its therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this research was to assess the effects of microbubbles (MBs)-combined low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LPUS) on the delivery and cytotoxicity of curcumin (Cur) to human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Under the experimental condition, MBs raised the level of acoustic cavitation and enhanced plasma membrane permeability; and cellular uptake of Cur was notably improved by LPUS-MBs treatment, aggravating Cur-induced MDA-MB-231 cells death. The combined treatment markedly caused more obvious changes of cell morphology, F-actin cytoskeleton damage and cell migration inhibition. Our results demonstrated that combination of MBs and LPUS may be an efficient strategy for improving anti-tumor effect of Cur, suggesting a potential effective method for antineoplastic therapy.

  16. Curcumin shows excellent therapeutic effect on psoriasis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Jiang, Wenbing; Lu, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqing; Lai, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is an active herbal ingredient possessing surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. Recently, it has been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity on potassium channel subtype Kv1.3. As Kv1.3 channels are mainly expressed in T cells and play a key role in psoriasis, the effects of curcumin were investigated on inflammatory factors secretion in T cells and psoriasis developed in keratin (K) 14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic mouse model. Results showed that, 10 μM of curcumin significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-17,IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in T cells by 30-60% in vitro. Notably, more than 50% of T cells proliferation was inhibited by application of 100 μM curcumin. Compared with severe psoriatic symptoms observed in the negative control mice, all psoriasis indexes including ear redness, weight, thickness and lymph node weight were significantly improved by oral application of curcumin in treatment mouse group. Histological examination indicated that curcumin had anti-inflammatory function in the experimental animals. More than 50% level of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-22 and IL-23 in mouse serum was decreased by curcumin treatment as well as cyclosporine. Compared with renal fibrosis observed in the mouse group treated by cyclosporine, no obvious side effect in mouse kidney was found after treated by curcumin. Taken together, curcumin, with high efficacy and safety, has a great potential to treat psoriasis.

  17. Curcumin Sensitizes Silymarin to Exert Synergistic Anticancer Activity in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Amanda; Adeyeni, Temitope; San, KayKay; Heuertz, Rita M; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R

    2016-01-01

    We studied combinatorial interactions of two phytochemicals, curcumin and silymarin, in their action against cancer cell proliferation. Curcumin is the major component of the spice turmeric. Silymarin is a bioactive component of milk thistle used as a protective supplement against liver disease. We studied antiproliferative effects of curcumin alone, silymarin alone and combinations of curcumin and silymarin using colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, LoVo). Curcumin inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas silymarin showed significant inhibition only at the highest concentrations assessed. We found synergistic effects when colon cancer cells were treated with curcumin and silymarin together. The combination treatment led to inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to single compound treated cells. Combination treated cells exhibited marked cell rounding and membrane blebbing of apoptotic cells. Curcumin treated cells showed 3-fold more caspase3/7 activity whereas combination treated cells showed 5-fold more activity compared to control and silymarin treated cells. When DLD-1 cells were pre-exposed to curcumin, followed by treatment with silymarin, the cells underwent a high amount of cell death. The pre-exposure studies indicated curcumin sensitization of silymarin effect. Our results indicate that combinatorial treatments using phytochemicals are effective against colorectal cancer. PMID:27390600

  18. Curcumin Sensitizes Silymarin to Exert Synergistic Anticancer Activity in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Amanda; Adeyeni, Temitope; San, KayKay; Heuertz, Rita M.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.

    2016-01-01

    We studied combinatorial interactions of two phytochemicals, curcumin and silymarin, in their action against cancer cell proliferation. Curcumin is the major component of the spice turmeric. Silymarin is a bioactive component of milk thistle used as a protective supplement against liver disease. We studied antiproliferative effects of curcumin alone, silymarin alone and combinations of curcumin and silymarin using colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, LoVo). Curcumin inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas silymarin showed significant inhibition only at the highest concentrations assessed. We found synergistic effects when colon cancer cells were treated with curcumin and silymarin together. The combination treatment led to inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to single compound treated cells. Combination treated cells exhibited marked cell rounding and membrane blebbing of apoptotic cells. Curcumin treated cells showed 3-fold more caspase3/7 activity whereas combination treated cells showed 5-fold more activity compared to control and silymarin treated cells. When DLD-1 cells were pre-exposed to curcumin, followed by treatment with silymarin, the cells underwent a high amount of cell death. The pre-exposure studies indicated curcumin sensitization of silymarin effect. Our results indicate that combinatorial treatments using phytochemicals are effective against colorectal cancer. PMID:27390600

  19. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  20. Short communication: inhibiting biofilm formation on paper towels through the use of selenium nanoparticles coatings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections are commonly found on paper towels and other paper products, leading to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent health concerns. The objective of this in vitro study was to introduce antibacterial properties to standard paper towel surfaces by coating them with selenium nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to measure the size and distribution of the selenium coatings on the paper towels. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the surface roughness of paper towels before and after they were coated with selenium nanoparticles. The amount of selenium precipitated on the paper towels was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In vitro bacterial studies with Staphylococcus aureus were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the selenium coating at inhibiting bacterial growth. Results showed that the selenium nanoparticles coated on the paper towel surface were well distributed with semispherical geometries about 50 nm in diameter. Most importantly, the selenium nanoparticle-coated paper towels inhibited S. aureus growth by 90% after 24 and 72 hours compared with the uncoated paper towels. Thus, the study showed that nanoparticle selenium-coated paper towels may lead to an increased eradication of bacteria in a wider range of clinical environments and in the food industry, thus improving human health.

  1. Short communication: inhibiting biofilm formation on paper towels through the use of selenium nanoparticles coatings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections are commonly found on paper towels and other paper products, leading to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent health concerns. The objective of this in vitro study was to introduce antibacterial properties to standard paper towel surfaces by coating them with selenium nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to measure the size and distribution of the selenium coatings on the paper towels. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the surface roughness of paper towels before and after they were coated with selenium nanoparticles. The amount of selenium precipitated on the paper towels was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In vitro bacterial studies with Staphylococcus aureus were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the selenium coating at inhibiting bacterial growth. Results showed that the selenium nanoparticles coated on the paper towel surface were well distributed with semispherical geometries about 50 nm in diameter. Most importantly, the selenium nanoparticle-coated paper towels inhibited S. aureus growth by 90% after 24 and 72 hours compared with the uncoated paper towels. Thus, the study showed that nanoparticle selenium-coated paper towels may lead to an increased eradication of bacteria in a wider range of clinical environments and in the food industry, thus improving human health. PMID:23378762

  2. Unraveling Curcumin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Odaine N.; Luis, Paula B.; Sintim, Herman O.; Schneider, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a dietary anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agent consisting of two methoxyphenol rings connected by a conjugated heptadienedione chain. Curcumin is unstable at physiological pH and rapidly degrades in an autoxidation reaction to a major bicyclopentadione product in which the 7-carbon chain has undergone oxygenation and double cyclization. Early degradation products (but not the final bicyclopentadione) mediate topoisomerase poisoning and possibly many other activities of curcumin, but it is not known how many and what autoxidation products are formed, nor their mechanism of formation. Here, using [14C2]curcumin as a tracer, seven novel autoxidation products, including two reaction intermediates, were isolated and identified using one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry. The unusual spiroepoxide and vinylether reaction intermediates are precursors to the final bicyclopentadione product. A mechanism for the autoxidation of curcumin is proposed that accounts for the addition and exchange of oxygen that have been determined using 18O2 and H218O. Several of the by-products are formed from an endoperoxide intermediate via reactions that are well precedented in lipid peroxidation. The electrophilic spiroepoxide intermediate formed a stable adduct with N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that oxidative transformation is required for biological effects mediated by covalent adduction to protein thiols. The spontaneous autoxidation distinguishes curcumin among natural polyphenolic compounds of therapeutic interest; the formation of chemically diverse reactive and electrophilic products provides a novel paradigm for understanding the polypharmacological effects of curcumin. PMID:25564617

  3. Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Adriana; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Alavez, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Over the last ten years curcumin has been reported to be effective against a wide variety of diseases and is characterized as having anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardioprotective, anti-arthritic, and anti-infectious properties. Recent studies performed in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have been conducted to determine whether curcumin was also neuroprotective. The efficacy of curcumin in several pre-clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases has created considerable excitement mainly due to its lack of toxicity and low cost. This suggests that curcumin could be a worthy candidate for nutraceutical intervention. Since aging is a common risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, it is possible that some compounds that target aging mechanisms could also prevent these kinds of diseases. One potential mechanism to explain several of the general health benefits associated with curcumin is that it may prevent aging-associated changes in cellular proteins that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation. This loss in protein homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases. Recently, curcumin has been found to help maintain protein homeostasis and extend lifespan in the model invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we review the evidence from several animal models that curcumin improves healthspan by preventing or delaying the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23303664

  4. A novel nanoparticle containing neuritin peptide with grp170 induces a CTL response to inhibit tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Shen, Hanchao; Su, Tonggang; Lin, Li; Chen, Ting; Yang, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Malignant glioma is among the most challenging of all cancers to treat successfully. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have only a marginal impact on patient survival. In this study, we constructed a novel nanoparticle containing neuritin peptide with grp170. The nanoparticle could elicit a neuritin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to lyse glioma cells in vitro. In addition, the nanoparticle could inhibit tumor growth and improve the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the nanoparticle can inhibit tumor growth and represents a promising therapy for glioma. PMID:26290143

  5. Overdose Intake of Curcumin Initiates the Unbalanced State of Bodies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is the major active component of turmeric and widely used as a spice and coloring agent in food. However, its safety evaluation has been little investigated. To evaluate the 90-day subchronic toxicity of curcumin in rats, its general observation, clinical biochemistry, pathology, and metabolomics were evaluated. The results showed that curcumin induced liver injury through the generation of the overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and the decreases of the levels of antioxidant enzyme SOD and detoxified enzyme GST. Meanwhile, for the self-protection of rats, curcumin treatment activated the transcription of Nrf-2 and elevated the expression of HO-1 to reduce tissue damage. Furthermore, curcumin significantly increased key mRNA levels of HK2, PKM2, LDHA, CES, Cpt1, Cpt2, FASN, and ATP5b and decreased levels of GLUT2 and ACC1 to enhance glycolysis and inhibit lipid metabolism and TCA cycle. Therefore, overdose or long-term intake of curcumin could initiate the unbalanced state of bodies through oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic disorders, which induces liver injury. Intermittent administration of curcumin is necessary in our daily lives. PMID:26978516

  6. DNA damage in mouse lymphocytes exposed to curcumin and copper.

    PubMed

    Urbina-Cano, Patricia; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Ramírez-Herrera, Mario A; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Mendoza-Magaña, Maria L; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Dietary polyphenolics, such as curcumin, have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Some antioxidants cause DNA strand breaks in excess of transition metal ions, such as copper. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of curcumin in the presence of increasing concentrations of copper to induce DNA damage in murine leukocytes by the comet assay. Balb-C mouse lymphocytes were exposed to 50 microM curcumin and various concentrations of copper (10 microM, 100 microM and 200 microM). Cellular DNA damage was detected by means of the alkaline comet assay. Our results show that 50 microM curcumin in the presence of 100-200 microM copper induced DNA damage in murine lymphocytes. Curcumin did not inhibit the oxidative DNA damage caused by 50 microM H2O2 in mouse lymphocytes. Moreover, 50 microM curcumin alone was capable of inducing DNA strand breaks under the tested conditions. The increased DNA damage by 50 mM curcumin was observed in the presence of various concentrations of copper, as detected by the alkaline comet assay. PMID:17132903

  7. Effect of curcumin on the interaction between androgen receptor and Wnt/β-catenin in LNCaP xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gilho; Choi, Han Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin is a nontoxic, chemopreventive agent possessing multifaceted functions. Our previous study showed that curcumin inhibits androgen receptor (AR) through modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LNCaP cells. Therefore, we investigated the in vivo effects of curcumin by using LNCaP xenografts. Materials and Methods LNCaP cells were subcutaneously inoculated in Balb/c nude mice. When the tumor volume reached greater than 100 mm3, either curcumin (500 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle was administered through oral gavage three times weekly for 4 weeks. The expression of AR and intermediate products of Wnt/β-catenin were assessed. Results Curcumin had an inhibitory effect on tumor growth during the early period, which was followed by a slow increase in growth over time. Tumor growth was delayed about 27% in the curcumin group. The mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in the curcumin group was approximately twice that in the untreated group. Curcumin significantly decreased AR expression at both the mRNA and protein level. The PSA levels tended to be reduced in the curcumin group. However, there were no significant changes in expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway intermediates. Conclusions This study revealed that curcumin initially interferes with prostate cancer growth by inhibiting AR activity and possibly by reducing PSA expression. Further research is needed to investigate the plausible mechanism of the antiandrogenic action of curcumin. PMID:26366279

  8. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection in vitro by saliphenylhalamide-loaded porous silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bimbo, Luis M; Denisova, Oxana V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; De Brabander, Jef K; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno; Kakkola, Laura; Kainov, Denis; Santos, Hélder A

    2013-08-27

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause recurrent epidemics in humans, with serious threat of lethal worldwide pandemics. The occurrence of antiviral-resistant virus strains and the emergence of highly pathogenic influenza viruses have triggered an urgent need to develop new anti-IAV treatments. One compound found to inhibit IAV, and other virus infections, is saliphenylhalamide (SaliPhe). SaliPhe targets host vacuolar-ATPase and inhibits acidification of endosomes, a process needed for productive virus infection. The major obstacle for the further development of SaliPhe as antiviral drug has been its poor solubility. Here, we investigated the possibility to increase SaliPhe solubility by loading the compound in thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles. SaliPhe-loaded nanoparticles were further investigated for the ability to inhibit influenza A infection in human retinal pigment epithelium and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, and we show that upon release from THCPSi, SaliPhe inhibited IAV infection in vitro and reduced the amount of progeny virus in IAV-infected cells. Overall, the PSi-based nanosystem exhibited increased dissolution of the investigated anti-IAV drug SaliPhe and displayed excellent in vitro stability, low cytotoxicity, and remarkable reduction of viral load in the absence of organic solvents. This proof-of-principle study indicates that PSi nanoparticles could be used for efficient delivery of antivirals to infected cells.

  9. Inhibition of influenza A virus infection in vitro by saliphenylhalamide-loaded porous silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bimbo, Luis M; Denisova, Oxana V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; De Brabander, Jef K; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno; Kakkola, Laura; Kainov, Denis; Santos, Hélder A

    2013-08-27

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause recurrent epidemics in humans, with serious threat of lethal worldwide pandemics. The occurrence of antiviral-resistant virus strains and the emergence of highly pathogenic influenza viruses have triggered an urgent need to develop new anti-IAV treatments. One compound found to inhibit IAV, and other virus infections, is saliphenylhalamide (SaliPhe). SaliPhe targets host vacuolar-ATPase and inhibits acidification of endosomes, a process needed for productive virus infection. The major obstacle for the further development of SaliPhe as antiviral drug has been its poor solubility. Here, we investigated the possibility to increase SaliPhe solubility by loading the compound in thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles. SaliPhe-loaded nanoparticles were further investigated for the ability to inhibit influenza A infection in human retinal pigment epithelium and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, and we show that upon release from THCPSi, SaliPhe inhibited IAV infection in vitro and reduced the amount of progeny virus in IAV-infected cells. Overall, the PSi-based nanosystem exhibited increased dissolution of the investigated anti-IAV drug SaliPhe and displayed excellent in vitro stability, low cytotoxicity, and remarkable reduction of viral load in the absence of organic solvents. This proof-of-principle study indicates that PSi nanoparticles could be used for efficient delivery of antivirals to infected cells. PMID:23889734

  10. Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based carrier for delivery of curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Puri, Anu; Tele, Shrikant; Blumenthal, Robert; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2008-05-01

    We have initiated studies to enhance targeted delivery of an anticancer agent, curcumin, for prostate cancer treatment by incorporating this agent into the liposomes (nanodelivery vehicles primarily composed of phospholipids) coated with prostate membrane specific antigen specific antibodies. We prepared curcumin-loaded liposomes of various lipid compositions by sonication at an average size of 100-150 nm. Un-entrapped curcumin was removed by size exclusion chromatography. Data show that curcumin preferentially partitioned into liposomes prepared from dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline (DMPC) and cholesterol among the various compositions tested. The anti-proliferative activity of liposomal curcumin was studied using two human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) by a tetrazolium dye-based (MTT) assay. Treatment of cells with liposomal curcumin (5-10 microM) for 24-48 h at 37 degrees C resulted in at least 70-80% inhibition of cellular proliferation without affecting their viability. On the other hand, free curcumin exhibited similar inhibition only at 10-fold higher doses (>50 microM). We also observed that LNCaP cells were relatively more sensitive to liposomal curcumin mediated block of cellular proliferation than C4-2B cells. We are currently developing liposome formulations with targeting ability to further improve the efficacy of curcumin in vivo.

  11. Augmented Inhibition of CYP3A4 in Human Primary Hepatocytes by Ritonavir Solid Drug Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martin, Philip; Giardiello, Marco; McDonald, Tom O; Smith, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Rannard, Steven P; Owen, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor utilized primarily as a pharmaco-enhancer with concomitantly administered antiviral drugs including other protease inhibitors. However, poor tolerance, serious side effects, and toxicities associated with drug-drug interactions are common during exposure to ritonavir. The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of nanoformulation on ritonavir pharmacological properties. Emulsion-templated freeze-drying techniques were used to generate ritonavir (10 wt %) solid drug nanoparticle formulations. A total of 68 ritonavir formulations containing various mixtures of excipients were assessed for inhibition of CYP3A4 in baculosomes and primary human hepatocytes. Accumulation and cytotoxicity were assessed in HepG2 (hepatocytes), Caco-2 (intestinal), THP-1 (monocytes), A-THP-1 (macrophage), and CEM (lymphocytes). Transcellular permeation across Caco-2 cells was also assessed. From 68 solid drug nanoparticle formulations tested, 50 (73.5%) for baculosome and 44 (64.7%) for human primary hepatocytes exhibited enhanced CYP3A4 inhibition relative to an aqueous ritonavir solution. Sixty-one (89.7%) and 49 (72%) solid drug nanoformulations had higher apical to basal permeation across Caco-2 cells than aqueous solution of ritonavir after 60 and 120 min, respectively. No significant difference in cellular accumulation was observed for any solid drug nanoparticle for any cell type compared to aqueous ritonavir. However, incubation with the vast majority of solid drug nanoparticle formulations resulted in lower cytotoxicity of ritonavir than detected with an aqueous solution. These data provide in vitro proof of concept for improved inhibition of CYP3A4 by ritonavir through formation of solid drug nanoparticles. Nanodispersions also showed enhanced permeability across Caco-2 cells lower cytotoxicity across hepatic, intestinal, and immune cell types compared to an aqueous solution of ritonavir.

  12. Titanium oxide nanoparticle instillation induces inflammation and inhibits lung development in mice.

    PubMed

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Stanishevsky, Andrei; Bulger, Arlene; Halloran, Brian; Steele, Chad; Vohra, Yogesh; Matalon, Sadis

    2013-02-01

    Nanoparticles are used in an increasing number of biomedical, industrial, and food applications, but their safety profiles in developing organisms, including the human fetus and infant, have not been evaluated. Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles, which are commonly used in cosmetics, sunscreens, paints, and food, have been shown to induce emphysema and lung inflammation in adult mice. We hypothesized that exposure of newborn mice to TiO(2) would induce lung inflammation and inhibit lung development. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to TiO(2) (anatase; 8-10 nm) nanoparticles by intranasal instillation as a single dose on postnatal day 4 (P4) or as three doses on postnatal days 4, 7, and 10 (each dose = 1 μg/g body wt). Measurements of lung function (compliance and resistance), development (morphometry), inflammation (histology; multiplex analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for cytokines; PCR array and multiplex analysis of lung homogenates for cytokines) was performed on postnatal day 14. It was observed that a single dose of TiO(2) nanoparticles led to inflammatory cell influx, and multiple doses led to increased inflammation and inhibition of lung development without significant effects on lung function. Macrophages were noted to take up the TiO(2) nanoparticles, followed by polymorphonuclear infiltrate. Multiple cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in lung homogenates, and VEGF was reduced. These results suggest that exposure of the developing lung to nanoparticles may lead to ineffective clearance by macrophages and persistent inflammation with resulting effects on lung development and may possibly impact the risk of respiratory disorders in later life.

  13. Targets of curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  14. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Diaz, David; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Garza-Enriquez, Marianela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities. Results Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM. Conclusion These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation. PMID:22619547

  15. ZnO nanoparticles inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence factor production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-12-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of virulence factors, and biofilms of this bacterium are much more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. Thirty-six metal ions have been investigated to identify antivirulence and antibiofilm metal ions. Zinc ions and ZnO nanoparticles were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation and the production of pyocyanin, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), pyochelin, and hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa without affecting the growth of planktonic cells. Transcriptome analyses showed that ZnO nanoparticles induce the zinc cation efflux pump czc operon and several important transcriptional regulators (porin gene opdT and type III repressor ptrA), but repress the pyocyanin-related phz operon, which explains observed phenotypic changes. A mutant study showed that the effects of ZnO nanoparticles on the control of pyocyanin production and biofilm formation require the czc regulator CzcR. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles markedly increased the cellular hydrophilicity of P. aeruginosa cells. Our results support that ZnO nanoparticles are potential antivirulence materials against recalcitrant P. aeruginosa infections and possibly other important pathogens. PMID:24958247

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Ambar K; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  18. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  19. Curcumin aggravates CNS pathology in experimental systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Foxley, Sean; Zamora, Marta; Hack, Bradley; Alexander, Rebecca Rashmi; Roman, Brian; Quigg, Richard John; Alexander, Jessy John

    2013-04-01

    Complement activation and inflammation are key disease features of systemic lupus erythematosus. Curcumin is an anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the complement cascade. Therefore, we hypothesized that curcumin will be protective in CNS lupus. To assess the effect of curcumin on CNS-lupus, MRL/lpr mice were used. Brain MRI showed that curcumin (30mg/kg body wt. i.p. from 12-20 weeks) worsened regional brain atrophy. The volumes of the lateral and third ventricles are significantly increased (150%-213% and 107%-140%, without and with treatment respectively compared to MRL+/+ controls). The hippocampus was reduced further (83%-81%) by curcumin treatment. In line with increased brain atrophy, there were edematous cells (41% increase in cell size in MRL/lpr compared to MRL+/+ mice. The cell size was further increased by 28% when treated with curcumin; p<0.02) in the cortex. In line with increased atrophy and edema, there was a significant increase (p<0.02) in the mRNA and protein expression of the water channel protein, aquaporin 4 in these mice. The increase in the matrix proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in lupus mice in the hippocampus was prevented by curcumin. Curcumin increased IgG deposits and decreased C3 deposits in brain with a corresponding increase in immune complexes and decrease in C3 concentration (by 60% in MRL/lpr mice Vs. MRL+/+ mice and a further 26% decrease when treated with curcumin) in circulation. Decrease in C3 could alter the transport of immune complexes leading to an increase in IgG deposits which could induce inflammatory pathways thereby leading to worsening of the disease. The neurological outcome as measured by maze performance indicates that the curcumin treated mice performed poorly compared to the untreated counterparts. Our results for the first time provide evidence that at the dose used in this study, curcumin aggravates some CNS disease manifestations in experimental lupus brain. Therefore, until a safe

  20. “Clicked” Sugar–Curcumin Conjugate: Modulator of Amyloid-β and Tau Peptide Aggregation at Ultralow Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of a water/plasma soluble, noncytotoxic, “clicked” sugar-derivative of curcumin with amplified bioefficacy in modulating amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation is presented. Curcumin inhibits amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation at micromolar concentrations; the sugar–curcumin conjugate inhibits Aβ and tau peptide aggregation at concentrations as low as 8 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively. In comparison to curcumin, this conveniently synthesized Alzheimer’s drug candidate is a more powerful antioxidant. PMID:22860163

  1. "Clicked" sugar-curcumin conjugate: modulator of amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation at ultralow concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dolai, Sukanta; Shi, Wei; Corbo, Christopher; Sun, Chong; Averick, Saadyah; Obeysekera, Dinali; Farid, Mina; Alonso, Alejandra; Banerjee, Probal; Raja, Krishnaswami

    2011-12-21

    The synthesis of a water/plasma soluble, noncytotoxic, "clicked" sugar-derivative of curcumin with amplified bioefficacy in modulating amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation is presented. Curcumin inhibits amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation at micromolar concentrations; the sugar-curcumin conjugate inhibits Aβ and tau peptide aggregation at concentrations as low as 8 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively. In comparison to curcumin, this conveniently synthesized Alzheimer's drug candidate is a more powerful antioxidant. PMID:22860163

  2. Thrombin-inhibiting nanoparticles rapidly constitute versatile and detectable anticlotting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley Myerson, Jacob; He, Li; Allen, John Stacy; Williams, Todd; Lanza, Gregory; Tollefsen, Douglas; Caruthers, Shelton; Wickline, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Restoring an antithrombotic surface to suppress ongoing thrombosis is an appealing strategy for treatment of acute cardiovascular disorders such as erosion of atherosclerotic plaque. An antithrombotic surface would present an alternative to systemic anticoagulation with attendant risks of bleeding. We have designed thrombin-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that bind to sites of active clotting to extinguish local thrombin activity and inhibit platelet deposition while exhibiting only transient systemic anticoagulant effects. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) were functionalized with thrombin inhibitors (either D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone or bivalirudin) by covalent attachment of more than 15 000 inhibitors to each PFC NP. Fibrinopeptide A (FPA) ELISA demonstrated that thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented cleavage of fibrinogen by both free and clot-bound thrombin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed that a layer of thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented growth of clots in vitro. Thrombin-inhibiting NPs were administered in vivo to C57BL6 mice subjected to laser injury of the carotid artery. NPs significantly delayed thrombotic occlusion of the artery, whereas an equivalent bolus of free inhibitor was ineffective. For thrombin-inhibiting NPs, only a short-lived (˜10 min) systemic effect on bleeding time was observed, despite prolonged clot inhibition. Imaging and quantification of in vivo antithrombotic NP layers was demonstrated by MRI of the PFC NP. 19F MRI confirmed colocalization of particles with arterial thrombi, and quantitative 19F spectroscopy demonstrated specific binding and retention of thrombin-inhibiting NPs in injured arteries. The ability to rapidly form and image a new antithrombotic surface in acute vascular syndromes while minimizing risks of bleeding would permit a safer method of passivating active lesions than current systemic anticoagulant regimes.

  3. Thrombin-Inhibiting Nanoparticles Rapidly Constitute Versatile and Detectable Anticlotting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Jacob Wheatley; He, Li; Allen, John Stacy; Williams, Todd; Lanza, Gregory; Tollefsen, Douglas; Caruthers, Shelton; Wickline, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Restoring an antithrombotic surface to suppress ongoing thrombosis is an appealing strategy for treatment of acute cardiovascular disorders such as erosion of atherosclerotic plaque. An antithrombotic surface would present an alternative to systemic anticoagulation with attendant risks of bleeding. We have designed thrombin-targeted nanoparticles that bind to sites of active clotting to extinguish local thrombin activity and inhibit platelet deposition while exhibiting only transient systemic anticoagulant effects. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) were functionalized with thrombin inhibitors (either PPACK or bivalirudin) by covalent attachment of more than 15,000 inhibitors to each PFC NP. Fibrinopeptide A ELISA demonstrated that thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented cleavage of fibrinogen by both free and clot-bound thrombin. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that a layer of thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented growth of clots in vitro. Thrombin-inhibiting NPs were administered in vivo to C57BL6 mice subjected to laser injury of the carotid artery. NPs significantly delayed thrombotic occlusion of the artery, whereas an equivalent bolus of free inhibitor was ineffective. For thrombin-inhibiting NPs, only a short-lived (~10 minutes) systemic effect on bleeding time was observed, despite prolonged clot inhibition. Imaging and quantification of in vivo antithrombotic NP layers was demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the PFC NP. 19F MRI confirmed colocalization of particles with arterial thrombi, and quantitative 19F spectroscopy demonstrated specific binding and retention of thrombin-inhibiting NPs in injured arteries. The ability to rapidly form and image a new antithrombotic surface in acute vascular syndromes while minimizing risks of bleeding would permit a safer method of passivating active lesions than current systemic anticoagulant regimes. PMID:25200815

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Bacterial Biofilm Inhibition via Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Statistical Determination

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm is a major challenge in clinical applications. The main aim of this study is to describe the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) against bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These nanoparticles were synthesized via soft chemical solution process in a very short time and their structural properties have been investigated in detail by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements. In this work, the potential of synthesized ZnO-NPs (∼10–15 nm) has been assessed in-vitro inhibition of bacteria and the formation of their biofilms was observed using the tissue culture plate assays. The crystal violet staining on biofilm formation and its optical density revealed the effect on biofilm inhibition. The NPs at a concentration of 100 µg/mL significantly inhibited the growth of bacteria and biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition by ZnO-NPs was also confirmed via bio-transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM). The Bio-TEM analysis of ZnO-NPs treated bacteria confirmed the deformation and damage of cells. The bacterial growth in presence of NPs concluded the bactericidal ability of NPs in a concentration dependent manner. It has been speculated that the antibacterial activity of NPs as a surface coating material, could be a feasible approach for controlling the pathogens. Additionally, the obtained bacterial solution data is also in agreement with the results from statistical analytical methods. PMID:25402188

  5. Promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles for cancer stem cell therapy by TGF-β signaling pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zu-Qi; Chen, Kai-Ge; Yu, Xiao-Yuan; Zhao, Gui; Shen, Song; Cao, Zhi-Ting; Luo, Ying-Li; Wang, Yu-Cai; Wang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which hold a high capacity for self-renewal, play a central role in the development, metastasis, and recurrence of various malignancies. CSCs must be eradicated to cure instances of cancer; however, because they can reside far from tumor vessels, they are not easily targeted by drug agents carried by nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. We herein demonstrate that promoting tumor penetration of nanoparticles by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway inhibition facilitates CSC therapy. In our study, we observed that although nanoparticles carrying siRNA targeting the oncogene polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) efficiently killed breast CSCs derived from MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, this intervention enriched CSCs in the residual tumor tissue following systemic treatment. However, inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway with LY364947, an inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, promoted the penetration of nanoparticles in tumor tissue, significantly ameliorating the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 xenografts and further leading to enhanced internalization of nanoparticles by CSCs. As a result, synergistic treatment with a nanoparticle drug delivery system and LY364947 inhibited tumor growth and reduced the proportion of CSCs in vivo. This study suggests that enhanced tumor penetration of drug-carrying nanoparticles can enhance CSCs clearance in vivo and consequently provide superior anti-tumor effects. PMID:26751819

  6. In Vitro Study on Antihypertensive and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of a Curcumin Nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Soraya, Irene Surya; Kurniati, Neng Fisheri; Rahma, Annisa

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and hypertension can potentially progess into dangerous cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels while antihypertensive agents such as captopril are widely prescribed to treat high blood pressure. Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from Curcuma domestica, has been proven effective for a broad spectrum of diseases, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, curcumin is quite promising as an alternative therapeutic compound. Our previous studies have proven a significant increase in physical properties, bioavailability, and stability of curcumin when encapsulated in a nanoemulsion. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the nanoemulsion in enhancing curcumin activity as a antihypertensive and antihypercholesterolemic agent. The formulation and preparation method of the curcumin nanoemulsion have been developed in our previous study. Physical characterization was performed, including measurement of droplet size, polidispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity. Antihypertensive activity of curcumin was evaluated by determining Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition in vitro. A substrate for ACE, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine was allowed to react with ACE, resulting in hippuric acid formation as the product. The degree of ACE inhibition by curcumin was represented by the amount of hippuric acid formed. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of curcumin was studied using the HMG-CoA reductase assay equipped with a 96-well UV plate. This assay was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease in absorbance which represents the oxidation of NADPH by the catalytic subunit of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) in the presence of the substrate HMG-CoA. Curcumin is known to have no significant difference in inhibiting ACE compared to Captopril, but when it was incorporated in the self

  7. In Vitro Study on Antihypertensive and Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of a Curcumin Nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Soraya, Irene Surya; Kurniati, Neng Fisheri; Rahma, Annisa

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and hypertension can potentially progess into dangerous cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels while antihypertensive agents such as captopril are widely prescribed to treat high blood pressure. Curcumin, a phenolic compound isolated from Curcuma domestica, has been proven effective for a broad spectrum of diseases, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, curcumin is quite promising as an alternative therapeutic compound. Our previous studies have proven a significant increase in physical properties, bioavailability, and stability of curcumin when encapsulated in a nanoemulsion. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the nanoemulsion in enhancing curcumin activity as a antihypertensive and antihypercholesterolemic agent. The formulation and preparation method of the curcumin nanoemulsion have been developed in our previous study. Physical characterization was performed, including measurement of droplet size, polidispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and loading capacity. Antihypertensive activity of curcumin was evaluated by determining Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition in vitro. A substrate for ACE, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine was allowed to react with ACE, resulting in hippuric acid formation as the product. The degree of ACE inhibition by curcumin was represented by the amount of hippuric acid formed. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of curcumin was studied using the HMG-CoA reductase assay equipped with a 96-well UV plate. This assay was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease in absorbance which represents the oxidation of NADPH by the catalytic subunit of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) in the presence of the substrate HMG-CoA. Curcumin is known to have no significant difference in inhibiting ACE compared to Captopril, but when it was incorporated in the self

  8. Curcumin exerts antitumor effects in retinoblastoma cells by regulating the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Zhong, Jingtao; Yan, Li; Li, Jie; Wang, Hui; Wen, Yan; Zhao, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), exerts antitumor effects in various types of malignancy. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the effects of curcumin on retinoblastoma (RB) cells have not been fully explored. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its anticancer effects in RB Y79 cells were investigated. The results showed that curcumin reduced cell viability in Y79 cells. Curcumin induced G1 phase arrest through downregulating the expression of cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2/6 and upregulating the expression of CDK inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Curcumin-induced apoptosis of Y79 cells occurred through the activation of caspases-9/-3. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis showed that curcumin induced mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) collapse in Y79 cells. We also found that curcumin induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors significantly suppressed curcumin‑induced activation of caspases-9/-3 and inhibited the apoptosis of Y79 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin induced the apoptosis of Y79 cells through the activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings provide a novel treatment strategy for human RB. PMID:27432244

  9. Curcumin AntiCancer Studies in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Leongito, Maddalena; Piccirillo, Mauro; Giudice, Aldo; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Granata, Vincenza; Palaia, Raffaele; Izzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis. Systemic gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus nab-paclitaxel are used as the gold-standard therapy for patients with advanced PC; although this treatment is associated with a better overall survival compared to the old treatment, many side effects and poor results are still present. Therefore, new alternative therapies have been considered for treatment of advanced PC. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has anticancer effects against different types of cancer, including PC, by modulating many molecular targets. Regarding PC, in vitro studies have shown potent cytotoxic effects of curcumin on different PC cell lines including MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3. In addition, in vivo studies on PC models have shown that the anti-proliferative effects of curcumin are caused by the inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis and are due to the induction of apoptosis. On the basis of these results, several researchers tested the anticancer effects of curcumin in clinical trials, trying to overcome the poor bioavailability of this agent by developing new bioavailable forms of curcumin. In this article, we review the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effects of curcumin in the treatment of PC. PMID:27438851

  10. Curcumin AntiCancer Studies in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Leongito, Maddalena; Piccirillo, Mauro; Giudice, Aldo; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Granata, Vincenza; Palaia, Raffaele; Izzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Surgical resection remains the only curative therapeutic treatment for this disease, although only the minority of patients can be resected due to late diagnosis. Systemic gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus nab-paclitaxel are used as the gold-standard therapy for patients with advanced PC; although this treatment is associated with a better overall survival compared to the old treatment, many side effects and poor results are still present. Therefore, new alternative therapies have been considered for treatment of advanced PC. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that curcumin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, has anticancer effects against different types of cancer, including PC, by modulating many molecular targets. Regarding PC, in vitro studies have shown potent cytotoxic effects of curcumin on different PC cell lines including MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3. In addition, in vivo studies on PC models have shown that the anti-proliferative effects of curcumin are caused by the inhibition of oxidative stress and angiogenesis and are due to the induction of apoptosis. On the basis of these results, several researchers tested the anticancer effects of curcumin in clinical trials, trying to overcome the poor bioavailability of this agent by developing new bioavailable forms of curcumin. In this article, we review the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies on the effects of curcumin in the treatment of PC. PMID:27438851

  11. Efficient inhibition of ovarian cancer by degradable nanoparticle-delivered survivin T34A gene

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li; Du, Ting; Zhang, Jiumeng; Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Hao; Yang, Yuping; Wu, Yujiao; Wang, Chunmei; Men, Ke; Gou, Maling

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy has promising applications in ovarian cancer therapy. Blocking the function of the survivin protein could lead to the growth inhibition of cancer cells. Herein, we used degradable heparin–polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles to deliver a dominant-negative human survivin T34A (hs-T34A) gene to treat ovarian cancer. HPEI nanoparticles were characterized and were found to have a dynamic diameter of 66±4.5 nm and a zeta potential of 27.1±1.87 mV. The constructed hs-T34A gene expression plasmid could be effectively delivered into SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells by HPEI nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity. Intraperitoneal administration of HPEI/hs-T34A complexes could markedly inhibit tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of SKOV3 human ovarian cancer. Moreover, according to our results, apparent apoptosis of cancer cells was observed both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the prepared HPEI/hs-T34A formulation showed potential applications in ovarian cancer gene therapy. PMID:26893558

  12. Efficient inhibition of ovarian cancer by degradable nanoparticle-delivered survivin T34A gene.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Du, Ting; Zhang, Jiumeng; Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Hao; Yang, Yuping; Wu, Yujiao; Wang, Chunmei; Men, Ke; Gou, Maling

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy has promising applications in ovarian cancer therapy. Blocking the function of the survivin protein could lead to the growth inhibition of cancer cells. Herein, we used degradable heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanoparticles to deliver a dominant-negative human survivin T34A (hs-T34A) gene to treat ovarian cancer. HPEI nanoparticles were characterized and were found to have a dynamic diameter of 66±4.5 nm and a zeta potential of 27.1±1.87 mV. The constructed hs-T34A gene expression plasmid could be effectively delivered into SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells by HPEI nanoparticles with low cytotoxicity. Intraperitoneal administration of HPEI/hs-T34A complexes could markedly inhibit tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of SKOV3 human ovarian cancer. Moreover, according to our results, apparent apoptosis of cancer cells was observed both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the prepared HPEI/hs-T34A formulation showed potential applications in ovarian cancer gene therapy. PMID:26893558

  13. Formulation of nanotized curcumin and demonstration of its antimalarial efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Banerjee, Tanushree; Bhandary, Suman; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2014-01-01

    Aim The present study was conducted to overcome the disadvantages associated with the poor water solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin by synthesizing nanotized curcumin and demonstrating its efficacy in treating malaria. Materials and methods Nanotized curcumin was prepared by a modified emulsion-diffusion-evaporation method and was characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zetasizer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The novelty of the prepared nanoformulation lies in the fact that it was devoid of any polymeric matrices used in conventional carriers. The antimalarial efficacy of the prepared nanotized curcumin was then checked both in vitro and in vivo. Results The nanopreparation was found to be non-toxic and had a particle size distribution of 20–50 nm along with improved aqueous dispersibility and an entrapment efficiency of 45%. Nanotized curcumin (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50]: 0.5 μM) was also found to be ten-fold more effective for growth inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro as compared to its native counterpart (IC50: 5 μM). Oral bioavailability of nanotized curcumin was found to be superior to that of its native counterpart. Moreover, when Plasmodium berghei-infected mice were orally treated with nanotized curcumin, it prolonged their survival by more than 2 months with complete clearance of parasites in comparison to the untreated animals, which survived for 8 days only. Conclusion Nanotized curcumin holds a considerable promise in therapeutics as demonstrated here for treating malaria as a test system. PMID:25484584

  14. Up-Regulatory Effects of Curcumin on Large Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qijing; Tao, Jie; Hei, Hongya; Li, Fangping; Wang, Yunman; Peng, Wen; Zhang, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels (BK) are targets for research that explores therapeutic means to various diseases, owing to the roles of the channels in mediating multiple physiological processes in various cells and tissues. We investigated the pharmacological effects of curcumin, a compound isolated from the herb Curcuma longa, on BK channels. As recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp, curcumin increased BK (α) and BK (α+β1) currents in transfected HEK293 cells as well as the current density of BK in A7r5 smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. By incubating with curcumin for 24 hours, the current density of exogenous BK (α) in HEK293 cells and the endogenous BK in A7r5 cells were both enhanced notably, though the steady-state activation of the channels did not shift significantly, except for BK (α+β1). Curcumin up-regulated the BK protein expression without changing its mRNA level in A7r5 cells. The surface expression and the half-life of BK channels were also increased by curcumin in HEK293 cells. These effects of curcumin were abolished by MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Curcumin also increased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, while inhibiting ERK by U0126 attenuated the curcumin-induced up-regulation of BK protein expression. We also observed that the curcumin-induced relaxation in the isolated rat aortic rings was significantly attenuated by paxilline, a BK channel specific blocker. These results show that curcumin enhances the activity of the BK channels by interacting with BK directly as well as enhancing BK protein expression through inhibiting proteasomal degradation and activating ERK signaling pathway. The findings suggest that curcumin is a potential BK channel activator and provide novel insight into its complicated pharmacological effects and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26672753

  15. Recent Advances of Curcumin and its Analogues in Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Charlotta D; Jordan, Brian C; Selvam, Chelliah

    2016-01-01

    More than 230,000 diagnosed cases of invasive breast cancer in women was estimated in 2014 and an expected 40,000 deaths attributed to the aggressive carcinoma. An effective approach to diminish the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer is the development of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. Nutraceuticals have demonstrated their ability to proficiently halt carcinogenesis. The administration of natural compounds able to effectively serve as chemoprevention and chemotherapeutics without causing harm or adverse effects is imperative. Curcumin derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., is a common spice of India, used for centuries because of its medicinal properties. The main component of curcumin possesses a wide range of biological activities; anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic characteristics modulated through the inactivation of pathways such as EGK and Akt/mTOR. In addition, curcumin alters the expression of cytokines, transcription factors, and enzymes involved in cell vitality. The in vivo application of curcumin in breast cancer is hindered by its limited bioavailabiity. The synthesis of curcumin analogues and delivery via nanoparticles has demonstrated enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the malignancy. This review focuses on recent developments in the use of curcumin, curcumin analogues, and novel delivery systems as a preventive and therapeutic method for breast cancer. PMID:27103993

  16. Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subash C; Patchva, Sridevi; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin's pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signaling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E(2), prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nanoparticles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. In this review, we discuss in detail the various human diseases in which the

  17. How does curcumin work with poor bioavailability? Clues from experimental and theoretical studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liang; Liu, Cui-Cui; An, Chun-Yan; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural product with multiple biological activities and numerous potential therapeutic applications. However, its poor systemic bioavailability fails to explain the potent pharmacological effects and hinders its clinical application. Using experimental and theoretical approaches, we compared curcumin and its degradation products for its biological activities against Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including the superoxide anion radical (O2.–)-scavenging activity, Aβ fibrils (fAβ) formation-inhibiting activity, and enzymatic inhibition activity. We showed that compared to the parent compound curcumin, the degradation products mixture possessed higher O2.–-scavenging activity and stronger inhibition against fAβ formation. The docking simulations revealed that the bioactive degradation products should make important contribution to the experimentally observed enzymatic inhibition activities of curcumin. Given that curcumin is readily degraded under physiological condition, our findings strongly suggested that the degradation products should make important contribution to the diverse biological activities of curcumin. Our novel findings not only provide novel insights into the complex pharmacology of curcumin due to its poor bioavailability, but also open new avenues for developing therapeutic applications of this natural product. PMID:26887346

  18. Silver nanoparticles inhibit fish gill cell proliferation in protein-free culture medium.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yang; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    While short-term exposures of vertebrate cells, such as from fish, can be performed in defined, serum-free media, long-term cultures generally require addition of growth factors and proteins, normally supplied with a serum supplement. However, proteins are known to alter nanoparticle properties by binding to nanoparticles. Therefore, in order to be able to study nanoparticle-cell interactions for extended periods, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill cell line, RTgill-W1, was adapted to proliferate in a commercial, serum-free medium, InVitrus VP-6. The newly adapted cell strain was named RTgill-W1-pf (protein free). These cells proliferate at a speed similar to the RTgill-W1 cells cultured in a fully supplemented medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum. As well, they were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and fully recovered after thawing. Yet, senescence set in after about 10 passages in InVitrus VP-6 medium, revealing that this medium cannot fully support long-term culture of the RTgill-W1 strain. The RTgill-W1-pf cell line was subsequently applied to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on cell proliferation over a period of 12 days. Indeed, cell proliferation was inhibited by 10 μM AgNP. This effect correlated with high levels of silver being associated with the cells. The new cell line, RTgill-W1-pf, can serve as a unique representation of the gill cell-environment interface, offering novel opportunities to study nanoparticle-cell interactions without serum protein interference. PMID:27030289

  19. Silver nanoparticles inhibit fish gill cell proliferation in protein-free culture medium.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yang; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura; Schirmer, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    While short-term exposures of vertebrate cells, such as from fish, can be performed in defined, serum-free media, long-term cultures generally require addition of growth factors and proteins, normally supplied with a serum supplement. However, proteins are known to alter nanoparticle properties by binding to nanoparticles. Therefore, in order to be able to study nanoparticle-cell interactions for extended periods, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill cell line, RTgill-W1, was adapted to proliferate in a commercial, serum-free medium, InVitrus VP-6. The newly adapted cell strain was named RTgill-W1-pf (protein free). These cells proliferate at a speed similar to the RTgill-W1 cells cultured in a fully supplemented medium containing 5% fetal bovine serum. As well, they were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and fully recovered after thawing. Yet, senescence set in after about 10 passages in InVitrus VP-6 medium, revealing that this medium cannot fully support long-term culture of the RTgill-W1 strain. The RTgill-W1-pf cell line was subsequently applied to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on cell proliferation over a period of 12 days. Indeed, cell proliferation was inhibited by 10 μM AgNP. This effect correlated with high levels of silver being associated with the cells. The new cell line, RTgill-W1-pf, can serve as a unique representation of the gill cell-environment interface, offering novel opportunities to study nanoparticle-cell interactions without serum protein interference.

  20. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/(-)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis.

  1. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/(-)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. PMID:26604756

  2. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector/(−)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. PMID:26604756

  3. Lipid Based Nanosystems for Curcumin: Past, Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Aditya P; Mills, Tom; Norton, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the principle bioactive compounds used in the ayurvedic medicine system that has the history of over 5000 years for human use. Curcumin an "Indian Gold" is used to treat simple ailments like the common cold to severe life threatening diseases like cancer, and HIV. Though its contribution is immense for the health protection and disease prevention, its clinical use is limited due to its susceptible nature to alkaline pH, high temperature, presence of oxygen and light. Hence it becomes extremely difficult to maintain its bioactivity during processing, storage and consumption. Recent advancements in the application of nanotechnology to curcumin offer an opportunity to enhance its stability, bioactivity and to overcome its pharmacokinetic mismatch. This in turn helps to bridge the gaps that exist between its bench top research data to its clinical findings. Among the various types of nano/micro delivery systems, lipid based delivery systems are well studied and are the best suited delivery systems to enhance the stability and pharmacokinetic profile of curcumin both for pharma and the food application. In the current review, effort will be made to recapitulate the work done in the past to use lipid based delivery systems (liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and emulsions) to enhance the application of curcumin for health promotion and disease prevention. Further, future prospects for the utilization of these lipid-based delivery systems will be discussed in detail. PMID:27306091

  4. Curcumin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in human biliary cancer cells through modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Prakobwong, Suksanti; Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Bokyung; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hiraku, Yusuke; Wongkham, Sopit; Sripa, Banchob; Pinlaor, Somchai; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a tumor with poor prognosis that is resistant to all currently available treatments. Whether curcumin, a nutraceutical derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potential therapeutic activity against human CCA was investigated using three CCA cell lines (KKU100, KKU-M156 and KKU-M213). Examination of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, phosphatidylserine externalization, esterase staining, caspase activation and poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase cleavage demonstrated that curcumin inhibited proliferation of and induced apoptosis in these biliary cancer cells. Colony-formation assay confirmed the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin on CCA cells. When examined for the mechanism, curcumin was found to activate multiple cell signaling pathways in these cells. First, all CCA cells exhibited constitutively active nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and treatment with curcumin abolished this activation as indicated by DNA binding, nuclear translocation and p65 phosphorylation. Second, curcumin suppressed activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 as indicated by decreased phosphorylation at both tyrosine(705) and serine(727) and inhibition of janus kinase-1 phosphorylation. Third, curcumin induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Fourth, curcumin upregulated death receptors, DR4 and DR5. Fifth, curcumin suppressed the Akt activation pathway. Sixth, curcumin inhibited expression of cell survival proteins such as B-cell lymphoma-2, B-cell leukemia protein xL, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, c-FLIP, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, cIAP-2 and survivin and proteins linked to cell proliferation, such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Seventh, the growth inhibitory effect of curcumin was enhanced in the IκB kinase-deficient cells, the enzyme required for nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Overall, our results indicate that curcumin mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin involves downregulation of MMP-9 in blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Saja, K; Babu, Mani Shankar; Karunagaran, D; Sudhakaran, P R

    2007-12-15

    Curcumin (1, 7-bis (4-hydroxyl-3-methoxyphenyl)-1, 6 heptadiene-3, 5-dione) is a potent natural anti oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, which mediates its effects mainly by inhibiting the activity of enzymes like cyclooxygenase, lipooxygenases and phospholipase A2. Here we examined the possibility of curcumin affecting the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which play an important role in inflammation. Zymographic analysis and ELISA showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the activity and level of MMPs produced by PBMCs isolated from human and inflammation-induced rabbit in a concentration dependent manner. The administration of curcumin to inflammation-induced rabbits also caused downregulation of MMP-9. Kinetic analysis showed that the effect of curcumin was a delayed one indicating inhibition of de novo protein synthesis. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed inhibition of the production of MMP-9 mRNA and protein respectively by human PBMCs, which were activated in vitro by Artocarpus Lakoocha agglutinin (ALA) lectin. EMSA and super shift showed activation of classical NFkappaB in in vitro activated PBMCs and treatment with curcumin inhibited activation of NFkappaB. Immunoblot analysis suggested that ALA-induced activation of NFkappaB leading to the upregulation of MMP-9 was due to the degradation of IkappaB-alpha. Curcumin inhibited the degradation of IkappaB-alpha, which inhibited the ALA mediated activation of NFkappaB and upregulation of MMP-9. These results indicated that anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin also involves inhibition of the production of MMP-9 in PBMCs.

  6. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Himani; Prashanth Kumar, B N; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Kr Mahto, Madhusudan; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~48 nm and 206.51 m(2)/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin. PMID:26706510

  7. Sonochemically synthesized biocompatible zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for pH sensitive drug delivery application.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Himani; Prashanth Kumar, B N; Konar, Suraj; Tantubay, Sangeeta; Kr Mahto, Madhusudan; Mandal, Mahitosh; Pathak, Amita

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of biocompatible zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles as nanocarrier for drug delivery application. The ZP nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple sonochemical method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and their efficacy for the delivery of drugs has been tested through various in-vitro experiments. The particle size and BET surface area of the nanoparticles were found to be ~48 nm and 206.51 m(2)/g respectively. The conventional MTT assay and cellular localization studies of the particles, performed on MDA-MB-231 cell lines, demonstrate their excellent biocompatibility and cellular internalization behavior. The loading of curcumin, an antitumor drug, onto the ZP nanoparticles shows the rapid drug uptake ability of the particles, while the drug release study, performed at two different pH values (at 7.4 and 5) depicts pH sensitive release-profile. The MTT assay and cellular localization studies revealed higher cellular inhibition and better bioavailability of the nanoformulated curcumin compared to free curcumin.

  8. Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus by suppression of ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a manner dependent on AMPK

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2015-07-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. - Highlights: • Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. • Curcumin suppresses ER stress in glutamate-induced hippocampus slices. • Curcumin inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • Regulation of AMPK by curcumin contributes to suppressing ER stress.

  9. CRM1 is a cellular target of curcumin: new insights for the myriad of biological effects of an ancient spice.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingshan; Wu, Sijin; Mao, Lei; Yang, Yongliang

    2013-10-01

    Curcumin is the major constituent of turmeric plant, an ancient spice widely used in Indian cuisine and traditional herbal medicine. Recently, the potential medical use of curcumin as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent has set off an upsurge in research into the mechanism for its broad biological effects. We showed that CRM1, an important nuclear exportin, is a cellular target of curcumin by serious experimental and theoretical investigation. Using a nuclear export functional assay, we observed a clear and rapid shift of cargo proteins from a cytoplasmic localization to the nucleus when treated with curcumin or its structural analogue dibenzylideneacetone (DBA). We demonstrated that curcumin could specifically target the conserved Cys(528) of CRM1 through mass spectrometric analysis and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, computational modeling has revealed that curcumin could be correctly docked into the hydrophobic pocket of CRM1 judged from shape complementarity and putative molecular interactions. The Michael acceptor moiety on curcumin is within the appropriate distance to enable Michael reaction with Cys residue of CRM1. More importantly, we showed that nuclear retention of FOXO1 could be observed in the presence of Leptomycin B (LMB) or curcumin whereas in cells expressing the CRM1-Cys(528) mutant, only a cytoplasmic localization was observed. The inhibition of nuclear traffic by curcumin may account for its myriad of biological effects, particularly for its therapeutic properties in cancer and inflammatory diseases. Our findings may have important implications for further clinical investigation of curcumin. PMID:23829533

  10. Effects and mechanisms of curcumin and basil polysaccharide on the invasion of SKOV3 cells and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Shao, Qianqian; Wang, Huayang; Shi, Huan; Wang, Ting; Gao, Wenjuan; Song, Bingfeng; Zheng, Guangjuan; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, a polysaccharide extract was obtained from Ocimum basilicum (basil polysaccharide, BPS) and the effects of curcumin and BPS on the invasion activity of the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were investigated. SKOV3 cells and immature or mature DCs were treated with 50 µM curcumin or 100 µg/ml BPS. A transwell invasion assay demonstrated that curcumin and BPS differentially regulate the invasion of SKOV3 cells and DCs. Curcumin significantly decreased the invasion of SKOV3 cells and immature and mature DCs, while BPS only decreased SKOV3 cell invasion. Osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in curcumin and BPS-treated SKOV3 cells and curcumin-treated DCs. Furthermore, flow cytometry showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the surface expression of CD44 in SKOV3 cells and DCs, while BPS had a minimal effect on CD44 expression. Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA and protein expression were also reduced in all curcumin-treated cells and BPS-treated SKOV3 cells. The results indicated that curcumin and BPS regulated invasion of SKOV3 cells and DCs by distinctly downregulating OPN, CD44 and MMP-9 expression. Therefore, Curcumin and BPS may be suitable candidates for DC-based vaccines for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24065177

  11. Controlled release of curcumin from curcumin-loaded nanomicelles to prevent peritendinous adhesion during Achilles tendon healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhong; Li, Xuanyi; Comes Franchini, Mauro; Xu, Ke; Locatelli, Erica; Martin, Robert C; Monaco, Ilaria; Li, Yan; Cui, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    We introduced curcumin-loaded nanomicelles into a tendon-healing model to evaluate their effects on tendon healing and adhesion. Three groups consisting of 36 rats underwent rupture and repair of the Achilles tendon. The treatment group received an injection of curcumin-loaded nanomicelles (gold nanorods [GNRs]-1/curcumin in polymeric nanomicelles [curc@PMs] at a dosage of 0.44 mg curcumin/kg in 0.1 mL saline) into the surgical site and exposed to laser postoperatively at weeks 1, 2, and 3, for three times 10 seconds each, on the surgical site in the rats that underwent tendon rupture and repair, while the other two groups received 0.44 mg curcumin/kg in 0.1 mL saline and 0.1 mL of saline, respectively. The specimens were harvested at 4 weeks and subjected to biomechanical and histological evaluation. The scoring results of tendon adhesion indicated that GNRs-1/curc@PMs group was in the lowest grade of peritendinous adhesions compared to the other groups. Histological assessment further confirmed the preventive effect of GNRs-1/curc@PMs on tendon adhesion. These findings indicated greater tendon strength with less adhesion in the group treated with GNRs-1/curc@PMs combined with laser exposure, and that nanoparticle-based therapy may be applied to prevent adhesion in clinical patients. PMID:27382278

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles impair endothelial integrity and inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Astanina, Ksenia; Simon, Yvette; Cavelius, Christian; Petry, Sandra; Kraegeloh, Annette; Kiemer, Alexandra K

    2014-11-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are widely used both clinically and experimentally for diverse in vivo applications, such as contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermia and drug delivery. Biomedical applications require particles to have defined physical and chemical properties, and to be stable in biological media. Despite a suggested low cytotoxic action, adverse reactions of SPION in concentrations relevant for biomedical use have not yet been studied in sufficient detail. In the present work we employed Endorem®, dextran-stabilized SPION approved as an intravenous contrast agent, and compared its action to a set of other nanoparticles with potential for magnetic resonance imaging applications. SPION in concentrations relevant for in vivo applications were rapidly taken up by endothelial cells and exhibited no direct cytotoxicity. Electric cell impedance sensing measurements demonstrated that SPION, but not BaSO4/Gd nanoparticles, impaired endothelial integrity, as was confirmed by increased intercellular gap formation in endothelial monolayers. These structural changes induced the subcellular translocation and inhibition of the cytoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic enzyme endothelial NO-synthase and reduced NO production. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory NO production of macrophages was not affected by SPION. In conclusion, our data suggest that SPION might substantially alter endothelial integrity and function at therapeutically relevant doses, which are not cytotoxic.

  13. Synthesis of magnetic composite nanoparticles enveloped in copolymers specified for scale inhibition application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Bao Phuong Huu; Dung Nguyen, Ba; Duy Nguyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2013-12-01

    We report the synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in maleic acid-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate based polymer. This composite nanoparticle is specified for the high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) oilfield scale inhibition application. The process includes a facile-ultrasound-supported addition reaction to obtain iron oxide nanoparticles with surface coated by oleic acid. Then via inverse microemulsion polymerization with selected monomers, the specifically designed copolymers have been formatted in nanoscale. The structure and morphology of obtained materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the thermal stability. The effectiveness of synthesized compounds as a carbonate scale inhibitor was investigated by testing method NACE standard TM 03-074-95 at aging temperature of 70, 90 and 120 °C. The magnetic nanocomposite particles can be easily collected and detected demonstrating their superior monitoring ability, which is absent in the case of conventional copolymer-based scale inhibitor.

  14. Effective protein inhibition in intact mouse oocytes through peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruichao; Jin, Zhen; Gao, Leilei; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Female meiosis is a fundamental area of study in reproductive medicine, and the mouse oocyte model of in vitro maturation (IVM) is most widely used to study female meiosis. To investigate the probable role(s) of an unknown protein in female meiosis, the method traditionally used involves microinjecting a specific antibody into mouse oocytes. Recently, in studies on somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection has become a popular tool because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, untill now no researchers have tried using this technique on mouse oocytes because the zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane) is usually thought or proved to be a tough barrier to macromolecules such as antibodies and proteins. Therefore, we attempted to introduce an antibody into mouse oocytes using a peptide nanoparticle. Here we show for the first time that with our optimized method, an antibody can be effectively delivered into mouse oocytes and inhibit its target protein with high specificity. We obtained significant results using small GTPase Arl2 as a test subject protein. We propose peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection to be a superior alternative to antibody microinjection for preliminary functional studies of unknown proteins in mouse oocytes. PMID:27114861

  15. Synergistic anticancer effects of curcumin and resveratrol in Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Qin; Hu, Bing; An, Hong-Mei; Shen, Ke-Ping; Xu, Ling; Deng, Shan; Wei, Meng-Meng

    2013-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum are one of the commonly used paired-herbs for liver cancer treatment. Curcumin and resveratrol are the major anticancer constituents of Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum, respectively. Curcumin and resveratrol have been found to exhibit a synergistic anticancer effect in colon cancer. However, the combined effect of curcumin and resveratrol against hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the combined effects of curcumin and resveratrol in hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells. The results showed that curcumin and resveratrol significantly inhibited the proliferation of Hepa1-6 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol elicited a synergistic antiproliferative effect in Hepa1-6 cells. The apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells induced by the combination treatment with curcumin and resveratrol was accompanied by caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation, which was completely abrogated by a pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Combination of curcumin and resveratrol upregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in Hepa1-6 cells. The ROS scavenger, NAC, partially attenuated the apoptosis and caspase activation induced by the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol. In addition, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol downregulated XIAP and survivin expression. These data suggest that the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer. The present study also provides new insights into the effective mechanism of paired-herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23446753

  16. Curcumin: a natural substance with potential efficacy in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Pamela E

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a component of turmeric, a spice used in many types of cooking. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that populations that eat food with a substantial amount of curcumin were at lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) led to the idea that this compound might have a neuroprotective effect. Curcumin has substantial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is being used as a potential preventative agent or treatment for many types of cancer. There is evidence to suggest that the addition of curcumin to cultured neuronal cells decreases brain inflammation and protects against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity. Curcumin also protects against toxicity when β-amyloid is administered to produce animal models of AD. Curcumin decreases β-amyloid formation from amyloid precursor protein, and also inhibits aggregation of β-amyloid into pleated sheets. Studies in transgenic mice with overproduction of β-amyloid demonstrate a neuroprotective effect of curcumin as well. Cognitive function was also improved in these animal models. Clinical trials of curcumin in AD have not been very promising. It is possible that this is due to poor oral bioavailability of curcumin in humans, and thus several approaches are being developed to improve delivery systems or to create analogs that will mimic the neuroprotective effects and easily reach the brain. The lack of efficacy of curcumin in humans with AD may also result from treating for too short a time or starting treatment too late in the course of the disease, where substantial neuronal death has already occurred and cannot be reversed. Curcumin may be beneficial in protecting against development or progression of AD if taken over the long term and started before symptoms of AD become apparent. PMID:27186134

  17. Inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus with selenium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in deionized water.

    PubMed

    Guisbiers, G; Wang, Q; Khachatryan, E; Mimun, L C; Mendoza-Cruz, R; Larese-Casanova, P; Webster, T J; Nash, K L

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial diseases are mainly caused by two common pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are becoming more and more resistant to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly necessary to find other alternative treatments than commonly utilized drugs. A promising strategy is to use nanomaterials such as selenium nanoparticles. However, the ability to produce nanoparticles free of any contamination is very challenging, especially for nano-medical applications. This paper reports the successful synthesis of pure selenium nanoparticles by laser ablation in water and determines the minimal concentration required for ~50% inhibition of either E. coli or S. aureus after 24 hours to be at least ~50 ppm. Total inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus is expected to occur at 107±12 and 79±4 ppm, respectively. In this manner, this study reports for the first time an easy synthesis process for creating pure selenium to inhibit bacterial growth. PMID:27563240

  18. Inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus with selenium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in deionized water

    PubMed Central

    Guisbiers, G; Wang, Q; Khachatryan, E; Mimun, LC; Mendoza-Cruz, R; Larese-Casanova, P; Webster, TJ; Nash, KL

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial diseases are mainly caused by two common pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are becoming more and more resistant to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly necessary to find other alternative treatments than commonly utilized drugs. A promising strategy is to use nanomaterials such as selenium nanoparticles. However, the ability to produce nanoparticles free of any contamination is very challenging, especially for nano-medical applications. This paper reports the successful synthesis of pure selenium nanoparticles by laser ablation in water and determines the minimal concentration required for ~50% inhibition of either E. coli or S. aureus after 24 hours to be at least ~50 ppm. Total inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus is expected to occur at 107±12 and 79±4 ppm, respectively. In this manner, this study reports for the first time an easy synthesis process for creating pure selenium to inhibit bacterial growth. PMID:27563240

  19. Inhibition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on pathogenic biofilm formation and invasion to host cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qilin; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Yueqi; Wang, Yufan; Liu, Lu; Li, Mingchun

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the growing infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogens, it is urgent to develop novel antimicrobial agents against clinical pathogenic infections. Biofilm formation and invasion into the host cells are vital processes during pathogenic colonization and infection. In this study, we tested the inhibitory effect of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on pathogenic growth, biofilm formation and invasion. Interestingly, although the synthesized AuNPs had no significant toxicity to the tested pathogens, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the nanoparticles strongly inhibited pathogenic biofilm formation and invasion to dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Further investigations revealed that AuNPs abundantly bound to the pathogen cells, which likely contributed to their inhibitory effect on biofilm formation and invasion. Moreover, treatment of AuNPs led to activation of immune response-related genes in DPSCs, which may enhance the activity of host immune system against the pathogens. Zeta potential analysis and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating tests further showed that the interaction between pathogen cells and AuNPs is associated with electrostatic attractions. Our findings shed novel light on the application of nanomaterials in fighting against clinical pathogens, and imply that the traditional growth inhibition test is not the only way to evaluate the drug effect during the screening of antimicrobial agents. PMID:27220400

  20. A statin-loaded reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticle inhibits atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show that this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show that they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions in which they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate that a 3-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a 1-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation.

  1. Inhibition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on pathogenic biofilm formation and invasion to host cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Yueqi; Wang, Yufan; Liu, Lu; Li, Mingchun

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the growing infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogens, it is urgent to develop novel antimicrobial agents against clinical pathogenic infections. Biofilm formation and invasion into the host cells are vital processes during pathogenic colonization and infection. In this study, we tested the inhibitory effect of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on pathogenic growth, biofilm formation and invasion. Interestingly, although the synthesized AuNPs had no significant toxicity to the tested pathogens, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the nanoparticles strongly inhibited pathogenic biofilm formation and invasion to dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Further investigations revealed that AuNPs abundantly bound to the pathogen cells, which likely contributed to their inhibitory effect on biofilm formation and invasion. Moreover, treatment of AuNPs led to activation of immune response-related genes in DPSCs, which may enhance the activity of host immune system against the pathogens. Zeta potential analysis and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating tests further showed that the interaction between pathogen cells and AuNPs is associated with electrostatic attractions. Our findings shed novel light on the application of nanomaterials in fighting against clinical pathogens, and imply that the traditional growth inhibition test is not the only way to evaluate the drug effect during the screening of antimicrobial agents. PMID:27220400

  2. Zinc oxide nanoparticle suspensions and layer-by-layer coatings inhibit staphylococcal growth.

    PubMed

    McGuffie, Matthew J; Hong, Jin; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Kotov, Nicholas A; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decade of engineering and process improvements, bacterial infection remains the primary threat to implanted medical devices. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have demonstrated antimicrobial properties. Their microbial selectivity, stability, ease of production, and low cost make them attractive alternatives to silver NPs or antimicrobial peptides. Here we sought to (1) determine the relative efficacy of ZnO-NPs on planktonic growth of medically relevant pathogens; (2) establish the role of bacterial surface chemistry on ZnO-NP effectiveness; (3) evaluate NP shape as a factor in the dose-response; and (4) evaluate layer-by-layer (LBL) ZnO-NP surface coatings on biofilm growth. ZnO-NPs inhibited bacterial growth in a shape-dependent manner not previously seen or predicted. Pyramid shaped particles were the most effective and contrary to previous work, larger particles were more effective than smaller particles. Differential susceptibility of pathogens may be related to their surface hydrophobicity. LBL ZnO-NO coatings reduced staphylococcal biofilm burden by >95%. From the Clinical Editor: The use of medical implants is widespread. However, bacterial colonization remains a major concern. In this article, the authors investigated the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to prevent bacterial infection. They showed in their experiments that ZnO-NPs significantly inhibited bacterial growth. This work may present a new alternative in using ZnO-NPs in medical devices. PMID:26515755

  3. Oxidative stress-mediated inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Christie; Zane, Andrew; Knight, Deborah A; Hommel, Elizabeth; Dutta, Prabir K; Waldman, W James

    2015-10-01

    Given the increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) by the food and food packaging industries, this study investigated potential consequences of Ag NP ingestion in intestinal epithelial C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of proliferating cells (<10,000 cells/cm(2)) with 0.25 μg/cm(2) (1.25 μg/mL) of 23 nm Ag NP for 24 h induced 15% necrotic cell death and an 80% reduction in metabolic activity and decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio, indicating oxidative stress. G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and complete inhibition of cell proliferation was also induced by Ag NP treatment. Simulated in vitro digestion of Ag NP prior to cell exposure required the use of slightly higher doses to induce the same toxicity, likely due to slower Ag dissolution. Treatment of cells with silica, titania, and ZnO NP partially inhibited cell proliferation, but inhibition at low doses was unique to Ag NP. These data suggest that Ag NP induces oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, and the inhibition of cell proliferation. However, toxicity and induction of oxidative stress were not observed in confluent cells (>100,000 cells/cm(2)) treated with 10 μg/cm(2) (40-50 μg/mL) Ag NP, indicating that these cells are less sensitive to Ag NP.

  4. Pharmacokinetic effects of curcumin on docetaxel mediated by OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and CYP450s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Li, Junxiu; Guo, Chaorui; Xing, Han; Xu, Jie; Wen, Yanli; Qiu, Zhixia; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Xijing; Zhao, Di

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin can synergistically enhance docetaxel's in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity and has been co-administrated with docetaxel in clinical trials. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel and explore its mechanism on OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and human liver microsomes (HLMs). In rats, curcumin increased the docetaxel area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-8h) and the terminal half-life (t1/2) to 1.86- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Moreover, curcumin decreased the clearance (CL) of docetaxel to 52.1%. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were used to observe the effects of curcumin on OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of docetaxel. Curcumin exhibited potent inhibition on OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated docetaxel uptake with IC50 values of 3.81 ± 1.19 μM and 33.70 ± 1.22 μM, respectively. The inhibition of curcumin on docetaxel metabolism in HLMs indicated that curcumin can modestly inhibit the metabolism of docetaxel with the IC50 value of 22.70 ± 1.13 μM and Ki value of 24.72 ± 4.24 μM. The preclinical and clinical improved docetaxel's therapeutic efficacy when co-administrated with curcumin may be due to the inhibition of curcumin on OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and HLMs activities. Close attention should be paid when combined treatment with docetaxel and curcumin carried out clinically. PMID:27452633

  5. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  6. Tissue distribution of (Lipocurc™) liposomal curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin following two- and eight-hour infusions in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Matabudul, Dharmendr; Pucaj, Kresimir; Bolger, Gordon; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammed; Helson, Lawrence

    2012-10-01

    This study interrogated whether different durations of intravenous infusions of lipocurc™ would alter curcumin metabolism, tissue distribution and whether treating necropsied tissues of Beagle dogs with phosphoric acid prior to measuring curcumin and its metabolite, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), would stabilize the compounds allowing for accurate analytic measurements. Two cohorts comprising two male and two female dogs were infused each intravenously with 10 mg/kg lipocurc™, either over two hours or over eight hours. Tissue data from each cohort was averaged from four dogs. Curcumin and THC distributed among all 13 tissues were examined at necropsy. The highest curcumin level was observed in the lungs followed by the liver. Tissue levels of curcumin in the lung, spleen and liver increased substantially following the eight-hour infusion compared to the two-hour infusion. The pancreas, kidney and urinary bladder also contained relatively high curcumin levels. Tissue partition coefficients for curcumin and THC were also higher for the eight-hour infusion than the two-hour infusion. The tissue THC/curcumin ratio varied in a tissue-specific manner and was lower for the eight-hour compared to the two-hour infusion. In conclusion, this raised the possibility that prolonged infusion of curcumin may facilitate distribution into tissues via a transporter-dependent mechanism and elevated tissue concentrations of curcumin may inhibit or saturate a putative reductase enzyme converting curcumin to THC. The addition of phosphoric acid stabilized the levels of curcumin and THC in some but not all the examined tissues, raising issues of tissue-specific curcumin and THC stability.

  7. Therapeutic Applications of Curcumin Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Yallapu, Murali M; Nagesh, Prashanth K Bhusetty; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a bioactive and major phenolic component of turmeric derived from the rhizomes of curcuma longa linn. For centuries, curcumin has exhibited excellent therapeutic benefits in various diseases. Owing to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin plays a significant beneficial and pleiotropic regulatory role in various pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory disorders, neurological disorders, and so on. Despite such phenomenal advances in medicinal applications, the clinical implication of native curcumin is hindered due to low solubility, physico-chemical instability, poor bioavailability, rapid metabolism, and poor pharmacokinetics. However, these issues can be overcome by utilizing an efficient delivery system. Active scientific research was initiated in 2005 to improve curcumin's pharmacokinetics, systemic bioavailability, and biological activity by encapsulating or by loading curcumin into nanoform(s) (nanoformulations). A significant number of nanoformulations exist that can be translated toward medicinal use upon successful completion of pre-clinical and human clinical trials. Considering this perspective, current review provides an overview of an efficient curcumin nanoformulation for a targeted therapeutic option for various human diseases. In this review article, we discuss the clinical evidence, current status, and future opportunities of curcumin nanoformulation(s) in the field of medicine. In addition, this review presents a concise summary of the actions required to develop curcumin nanoformulations as pharmaceutical or nutraceutical candidates. PMID:26335307

  8. Therapeutic Applications of Curcumin Nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Yallapu, Murali M; Nagesh, Prashanth K Bhusetty; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2015-11-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a bioactive and major phenolic component of turmeric derived from the rhizomes of curcuma longa linn. For centuries, curcumin has exhibited excellent therapeutic benefits in various diseases. Owing to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin plays a significant beneficial and pleiotropic regulatory role in various pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, inflammatory disorders, neurological disorders, and so on. Despite such phenomenal advances in medicinal applications, the clinical implication of native curcumin is hindered due to low solubility, physico-chemical instability, poor bioavailability, rapid metabolism, and poor pharmacokinetics. However, these issues can be overcome by utilizing an efficient delivery system. Active scientific research was initiated in 2005 to improve curcumin's pharmacokinetics, systemic bioavailability, and biological activity by encapsulating or by loading curcumin into nanoform(s) (nanoformulations). A significant number of nanoformulations exist that can be translated toward medicinal use upon successful completion of pre-clinical and human clinical trials. Considering this perspective, current review provides an overview of an efficient curcumin nanoformulation for a targeted therapeutic option for various human diseases. In this review article, we discuss the clinical evidence, current status, and future opportunities of curcumin nanoformulation(s) in the field of medicine. In addition, this review presents a concise summary of the actions required to develop curcumin nanoformulations as pharmaceutical or nutraceutical candidates.

  9. Intrathecal curcumin attenuates pain hypersensitivity and decreases spinal neuroinflammation in rat model of monoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Dai, Lin; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Xiang; Cao, Su; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a major component of turmeric and reportedly has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Neuroinflammation has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases in the central nervous system. Here we investigated the anti-nociceptive and anti-neuroinflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic pain in rats. We found that repeated oral treatment with curcumin, either before or after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection, dose-dependently attenuated CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect on joint edema. Repeated intrathecal injection of curcumin reversed CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, such a curcumin treatment reduced CFA-induced activation of glial cells and production of inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and monocyte inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α)] in the spinal cord. Curcumin also decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, MCP-1, and MIP-1α in cultured astrocytes and microglia. Our results suggest that intrathecal curcumin attenuates arthritic pain by inhibiting glial activation and the production of inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord, suggesting a new application of curcumin for the treatment of arthritic pain. PMID:25988362

  10. Intrathecal curcumin attenuates pain hypersensitivity and decreases spinal neuroinflammation in rat model of monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Dai, Lin; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Xiang; Cao, Su; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a major component of turmeric and reportedly has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Neuroinflammation has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases in the central nervous system. Here we investigated the anti-nociceptive and anti-neuroinflammatory effect of curcumin on arthritic pain in rats. We found that repeated oral treatment with curcumin, either before or after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection, dose-dependently attenuated CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect on joint edema. Repeated intrathecal injection of curcumin reversed CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, such a curcumin treatment reduced CFA-induced activation of glial cells and production of inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and monocyte inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α)] in the spinal cord. Curcumin also decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, MCP-1, and MIP-1α in cultured astrocytes and microglia. Our results suggest that intrathecal curcumin attenuates arthritic pain by inhibiting glial activation and the production of inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord, suggesting a new application of curcumin for the treatment of arthritic pain. PMID:25988362

  11. Expression profile of genes regulated by curcumin in Y79 retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Seethalakshmi; Thirumalai, Karthiyaini; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, a well-known chemopreventive agent from turmeric, inhibits the expression of several oncogenes and cell proliferation genes in tumor cells. This study aims to understand the precise molecular mechanism by which curcumin exerts its effects on retinoblastoma cells, by performing whole genome microarray analysis to determine the gene expression profiles altered by curcumin treatment. Curcumin suppressed cell viability and altered the cell cycle of retinoblastoma cells. We identified 903 downregulated genes and 1,319 upregulated genes when compared with the control cells after treatment with 20 μM curcumin concentration for 48 h. These genes were grouped into respective functional categories according to their biological function. We found that curcumin regulated the expression of genes that are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, tumor suppressor, cell-cycle arrest, transcription factor, and angiogenesis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to validate the results of genome array, and the results were consistent with the obtained data. In conclusion, treatment of curcumin affects the expression of genes involved in various cellular functions and plays an important role in tumor metastasis and apoptosis. Thus, curcumin might be an effective chemopreventive agent for retinoblastoma cancer. PMID:22489823

  12. Activation of PPARγ/P53 signaling is required for curcumin to induce hepatic stellate cell senescence

    PubMed Central

    Jin, H; Lian, N; Zhang, F; Chen, L; Chen, Q; Lu, C; Bian, M; Shao, J; Wu, L; Zheng, S

    2016-01-01

    Activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the major event in hepatic fibrogenesis, along with enhancement of cell proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix. Although inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis are potential strategies to block the activation of HSCs, a better understanding of the senescence of activated HSCs can provide a new therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. The antioxidant curcumin, a phytochemical from turmeric, has been shown to suppress HSC activation in vitro and in vivo. The current work was aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin on senescence of activated HSCs and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this study, curcumin promoted the expression of senescence marker Hmga1 in rat fibrotic liver. In addition, curcumin increased the number of senescence-associated β-galactosidase-positive HSCs in vitro. At the same time, curcumin induced HSC senescence by elevating the expression of senescence markers P16, P21 and Hmga1, concomitant with reduced abundance of HSC activation markers α-smooth muscle actin and α1(I)-procollagen in cultured HSCs. Moreover, curcumin affected the cell cycle and telomerase activity. We further demonstrated that P53 pharmacological