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Sample records for current biotechnology abstracts

  1. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  2. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  3. Extremophiles and biotechnology: current uses and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Coker, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology has almost unlimited potential to change our lives in very exciting ways. Many of the chemical reactions that produce these products can be fully optimized by performing them at extremes of temperature, pressure, salinity, and pH for efficient and cost-effective outcomes. Fortunately, there are many organisms (extremophiles) that thrive in extreme environments found in nature and offer an excellent source of replacement enzymes in lieu of mesophilic ones currently used in these processes. In this review, I discuss the current uses and some potential new applications of extremophiles and their products, including enzymes, in biotechnology. PMID:27019700

  4. Seventeenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  5. Eighteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Eighteenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals held May 5-9, 1996 in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The proceedings contains abstracts for oral and poster presentations.

  6. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  7. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies.

  8. Twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is the program and abstracts of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, held on May 7--11, 1990, at Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The symposium, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Institute, Badger Engineers, Inc., Gas Research Institute, and American Chemical Society, consists of five sessions: Session 1, thermal, chemical, and biological processing; Session 2 and 3, applied biological research; Session 4, bioengineering research; and Session 5, biotechnology, bioengineering, and the solution of environmental problems. It also consists of a poster session of the same five subject categories.

  9. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  10. Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vranken, Nancy S., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The field of biotechnology, and specifically recombinant DNA technology, is transforming the way that many feel about the nature and purposes of biology. This newsletter annual supplement contains several articles addressing the topic of biotechnology and the importance that the topic should be given in science classes. James D. Watson's article,…

  11. Fifteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This collection contains 173 abstracts from presented papers and poster sessions. The five sessions of the conference were on the subjects of: (1) Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, (2) Applied Biological Research, (3) Bioprocessing Research (4), Process Economics and Commercialization, and (5) Environmental Biotechnology. Examples of specific topics in the first session include the kinetics of ripening cheese, microbial liquefaction of lignite, and wheat as a feedstock for fuel ethanol. Typical topics in the second session were synergism studies of bacterial and fungal celluloses, conversion of inulin from jerusalem artichokes to sorbitol and ethanol by saccharomyces cerevisiae, and microbial conversion of high rank coals to methane. The third session entertained topics such as hydrodynamic modeling of a liquid fluidized bed bioreactor for coal biosolubilization, aqueous biphasic systems for biological particle partitioning, and arabinose utilization by xylose-fermenting yeast and fungi. The fourth session included such topics as silage processing of forage biomass to alcohol fuels, economics of molasses to ethanol in India, and production of lactic acid from renewable resources. the final session contained papers on such subjects as bioluminescent detection of contaminants in soils, characterization of petroleum contaminated soils in coral atolls in the south Pacific, and landfill management for methane generation and emission control.

  12. Biotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    consumer confidence in the food regulatory system, providing consumers greater choice about what they eat and build confidence in GM products.92 The...Gruere, “Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods : Does it Really Provide Consumer Choice ?” AgBio Forum 6 no. 1&2 (2003), <http... Food and Biotechnology, “Is Labeling GM Foods an Effective Means of Facilitating Choices for Consumers?” AgBiotech Buzz: Labeling GM Foods , 2 issue 8

  13. Current Technological Improvements in Enzymes toward Their Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baweja, Mehak; Nain, Lata; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes from extremophiles are creating interest among researchers due to their unique properties and the enormous power of catalysis at extreme conditions. Since community demands are getting more intensified, therefore, researchers are applying various approaches viz. metagenomics to increase the database of extremophilic species. Furthermore, the innovations are being made in the naturally occurring enzymes utilizing various tools of recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering, which allows redesigning of the enzymes for its better fitment into the process. In this review, we discuss the biochemical constraints of psychrophiles during survival at the lower temperature. We summarize the current knowledge about the sources of such enzymes and their in vitro modification through mutagenesis to explore their biotechnological potential. Finally, we recap the microbial cell surface display to enhance the efficiency of the process in cost effective way. PMID:27379087

  14. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  15. On the cross-fertilization between biotechnology and immunology: current situation in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Lage, Agustin

    2006-04-12

    Biotechnology has created opportunities for new therapeutic products. More than half of biotechnological products being developed intend some manipulation of the immune system. Vaccines are 29% of the worldwide biotechnology pipeline and more than 50% of Cuban biotechnology pipeline. Current understanding of antigen presentation and the maturation of dendritic cells has opened the way for a more rational design of new adjuvants, intended not only to deliver the antigen to antigen presenting cells (APC) and to induce APC maturation, but also to direct lymphocyte differentiation towards either Th1 or Th2 phenotypes, and to deal with disease-induced immunodepression. Therapeutic cancer vaccines are a field in which new adjuvants and new immunization schedules will be tested. This knowledge will be pertinent for other vaccines, so fertilizing biotechnology with the indication of the new molecules that need to be manufactured.

  16. Current status in biotechnological production and applications of glycolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Pessôa, Marina Gabriel; Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Molina, Gustavo; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2016-12-01

    Biosurfactants are natural compounds with surface activity and emulsifying properties produced by several types of microorganisms and have been considered an interesting alternative to synthetic surfactants. Glycolipids are promising biosurfactants, due to low toxicity, biodegradability, and chemical stability in different conditions and also because they have many biological activities, allowing wide applications in different fields. In this review, we addressed general information about families of glycolipids, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, and trehalose lipids, describing their chemical and surface characteristics, recent studies using alternative substrates, and new strategies to improve of production, beyond their specificities. We focus in providing recent developments and trends in biotechnological process and medical and industrial applications.

  17. Biotechnological production of eleutherosides: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Georgiev, Milen I; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Eleutherosides, the phenylpropanoid and lignan glycosides, are the active ingredients accumulated in the roots and stems of Eleutherococcus species and in Eleutherococcus senticosus in particular. Syringin (=eleutheroside B) and (-) syringaresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (=eleutheroside E) appear as the most important bioactive compounds which are used as adaptogens, besides their abundant antidiabetic and anticancer properties. As the availability of "Eleuthero" is becoming increasingly limited because of its scanty natural distribution, the production of these compounds by biotechnological means has become an attractive alternative. In E. senticosus and other closely related species, Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus, Eleutherococcus chiisanensis, and Eleutherococcus koreanum, organogenic cultures have been induced for the production of eleutherosides. Bioreactor cultures have been established and various parameters, which influence on the accumulation of biomass and secondary metabolites, have been thoroughly investigated. Pilot-scale cultures have also been accomplished for the large-scale production of somatic embryos containing abundant amounts of eleutherosides. This review describes the biotechnological approaches and challenges for the production of eleutherosides.

  18. Current challenges and future perspectives of plant and agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Moshelion, Menachem; Altman, Arie

    2015-06-01

    Advances in understanding plant biology, novel genetic resources, genome modification, and omics technologies generate new solutions for food security and novel biomaterials production under changing environmental conditions. New gene and germplasm candidates that are anticipated to lead to improved crop yields and other plant traits under stress have to pass long development phases based on trial and error using large-scale field evaluation. Therefore, quantitative, objective, and automated screening methods combined with decision-making algorithms are likely to have many advantages, enabling rapid screening of the most promising crop lines at an early stage followed by final mandatory field experiments. The combination of novel molecular tools, screening technologies, and economic evaluation should become the main goal of the plant biotechnological revolution in agriculture.

  19. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  20. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel‐like compounds by biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Summary The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel‐like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally ‘green’ fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost‐intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by‐products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t‐butanol have been developed, which enhance by‐product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole‐cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as ‘microdiesel’, by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested. PMID:21255288

  1. Public perceptions of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan

    2007-09-01

    The very term 'Biotechnology' elicits a range of emotions, from wonder and awe to downright fear and hostility. This is especially true among non-scientists, particularly in respect of agricultural and food biotechnology. These emotions indicate just how poorly understood agricultural biotechnology is and the need for accurate, dispassionate information in the public sphere to allow a rational public debate on the actual, as opposed to the perceived, risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology. This review considers first the current state of public knowledge on agricultural biotechnology, and then explores some of the popular misperceptions and logical inconsistencies in both Europe and North America. I then consider the problem of widespread scientific illiteracy, and the role of the popular media in instilling and perpetuating misperceptions. The impact of inappropriate efforts to provide 'balance' in a news story, and of belief systems and faith also impinges on public scientific illiteracy. Getting away from the abstract, we explore a more concrete example of the contrasting approach to agricultural biotechnology adoption between Europe and North America, in considering divergent approaches to enabling coexistence in farming practices. I then question who benefits from agricultural biotechnology. Is it only the big companies, or is it society at large--and the environment--also deriving some benefit? Finally, a crucial aspect in such a technologically complex issue, ordinary and intelligent non-scientifically trained consumers cannot be expected to learn the intricacies of the technology to enable a personal choice to support or reject biotechnology products. The only reasonable and pragmatic alternative is to place trust in someone to provide honest advice. But who, working in the public interest, is best suited to provide informed and accessible, but objective, advice to wary consumers?

  2. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  3. Current Literature on Venereal Disease, 1972. Number One. Abstracts and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Mildred V., Ed.

    Presented are abstracts of documents and research pertaining to the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, management, and therapy of syphilis and gonorrhea. Abstracted case studies of other minor venereal and related diseases are also included, as are bibliographies on current research and evaluation, public health methods, and behavioral…

  4. Current Literature on Venereal Disease, 1972. Number Two. Abstracts and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Mildred V., Ed.

    Presented are abstracts of documents and research pertaining to the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, management, and therapy of syphilis and gonorrhea. Abstracted case studies of other minor venereal and related diseases are also included, as are bibliographies on current research and evaluation, public health methods, and behavioral…

  5. Current Literature on Venereal Disease, 1972. Number Three. Abstracts and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Mildred V., Ed.

    Presented are abstracts of documents and research pertaining to the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, management, and therapy of syphilis and gonorrhea. Abstracted case studies of other minor venereal and related diseases are also included, as are bibliographies on current research and evaluation, public health methods, and behavioral…

  6. Disposable bioreactors: the current state-of-the-art and recommended applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Regine; Kaiser, Stephan; Lombriser, Renate; Eibl, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Disposable bioreactors have increasingly been incorporated into preclinical, clinical, and production-scale biotechnological facilities over the last few years. Driven by market needs, and, in particular, by the developers and manufacturers of drugs, vaccines, and further biologicals, there has been a trend toward the use of disposable seed bioreactors as well as production bioreactors. Numerous studies documenting their advantages in use have contributed to further new developments and have resulted in the availability of a multitude of disposable bioreactor types which differ in power input, design, instrumentation, and scale of the cultivation container. In this review, the term "disposable bioreactor" is defined, the benefits and constraints of disposable bioreactors are discussed, and critical phases and milestones in the development of disposable bioreactors are summarized. An overview of the disposable bioreactors that are currently commercially available is provided, and the domination of wave-mixed, orbitally shaken, and, in particular, stirred disposable bioreactors in animal cell-derived productions at cubic meter scale is reported. The growth of this type of reactor system is attributed to the recent availability of stirred disposable benchtop systems such as the Mobius CellReady 3 L Bioreactor. Analysis of the data from computational fluid dynamic simulation studies and first cultivation runs confirms that this novel bioreactor system is a viable alternative to traditional cell culture bioreactors at benchtop scale.

  7. Omics and biotechnology of arsenic stress and detoxification in plants: current updates and prospective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smita; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring metallic element, is a dreadful health hazard to millions of people across the globe. Arsenic is present in low amount in the environment and originates from anthropogenic impact and geogenic sources. The presence of As in groundwater used for irrigation is a worldwide problem as it affects crop productivity, accumulates to different tissues and contaminates food chain. The consumption of As contaminated water or food products leads to several diseases and even death. Recently, studies have been carried out to explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms which contribute to As toxicity, accumulation, detoxification and tolerance acquisition in plants. This information has led to the development of the biotechnological tools for developing plants with modulated As tolerance and detoxification to safeguard cellular and genetic integrity as well as to minimize food chain contamination. This review aims to provide current updates about the biochemical and molecular networks involved in As uptake by plants and the recent developments in the area of functional genomics in terms of developing As tolerant and low As accumulating plants.

  8. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    PubMed

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology.

  9. The Impact on Future Guidance Programs of Current Developments in Computer Science, Telecommunications, and Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Lynda K.; Hardy, Philippe L.

    The purpose of this chapter is to envision how the era of technological revolution will affect the guidance, counseling, and student support programs of the future. Advances in computer science, telecommunications, and biotechnology are discussed. These advances have the potential to affect dramatically the services of guidance programs of the…

  10. Development of a Computerized Current Awareness Service Using "Chemical Abstracts" Condensates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Anita B.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The experiences in developing current awareness services for selective dissemination of information from Chemical Abstracts'' Condensates data base are described. File standardization, the weighted-term method of searching, and the algorithm used to perform the search on the CDC 6600 computer and a user survey are discussed. (2 references)…

  11. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.

  12. Applications of zeolite inorganic composites in biotechnology: current state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Kengo; Matsui, Masayoshi; Mizukami, Fujio

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this short review is to introduce applications of inorganic composites, zeolites, in biotechnology. Although inorganic chemistry is generally considered distant from biotechnology, the two could be harmoniously integrated for biopolymer chromatography. New chromatographic carriers have been developed based on principles differing from those underlying conventional chromatography. Some can be used for the purification of proteins according to novel physicochemical principles, according to their isoelectric point (pI), molecular weight and shape. The amount of protein adsorbed is related to the pore size of the composites, which can recognize biomolecules with reference to these three parameters. Proteins adsorbed at their pI have been found to be desorbed at the pI by polyethylene glycol, but not by high ionic medium (NaCl), SDS, non-ionic detergents, ATP or urea. Therefore, inorganic composites synthesized in consideration of pore size and three-dimensional structure are suitable as new chromatographic carriers. Selective fractionation of biomaterials including proteins and nucleic acids should provide useful information regarding whether conjugated proteins in a precipitated state can be separated on net charge and whether cells can be directly fractionated in future.

  13. Current developments in marine microbiology: high-pressure biotechnology and the genetic engineering of piezophiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Xuegong; Bartlett, Douglas H; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    A key aspect of marine environments is elevated pressure; for example, ∼70% of the ocean is at a pressure of at least 38MPa. Many types of Bacteria and Archaea reside under these high pressures, which drive oceanic biogeochemical cycles and catalyze reactions among rocks, sediments and fluids. Most marine prokaryotes are classified as piezotolerant or as (obligate)-piezophiles with few cultivated relatives. The biochemistry and physiology of these organisms are largely unknown. Recently, high-pressure cultivation technology has been combined with omics and DNA recombination methodologies to examine the physiology of piezophilic marine microorganisms. We are now beginning to understand the adaptive mechanisms of these organisms, along with their ecological functions and evolutionary processes. This knowledge is leading to the further development of high-pressure-based biotechnology.

  14. [Hygienic standardization of biotechnological strains in water reservoirs: current state and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Sheina, N I; Ivanov, N G; Zholdakova, Z I

    2013-01-01

    The question of need for standardization and validation of the complex methods to establish the maximum concentration limit (MCL) ofbiotechnological strains in the water of water bodies is under discussion. On the basis of the experimental studies it has been shown that a unified quantitative criterion for safety could not to be recommended for biotechnological strains and therefore requires the study of each strain in order to substantiate the safe level in water of water bodies. Proposed biosafety program should include the study of pathogenic properties in acute experiments and specific effects in subchronic experiments to study the influence of strains on the process of water purification and a risk assessment of transformation products of chemicals and the justification of the safety factor when establishing MCL t in terms of the toxic effect.

  15. Chemical vs. biotechnological synthesis of C13-apocarotenoids: current methods, applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Vicente F; López, Javiera; Cárcamo, Martín; Agosin, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Apocarotenoids are natural compounds derived from the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids. Particularly, C13-apocarotenoids are volatile compounds that contribute to the aromas of different flowers and fruits and are highly valued by the Flavor and Fragrance industry. So far, the chemical synthesis of these terpenoids has dominated the industry. Nonetheless, the increasing consumer demand for more natural and sustainable processes raises an interesting opportunity for bio-production alternatives. In this regard, enzymatic biocatalysis and metabolically engineered microorganisms emerge as attractive biotechnological options. The present review summarizes promising bioengineering approaches with regard to chemical production methods for the synthesis of two families of C13-apocarotenoids: ionones/dihydroionones and damascones/damascenone. We discuss each method and its applicability, with a thorough comparative analysis for ionones, focusing on the production process, regulatory aspects, and sustainability.

  16. Transcription factor-based biosensors in biotechnology: current state and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Regina; Frunzke, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms have evolved a plethora of sensing systems for the intra- and extracellular detection of small molecules, ions or physical parameters. Several recent studies have demonstrated that these principles can be exploited to devise synthetic regulatory circuits for metabolic engineering strategies. In this context, transcription factors (TFs) controlling microbial physiology at the level of transcription play a major role in biosensor design, since they can be implemented in synthetic circuits controlling gene expression in dependency of, for example, small molecule production. Here, we review recent progress on the utilization of TF-based biosensors in microbial biotechnology highlighting different areas of application. Recent advances in metabolic engineering reveal TF-based sensors to be versatile tools for strain and enzyme development using high-throughput (HT) screening strategies and adaptive laboratory evolution, the optimization of heterologous pathways via the implementation of dynamic control circuits and for the monitoring of single-cell productivity in live cell imaging studies. These examples underline the immense potential of TF-based biosensor circuits but also identify limitations and room for further optimization.

  17. Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice.

  18. Current practices in endotoxin and pyrogen testing in biotechnology. The Quality Assurance/Quality Control Task Group. Parenteral Drug Association

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the results of a nationwide survey of the biotechnology industry regarding endotoxin and pyrogen testing and control. It identifies procedures and methods being used by biotechnology companies, and firms working with biotechnology products, in the testing for and detection of endotoxin and other pyrogenic substances. The review attempts to identify areas of commonality and standardization within the industry and includes topics for discussion at the end of the survey results.

  19. [Genetically modified food (food derived from biotechnology): current and future trends in public acceptance and safety assessment].

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Imai, Hirohisa; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Katoh, Takahiko

    2002-11-01

    Current and future trends regarding genetically modified (GM) crops and food stuffs were reviewed, with a particular focus on public acceptance and safety assessment. While GM foods, foods derived from biotechnology, are popular with growers and producers, they are still a matter of some concern among consumers. In fact, our recent surveys showed that Japanese consumers had become uneasy about the potential health risks of genetically modified foods. Many Japanese consumers have only vague ideas about the actual health risks, and they appear to be making decisions simply by rejecting GM food because of non-informed doubts. Although the debate about GM foods has increased in the mass media and scientific journals, few articles concerning direct studies on the potential toxicity or adverse health effects of GM foods have appeared. The roles of relevant international regulatory bodies in ensuring that GM crops and food are safe are therefore have summarized. Finally, the current debate on use of GM crops in agriculture and future trends for development of GM foods with enriched nutrients, better functionality, and medicinal ingredients, which will be of direct benefit to the consumer, are covered.

  20. β-Propeller phytases: Diversity, catalytic attributes, current developments and potential biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Verma, Priyanka; Sangwan, Punesh; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Krishan; Singh, Bijender

    2017-05-01

    Phytases are phosphatases which stepwise remove phosphates from phytic acid or its salts. β-Propeller phytase (BPPhy) belongs to a special class of microbial phytases that is regarded as most diverse, isolated and characterized from different microbes, mainly from Bacillus spp. BPPhy class is unique for its Ca(2+)-dependent catalytic activity, strict substrate specificity, active at neutral to alkaline pH and high thermostability. Numerous sequence and structure based studies have revealed unique attributes and catalytic properties of this class, as compared to other classes of phytases. Recent studies including cloning and expression and genetic engineering approaches have led to improvements in BPPhy which provide an opportunity for extended utilization of this class of phytases in improving animal nutrition, human health, plant growth promotion, and environmental protection, etc. This review describes the sources and diversity of BPPhy genes, biochemical properties, Ca(2+) dependence, current developments in structural elucidation, heterogeneous expression and catalytic improvements, and multifarious applications of BPPhy.

  1. Seafood traceability: current needs, available tools, and biotechnological challenges for origin certification.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Pimentel, Tânia; Ricardo, Fernando; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Market globalization and recurring food safety alerts have resulted in a growing consumer awareness of the need for food traceability. This is particularly relevant for seafood due to its perishable nature and importance as a key protein source for the population of the world. Here, we provide an overview of the current needs for seafood origin traceability, along with the limitations and challenges for its implementation. We focus on geochemical, biochemical, and molecular tools and how they should be optimized to be implemented globally and to address our societal needs. We suggest that seafood traceability is key to enforcing food safety regulations and fisheries control, combat fraud, and fulfill present and future expectations of conscientious producers, consumers, and authorities.

  2. CHO cells in biotechnology for production of recombinant proteins: current state and further potential.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Yon; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Gyun Min

    2012-02-01

    Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells (rCHO) cells have been the most commonly used mammalian host for large-scale commercial production of therapeutic proteins. Recent advances in cell culture technology for rCHO cells have achieved significant improvement in protein production leading to titer of more than 10 g/L to meet the huge demand from market needs. This achievement is associated with progression in the establishment of high and stable producer and the optimization of culture process including media development. In this review article, we focus on current strategies and achievements in cell line development, mainly in vector engineering and cell engineering, for high and stable protein production in rCHO cells. The approaches that manipulate various DNA elements for gene targeting by site-specific integration and cis-acting elements to augment and stabilize gene expression are reviewed here. The genetic modulation strategy by "direct" cell engineering with growth-promoting and/or productivity-enhancing factors and omics-based approaches involved in transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to pursue cell engineering are also presented.

  3. Disease resistance breeding in rose: current status and potential of biotechnological tools.

    PubMed

    Debener, Thomas; Byrne, David H

    2014-11-01

    The cultivated rose is a multispecies complex for which a high level of disease protection is needed due to the low tolerance of blemishes in ornamental plants. The most important fungal diseases are black spot, powdery mildew, botrytis and downy mildew. Rose rosette, a lethal viral pathogen, is emerging as a devastating disease in North America. Currently rose breeders use a recurrent phenotypic selection approach and perform selection for disease resistance for most pathogen issues in a 2-3 year field trial. Marker assisted selection could accelerate this breeding process. Thus far markers have been identified for resistance to black spot (Rdrs) and powdery mildew and with the ability of genotyping by sequencing to generate 1000s of markers our ability to identify markers useful in plant improvement should increase exponentially. Transgenic rose lines with various fungal resistance genes inserted have shown limited success and RNAi technology has potential to provide virus resistance. Roses, as do other plants, have sequences homologous to characterized R-genes in their genomes, some which have been related to specific disease resistance. With improving next generation sequencing technology, our ability to do genomic and transcriptomic studies of the resistance related genes in both the rose and the pathogens to reveal novel gene targets to develop resistant roses will accelerate. Finally, the development of designer nucleases opens up a potentially non-GMO approach to directly modify a rose's DNA to create a disease resistant rose. Although there is much potential, at present rose breeders are not using marker assisted breeding primarily because a good suite of marker/trait associations (MTA) that would ensure a path to stable disease resistance is not available. As our genomic analytical tools improve, so will our ability to identify useful genes and linked markers. Once these MTAs are available, it will be the cost savings, both in time and money, that will

  4. Biotechnology Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    principles of biotechnology to improve their daily lives by fermenting fruit, making bread using yeast, and making yogurt from milk. Biotechnology has...license additional egg-based influenza vaccine manufacturers to increase domestic vaccine manufacturing capacity and accelerate efforts to develop...of suppliers. The US government is the primary or sole buyer of certain vaccines. Not long ago the dwindling number of manufacturers and continuing

  5. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  6. Neural network evaluation of tokamak current profiles for real time control (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Wroblewski, D.

    1997-01-01

    Active feedback control of the current profile, requiring real-time determination of the current profile parameters, is envisioned for tokamaks operating in enhanced confinement regimes. The distribution of toroidal current in a tokamak is now routinely evaluated based on external (magnetic probes, flux loops) and internal (motional Stark effect) measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. However, the analysis involves reconstruction of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and is too intensive computationally to be performed in real time. In the present study, a neural network is used to provide a mapping from the magnetic measurements (internal and external) to selected parameters of the safety factor profile. The single-pass, feedforward calculation of output of a trained neural network is very fast, making this approach particularly suitable for real-time applications. The network was trained on a large set of simulated equilibrium data for the DIII-D tokamak. The database encompasses a large variety of current profiles including the hollow current profiles important for reversed central shear operation. The parameters of safety factor profile (a quantity related to the current profile through the magnetic field tilt angle) estimated by the neural network include central safety factor, q{sub 0}, minimum value of q, q{sub min}, and the location of q{sub min}. Very good performance of the trained neural network both for simulated test data and for experimental data is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Neural network evaluation of tokamak current profiles for real time control (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróblewski, Dariusz

    1997-01-01

    Active feedback control of the current profile, requiring real-time determination of the current profile parameters, is envisioned for tokamaks operating in enhanced confinement regimes. The distribution of toroidal current in a tokamak is now routinely evaluated based on external (magnetic probes, flux loops) and internal (motional Stark effect) measurements of the poloidal magnetic field. However, the analysis involves reconstruction of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and is too intensive computationally to be performed in real time. In the present study, a neural network is used to provide a mapping from the magnetic measurements (internal and external) to selected parameters of the safety factor profile. The single-pass, feedforward calculation of output of a trained neural network is very fast, making this approach particularly suitable for real-time applications. The network was trained on a large set of simulated equilibrium data for the DIII-D tokamak. The database encompasses a large variety of current profiles including the hollow current profiles important for reversed central shear operation. The parameters of safety factor profile (a quantity related to the current profile through the magnetic field tilt angle) estimated by the neural network include central safety factor, q0, minimum value of q, qmin, and the location of qmin. Very good performance of the trained neural network both for simulated test data and for experimental data is demonstrated.

  8. Mechanism of orientation of stimulating currents in magnetic brain stimulation (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Matsuda, T.

    1991-04-01

    We made a functional map of the human motor cortex related to the hand and foot areas by stimulating the human brain with a focused magnetic pulse. We observed that each functional area in the cortex has an optimum direction for which stimulating currents can produce neural excitation. The present report focuses on the mechanism which is responsible for producing this anisotropic response to brain stimulation. We first obtained a functional map of the brain related to the left ADM (abductor digiti minimi muscles). When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the left to the right hemisphere, clear EMG (electromyographic) responses were obtained only from the left ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the right to the left hemisphere, clear EMG signals were obtained only from the right ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. The functional maps of the brain were sensitive to changes in the direction of the stimulating currents. To explain the phenomena obtained in the experiments, we developed a model of neural excitation elicited by magnetic stimulation. When eddy currents which are induced by pulsed magnetic fields flow in the direction from soma to the distal part of neural fiber, depolarized area in the distal part are excited, and the membrane excitation propagates along the nerve fiber. In contrast, when the induced currents flow in the direction from the distal part to soma, hyperpolarized parts block or inhibit neural excitation even if the depolarized parts near the soma can be excited. The model explains our observation that the orientation of the induced current vectors reflect both the functional and anatomical organization of the neural fibers in the brain.

  9. Preface: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth reviews of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology with emphasis on bio-based products and agricultural biotechnology. Recent energy and food crises point out the importance of bio-based products from ren...

  10. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods.

  11. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  12. Biotechnology Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.; Spenciner, Loraine

    There have been few initiatives addressing the improvement of science education for students with disabilities. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Biotechnology Works is a summer institute in immunology and genetics for students with disabilities, high school science teachers, and high school counselors. During the 1998 summer session,…

  13. Biotechnology: Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airozo, Diana; Warmbrodt, Robert D.

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized the fields of agriculture and the health sciences; however, there are concerns with this technology. This document is designed to help foster dialogue with emphasis on education and the development of a public understanding of the principals involved in…

  14. Development of biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Ghose, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2000-01-01

    technology, industrial biotechnology, biochemical engineering and associated activities such as creation of biotechnology information system and national repositories. Current status of intellectual property rights has also been discussed. Contribution to the India's advances in biotechnology by the industry, excepting a limited few, has been far below expectations. The review concludes with some cautious notes.

  15. Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moo-Young, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes the biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology programs of the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada). Provides descriptions of graduate courses, along with a sample of current research activities. Includes a discussion of the programs' mechanisms for technology transfer. (TW)

  16. Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: a review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Bou, Marine; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The Lavandula genus, which includes lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (L. angustifolia × Lavandula latifolia), is cultivated worldwide for its essential oils, which find applications in perfumes, cosmetics, food processing and, more recently, in aromatherapy products. The chemical composition of lavender and lavandin essential oils, usually produced by steam distillation from the flowering stems, is characterized by the presence of terpenes (e.g. linalool and linalyl acetate) and terpenoids (e.g. 1,8-cineole), which are mainly responsible for their characteristic flavour and their biological and therapeutic properties. Lavender and lavandin distilled straws, the by-products of oil extraction, were traditionally used for soil replenishment or converted to a fuel source. They are mineral- and carbon-rich plant residues and, therefore, a cheap, readily available source of valuable substances of industrial interest, especially aroma and antioxidants (e.g. terpenoids, lactones and phenolic compounds including coumarin, herniarin, α-bisabolol, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids). Accordingly, recent studies have emphasized the possible uses of lavender and lavandin straws in fermentative or enzymatic processes involving various microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi, for the production of antimicrobials, antioxidants and other bioproducts with pharmaceutical and cosmetic activities, opening up new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  17. Space and biotechnology: An industry profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard S.; Norton, David J.; Tom, Baldwin H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Center for Space and Advanced Technology (CSAT) for NASA-JSC are presented. The objectives were to determine the interests and attitudes of the U.S. biotechnology industry toward space biotechnology and to prepare a concise review of the current activities of the biotechnology industry. In order to accomplish these objectives, two primary actions were taken. First, a questionnaire was designed, reviewed, and distributed to U.S. biotechnology companies. Second, reviews of the various biotechnology fields were prepared in several aspects of the industry. For each review, leading figures in the field were asked to prepare a brief review pointing out key trends and current industry technical problems. The result is a readable narrative of the biotechnology industry which will provide space scientists and engineers valuable clues as to where the space environment can be explored to advance the U.S. biotechnology industry.

  18. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy.

  19. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  20. Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology updates earlier versions from 1986 and 1992 is intended to clarify the current roles and responsibilities of agencies involved in the regulation of biotechnology products.

  1. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p < 0.001) despite studying AB or not. However, there is no significant difference between students today and 18 years ago in opinions towards medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  2. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  3. Management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2005-10-01

    Biophotonics, one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas, offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many critical needs in medicine, biology, pharmacy, food, health care and cosmetic industries. Follow the market trends we developed new MSc course Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies (MBB) that provide students of technical disciplines with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce professionals and managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern science and business in biophotonics and biotechnology. A major advantage of the course is that it provides skills not currently available to graduates in other Master programs.

  4. Biotechnology and Open University Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobstein, Clifford

    1985-01-01

    Discusses whether biotechnology commercial application will significantly inhibit the free flow of information traditional in academic environments. Background factors, crux of the concern, assessment, and current options are given. Although little evidence that industry-university collaboration has impaired academic molecular genetics exists,…

  5. Crop biotechnology. Where now?

    PubMed

    Miflin, B J

    2000-05-01

    Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agobiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience.

  6. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  7. Commercial biotechnology processing on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Hardin, Juanita R.; Lewis, Marian L.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial biotechnology processing in space has the potential to eventually exceed the $35 billion annual worldwide market generated by the current satellite communications industry (Parone 1997). The International Space Station provides the opportunity to conduct long-term, crew-tended biotechnology research in microgravity to establish the foundation for this new commercial biotechnology market. Industry, government, and academia are collaborating to establish the infrastructure needed to catalyze this biotechnology revolution that could eventually lead to production of medical and pharmaceutical products in space. The biotechnology program discussed herein is evidence of this collaborative effort, with industry involvement from Space Hardware Optimization Technology, Inc., government participation through the NASA Commercial Space program, and academic guidance from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Blending the strengths and resources of each collaborator creates a strong partnership, that offers enormous research and commercial opportunities.

  8. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  9. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  10. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. [Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  11. The 17th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  12. Biotechnology for the production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.

    1982-12-01

    Papers given at the workshop are included in this volume. Discussions are presented under the headings: fermentation of conventional feedstocks; conversion of lignocellulose; algal biotechnology; and biotechnological process engineering. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  13. Environmentally compatible applications of biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, R.J.; Egan, M.

    1994-09-01

    Using living organisms to minimize harmful human impact on the environment is relatively recent thrust of biotechnology. Biotechnology developments are being employed as green technologies in a variety of applications that fall into the category of environmental biotechnology. The following aspects of biotechnology are discussed in this article: biosensors; bioremediation; bioleaching; natural plastics; clean fuels; pesticides; regulation of biotechnology products and processes. 58 refs.

  14. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  15. Proceedings of the Symposium on Research in Biology and Biotechnology in Developing Countries (National University of Singapore, November 2-4, 1983). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. N., Ed.

    These proceedings of a symposium designed to increase public awareness of current research in biology and biotechnology include: welcoming addresses by Chau Sian Eng and S. Radhakrishna; an opening address by Tay Eng Soon; five papers; four abstracts; summary; symposium program; and list of participants. The five papers are: (1) "The Role of…

  16. Microgravity Materials and Biotechnology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, Marcus

    1998-01-01

    Presentation will deal with an overview of the Materials Science and Biotechnology/Crystal Growth flight experiments and their requirements for a successful execution. It will also deal with the hardware necessary to perform these experiments as well as the hardware requirements. This information will serve as a basis for the Abstract: workshop participants to review the poss7ibilifies for a low cost unmanned carrier and the simple automation to carry-out experiments in a microgravity environment with little intervention from the ground. The discussion will include what we have now and what will be needed to automate totally the hardware and experiment protocol at relatively low cost.

  17. Biotechnology for the extractive metals industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is an alternative process for the extraction of metals, the beneficiation of ores, and the recovery of metals from aqueous systems. Currently, microbial-based processes are used for leaching copper and uranium, enhancing the recovery of gold from refractory ores, and treating industrial wastewater to recover metal values. Future developments, emanating from fundamental and applied research and advances through genetic engineering, are expected to increase the use and efficiency of these biotechnological processes.

  18. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream…

  19. Ohio Biotechnology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob; Boudreau, Joyce

    This document, which lists the biotechnology competencies identified by representatives from biotechnology businesses and industries as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through…

  20. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  1. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  2. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  3. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  4. Corporate intelligence in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Persidis

    1999-05-01

    'Know thy neighbor' is a critical component of today's biotechnology practice. The industry is extremely rich in science and business information, and the pace of change is dramatic. Successful participation in biotechnology will always depend on good technology, management and money. In addition, an ingredient that needs more attention is competitive information- gathering and analysis. Competitive intelligence can be defined as actionable information that requires the ability to filter and synthesize relevant knowledge for the benefit of the company. Why is this necessary? How can it be done well? What examples are there? These are good questions that are inevitably faced by all biotechnology practitioners, and some answers are provided herein.

  5. Life sciences today and tomorrow: emerging biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E Diane

    2016-07-03

    The purpose of this review is to survey current, emerging and predicted future biotechnologies which are impacting, or are likely to impact in the future on the life sciences, with a projection for the coming 20 years. This review is intended to discuss current and future technical strategies, and to explore areas of potential growth during the foreseeable future. Information technology approaches have been employed to gather and collate data. Twelve broad categories of biotechnology have been identified which are currently impacting the life sciences and will continue to do so. In some cases, technology areas are being pushed forward by the requirement to deal with contemporary questions such as the need to address the emergence of anti-microbial resistance. In other cases, the biotechnology application is made feasible by advances in allied fields in biophysics (e.g. biosensing) and biochemistry (e.g. bio-imaging). In all cases, the biotechnologies are underpinned by the rapidly advancing fields of information systems, electronic communications and the World Wide Web together with developments in computing power and the capacity to handle extensive biological data. A rationale and narrative is given for the identification of each technology as a growth area. These technologies have been categorized by major applications, and are discussed further. This review highlights: Biotechnology has far-reaching applications which impinge on every aspect of human existence. The applications of biotechnology are currently wide ranging and will become even more diverse in the future. Access to supercomputing facilities and the ability to manipulate large, complex biological datasets, will significantly enhance knowledge and biotechnological development.

  6. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  7. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  10. Employment Prospects in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a survey of firms which hire biologists. Summarized are required knowledge, skills, qualifications, and attributes required of candidates; types of jobs being filled; and methods of finding qualified candidates. Careers in biotechnology areas are highlighted. (CW)

  11. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  12. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  13. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  14. Environmental biotechnology for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, W

    2002-03-14

    In the post-industrial society, waste management is integrated in the concepts of responsibility, reliability and continuity. Therefore industry and public office are obliged to implement the concepts of structured environmental management systems more and more strictly. The endpoints are dependent on the type of wastes and on the priorities set by society. They will with time evolve towards more restriction of all kinds of emissions. This will require increasing inputs of labour, information technology and energy into waste treatment and overall waste management. Particularly for aqueous and gaseous wastes that are not contained, continuously improving treatment with maximum re-use and minimum dissipation in the ecosphere will be the trend of the future. Moreover, the public in general and the individual citizen in particular will request to have (bio)assays to monitor regularly and autonomously the quality of his environment. Such advanced waste management requires considerable energy input. It thus may come in conflict with current concerns about CO2-emissions and the Kyoto agreements. Innovative approaches to combine waste management and the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP) directives, for instance by implementing biological carbon sequestration, are therefore warranted. Biotechnology has a major role to play particularly in terms of advanced treatment down to ng/l-levels and in terms of validating the quality of the environment by means of powerful and intelligent bio-monitoring devices.

  15. Improving biotechnology communication.

    PubMed

    Weitze, Marc-Denis; Pühler, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    Successful dialog between science and the public is vital for the development and introduction of new technologies. The National Academy of Science and Engineering in Germany has analysed experiences gained from controversies and communication strategies surrounding green genetic engineering and other fields of biotechnology, from a communications and social science viewpoint, as well as a historical perspective. From this, recommendations on how to communicate biotechnology in the future, with objectivity and balance, have been derived.

  16. Environmental biotechnology: the ongoing quest.

    PubMed

    Grommen, R; Verstraete, W

    2002-09-11

    Environmental biotechnology, until now, has primarily focused on the development of technologies to treat aqueous, solid and gaseous wastes. At present, the basic knowledge on how biotechnology can handle these wastes has been acquired and the focus is now on the implementation of these processes as 'best available technology not entailing excessive costs' (BATNEEC) in the framework of strict and transparent environmental legislation. New environmental challenges continue to evolve, as it becomes clear that waste streams should be tackled in an overall holistic way. New technologies to reach this goal are currently under development. Novel aspects with respect to the domain of water treatment are, for example, the biomembrane reactor technology and the newly discovered processes to remove nitrogen by means of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Also, most challenging is the continuing strive for re-use of treated wastewater. Indeed, water shortage is emerging in an increasing number of countries all over the world and necessitates the short cycling of water. Finally, biotechnology has a key role to play in the novel approaches to design wastewater treatment based on decentralised sanitation and reuse (DESAR). Solid waste is a major challenge worldwide. The implementation of anaerobic digestion to treat biowastes has become a grown-up technology. New approaches in which biotechnological processes are linked to physical processes, such as plasma technology, certainly deserve special attention for the coming decades. Soil and sediment clean up by means of biostimulation/remediation/augmentation is now well established. Certainly, a number of prospects need to be further explored, such as the use of special energy sources to stimulate in situ the microbial community and the seeding of knowledge to the in situ community by means of horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. A number of waste gases can be handled by biofilter systems. Biological treatment of wastegases is also

  17. Biotechnology in a global economy. Volume 2. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Volume 2, Part 1 of Biotechnology in a Global Economy is comprised of various papers relating to the biotechnology industry and its level of development in various countries. Major topics discussed include current status of the industry in these countries, financing sources, future strategies, special projects being pursued, and technology transfer.

  18. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  19. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  20. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  1. Grassroots Strategies for Confronting Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanein, Neva

    1993-01-01

    Describes strategies used by the Biotechnology Working Group during their efforts to influence state and local policy concerning biotechnology issues. Strategies address methods for framing the issue, educating self and others, recruiting allies, and developing citizen pressure. (MDH)

  2. Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Case, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described. (CW)

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We hav processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture gas shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal ...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The First Spanish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is…

  6. Fluorescent proteins in microbial biotechnology--new proteins and new applications.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino-Caston, Isaac; Wyre, Chris; Overton, Tim W

    2012-02-01

    The recent advances over the past 5 years in the utilisation of fluorescent proteins in microbial biotechnology applications, including recombinant protein production, food processing, and environmental biotechnology, are reviewed. We highlight possible areas where fluorescent proteins currently used in other bioscience disciplines could be adapted for use in biotechnological applications and also outline novel uses for recently developed fluorescent proteins.

  7. Final report, International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Donald L.

    2000-03-20

    This meeting included technical presentations of state-of-the-art research which were integrated with tutorials and workshops by practicing technologies in the broad field of environmental biotechnology. This meeting was designed to be, in every respect, truly global. Over 150 excellent abstracts from around the world were accepted. For example, presentations were heard from technical workers in Southeast Asia, Russia, China, Europe, North Africa, India, and the US. By having these selected presenters, as well as identified experienced tutors with focused workshops, all participants benefited from this interactive symposium. A number of social events further promoted informal exchange of ideas, discussions of technical problems, and exploration of new applications. This international symposium on environmental biotechnology was on the campus of Northeastern University but all Boston area universities were included and participated using designed conference Co-Chairs. This symposium, with an attendance of several hundred people, was considered a major success. Workers with experience in one area of environmental biotechnology learned from the wealth of established backgrounds of those in other areas of environmental biotechnology. To formally disseminate conference results, it was pre-arranged that all technical presentations were reviewed for formal publications.

  8. The Ohio Science Workbook: Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Spencer E., Comp.

    Because of the daily impact of biotechnology, it is important that students have some knowledge and experience with biotechnology in order to enable them to deal with the issues that arise as a result of its implementation. The purpose of this workbook is to assist in the efforts to expose students to the concepts of biotechnology through hands-on…

  9. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because today's students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South…

  10. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  11. Biotechnology in weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  12. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  13. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  14. Abiraterone. Cougar Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Madan, Ravi A; Arlen, Philip M

    2006-01-01

    Abiraterone is an oral, selective, steroidal inhibitor of cytochrome P450(17alpha) being developed by Cougar Biotechnology Inc for the potential treatment of prostate cancer. Phase I clinical trials of abiraterone have been conducted and the design of phase I/II clinical trials is being finalized.

  15. Transgenic mammals and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Westphal, H

    1989-02-01

    Biotechnology has begun to realize the enormous potential of transgenic technology: mice with human genes that produce human proteins of therapeutic value in their milk, pigs that express bovine genes that help them gain weight and lose backfat, animals with engineered gene defects that mimic human genetic diseases.

  16. Popular misconceptions: agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McHughen, Alan; Wager, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Agricultural biotechnology, especially genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM), is a topic of considerable controversy worldwide. The public debate is fraught with polarized views and opinions, some are held with religious zeal. Unfortunately, it is also marked with much ignorance and misinformation. Here we explore some popular misconceptions encountered in the public debate.

  17. Biotechnology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program quide presents the biotechnology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and lists of…

  18. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with EPA's mission to minimize risks to human health and to safeguard ecological integrity, the EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) is committed to assessing and mitigating any risk posed by biotechnology-derived crops. Consequently, ...

  20. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  1. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions.

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY: THE PROMISE, POTENTIAL RISKS & HOW CAN WE FIND OUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green science and technology movement prods existing and newly invented technologies to serve stronger roles in enhanced pollution reduction and control. Biotechnology is one of several emerging technologies that are capable of displacing current more polluting technology. Bi...

  3. New master program in management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We develop new graduate educational highly interdisciplinary program that will be useful for addressing problems in worldwide biotechnologies and related biomedical industries. This Master program called Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies provides students with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern business in modern biotechnologies. Administered jointly by Cranfield University (UK) and Saratov State University, Russia) graduates possess a blend of engineering, biotechnologies, business and interpersonal skills necessary for success in industry. The Master courses combine a regular year program in biophotonics & biotechnologies disciplines with the core requirements of a Master degree. A major advantage of the program is that it will provide skills not currently available to graduates in any other program, and it will give the graduates an extra competitive edge for getting a job then.

  4. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  5. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  6. Chemogenomics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wuster, Arthur; Madan Babu, M

    2008-05-01

    A robust knowledge of the interactions between small molecules and specific proteins aids the development of new biotechnological tools and the identification of new drug targets, and can lead to specific biological insights. Such knowledge can be obtained through chemogenomic screens. In these screens, each small molecule from a chemical library is applied to each cell type from a library of cells, and the resulting phenotypes are recorded. Chemogenomic screens have recently become very common and will continue to generate large amounts of data. The interpretation of this data will occupy biologists and chemists alike for some time to come. This review discusses methods for the acquisition and interpretation of chemogenomic data, in addition to possible applications of chemogenomics in biotechnology.

  7. An overview of biotechnology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi; Hahm; Rhee; Han

    1999-03-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, Korea has invested heavily in biotechnology research and development, with the aim of becoming a leading nation in this field. It is important to understand the historical progress of this development in order to appreciate the current state of biotechology in Korea. However, it is equally important to know what research is currently being planned and carried out, and by whom.

  8. Biotechnology in Sweden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and the formation developed a procedure for the continuous of butyric and acetic acid increased, production of acetone and butanol from thereby...butanol aud ace- mary reasons. Enzymes usually do not tone, formate, acetate , and formalde- operate in the concentrations normally hyde. These...Analytical ChemistrySchool of Electrical Engineering Biochemistry and Biotechnology School of Civil Engineering Cellulose TechnologyU chool of.Chemtcel

  9. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  10. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  11. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  12. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  14. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  15. Industrial biotechnology: tools and applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weng Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-12-01

    Industrial biotechnology involves the use of enzymes and microorganisms to produce value-added chemicals from renewable sources. Because of its association with reduced energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation, industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. Here we highlight a variety of important tools for industrial biotechnology, including protein engineering, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, systems biology, and downstream processing. In addition, we show how these tools have been successfully applied in several case studies, including the production of 1, 3-propanediol, lactic acid, and biofuels. It is expected that industrial biotechnology will be increasingly adopted by chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural industries.

  16. Plant biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott; Pray, Carl; Wang, Qinfang

    2002-01-25

    A survey of China's plant biotechnologists shows that China is developing the largest plant biotechnology capacity outside of North America. The list of genetically modified plant technologies in trials, including rice, wheat, potatoes, and peanuts, is impressive and differs from those being worked on in other countries. Poor farmers in China are cultivating more area of genetically modified plants than are small farmers in any other developing country. A survey of agricultural producers in China demonstrates that Bacillus thuringiensis cotton adoption increases production efficiency and improves farmer health.

  17. Farm animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bulfield, G

    2000-01-01

    As we enter a new millennium, the research with the greatest likely impact on both the biological sciences and the biotechnology industry will be the sequencing of the human and other genomes. Widespread interest in farm animal genomics as a method for identifying genes controlling commercially important traits started only a decade ago. Although the genomics of farm animals was relatively late to arrive on the scene compared with the genomics of crop plants, it has the advantage of being able to access the enormous amount of human genome information.

  18. Environmental biotechnology: biotechnology solutions for a global environmental problem, hazardous chemical wastes.

    PubMed

    Omenn, G S

    Biotechnology has a growing place in the remediation of hazardous waste sites throughout the world, and especially in Asia where population density is high and land and fresh water are scarce. In-situ bioremediation has been demonstrated already to be highly effective for petroleum hydrocarbons (alkanes, aromatics, polychlorophenols) and organophosphate pesticides in soils and for gasoline by-products (benzene, toluene, xylene) and chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene) in groundwater. Heavy metals and PCBs are not suitable for bioremediation. Environmental biotechnology includes solid-phase and slurry-phase bioremediation for contaminated soils and site-specific bioreactors for contaminated groundwater. Specific examples are presented. From a policy point of view, accumulated wastes must be detoxified, preferably at sites where they already exist. We cannot continue to rely on their removal and disposal "elsewhere". For current waste streams, we must minimize the volumes and toxicity. Environmental biotechnology will play a key role.

  19. Biotechnology touches the forest

    SciTech Connect

    Powledge, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

  20. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  1. Innovation in biotechnology: current and future states.

    PubMed

    Woollett, G R

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is assumed to be a good thing in health care, just as it is elsewhere, and to be crucial to the availability of greater choices for consumers. But what is it? Very little definition is provided when the term is used. This report discusses the following aspects of biotech innovation: innovation in medicinal products, innovation in manufacturing processes, and innovation in regulatory science (both oversight and licensure).

  2. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  3. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  4. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  5. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolella, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  6. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens.

  7. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  8. A Sourcebook of Biotechnology Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Alison M., Ed.; Matheson, Robert H., III, Ed.

    This book contains 22 lessons using hands-on activities designed to present some aspect of biotechnology in a usable form that teachers can adapt for their classrooms. The introductory section serves as a resource that introduces the teacher and student to the history of biotechnology. The activities are divided into five units that group lessons…

  9. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-08-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because todays students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South Wales (NSW). In NSW few students were electing to answer examination questions related to biotechnology, suggesting that few students were studying the topic. This study looks at why electives relating to biotechnology are chosen or not chosen by students and teachers, with the intention of developing a greater understanding of the requirements for provision of a successful unit of study in this subject. Data was obtained through a survey of secondary science teachers, interviews with teachers and two case studies of the teaching of a biotechnology unit. Teachers reported a range of obstacles to the teaching of biotechnology including the difficulty of the subject matter and a lack of practical work that was suited to the content of the teaching unit. If biotechnology is worth learning in school science, then further research is needed to identify ways to promote the effective teaching of this topic, which teachers regard as important for, and interesting to, students but which most teachers choose not to teach.

  10. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  11. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  13. [Biotechnologic drugs and chemotherapy for infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Honorato, J

    2007-09-01

    Developments in biotechnology in recent years have enabled the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. The agents obtained from these biotechnological procedures possess specific characteristics which significantly distinguish them from drugs obtained by chemical synthesis. These properties cover the entire development process, from investigation and production up to their administration to patients. The pharmokinetics of these preparations influence their administration routes and dosage regimens. The discovery of these drugs has led to major advances in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious processes which until very recently had no effective treatment. The investigation and production of these drugs requires the use of highly technical resources resulting in high costs and therefore a more expensive drug on the market compared to other drugs. Nevertheless, well documented pharmoeconomic studies show that the use of this type of drug for certain symptoms may be highly cost effective. This article includes some of the possible applications of biotechnology in the infectious disease field, although the current situation indicates that more detailed and broader applications may be elaborated on in ensuing issues. The future of these drugs in chemical therapy for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases is exceedingly promising and many of these drugs are currently under laboratory investigation, more so than those under development from a chemical synthesis approach.

  14. Biotechnology-a sustainable alternative for chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Chisti, Yusuf

    2005-11-01

    This review outlines the current and emerging applications of biotechnology, particularly in the production and processing of chemicals, for sustainable development. Biotechnology is "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents". Some of the defining technologies of modern biotechnology include genetic engineering; culture of recombinant microorganisms, cells of animals and plants; metabolic engineering; hybridoma technology; bioelectronics; nanobiotechnology; protein engineering; transgenic animals and plants; tissue and organ engineering; immunological assays; genomics and proteomics; bioseparations and bioreactor technologies. Environmental and economic benefits that biotechnology can offer in manufacturing, monitoring and waste management are highlighted. These benefits include the following: greatly reduced dependence on nonrenewable fuels and other resources; reduced potential for pollution of industrial processes and products; ability to safely destroy accumulated pollutants for remediation of the environment; improved economics of production; and sustainable production of existing and novel products.

  15. Evolutionary history and biotechnological future of carboxylases.

    PubMed

    Schada von Borzyskowski, Lennart; Rosenthal, Raoul G; Erb, Tobias J

    2013-11-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a potent greenhouse gas whose presence in the atmosphere is a critical factor for global warming. At the same time atmospheric CO2 is also a cheap and readily available carbon source that can in principle be used to synthesize value-added products. However, as uncatalyzed chemical CO2-fixation reactions usually require quite harsh conditions to functionalize the CO2 molecule, not many processes have been developed that make use of CO2. In contrast to synthetical chemistry, Nature provides a multitude of different carboxylating enzymes whose carboxylating principle(s) might be exploited in biotechnology. This review focuses on the biochemical features of carboxylases, highlights possible evolutionary scenarios for the emergence of their reactivity, and discusses current, as well as potential future applications of carboxylases in organic synthesis, biotechnology and synthetic biology.

  16. Research on orchid biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Yang, Ya-Ping; Hsu, Yi-Chin; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Shih, Hsing-Hui; Chen, Wen-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2011-09-01

    Orchidaceae constitute one of the largest families of angiosperms. They are one of the most ecological and evolutionary significant plants and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on earth. Because of the significance of plant biology, market needs and the current level of breeding technologies, basic research into orchid biology and the application of biotechnology in the orchid industry are continually endearing scientists to orchids in Taiwan. In this introductory review, we give an overview of the research activities in orchid biology and biotechnology, including the status of genomics, transformation technology, flowering regulation, molecular regulatory mechanisms of floral development, scent production and color presentation. This information will provide a broad scope for study of orchid biology and serve as a starting point for uncovering the mysteries of orchid evolution.

  17. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  18. Biotechnology as an intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Adler, R G

    1984-04-27

    Recent advances in biotechnology have created many public policy and legal issues, one of the most significant of which is the treatment of biotechnological industrial products, particularly under the patent system. Patents represent one of several types of intellectual property; their ownership confers the right to exclude others from benefitting from the tangible products of a proprietary subject matter. Intellectual property law and its protections will play a major role in the rate at which biotechnology develops in the United States. In this article biotechnological intellectual property issues are reviewed in the context of their underlying legal requirements. The implications of other factors, such as international competition, research funding, and gene ownership, are also considered.

  19. Biotechnology Innovations In Developing Nations

    PubMed Central

    Korenblit, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Biotechnology breakthroughs are coming from developing countries like China and India that are seeking a competitive edge in the world market. But will private investors step up to make it happen? Here are some reasons why they should. PMID:23424337

  20. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  1. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  2. Inducible gene expression systems and plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giandomenico; Karali, Marianthi

    2009-01-01

    Plant biotechnology relies heavily on the genetic manipulation of crops. Almost invariantly, the gene of interest is expressed in a constitutive fashion, although this may not be strictly necessary for several applications. Currently, there are several regulatable expression systems for the temporal, spatial and quantitative control of transgene activity. These molecular switches are based on components derived from different organisms, which range from viruses to higher eukaryotes. Many inducible systems have been designed for fundamental and applied research and since their initial development, they have become increasingly popular in plant molecular biology. This review covers a broad number of inducible expression systems examining their properties and relevance for plant biotechnology in its various guises, from molecular breeding to pharmaceutical and industrial applications. For each system, we examine some advantages and limitations, also in relation to the strategy on which they rely. Besides being necessary to control useful genes that may negatively affect crop yield and quality, we discuss that inducible systems can be also used to increase public acceptance of GMOs, reducing some of the most common concerns. Finally, we suggest some directions and future developments for their further diffusion in agriculture and biotechnology.

  3. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, André

    2010-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications. PMID:20461510

  4. Novel biocatalysts for white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Drepper, Thomas; Eggert, Thorsten; Hummel, Werner; Leggewie, Christian; Pohl, Martina; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2006-01-01

    White Biotechnology uses microorganisms and enzymes to manufacture a large variety of chemical products. Therefore, the demand for new and useful biocatalysts is steadily and rapidly increasing. We have developed methods for the isolation of new enzyme genes, constructed novel expression systems, and optimized existing enzymes for biotechnological applications by methods of directed evolution. Furthermore, we have isolated and characterized biocatalysts relevant for the preparation of enantiopure compounds.

  5. New Directions in Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  6. Eddy-current analysis of isolated permanent-magnet drives using two- and three-dimensional finite-element methods (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. A.

    1990-05-01

    Present drive systems which rely on mechanical devices for torque transmission have some negative features: the driven component cannot be isolated from the drive motor, rotating seals have inherent leakage and friction problems, and mechanical failures often occur due to torque overloads. Magnetic couplings are especially well suited for use in isolated-drive systems. This is often the case in military and aerospace applications where pumps and compressors are vital parts of the thermal and fuel operating systems. The application of permanent-magnet couplings in isolated drives requires accurate calculation of the eddy-current losses induced on the hermetic vessel. This is because the losses along with the required output torque dictate the size and efficiency of the permanent-magnet coupling. The vessel isolates the drive member from the driven member of the turbocompressor. The paper will show the formulation of the computational method based on the Poynting-vector theorem and the concept of motional electric field intensity. The eddy-current losses are calculated using two- and three-dimensional magnetostatic finite-element (FE) analysis. A comparison of the results obtained by two- and three-dimensional FE analysis is made. The results of the analysis will be compared to test data for verification. The test-facility setup and procedure will also be described. This state-of-the-art technique for computation of eddy-current losses has several advantages over conventional analysis methods: the nonlinearities of the magnetic circuit are taken into account, magnetic field fringing and end-leakage effects are not neglected, and the method does not rely on the use of empirical factors. The significant benefits of this approach are that trial-and-error experimental design approaches are eliminated and test data provide validation of analytical results.

  7. Thirty years of European biotechnology programmes: from biomolecular engineering to the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Magnien, Etienne; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-25

    This article traces back thirty years of biotechnology research sponsored by the European Union (EU). It outlines the crucial role played by De Nettancourt, Goffeau and Van Hoeck to promote and prepare the first European programme on biotechnology (1982-1986) run by the European Commission. Following this first biotechnology programme, others followed until the current one, part of the seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (2007-2013) (FP7). Particular attention is given to the statutory role of the European institutions in the design and orientation of the successive biotechnology programmes, compared to the more informal-yet visionary-role of key individuals upstream to any legislative decision. Examples of success stories and of the role of the biotechnology programmes in addressing societal issues and industrial competitiveness are also presented. Finally, an outline of Horizon 2020, the successor of FP7, is described, together with the role of biotechnology in building the bioeconomy.

  8. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding production in capacity and economic revenues of other groups of industrial microorganisms. Yeasts have wide-ranging fundamental and industrial importance in scientific, food, medical, and agricultural disciplines (Fig. 1). Saccharomyces is the most important genus of yeast from fundamental and applied perspectives and has been expansively studied. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) including members of the Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes also have substantial current utility and potential applicability in biotechnology. In an earlier mini-review, "Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts-the ascomycetes" (Johnson Appl Microb Biotechnol 97: 503-517, 2013), the extensive biotechnological utility and potential of ascomycetous yeasts are described. Ascomycetous yeasts are particularly important in food and ethanol formation, production of single-cell protein, feeds and fodder, heterologous production of proteins and enzymes, and as model and fundamental organisms for the delineation of genes and their function in mammalian and human metabolism and disease processes. In contrast, the roles of basidiomycetous yeasts in biotechnology have mainly been evaluated only in the past few decades and compared to the ascomycetous yeasts and currently have limited industrial utility. From a biotechnology perspective, the basidiomycetous yeasts are known mainly for the production of enzymes used in pharmaceutical and chemical synthesis, for production of certain classes of primary and secondary metabolites such as terpenoids and carotenoids, for aerobic catabolism of complex carbon sources, and for bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenotoxicants. Notwithstanding, the basidiomycetous yeasts appear to have considerable potential in biotechnology owing to their catabolic utilities, formation of enzymes acting on recalcitrant substrates, and through the production of unique primary

  9. Culture collections and the biotechnology deal.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Martin; Dasen, Gottfried; Wermelinger, Tobias; Landert, Silvano; Frasson, David

    2010-01-01

    Culture collections provide starting material for life science research, development and production. Especially in biotechnology, well characterised and pure microbial strains are essential for reproducible and safe bioprocesses. Culture collections also play a role as repositories of biological material for future applications and help to preserve biological diversity. In addition, they also maintain the know-how needed for more complex identification methods and help to develop new techniques. To enable culture collections to achieve higher quality standards, new certification guidelines for biological resource centres are currently being developed.

  10. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, M. K. Md; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Hashim, Uda; Chinni, Suresh V.

    2017-01-01

    Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales. PMID:28280725

  11. Biotechnological aspects of plum pox virus.

    PubMed

    López-Moya, J J; Fernández-Fernández, M R; Cambra, M; García, J A

    2000-01-21

    Plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of a devastating disease that affects stone fruit trees, is becoming a target of intense studies intended both to fight against viral infection and to develop practical applications based on the current knowledge of potyvirus molecular biology. This review focuses on biotechnological aspects related to PPV, such as novel diagnostic techniques that facilitate detection and typing of virus isolates, strategies to implement pathogen-derived resistance through plant transformation, the potential use of genetic elements derived from the virus, and the recent development of PPV-based expression vectors.

  12. Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology Conference 2009.

    PubMed

    Scattereggia, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Financial Times Global Pharmaceutical & Biotechnology conference, held in London, included topics covering the current and future challenges confronting the pharma and biotech industry, and presented possible solutions to those challenges. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the industry challenges for big pharma companies, diversification as a solution to industry problems, overcoming challenges with collaborations and M&As, and the role of emerging markets in the pharma industry. Other subjects discussed included the expected impact of personalized medicine on the industry, the entry of big pharma into the generics market and the problems that are confronting the small pharma and biotech industry.

  13. Energy-based models for environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2008-07-01

    Environmental biotechnology is evolving. Current process objectives include the production of chemicals and/or energy carriers (biofuels) in addition to the traditional objective of removing pollutants from waste. To maximise product yields and minimise biomass production, future processes will rely on anaerobic microbial communities. Anaerobic processes are characterised by small Gibbs energy changes in the reactions catalysed, and this provides clear thermodynamic process boundaries. Here, a Gibbs-energy-based methodology is proposed for mathematical modelling of energy-limited anaerobic ecosystems. This methodology provides a basis for the description of microbial activities as a function of environmental factors, which will allow enhanced catalysis of specific reactions of interest for process development.

  14. New technologies in medicine: biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zajtchuk, R

    1999-11-01

    In February 1997, researchers created Dolly, a lamb cloned from the DNA of an adult sheep. This was supposed to be impossible (or at least generations away), but suddenly it was here--a clone of a higher mammal. Whatever Dolly's ultimate significance, she conclusively demonstrated the growing power of biotechnology. Many have come to the conclusion that advances in biotechnology will fundamentally transform medicine during the coming decade. Society is in the midst of a technical revolution that will have the same relevance as the development of the printing press, the internal combustion engine, and the microprocessor. Computers have become the key tools in the accelerating progress that is occurring in the field of biotechnology. At the same time, genetic, evolutionary, and other biologic processes are providing new models for the development of computer hardware and software. Today represents the early stages of what has been called the "bionic convergence": the convergence of the biologic revolution with the information revolution, the joining of biology with electronics. Virtually everything that is important to health care practitioners and patients--diagnostic techniques, means of understanding disease causes, methods of treatment, approaches to prevention, health care facility design, medical education, and legal and ethical issues--will be changed by the revolutions currently underway in the fields of biotechnology and genetic medicine. The following monograph includes several forecasts about a range of possible opportunities that may have enormous effects on health care during the next century. These forecasts address the potential impacts of biotechnology on disease detection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention, nanotechnology, and other areas of medical significance. Every area of beneficiary care will be affected as the changes implied by these forecasts begin to develop. Beneficiary care will continue to see the emergence of a "forecast, prevent, and

  15. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry.

  16. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of

  17. The development of biotechnology education in China*.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuanwei; Lin, Juan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Zhonghai; Yin, Yizhou; Guo, Binhui; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2006-03-01

    From the middle of the 20th century, Chinese scientists have been actively involved in biotechnology. However, biotechnology education in China is a relatively recent phenomenon. This subject has not been addressed at the undergraduate level in a serious way until recently. In the last decade, biotechnology education developed rapidly and reached a new level in Chinese universities. The Chinese scientific establishment is very much aware of the importance of biotechnology and has identified this subject as one of the priority areas. Some universities are taking positive steps toward enhancing biotechnology education. This article focuses on the emergence, as well as the problems and prospects, of biotechnology education in China.

  18. Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

    2014-06-01

    Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed.

  19. The impact of industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  20. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood.

  1. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  2. The biotechnological potential of piezophiles.

    PubMed

    Abe, F; Horikoshi, K

    2001-03-01

    Microorganisms that prefer high-pressure conditions are termed piezophiles (previously termed barophiles). The molecular basis of piezophily is now being investigated extensively focusing on aspects of gene regulation and the function of certain proteins in deep-sea isolates. Little attention has been paid, however, to the potential biotechnological applications of piezophiles compared with other extremophiles. Based on the fundamental knowledge available, we will try to answer the following questions: How can we exploit the biotechnological potential of piezophiles? What can be understood by the application of high-pressure in biological systems?

  3. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  4. The impact of biotechnology on hyphomycetous fungal insect biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, D D; Khachatourians, G G

    1995-01-01

    The potential for the control of insect pests by entomopathogenic fungi has been touted for decades, if not centuries. Only recently have advances in biotechnology provided the tools for indepth analysis of the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and host death at the molecular level. This review outlines the current state of knowledge regarding the mode of infection and targets several key components that are amenable to improvement via biotechnology. Realization of the considerable economic potential of fungal bioinsecticides can occur only through a combined and coordinated effort involving fundamental science, formulation technology and field applications.

  5. European Union research and innovation perspectives on biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Claxton, John; Economidis, Ioannis; Högel, Jens; Venturi, Piero; Aguilar, Alfredo

    2011-12-20

    "Food, Agriculture and Fisheries and Biotechnology" is one of 10 thematic areas in the Cooperation programme of the European Union's 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP7). With a budget of nearly €2 billion for the period 2007-2013, its objective is to foster the development of a European Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) by bringing together science, industry and other stakeholders that produce, manage or otherwise exploit biological resources. Biotechnology plays an important role in addressing social, environmental and economic challenges and it is recognised as a key enabling technology in the transition to a green, low carbon and resource-efficient economy. Biotechnologies for non-health applications have received a considerable attention in FP7 and to date 61 projects on industrial, marine, plant, environmental and emerging biotechnologies have been supported with a contribution of €262.8 million from the European Commission (EC). This article presents an outlook of the research, technological development and demonstration activities in biotechnology currently supported in FP7 within the Cooperation programme, including a brief overview of the policy context.

  6. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  7. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  8. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in "World J Microbiol Biotechnol" 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in "Int J Sci Educ" 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in "Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia" (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in "Am Biol Teach" 64(2):93-99, 2002). A…

  9. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  10. Biotechnology Gains Brighten Resource Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1979-01-01

    This report details recent advances in fermentation biotechnology as presented by speakers at the 27th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Congress. Discussion centered around the use of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi as future sources of essential materials as food, fuel, and medicine. (BT)

  11. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  12. Biotechnology, Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    materials. Transcending multiple disciplines to include healthcare, manufacturing , agriculture, energy, life sciences, pharmaceuticals, chemistry...applications, including using yeast to make bread, bacteria to derive yogurt , and molds to make cheeses.4 Early biotechnology endeavors included...suppliers, food manufacturing , transportation, retail grocers, and food service providers. Protecting Agriculture and Public Health The

  13. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  14. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  15. Turkish university students' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Öztürk-Akar, Ebru

    2016-09-10

    This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology applications. Sample of the study consists of 403 undergraduate and graduate students, 198 nonscience, and 205 science majors. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire and the Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics (mean and percentages), t test, and correlations were used to examine the participants' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications and differences as regards their majors. Although the science majors had higher knowledge and attitude scores than the nonscience majors, it is not possible to say that they have sufficient knowledge of biotechnologies. Besides, the participants' attitudes toward biotechnological applications were not considerably related to their knowledge of biotechnology. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016.

  16. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  17. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie TDT; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. Significance Statement Chlamydomonas reinhardtii offers potential as a host for the production of high value compounds for industrial biotechnology. Synthetic biology provides a mechanism to generate generic, well characterised tools for application in the rational genetic manipulation of organisms: if synthetic biology principles were adopted for manipulation of C. reinhardtii, development of this microalga as an industrial biotechnology platform would be expedited. PMID:25641561

  18. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  19. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  20. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology.

  1. The developing world benefits from plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Maureen A

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the view that the developing world benefits from plant biotechnology. To support this view, evidence is presented showing that plant biotechnology has already had a beneficial impact on millions of farmers of the developing world who have chosen to grow Bt cotton, resulting in fewer pesticide sprayings and increased yields and profits. Leaders, scientists, and farmers in developing countries have expressed their need for plant biotechnology, and in some developing countries, ongoing projects are applying plant biotechnology to improve indigenous crops. Nutrition education efforts should evaluate crop biotechnology from the perspective of the developing world.

  2. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  3. Industry Studies 2004: Biotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    food products for animal and human consumption , is governed by domestic and international regulations, both social (health and safety) and economic...or consumption , become commercially viable. While the benefits of GMO plants are largely documented, opponents counter that concerns about...currently has no federal laws banning cloning technology. In 2002, the President’s Council on Bioethics proposed to the President several public policy

  4. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology.

  5. Risk assessment methodologies for biotechnology impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, James W.

    1986-07-01

    By combining hazard assessment of effects of a potential biotechnology product with exposure assessments based on study of the genetically engineered organism's fate, conclusions may be reached about the risk involved in release of the product to the environment. In order to make this risk assessment, criteria (including regulatory endpoints) must be established and then developed further against a data base from well-accepted tests. Other aspects requiring research and development include test evaluation, quality assurance, statistical procedures, and methods of identifying and monitoring not only the nominal organism(s) in the products, but also any contaminating material or organisms to which the genetically engineered components may be transferred in the environment. Application of microcosm technology to testing of genetically engineered organisms is expected to be important, since these systems may be used safely to understand fate and effects prior to (or in place of) testing the product in the environment. Limitations in the use of microcosms may be offset by the cost-effectiveness and incisiveness of results, as has been shown for other pollutants. Risk management for biotechnology products currently lacks an adequate background, but components of the process exist or can be developed. New resources, in terms of personnel, training, facilities, and funding, will be needed in order to apply the risk assessment paradigm used for toxic chemicals and pesticides. We will need to know:

  6. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    PubMed

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  7. Transforming exoelectrogens for biotechnology using synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    TerAvest, Michaela A; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular electron transfer pathways allow certain bacteria to transfer energy between intracellular chemical energy stores and extracellular solids through redox reactions. Microorganisms containing these pathways, exoelectrogens, are a critical part of microbial electrochemical technologies that aim to impact applications in bioenergy, biosensing, and biocomputing. However, there are not yet any examples of economically viable microbial electrochemical technologies due to the limitations of naturally occurring exoelectrogens. Here we first briefly summarize recent discoveries in understanding extracellular electron transfer pathways, then review in-depth the creation of customized and novel exoelectrogens for biotechnological applications. We analyze engineering efforts to increase current production in native exoelectrogens, which reveals that modulating certain processes within extracellular electron transfer are more effective than others. We also review efforts to create new exoelectrogens and highlight common challenges in this work. Lastly, we summarize work utilizing engineered exoelectrogens for biotechnological applications and the key obstacles to their future development. Fueled by the development of genetic tools, these approaches will continue to expand and genetically modified organisms will continue to improve the outlook for microbial electrochemical technologies.

  8. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  9. 76 FR 3150 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines...: The NIH Guidelines currently require that recombinant DNA experiments designed to create...

  10. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  11. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  12. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  13. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage.

  14. Microfluidic tools toward industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline F; Pessoa, Amanda C S N; Bastos, Reinaldo G; de la Torre, Lucimara G

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidics is a technology that operates with small amounts of fluids and makes possible the investigation of cells, enzymes, and biomolecules and encapsulation of biocatalysts in a greater variety of conditions than permitted using conventional methods. This review discusses technological possibilities that can be applied in the field of industrial biotechnology, presenting the principal definitions and fundamental aspects of microfluidic parameters to better understand advanced approaches. Specifically, concentration gradient generators, droplet-based microfluidics, and microbioreactors are explored as useful tools that can contribute to industrial biotechnology. These tools present potential applications, inclusive as commercial platforms to optimizing in bioprocesses development as screening cells, encapsulating biocatalysts, and determining critical kinetic parameters. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1372-1389, 2016.

  15. Glucoamylases: structural and biotechnological aspects.

    PubMed

    Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio

    2011-03-01

    Glucoamylases, one of the main types of enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis, are exo-acting enzymes that release consecutive glucose units from the non-reducing ends of starch molecules. Glucoamylases are microbial enzymes, present in bacteria, archaea, and fungi but not in plants and animals. Structurally, they are classified in family 15 of glycoside hydrolases and characterised by the invariable presence of a catalytic domain with (α/α)₆-fold, often bound to a non-catalytic domain of diverse origin and function. Fungal glucoamylases are biotechnologically very important as they are used industrially in large amounts and have been extensively studied during the past 30 years. Prokaryotic glucoamylases are of biotechnological relevance for being generally thermophilic enzymes, active at elevated temperatures.

  16. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach.

  17. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; López, Camilo; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production. We analyze complex plant-pathogen interactions to profit from such knowledge to help cassava fight bacterial diseases and look at candidate genes possibly involved in resistance to viruses and whiteflies-the two most important traits of cassava. The review also covers the analyses of main achievements in transgenic-mediated nutritional improvement and mass production of healthy plants by tissue culture and synthetic seeds. Finally, the perspectives of using genome editing and the challenges associated to climate change for further improving the crop are discussed. During the last 30 yr, great advances have been made in cassava using biotechnology, but they need to scale out of the proof of concept to the fields of cassava growers.

  18. Fulfilling the promise of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Rita R

    2002-11-01

    Genetic engineering has produced pharmaceuticals, disease-resistant plants, cloned animals and research and industrial products. While the comparably mature field of medical biotechnology now reveals its true potential, marine biotechnology is still in the realm of the future. As we explore the earth for new sources of natural chemicals, we now search the waters. Myriad organisms, most unknown to us, live there. Many produce compounds that can be commercialized, or the organisms themselves may be commercialized, through genetic engineering methods. For decades, scientists studied the ocean depths searching for unique molecules and organisms. But not until the early 1980s was there a synthesis uniting marine natural products, ecology, aquaculture and bioremediation research under the heading of marine biotechnology. As harvesting enough products from marine sources to produce sufficient amounts, even for study, is nearly impossible, we need to use genomics techniques to identify biologically active compounds. As we damage our oceanic ecosystems through pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing methods, opportunities to learn more about marine organisms and their commercial potential may be limited. Although governments and intergovernmental agencies are committed to funding and expanding oceanic research, more funding is needed to discover and study the ocean's vast, unplumbed resources.

  19. Applications of cyanobacteria in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abed, R M M; Dobretsov, S; Sudesh, K

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have gained a lot of attention in recent years because of their potential applications in biotechnology. We present an overview of the literature describing the uses of cyanobacteria in industry and services sectors and provide an outlook on the challenges and future prospects of the field of cyanobacterial biotechnology. Cyanobacteria have been identified as a rich source of biologically active compounds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities. Several strains of cyanobacteria were found to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can be used as a substitute for nonbiodegradable petrochemical-based plastics. Recent studies showed that oil-polluted sites are rich in cyanobacterial consortia capable of degrading oil components. Cyanobacteria within these consortia facilitated the degradation processes by providing the associated oil-degrading bacteria with the necessary oxygen, organics and fixed nitrogen. Cyanobacterial hydrogen has been considered as a very promising source of alternative energy, and has now been made commercially available. In addition to these applications, cyanobacteria are also used in aquaculture, wastewater treatment, food, fertilizers, production of secondary metabolites including exopolysaccharides, vitamins, toxins, enzymes and pharmaceuticals. Future research should focus on isolating new cyanobacterial strains producing high value products and genetically modifying existing strains to ensure maximum production of the desired products. Metagenomic libraries should be constructed to discover new functional genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of biotechnological relevant compounds. Large-scale industrial production of the cyanobacterial products requires optimization of incubation conditions and fermenter designs in order to increase productivity.

  20. Downstream processing in marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Downstream processing is one of the most underestimated steps in bioprocesses and this is not only the case in marine biotechnology. However, it is well known, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, that downstreaming is the most expensive and unfortunately the most ineffective part of a bioprocess. Thus, one might assume that new developments are widely described in the literature. Unfortunately this is not the case. Only a few working groups focus on new and more effective procedures to separate products from marine organisms. A major characteristic of marine biotechnology is the wide variety of products. Due to this variety a broad spectrum of separation techniques must be applied. In this chapter we will give an overview of existing general techniques for downstream processing which are suitable for marine bioprocesses, with some examples focussing on special products such as proteins (enzymes), polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and other low molecular weight products. The application of a new membrane adsorber is described as well as the use of solvent extraction in marine biotechnology.

  1. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  2. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  3. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  4. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  5. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  6. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  7. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  8. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  9. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  10. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclease-based editing strategies, and challenges that are specific to various applications of the TALEN technology. We review examples of applying TALENs for studying gene function and regulation, generating disease models, and developing gene therapies. The current status of genome editing and future directions for other uses of these technologies are also discussed.

  11. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Yuan, Joshua S; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-11-01

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  12. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Ousterout, David G.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclease-based editing strategies, and challenges that are specific to various applications of the TALEN technology. We review examples of applying TALENs for studying gene function and regulation, generating disease models, and developing gene therapies. The current status of genome editing and future directions for other uses of these technologies are also discussed. PMID:26443211

  13. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  14. Protein prenylation: enzymes, therapeutics, and biotechnology applications.

    PubMed

    Palsuledesai, Charuta C; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-01-16

    Protein prenylation is a ubiquitous covalent post-translational modification found in all eukaryotic cells, comprising attachment of either a farnesyl or a geranylgeranyl isoprenoid. It is essential for the proper cellular activity of numerous proteins, including Ras family GTPases and heterotrimeric G-proteins. Inhibition of prenylation has been extensively investigated to suppress the activity of oncogenic Ras proteins to achieve antitumor activity. Here, we review the biochemistry of the prenyltransferase enzymes and numerous isoprenoid analogs synthesized to investigate various aspects of prenylation and prenyltransferases. We also give an account of the current status of prenyltransferase inhibitors as potential therapeutics against several diseases including cancers, progeria, aging, parasitic diseases, and bacterial and viral infections. Finally, we discuss recent progress in utilizing protein prenylation for site-specific protein labeling for various biotechnology applications.

  15. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli.

  16. Relevance of chemistry to white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Munishwar N; Raghava, Smita

    2007-06-20

    White biotechnology is a fast emerging area that concerns itself with the use of biotechnological approaches in the production of bulk and fine chemicals, biofuels, and agricultural products. It is a truly multidisciplinary area and further progress depends critically on the role of chemists. This article outlines the emerging contours of white biotechnology and encourages chemists to take up some of the challenges that this area has thrown up.

  17. Biotech 101: an educational outreach program in genetics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    East, Kelly M; Hott, Adam M; Callanan, Nancy P; Lamb, Neil E

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in research and biotechnology are making genetics and genomics increasingly relevant to the lives and health of the general public. For the public to make informed healthcare and public policy decisions relating to genetic information, there is a need for increased genetic literacy. Biotech 101 is a free, short-course for the local community introducing participants to topics in genetics, genomics, and biotechnology, created at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Biotech 101 in increasing the genetic literacy of program participants through pre-and-post surveys. Genetic literacy was measured through increases in self-perceived knowledge for each content area covered through the course and the self-reported impact the course had on various aspects of participants' lives. Three hundred ninety-two individuals attended Biotech 101 during the first three course offerings. Participants reported a significant increase in self-perceived knowledge for each content area (p < 0.01). Participants also reported the program had high levels of impact on their lives and decision-making, a high likelihood for continued self-learning, and overwhelming satisfaction with course content and logistics. Biotech 101 is an effective mechanism for impacting participants' lives and genetic literacy and serves as a model for other similar programs, adding to the currently limited evidence base regarding public educational strategies in genetics and biotechnology.

  18. The evolution of biotechnology and its impact on health care.

    PubMed

    Evens, Ronald; Kaitin, Kenneth

    2015-02-01

    For more than three decades the field of biotechnology has had an extraordinary impact on science, health care, law, the regulatory environment, and business. During this time more than 260 novel biotechnology products were approved for over 230 indications. Global sales of these products exceeded $175 billion in 2013 and have helped sustain a vibrant life sciences sector that includes more than 4,600 biotech companies worldwide. In this article we examine the evolution of biotechnology during the past three decades and the profound impact that it has had on health care through four interrelated and interdependent tracks: innovations in science, government activity, business development, and patient care. The future impact of biotechnology is promising, as long as the public and private sectors continue to foster policies and provide funds that lead to scientific breakthroughs; governments continue to offer incentives for private-sector biotech innovation; industry develops business models for cost-effective research and development; and all stakeholders establish policies to ensure that the therapeutic advances that mitigate or cure medical conditions that currently have inadequate or no available therapies are accessible to the public at a reasonable cost.

  19. Past, present, and future industrial biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenjiang; Ji, Xiaojun; Kan, Suli; Qiao, Hongqun; Jiang, Min; Lu, Dingqiang; Wang, Jun; Huang, He; Jia, Honghua; Ouyuang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    2010-01-01

    Fossil resources, i.e. concentrated carbon from biomass, have been irrecoverably exhausted through modern industrial civilization in the last two hundred years. Serious consequences including crises in resources, environment and energy, as well as the pressing need for direct and indirect exploitation of solar energy, pose challenges to the science and technology community of today. Bioenergy, bulk chemicals, and biomaterials could be produced from renewable biomass in a biorefinery via biocatalysis. These sustainable industries will match the global mass cycle, creating a new form of civilization with new industries and agriculture driven by solar energy. Industrial biotechnology is the dynamo of a bioeconomy, leading to a new protocol for production of energy, bulk chemicals, and materials. This new mode of innovation will place the industry at center stage supported by universities and research institutes. Creativity in industrial biotechnology will be promoted and China will successfully follow the road to green modernization. China's rapid economic development and its traditional capacity in fermentation will place it in an advantageous position in the industrial biotechnology revolution. The development and current status of industrial biotechnology in China are summarized herein.

  20. Past, Present, and Future Industrial Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Ji, Xiaojun; Kan, Suli; Qiao, Hongqun; Jiang, Min; Lu, Dingqiang; Wang, Jun; Huang, He; Jia, Honghua; Ouyuang, Pingkai; Ying, Hanjie

    Fossil resources, i.e. concentrated carbon from biomass, have been irrecoverably exhausted through modern industrial civilization in the last two hundred years. Serious consequences including crises in resources, environment and energy, as well as the pressing need for direct and indirect exploitation of solar energy, pose challenges to the science and technology community of today. Bioenergy, bulk chemicals, and biomaterials could be produced from renewable biomass in a biorefinery via biocatalysis. These sustainable industries will match the global mass cycle, creating a new form of civilization with new industries and agriculture driven by solar energy. Industrial biotechnology is the dynamo of a bioeconomy, leading to a new protocol for production of energy, bulk chemicals, and materials. This new mode of innovation will place the industry at center stage supported by universities and research institutes. Creativity in industrial biotechnology will be promoted and China will successfully follow the road to green modernization. China's rapid economic development and its traditional capacity in fermentation will place it in an advantageous position in the industrial biotechnology revolution. The development and current status of industrial biotechnology in China are summarized herein.

  1. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  2. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  3. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  4. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  5. Advanced agricultural biotechnologies and sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Thomas A

    2002-05-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies are anchored to a scientific paradigm rooted in experimental biology, whereas sustainable agriculture rests on a biological paradigm that is best described as ecological. Both biotechnology and sustainable agriculture are associated with particular social science paradigms: biotechnology has its foundation in neoclassical economics, but sustainability is framed by an emerging community-centered, problem-solving perspective. Fundamentally, biotechnology and neoclassical economics are reductionist in nature. Sustainability and community problem-solving, however, are nonreductionist. Given these differences, we might see the development of two rather distinct systems of food production in the near future.

  6. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-12-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology sector by providing a pipeline of university graduates entering into the profession, it has been proposed that formal science communication training be introduced at this early stage of career development. The aim of the present study was to examine the views of biotechnology students towards science communication and science communication training. Using an Australian biotechnology degree programme as a case study, 69 undergraduates from all three years of the programme were administered a questionnaire that asked them to rank the importance of 12 components of a biotechnology curriculum, including two science communication items. The results were compared to the responses of 274 students enrolled in other science programmes. Additional questions were provided to the second year biotechnology undergraduates and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 13 of these students to further examine their views of this area. The results of this study suggest that the biotechnology students surveyed do not value communication with non-scientists nor science communication training. The implications of these findings for the reform of undergraduate biotechnology courses yet to integrate science communication training into their science curriculum are discussed.

  7. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  8. Students' Perception of Interdisciplinary, Problem-Based Learning in a Food Biotechnology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Betsy L. L.; Yap, Kueh C.; Hoh, Yin K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students' perception of 8 criteria (rationale of the problem; interdisciplinary learning; facilitator asked essential questions; learner's skills; assessments; facilitation procedures; team's use of resources [team collaboration], and facilitator within a problem-based learning context) were assessed for a food biotechnology course that…

  9. Against Free Markets, against Science? Regulating the Socio-Economic Effects of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchy, Abby J.; Kleinman, Daniel Lee; Autry, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This study challenges the assumption that abstract "globalization" forces are driving transformations in the relationships between states and markets. Employing three cases of policy debate regarding the regulation of agricultural biotechnology (ag-biotech), we examine the role of discourse in the formation of neoliberal regulatory schemes. We…

  10. Citric acid: emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product.

    PubMed

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Delisi, Riccardo; Pagliaro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Owing to new biotechnological production units mostly located in China, global supply of citric acid in the course of the last two decades rose from less than 0.5 to more than 2 million tonnes becoming the single largest chemical obtained via biomass fermentation and the most widely employed organic acid. Critically reviewing selected research achievements and production trends, we identify the reasons for which this polycarboxylic acid will become a key chemical in the emerging bioeconomy.Graphical abstractPalermo's Fabbrica Chimica Italiana Goldenberg today. In 1930 it was Europe's largest citric acid plant (photo courtesy of Aldo Ferrande).

  11. Certain problems of space biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyarov, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments in the field of biotechnology conducted by the USA Apollo and Skylab space probes are described, as well as the joint Soviet-American Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). Experiments in electrophoretic separation in space of biological compounds in a liquid medium are detailed. Space processing of vaccines and separation of human and animal cells are described. Methyl-cellulose, a coating for use in electrophoresis was developed. Erythropoietin, which stimulates the formation of red blood corpuscles in bone marrow, was obtained in pure form.

  12. Molecular tools for chemical biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Galanie, Stephanie; Siddiqui, Michael S.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological production of high value chemical products increasingly involves engineering in vivo multi-enzyme pathways and host metabolism. Recent approaches to these engineering objectives have made use of molecular tools to advance de novo pathway identification, tunable enzyme expression, and rapid pathway construction. Molecular tools also enable optimization of single enzymes and entire genomes through diversity generation and screening, whole cell analytics, and synthetic metabolic control networks. In this review, we focus on advanced molecular tools and their applications to engineered pathways in host organisms, highlighting the degree to which each tool is generalizable. PMID:23528237

  13. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  14. From yeast genetics to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Maráz, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Roots of classical yeast genetics go back to the early work of Lindegreen in the 1930s, who studied thallism, sporulation and inheritance of wine yeast strains belonging to S. cerevisiae. Consequent mutation and hybridization of heterothallic S. cerevisae strains resulted in the discovery of life cycle and mating type system, as well as construction of the genetic map. Elaboration of induced mutation and controlled hybridization of yeast strains opened up new possibilities for the genetic analysis of technologically important properties and for the production of improved industrial strains, but a big drawback was the widely different genetic properties of laboratory and industrial yeast strains. Genetic analysis and mapping of industrial strains were generally hindered because of homothallism, poor sporulation and/or low spore viability of brewing and wine yeast strains [1, 2]. In spite of this, there are a few examples of the application of sexual hybridization in the study of genetic control of important technological properties, e.g. sugar utilization, flocculation and flavor production in brewing yeast strains [3] or in the improvement of ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains [4]. Rare mating and application of karyogamy deficient (kar-) mutants also proved useful in strain improvement [5]. Importance of yeasts in biotechnology is enormous. This includes food and beverage fermentation processes where a wide range of yeast species are playing role, but S. cerevisiae is undoubtedly the most important species among them. New biotechnology is aiming to improve these technologies, but besides this, a completely new area of yeast utilization has been emerged, especially in the pharmaceutical and medical areas. Without decreasing the importance of S. cerevisiae, numerous other yeast species, e.g. Kluyveromyces lactis, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Yarrowia lipolytica have gained increasing potentialities in the modern

  15. Biotechnology for Non-biology Majors: An Activity Using a Commercial Biotechnology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Francis P.; Fox, Mary C.; Huether, Carl A.; Schurdak, Eric R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an inexpensive activity to stimulate student interest in biotechnology that was developed in partnership with a biotechnology company. Focuses on the use of DNA by a commercial laboratory; describing the analysis procedure; important uses of DNA technology in modern society; and ethical, social, and legal issues related to biotechnology.…

  16. Self-Report and Academic Factors in Relation to High School Students' Success in an Innovative Biotechnology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Karen; Pan, Yi; Robertson, Jane; Lee, Shelley Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology constitutes one of the most challenging, cutting-edge, and rapidly growing fields in science today. Both the practical implications and the hands-on nature of this "modern science" make the topic of biotechnology an attractive addition to the high school science curriculum. The current study is the first of its kind to…

  17. Biotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    manipulation, insertion and transvection. Genomics - Genomics is the study of the genome , which is the genetic basis of life. Complete sequences ...market through the FDA process. That attitude changed in 2000 with genomics leading the way. “The progress made by Celera Corporation and The Human ...simultaneous publication of the public and private results of a draft genomic map of the entire human genome . This landmark scientific

  18. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  19. Cyanobacteria as Chassis for Industrial Biotechnology: Progress and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haj, Lamya; Lui, Yuen Tin; Abed, Raeid M.M.; Gomaa, Mohamed A.; Purton, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria hold significant potential as industrial biotechnology (IB) platforms for the production of a wide variety of bio-products ranging from biofuels such as hydrogen, alcohols and isoprenoids, to high-value bioactive and recombinant proteins. Underpinning this technology, are the recent advances in cyanobacterial “omics” research, the development of improved genetic engineering tools for key species, and the emerging field of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. These approaches enabled the development of elaborate metabolic engineering programs aimed at creating designer strains tailored for different IB applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of the fields of cyanobacterial omics and genetic engineering with specific focus on the current molecular tools and technologies that have been developed in the past five years. The paper concludes by giving insights on future commercial applications of cyanobacteria and highlights the challenges that need to be addressed in order to make cyanobacterial industrial biotechnology more feasible in the near future. PMID:27916886

  20. Immunological and Hematopoietic Biotechnology Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the work carried under this interchanges was to support the development of space flight biotechnology experiments in the areas of immunology and hematopoiesis to facilitate the commercial development of space. The studies involved the interaction and development of experiments with biotechnology companies for necessary ground-based studies to allow the development of flight studies. The thrust of the work was to develop experiments with the Chiron Corporation and Bioserve involving the use of interleukin-2 to modulate the effects of spaceflight on immune responses. Spaceflight has been shown to have multiple effects on immune responses (1). lnterleukin-2 is an immuno-regulator that could have potential to counter some of the alterations induced in immune responses by spaceflight (1). To test this possibility before flight, rats were suspended antiorthostatically (2) and treated with interleukin-2. Antiorthostatic suspension is a model for some of the effects of spaceflight on immune responses (2). The interleukin-2 was given to see if it could alter some of the effects of suspension. This was achieved. As a result of these studies, two flight experiments were developed and flown with the Chiron Corp. And Bioserve to determine if use of interleukin-2 could prevent or attenuate the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  1. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  2. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  3. Development and assessment of a biotechnology workforce development center model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxley, Mary Pat

    Life science and biotechnology companies are the fastest growing industries in the nation, with more than 30% of these companies and close to 50% of the nation's life science workers located in California. The need for well-trained biotechnology workers continues to grow. Educational institutions and industry professionals have attempted to create the training and the workforce for the bioscience and biotechnology industry. Many have concluded that one way would be to create a multiuse training center where trainees from high school age through late adulthood could receive up-to-date training. This case study had 2 unique phases. Phase 1 consisted of examining representative stakeholder interview data for characteristics of an ideal biotechnology shared-use regional education (B-SURE) center, which served as the basis for an assessment tool, with 107 characteristics in 8 categories. This represented what an ideal center model should include. Phase 2 consisted of using this assessment tool to gather data from 6 current biotechnology regional centers to determine how these centers compared to the ideal model. Results indicated that each center was unique. Although no center met all ideal model characteristics, the 6 centers could clearly be ranked. Recommendations include refining the core characteristics, further assessing the existing and planned centers; evaluating and refining the interview instrument in Phase 1 and the assessment tool in Phase 2 by including additional stakeholders in both phases and by adding reviewers of Phase 1 transcripts; and determining a method to demonstrate a clear return on investment in a B-SURE center.

  4. [Sustainable production of bulk chemicals by application of "white biotechnology"].

    PubMed

    Patel, M K; Dornburg, V; Hermann, B G; Shen, Li; van Overbeek, Leo

    2008-12-01

    Practically all organic chemicals and plastics are nowadays produced from crude oil and natural gas. However, it is possible to produce a wide range of bulk chemicals from renewable resources by application of biotechnology. This paper focuses on White Biotechnology, which makes use of bacteria (or yeasts) or enzymes for the conversion of the fermentable sugar to the target product. It is shown that White Biotechnology offers substantial savings of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for nearly all of the products studied. Under favorable boundary conditions up to two thirds (67%) of the current non-renewable energy use for the production of the selected chemicals can be saved by 2050 if substantial technological progress is made and if the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks is successfully developed. The analysis for Europe (E.U. 25 countries) shows that land requirements related to White Biotechnology chemicals are not likely to become a critical issue in the next few decades, especially considering the large unused and underutilized resources in Eastern Europe. Substantial macroeconomic savings can be achieved under favourable boundary conditions. In principle, natural bacteria and enzymes can be used for White Biotechnology but, according to many experts in the fields, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) will be necessary in order to achieve the high yields, concentrations and productivities that are required to reach economic viability. Safe containment and inactivation of GMOs after release is very important because not all possible implications caused by the interaction of recombinant genes with other populations can be foreseen. If adequate precautionary measures are taken, the risks related to the use of genetically modified organisms in White Biotechnology are manageable. We conclude that the core requirements to be fulfilled in order to make clear steps towards a bio-based chemical industry are substantial technological progress in the

  5. Recent advances in plant biotechnology and genetic engineering for production of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sheludko, Y V

    2010-01-01

    For a long time people are using plants not only as crop cultures but also for obtaining of various chemicals. Currently plants remain one of the most important and essential sources of biologically active compounds in spite of progress in chemical or microbial synthesis. In our review we compare potentials and perspectives of modern genetic engineering approaches for pharmaceutical biotechnology and give examples of actual biotechnological systems used for production of several promising natural compounds: artemisinin, paclitaxel and scopolamine.

  6. Workshop proceedings: challenges and opportunities in evaluating protein allergenicity across biotechnology industries.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Nicola J; Ghantous, Hanan N; Ladics, Gregory S; House, Robert V; Gendel, Steven M; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Challenges and Opportunities in Evaluating Protein Allergenicity across Biotechnology Industries" was held at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) in San Francisco, California. The workshop was sponsored by the Biotechnology Specialty Section of SOT and was designed to present the science-based approaches used in biotechnology industries to evaluate and regulate protein allergenicity. A panel of experts from industry and government highlighted the allergenicity testing requirements and research in the agricultural, pharmaceutical/biopharma, and vaccine biotechnology industries and addressed challenges and opportunities for advancing the science of protein allergenicity. The main learning from the workshop was that immunoglobulin E-mediated allergenicity of biotechnology-derived products is difficult to assess without human data. The approaches currently being used to evaluate potential for allergenicity across biotechnology industries are very different and range from bioinformatics, in vitro serology, in vivo animal testing, in vitro and in vivo functional assays, and "biosimilar" assessments (ie, biotherapeutic equivalents to innovator products). The challenge remains with regard to the different or lack of regulatory requirements for allergenicity testing across industries, but the novel approaches being used with bioinformatics and biosimilars may lead to opportunities in the future to collaborate across biotechnology industries.

  7. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the...

  8. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  9. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  10. Biotechnology in the Middle School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, De Ann

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is a fairly new concept for middle school students as well as teachers. If the latest craze of TV shows focused on crime scene investigation events were not so popular, the term and concept might be even obscure to the public. There is an increased presence of biotechnology in our daily surroundings that makes it practical and…

  11. Matching Society Values: Students' Views of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez, Maria J.; Nino, Angela Gomez; Carretero, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The rapid growth of biotechnology knowledge during the past decades has made it necessary to rethink the contents of the school curriculum and has provoked a consideration of the ethical and social issues related to the use of biotechnological applications. With the financial assistance of the European Union, the European Initiative for…

  12. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  13. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come.

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  15. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  16. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  17. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  18. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  19. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  20. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  1. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  2. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  3. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  4. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  5. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  6. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  7. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  8. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  9. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  10. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  11. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  13. Final Report: Northern Virginia Community College Training for Biotechnology Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Johanna V

    2010-05-31

    The intent of this project was to expand Northern Virginia Community College's capability to offer training to support the Biotechnology Industry in the northern Virginia region. The general goal of this project was to create a College Biotechnology Program; specific goals of the project were to a) design curricula/courses to prepare students to become entry-level lab technicians, b) redesign and equip lab space to better suit the needs of the program, c) develop partnerships with the local industry through outreach and the formation on an advisory board, d) recruit students into the program, and e) provide instructional support for local high school teachers. At the end of the grant period, NOVA has successfully created two new curricula in biotechnology: an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) in Biotechnology (initiated in Fall 2008) and a Career Studies Certificate for Biotechnology Lab Technicians (to be initiated in Fall 2010). These curricula were designed with advice from an external advisory committee which is comprised of representatives from industry, transfer institutions and high school administrators. To date, almost all courses have been designed and piloted; the equipment needed for the courses and the initial supplies were paid for by the grant as was the re-modeling of some lab space to be used for the biotech courses. In order to market the program, the NOVA Biotech Program has also established relationships with the local high schools. Presentations were given at several local high schools and on-site workshops were held for high school students and teachers. As a result, close to 1000 students have attended program open houses, presentations within the high schools, or workshops held in the summer. Over 100 teachers have received information and/or training in biotechnology. These outreach efforts as well as high quality curricula have started to attract a number of students to the program – for example, there are currently 70 students

  14. Ergot: from witchcraft to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Thomas; Rolke, Yvonne; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The ergot diseases of grasses, caused by members of the genus Claviceps, have had a severe impact on human history and agriculture, causing devastating epidemics. However, ergot alkaloids, the toxic components of Claviceps sclerotia, have been used intensively (and misused) as pharmaceutical drugs, and efficient biotechnological processes have been developed for their in vitro production. Molecular genetics has provided detailed insight into the genetic basis of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis and opened up perspectives for the design of new alkaloids and the improvement of production strains; it has also revealed the refined infection strategy of this biotrophic pathogen, opening up the way for better control. Nevertheless, Claviceps remains an important pathogen worldwide, and a source for potential new drugs for central nervous system diseases.

  15. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera.

  16. [Patent rights and biotechnological inventions].

    PubMed

    Lobato García-Miján, M

    1998-01-01

    In spite of all the controversy surrounding it and the problems encountered in the process leading to its adoption, the Directive on the legal protection of biotechnology inventions does not feature anything substantially new compared to the criteria used by patent offices in determining whether inventions of this type can be patented. The Directive's originality stems not so much from the interpretation given of patenting requirements but rather from the legal importance attached to issues of public policy or morality. It sets out and interprets for the member states of the European Union what is meant by the term. However, in our opinion this regulation of morality reflects above all else an attempt to satisfy the views of sectors opposed to the Directive. Clearly, there is some doubt as to whether in practice patents for genetic material can be turned down because they run counter to morality, except in blatant cases of immorality (applications for patents for human embryos, etc).

  17. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang

    2006-11-01

    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  18. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  19. Development and application of biotechnologies in the metal mining industry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D Barrie

    2013-11-01

    Metal mining faces a number of significant economic and environmental challenges in the twenty-first century for which established and emerging biotechnologies may, at least in part, provide the answers. Bioprocessing of mineral ores and concentrates is already used in variously engineered formats to extract base (e.g., copper, cobalt, and nickel) and precious (gold and silver) metals in mines throughout the world, though it remains a niche technology. However, current projections of an increasing future need to use low-grade primary metal ores, to reprocess mine wastes, and to develop in situ leaching technologies to extract metals from deep-buried ore bodies, all of which are economically more amenable to bioprocessing than conventional approaches (e.g., pyrometallurgy), would suggest that biomining will become more extensively utilized in the future. Recent research has also shown that bioleaching could be used to process a far wider range of metal ores (e.g., oxidized ores) than has previously been the case. Biotechnologies are also being developed to control mine-related pollution, including securing mine wastes (rocks and tailings) by using "ecological engineering" approaches, and also to remediate and recover metals from waste waters, such as acid mine drainage. This article reviews the current status of biotechnologies within the mining sector and considers how these may be developed and applied in future years.

  20. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area. PMID:26494982

  1. Soluble microbial products and their implications in mixed culture biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Rittmann, Bruce E; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-09-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) are soluble organic compounds released during normal biomass metabolism in mixed culture biotechnology. In this review, we give the up-to-date status on several essential SMP issues: mechanisms of SMP formation, differentiation between utilization-associated products (UAP) and biomass-associated products (BAP), biodegradability of the SMP components, how formation of SMP by autotrophs controls effluent quality and supports a substantial population of heterotrophs, mathematical modeling that includes SMP, and improving effluent quality by controlling SMP. We also present two timely examples that highlight our current understanding and give an indication of how SMP affects the performance of modern mixed culture biotechnology: membrane fouling of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and the dynamics of SMP in anaerobic systems.

  2. Autophagy: from basic research to its application in food biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process by which the cytoplasm is sequestered into double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the lysosome/vacuole for breaking down and recycling of the low molecular weight degradation products. The isolation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of many of the genes involved in autophagy constituted a milestone in understanding the molecular bases of this pathway. The identification of ortholog genes in other eukaryotic models revealed that the mechanism of autophagy is conserved among all eukaryotes. This pathway has been shown to be involved in a growing number of physiological processes and conversely, its deregulation may contribute to the development of several diseases. Recent reports have also shown that autophagy may play an important role in biotechnological processes related with the food industry. In this review we discuss current knowledge of the molecular mechanism of autophagy, including some applied aspects of autophagy in the field of food biotechnology.

  3. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics. PMID:27455283

  4. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  6. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  7. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. 234 refs.

  8. Environmental biotechnology in China: progress and prospect.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weihong; Chen, Jianmeng

    2006-11-01

    Biotechnology could be widely applied in the technological development of environmental protection. This report gives a brief Chinese review on the major progress of environmental biotechnology in the following fields: Monitoring technology and treatment of dioxin-like chemicals and cyanobacterial toxins, biofiltration for air pollution control, solid waste treatment and reutilization, bioremediation of soil pollution, risk assessment and control of endocrine disturbing substances in environment, wastewater treatment, clean production and recycling economy. The effect of government policy and fund on the progress of environmental biotechnology is also discussed.

  9. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  10. Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Stamatia; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggeli, Dimitra; Sayegh, Fotoon; Aggelis, George

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, there has been an intense interest in using microalgal lipids in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and cosmetology, while a noteworthy research has been performed focusing on all aspects of microalgal lipid production. This includes basic research on the pathways of solar energy conversion and on lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and applied research dealing with the various biological and technical bottlenecks of the lipid production process. In here, we review the current knowledge in microalgal lipids with respect to their metabolism and various biotechnological applications, and we discuss potential future perspectives. The committing step in fatty acid biosynthesis is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA that is then introduced in the fatty acid synthesis cycle leading to the formation of palmitic and stearic acids. Oleic acid may also be synthesized after stearic acid desaturation while further conversions of the fatty acids (i.e. desaturations, elongations) occur after their esterification with structural lipids of both plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum. The aliphatic chains are also used as building blocks for structuring storage acylglycerols via the Kennedy pathway. Current research, aiming to enhance lipogenesis in the microalgal cell, is focusing on over-expressing key-enzymes involved in the earlier steps of the pathway of fatty acid synthesis. A complementary plan would be the repression of lipid catabolism by down-regulating acylglycerol hydrolysis and/or β-oxidation. The tendency of oleaginous microalgae to synthesize, apart from lipids, significant amounts of other energy-rich compounds such as sugars, in processes competitive to lipogenesis, deserves attention since the lipid yield may be considerably increased by blocking competitive metabolic pathways. The majority of microalgal production occurs in outdoor cultivation and for this reason biotechnological applications face some difficulties

  11. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  12. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  13. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  14. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  15. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedie, Marilyn K.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…

  16. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  17. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa

    2002-01-01

    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  18. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48983-49619.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    THE LITERATURE OF ERGONOMICS, OR BIOTECHNOLOGY, IS CLASSIFIED INTO 15 AREAS--METHODS, SYSTEMS OF MEN AND MACHINES, VISUAL AND AUDITORY AND OTHER INPUTS AND PROCESSES, INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS, DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND INTEGRATION WITH DISPLAYS, LAYOUT OF PANELS AND CONSOLES, DESIGN OF WORK SPACE, CLOTHING AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT, SPECIAL…

  19. Including public perspectives in industrial biotechnology and the biobased economy.

    PubMed

    Paula, Lino; Birrer, Frans

    2006-01-01

    Industrial ("white") biotechnology promises to contribute to a more sustainable future. Compared to current production processes, cases have been identified where industrial biotechnology can decrease the amount of energy and raw materials used to make products and also reduce the amount of emissions and waste produced during production. However, switching from products based on chemical production processes and fossil fuels towards "biobased" products is at present not necessarily economically viable. This is especially true for bulk products, for example ethanol production from biomass. Therefore, scientists are also turning to genetic modification as a means to develop organisms that can produce at lower costs. These include not only micro-organisms, but also organisms used in agriculture for food and feed. The use of genetic modification for "deliberate release" purposes, in particular, has met great opposition in Europe. Many industrial biotechnology applications may, due to their scale, entail deliberate releases of GM organisms. Thus, the biobased economy brings back a familiar question; is it ethically justifiable, and acceptable to citizens, to expose the environment and society to the risks associated with GM, in order to protect that same environment and to sustain our affluent way of life? For a successful innovation towards a biobased economy, its proponents, especially producers, need to take into account (take responsibility for) such issues when developing new products and processes. These issues, and how scientists can interact with citizens about them in a timely way, are further explored in projects at Delft University and Leiden University, also in collaboration with Utrecht University.

  20. Electroanalysis may be used in the vanillin biotechnological production.

    PubMed

    Giraud, William; Mirabel, Marie; Comtat, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    This study shows that electroanalysis may be used in vanillin biotechnological production. As a matter of fact, vanillin and some molecules implicated in the process like eugenol, ferulic acid, and vanillic acid may be oxidized on electrodes made of different materials (gold, platinum, glassy carbon). By a judicious choice of the electrochemical method and the experimental conditions the current intensity is directly proportional to the molecule concentrations in a range suitable for the biotechnological process. So, it is possible to imagine some analytical strategies to control some steps in the vanillin biotechnological production: by sampling in the batch reactor during the process, it is possible to determine out of line the concentration of vanillin, eugenol, ferulic acid, and vanillic acid with a gold rotating disk electrode, and low concentration of vanillin with addition of hydrazine at an amalgamated electrode. Two other possibilities consist in the introduction of electrodes directly in the batch during the process; the first one with a gold rotating disk electrode using linear sweep voltammetry and the second one requires three gold rotating disk electrodes held at different potentials for chronoamperometry. The last proposal is the use of ultramicroelectrodes in the case when stirring is not possible.

  1. Biotechnology reaches beyond the high-tech west

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1992-02-21

    A common criticism of modern biotechnology is that it has produced products only for the rich - at about $4,500 per dose (current market price of tissue plasminogen activator), a genetically engineered bloodclot buster won't save many lives in the developing world. But proponents of the new biotech industry say that such criticisms are no longer valid. The fruits of biotechnology, especially in agriculture, are increasingly finding their way into impoverished areas of the world. The progress in using agricultural biotechnology in developing countries has been remarkable. It is predicted that insect- and disease-resistant rice, as well as several entirely new crops, could be commercially introduced into some developing nations by the middle to end of this decade. If so, one of the keys to success will have been the mapping of genomes of economically important species. With a genetic map in hand, plant and animal breeders can learn in days or weeks, instead of months or years, whether a genetic cross produced a desired trait.

  2. Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanzi; Song, Jian; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Jack P; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2014-12-01

    Lignocelluloses from plant cell walls are attractive resources for sustainable biofuel production. However, conversion of lignocellulose to biofuel is more expensive than other current technologies, due to the costs of chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for cell wall deconstruction. Recalcitrance of cell walls to deconstruction has been reduced in many plant species by modifying plant cell walls through biotechnology. These results have been achieved by reducing lignin content and altering its composition and structure. Reduction of recalcitrance has also been achieved by manipulating hemicellulose biosynthesis and by overexpression of bacterial enzymes in plants to disrupt linkages in the lignin-carbohydrate complexes. These modified plants often have improved saccharification yield and higher ethanol production. Cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes from bacteria and fungi have been expressed at high levels in plants to increase the efficiency of saccharification compared with exogenous addition of cellulolytic enzymes. In planta expression of heat-stable CWD enzymes from bacterial thermophiles has made autohydrolysis possible. Transgenic plants can be engineered to reduce recalcitrance without any yield penalty, indicating that successful cell wall modification can be achieved without impacting cell wall integrity or plant development. A more complete understanding of cell wall formation and structure should greatly improve lignocellulosic feedstocks and reduce the cost of biofuel production.

  3. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  4. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field.

  5. Databases on biotechnology and biosafety of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Degrassi, Giuliano; Alexandrova, Nevena; Ripandelli, Decio

    2003-01-01

    Due to the involvement of scientific, industrial, commercial and public sectors of society, the complexity of the issues concerning the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for the environment, agriculture, and human and animal health calls for a wide coverage of information. Accordingly, development of the field of biotechnology, along with concerns related to the fate of released GMOs, has led to a rapid development of tools for disseminating such information. As a result, there is a growing number of databases aimed at collecting and storing information related to GMOs. Most of the sites deal with information on environmental releases, field trials, transgenes and related sequences, regulations and legislation, risk assessment documents, and literature. Databases are mainly established and managed by scientific, national or international authorities, and are addressed towards scientists, government officials, policy makers, consumers, farmers, environmental groups and civil society representatives. This complexity can lead to an overlapping of information. The purpose of the present review is to analyse the relevant databases currently available on the web, providing comments on their vastly different information and on the structure of the sites pertaining to different users. A preliminary overview on the development of these sites during the last decade, at both the national and international level, is also provided.

  6. Biotechnological production of methanol from waste biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.; Morris, D.

    1995-12-01

    The production of methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) from waste biomass is possible through the use of genetically modified bacteria. The biomass to methanol conversion process makes use of a naturally occurring, direct aerobic enzymatic system referred to as oxidative demethylation. Methoxy groups are stripped off of lignin and lignin like plant substances (approximately fifty percent of all plant biomass) and hydrolyzed to form methanol. Since the biotech process is stoichiometric, potentially every methoxy group in the lignin feedstock can be converted to methanol fuel. Approximately 30-35% of lignin is a methoxy compound that can be converted. Biotechnological conversion could produce up to 100 gallons/ton or 20 billion gallons a year of methanol from waste biomass. Current work has focused on the genetic modification of the enzymatic conversion process to reach commercial production. The goals of this research are; increase product yields, implement an operon {open_quotes}switch{close_quotes} mechanism to exploit multiple feedstocks, and produce environmentally safe by-products. Progress on these topics will be reported.

  7. Potential of carbon nanotubes in algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lambreva, Maya Dimova; Lavecchia, Teresa; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Antal, Taras Kornelievich; Orlanducci, Silvia; Margonelli, Andrea; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-09-01

    A critical mass of knowledge is emerging on the interactions between plant cells and engineered nanomaterials, revealing the potential of plant nanobiotechnology to promote and support novel solutions for the development of a competitive bioeconomy. This knowledge can foster the adoption of new methodological strategies to empower the large-scale production of biomass from commercially important microalgae. The present review focuses on the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance photosynthetic performance of microalgae by (i) widening the spectral region available for the energy conversion reactions and (ii) increasing the tolerance of microalgae towards unfavourable conditions occurring in mass production. To this end, current understanding on the mechanisms of uptake and localization of CNTs in plant cells is discussed. The available ecotoxicological data were used in an attempt to assess the feasibility of CNT-based applications in algal biotechnology, by critically correlating the experimental conditions with the observed adverse effects. Furthermore, main structural and physicochemical properties of single- and multi-walled CNTs and common approaches for the functionalization and characterization of CNTs in biological environment are presented. Here, we explore the potential that nanotechnology can offer to enhance functions of algae, paving the way for a more efficient use of photosynthetic algal systems in the sustainable production of energy, biomass and high-value compounds.

  8. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert W.; Wang, Baojun

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. PMID:25579192

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  10. New trends in nucleoside biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mikhailopulo, I A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2010-07-01

    This review focuses on new trends in nucleoside biotechnology, which have emerged during the last decade. Continuously growing interest in the study of this class of compounds is fueled by a number of factors: ( i ) a growing need for large-scale production of natural 2 ' -deoxy- β -D-ribonucleosides as well as their analogs with modifications in the carbohydrate and base fragments, which can then be used for the synthesis and study of oligonucleotides, including short-interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), etc.; ( ii ) a necessity for the development of efficient practical technologies for the production of biologically important analogs of natural nucleosides, including a number of anticancer and antiviral drugs; ( iii ) a need for further study of known and novel enzymatic transformations and their use as tools for the efficient synthesis of new nucloside analogs and derivates with biomedical potential. This article will review all of these aspects and also include a brief retrospect of this field of research.

  11. Biotechnology, biofortification, and global health.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ross M

    2005-12-01

    Deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, and vitamin A afflict over three billion people (more than 50% of the world's population), most of them women, infants, and children in resource-poor families in the developing world. This global crisis in nutritional health is the result of dysfunctional food systems that do not consistently supply enough of these essential nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of high-risk groups. Deficiencies of micronutrients result in increased morbidity and mortality rates, lost worker productivity, stagnated national development, permanent impairment of cognitive development in infants and children, and large economic costs and suffering to those societies affected. Because agricultural systems are the primary source of all micronutrients for all people, changes in agricultural policies and systems must be made that will ensure consistent and adequate supplies of all essential nutrients to all people. Additionally, the nutrition and health sectors must turn to agricultural interventions as a primary tool in their efforts to eliminate malnutrition from the world if they want to ensure sustainability. Biotechnological advances show great promise for improving the output of bioavailable micronutrients from agricultural systems that feed the poor. This paper reviews some of these opportunities and discusses the questions and concerns that should be raised when these technologies are used to improve the micronutrient status of vast numbers of people who are dependent on staple food crops for their sustenance. Further, important issues surrounding micronutrient bioavailability and plant food factors that affect it are discussed.

  12. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  13. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jameel, S

    2011-01-01

    Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  14. Biotechnology: the language of multiple views in Māori communities.

    PubMed

    Te Momo, O H Fiona

    2007-09-01

    In Aotearoa (New Zealand), the government funded studies on communicating biotechnology to different sectors in the community from 2003 to 2006. Subsequently, a researcher covering the Māori sector performed a content analysis of data gathered in the community. Qualitative analysis methods included examining text from participant interviews, focus groups, government documents, newspapers, Internet sites, and current literature. Content was coded by identifying common themes in the English and the Māori language. Words like genetic modification (GM), genetic engineering (GE), and biotechnology were explained to provide a basic understanding between the communities and researcher. The terminology applied in the research was essential to achieve communication between the researcher and the community. The resultant themes represented seven views to interpret the communities association with biotechnology: purist Māori, religious Māori, anti Māori, pro Māori, no Māori, uncertain Māori, and middle Māori views. The themes are taken from the analysis of data compiled after 3 years of completing different stages of a research project. The views indicate that a common understanding can be achieved in the diverse range of Māori tribal communities providing those communicating biotechnology can identify the view and interpretations communities associate with biotechnology. This knowledge is essential for government agencies, researchers, community practitioners, scientist, and businesses that desire to dialogue with Māori communities in the language of biotechnology.

  15. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran.

    PubMed

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-10-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  16. Barriers to Alzheimer disease drug discovery and development in the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Altstiel, L D

    2002-01-01

    The major barrier to Alzheimer disease (AD) drug discovery and development in the biotechnology industry is scale. Most biotechnology companies do not have the personnel or expertise to carry a drug from the bench to the market. Much effort in the industry has been directed toward the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of AD and the identification of new targets. Advances in biotechnology have generated new insights into disease mechanisms, increased the number of lead compounds, and accelerated biologic screening. The majority of costs associated with drug development are in clinical testing and development activities, many of which are driven by regulatory issues. For most biotechnology companies, the costs of such trials and the infrastructure necessary to support them are prohibitive. Another significant barrier is the definition of therapeutic benefit for AD drugs; Food and Drug Administration (FDA) precedent has established that a drug must show superiority to placebo on a performance-based test of cognition and a measure of global clinical function. This restrictive definition is biased toward drugs that enhance performance on memory-based tests. Newer AD drugs are targeted toward slowing disease progression; however, there is currently no accepted definition of what constitutes efficacy in disease progression. Despite these obstacles, the biotechnology industry has much to offer AD drug discovery and development. Biotechnology firms have already developed essential technology for AD drug development and will continue to do so. Biotechnology companies can move more quickly; of course, the trick is to move quickly in the right direction. Speed may offset some of the problems associated with lack of scale. Additionally, biotechnology companies can afford to address markets that may be too restricted for larger pharmaceutical companies. This advantage will have increasing importance, as therapies are developed to address subtypes of AD.

  17. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    PubMed

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  18. Israel Education Abstracts: A Selected Bibliography of Current and Past Literature and Materials on the Philosophy, Policy and Practice of Education in Israel. Vol. 4, No. 3, August-November, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elefant, William L., Ed.

    This 122-entry, selected bibliography contains English abstracts of books and articles in Hebrew on the philosophy, policy, and practice of education in Israel. The materials were submitted between August and November 1969; for earlier bibliographies see ED 027 810 and ED 032 806. A special section on the teaching of English in Israel comprises…

  19. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  20. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  1. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  2. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

  3. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  4. The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-11-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents’ understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative Year 10 biotechnology courses conducted in three Western Australian high schools. The results indicate that after completing a biotechnology course students’ understanding increased but their attitudes remained constant with the exception of their views about human uses of gene technology. The findings of this study have ramifications for the design and implementation of biotechnology education courses in high schools.

  5. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  6. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  7. Biotechnology: Commercialization and Economic Aspects, January 1993-June 1996. Quick Bibliography Series no. QB 96-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Scott A., Comp.; Dobert, Raymond, Comp.

    This bibliography on the commercialization and economic aspects of biotechnology was produced by the National Agricultural Library. It contains 151 citations in English from the AGRICOLA database. The search strategy is included, call numbers are given for each entry, and abstracts are provided for some citations. The bibliography concludes with…

  8. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of

  9. Producing bio-based bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology saves energy and combats climate change.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B G; Blok, K; Patel, M K

    2007-11-15

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechnology. Substantial further savings are possible for the future by improved fermentation and downstream processing. Worldwide CO2 savings in the range of 500-1000 million tons per year are possible using future technology. Industrial biotechnology hence offers excellent opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing dependence on fossil energy sources and therefore has the potential to make inroads into the existing chemical industry.

  10. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23450788

  11. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  12. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  13. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I M; Nawar, Ali I; Rohila, Jai S

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  14. Geoinformatics 2006--Abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.; Sinha, A. Krishna; Gundersen, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to facilitate the discovery, integration, and analysis of distributed data, geoscientists-in partnership with information technologists and computer scientists-have established the emerging science of geoinformatics. Geoinformatics 2006, an international conference that was attended by over 300 participants between May 10 and 12, 2006, represents the first nationally organized meeting whose primary goal was to provide a forum for the exchange of the most current research in geoinformatics.

  15. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  16. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  17. Considerations for conducting research in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-06-01

    Science has shown its increased vulnerability because of two recent high-profile articles published in major journals on corn produced through biotechnology: a laboratory report suggesting profound consequences to monarch butterfly populations due to Bt corn pollen and a report suggesting transgenic introgression into Mexican maize. While both studies have been widely regarded as having flawed methodology, publishing these studies has created great consternation in the scientific community, regulatory agencies and the general public. There are roles and responsibilities of scientists, scientific journals, the public media, public agencies, and those who oppose or advocate a specific technology, and serious consequences when those roles and responsibilities go awry. Modern communication may exacerbate the flow of misinformation and easily lead to a decline in public confidence about biotechnology and science. However, common sense tells us that scientific inquiry and the publication and reporting of results should be performed with high standards of ethical behavior, regardless of one's personal perspective on agricultural biotechnology.

  18. Biotechnological uses of enzymes from psychrophiles

    PubMed Central

    Cavicchioli, R.; Charlton, T.; Ertan, H.; Omar, S. Mohd; Siddiqui, K. S.; Williams, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The bulk of the Earth's biosphere is cold (e.g. 90% of the ocean's waters are ≤ 5°C), sustaining a broad diversity of microbial life. The permanently cold environments vary from the deep ocean to alpine reaches and to polar regions. Commensurate with the extent and diversity of the ecosystems that harbour psychrophilic life, the functional capacity of the microorganisms that inhabitat the cold biosphere are equally diverse. As a result, indigenous psychrophilic microorganisms provide an enormous natural resource of enzymes that function effectively in the cold, and these cold‐adapted enzymes have been targeted for their biotechnological potential. In this review we describe the main properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and describe some of their known biotechnological applications and ways to potentially improve their value for biotechnology. The review also covers the use of metagenomics for enzyme screening, the development of psychrophilic gene expression systems and the use of enzymes for cleaning. PMID:21733127

  19. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  20. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    PubMed

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  1. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  2. Current biotechnologies and future possibilities in preservation of animal germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal germplasm (semen, eggs, embryos, DNA, tissue) can be preserved from all agricultural species and result in the regeneration of animal lines or breeds. However, there are limitations to successful utilization of the material that are attributed to the type, post-thaw quality, and available as...

  3. Microgravity: New opportunities to facilitate biotechnology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Terry; Todd, Paul; Stodieck, Louis S.

    1996-03-01

    New opportunities exist to use the microgravity environment to facilitate biotechnology development. BioServe Space Technologies Center for the Commercial Development of Space offers access to microgravity environments for companies who wish to perform research or develop products in three specific life-science fields: Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, Biotechnology and Bioprocessing Research, and Agricultural and Environmental Research. Examples of each include physiological testing of new pharmaceutical countermeasures against symptoms that are exaggerated in space flight, crystallization and testing of novel, precompetitive biopharmaceutical substances in a convection-free environment, and closed life-support system product development.

  4. Protein engineering approaches to chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Protein engineering for the improvement of properties of biocatalysts and for the generation of novel metabolic pathways plays more and more important roles in chemical biotechnology aiming at the production of chemicals from biomass. Although widely used in single-enzyme catalysis process, protein engineering is only being increasingly explored in recent years to achieve more complex in vitro and in vivo biocatalytic processes. This review focuses on major contributions of protein engineering to chemical biotechnology in the field of multi-enzymatic cascade catalysis and metabolic engineering. Especially, we discuss and highlight recent strategies for combining pathway design and protein engineering for the production of novel products.

  5. Industrial biotechnology takes off in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lex, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnologies have the potential to significantly impact the quality of life in a sustainable society through the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, advances in agriculture and food production, and numerous industrial applications ranging from chemicals to materials including environmental protection and remediation. This article considers how the business sector will be modified by developments in the understanding of living organisms. Will the 21st century see the growth of a Bioeconomy based on applications of biotechnology as pervasive and as powerful as the information economy has been at the end of the 20th century?

  6. Extremely thermophilic energy metabolisms: biotechnological prospects.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christopher T; Zeldes, Benjamin M; Schut, Gerrit J; Adams, Michael Ww; Kelly, Robert M

    2017-03-16

    New strategies for metabolic engineering of extremely thermophilic microorganisms to produce bio-based fuels and chemicals could leverage pathways and physiological features resident in extreme thermophiles for improved outcomes. Furthermore, very recent advances in genetic tools for these microorganisms make it possible for them to serve as metabolic engineering hosts. Beyond providing a higher temperature alternative to mesophilic platforms, exploitation of strategic metabolic characteristics of high temperature microorganisms grants new opportunities for biotechnological products. This review considers recent developments in extreme thermophile biology as they relate to new horizons for energy biotechnology.

  7. White House Announcement on the Regulation of Biotechnology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The White House posted a blog unveiling documents as part of the Administration’s continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of the EPA, FDA in evaluating new biotechnologies.

  8. National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.

  9. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  10. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Elson, Daniel S; Bigio, Irving J; Levenson, Richard M; So, Peter T C

    2012-03-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, "Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery," which includes 12 contributions from attendees of the 2011 conference Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XII.

  11. Stability studies needed to define the handling and transport conditions of sensitive pharmaceutical or biotechnological products.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Claude

    2011-12-01

    Many pharmaceutical or biotechnological products require transport using temperature-controlled systems to keep their therapeutic properties. There are presently no official guidelines for testing pharmaceutical products in order to define suitable transport specifications. After reviewing the current guidance documents, this paper proposes a methodology for testing pharmaceutical products and defining appropriate transport conditions.

  12. Lithuanian University Students' Knowledge of Biotechnology and Their Attitudes to the Taught Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamanauskas, Vincentas; Makarskaite-Petkeviciene, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The impact of genetic engineering on peoples' everyday life has become present reality. In order to establish the level of the available schoolchildren and university students' knowledge of biotechnology, various investigations have been conducted. However, the current situation in Lithuania remains unclear. A total of 287 students--pre-service…

  13. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  14. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  15. Social Science Research on Biotechnology and Agriculture: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1989-01-01

    Examines trends in social science research on biotechnology and agriculture. Discusses role of private industry's biotechnology "hype" in defining social science research policy in universities. Suggests that widespread promotion of biotechnology as "revolutionary" contributed to lack of academic scrutiny. Examines social…

  16. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption.

  17. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  18. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  19. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  20. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  1. Biotechnology in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Maryam

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that introduces students to the field of biotechnology and provides them with an understanding of the basic principles and techniques as well as an opportunity to participate in experimental methodology. Presents specific science projects that deal with polymorphism in the lipase gene and the genetic engineering of a lipase…

  2. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  3. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl

    2004-10-01

    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  4. Biotechnology--A Middle School Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2003-01-01

    Describes a reference source for middle school students on biotechnology that is useful for science and social science curricula as well as interdisciplinary approaches. Explains the four-volume format and various features that make it useful to media specialists and students. (LRW)

  5. Editorial: Biotechnology's impact on sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Biotechnology is increasingly recognized in society as a technology to improve the quality of life in a sustainable manner. It is clear that bioenergy and biofuel cannot solve a world energy crisis or reverse global warming, but from a local perspective it can contribute a lot.

  6. Chemical hazards in the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Ducatman, A M; Coumbis, J J

    1991-01-01

    The modern biotechnology industry employs thousands of people and is growing rapidly. The numbers of toxic chemicals encountered are substantial and the applications are largely novel. Health care professionals face a formidable task in identifying occupational hazards and safeguarding the health of employees.

  7. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  8. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay

    2016-07-12

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  9. Disease resistance: Molecular mechanisms and biotechnological applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue “Disease resistance: molecular mechanisms and biotechnological applications” contains 11 review articles and four original research papers. Research in the area of engineering for disease resistance continues to progress although only 10% of the transgenic plants registered for ...

  10. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology].

    PubMed

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  11. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  12. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Luiten, Esther E M; Akkerman, Ida; Koulman, Albert; Kamermans, Pauline; Reith, Hans; Barbosa, Maria J; Sipkema, Detmer; Wijffels, René H

    2003-07-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, (feed-)products for aquaculture and bioremediation solutions) is not the only factor to realise the commercial applications of marine biotechnology. What else is needed to exploit the promising potential of marine biotechnology and to create new industrial possibilities? In the study project 'Ocean Farming-Sustainable exploitation of marine organisms', we explore the possibilities of marine organisms to fulfill needs, such as safe and healthy food, industrial (raw) materials and renewable energy in a sustainable way. One of the three design groups is envisioning the future of strong land-based 'marine' market chains. Marine biotechnology is one of the foci of attention in this design group. This article provides a model of future-oriented thinking in which a variety of experts actively participate.

  13. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  14. The Canadian Dietetic Association Biotechnology Committee opinion paper on biotechnology and food.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Biotechnology allows scientists to improve foods, create new food products and provide better tools to ensure food safety. It can assist in achieving the goal of an abundant, safe and nutritious food supply for a growing population. These technologies can lead to a greater variety of food with improved taste, nutrition and cooking quality. There are valid concerns about the widespread use of biotechnology which remain to be addressed by health, scientific and consumer constituencies. Dietitians need to be informed about biotechnology in food production and processing. They need to be aware of potential benefits and risks. Dietitians are uniquely positioned to inform the public about food safety and food products of biotechnology. Dietitians can discuss this information in understandable language and with sensitivity to public values. Dietitians should participate in the development of food-related policies at local, provincial and federal levels.

  15. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  16. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  17. Fueling industrial biotechnology growth with bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Otero, José Manuel; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology is the conversion of biomass via biocatalysis, microbial fermentation, or cell culture to produce chemicals, materials, and/or energy. Industrial biotechnology processes aim to be cost-competitive, environmentally favorable, and self-sustaining compared to their petrochemical equivalents. Common to all processes for the production of energy, commodity, added value, or fine chemicals is that raw materials comprise the most significant cost fraction, particularly as operating efficiencies increase through practice and improving technologies. Today, crude petroleum represents the dominant raw material for the energy and chemical sectors worldwide. Within the last 5 years petroleum prices, stability, and supply have increased, decreased, and been threatened, respectively, driving a renewed interest across academic, government, and corporate centers to utilize biomass as an alternative raw material. Specifically, bio-based ethanol as an alternative biofuel has emerged as the single largest biotechnology commodity, with close to 46 billion L produced worldwide in 2005. Bioethanol is a leading example of how systems biology tools have significantly enhanced metabolic engineering, inverse metabolic engineering, and protein and enzyme engineering strategies. This enhancement stems from method development for measurement, analysis, and data integration of functional genomics, including the transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome. This review will show that future industrial biotechnology process development will benefit tremendously from the precedent set by bioethanol - that enabling technologies (e.g., systems biology tools) coupled with favorable economic and socio-political driving forces do yield profitable, sustainable, and environmentally responsible processes. Biofuel will continue to be the keystone of any industrial biotechnology-based economy whereby biorefineries leverage common raw materials and unit operations to integrate

  18. Are all abstracts created equal??

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann

    2010-05-01

    The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.

  19. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology.

  20. White biotechnology: ready to partner and invest in.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    It needs three factors to build an industry: market demand, product vision and capital. White biotechnology already produces high volume products such as feed additive amino acids and specialty products like enzymes for enantioselective biocatalysis. It serves large and diverse markets in the nutrition, wellness, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industry. The total volume adds up to $ 50 billion worldwide. In spite of its proven track record, white biotechnology so far did not attract as much capital as red and even green biotechnology. However, the latest finance indicators confirm the continuously growing attractiveness of investment opportunities in white biotechnology. This article discusses white biotechnology's position and potential in the finance market and success factors.

  1. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  2. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  3. Marine Algae: a Source of Biomass for Biotechnological Applications.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène

    2015-01-01

    Biomass derived from marine microalgae and macroalgae is globally recognized as a source of valuable chemical constituents with applications in the agri-horticultural sector (including animal feeds and health and plant stimulants), as human food and food ingredients as well as in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Algal biomass supply of sufficient quality and quantity however remains a concern with increasing environmental pressures conflicting with the growing demand. Recent attempts in supplying consistent, safe and environmentally acceptable biomass through cultivation of (macro- and micro-) algal biomass have concentrated on characterizing natural variability in bioactives, and optimizing cultivated materials through strain selection and hybridization, as well as breeding and, more recently, genetic improvements of biomass. Biotechnological tools including metabolomics, transcriptomics, and genomics have recently been extended to algae but, in comparison to microbial or plant biomass, still remain underdeveloped. Current progress in algal biotechnology is driven by an increased demand for new sources of biomass due to several global challenges, new discoveries and technologies available as well as an increased global awareness of the many applications of algae. Algal diversity and complexity provides significant potential provided that shortages in suitable and safe biomass can be met, and consumer demands are matched by commercial investment in product development.

  4. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    PubMed Central

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine; Oscoz, Saioa; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Engmark, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest in using bioactive toxins from spiders and scorpions for drug discovery purposes and for solving crystal structures of membrane-embedded receptors. Additionally, the identification and isolation of a myriad of spider and scorpion toxins has allowed research within next generation antivenoms to progress at an increasingly faster pace. In this review, the current knowledge of spider and scorpion venoms is presented, followed by a discussion of all published biotechnological efforts within development of spider and scorpion antitoxins based on small molecules, antibodies and fragments thereof, and next generation immunization strategies. The increasing number of discovery and development efforts within this field may point towards an upcoming transition from serum-based antivenoms towards therapeutic solutions based on modern biotechnology. PMID:27455327

  5. Plastid biotechnology for crop production: present status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The world population is expected to reach an estimated 9.2 billion by 2050. Therefore, food production globally has to increase by 70% in order to feed the world, while total arable land, which has reached its maximal utilization, may even decrease. Moreover, climate change adds yet another challenge to global food security. In order to feed the world in 2050, biotechnological advances in modern agriculture are essential. Plant genetic engineering, which has created a new wave of global crop production after the first green revolution, will continue to play an important role in modern agriculture to meet these challenges. Plastid genetic engineering, with several unique advantages including transgene containment, has made significant progress in the last two decades in various biotechnology applications including development of crops with high levels of resistance to insects, bacterial, fungal and viral diseases, different types of herbicides, drought, salt and cold tolerance, cytoplasmic male sterility, metabolic engineering, phytoremediation of toxic metals and production of many vaccine antigens, biopharmaceuticals and biofuels. However, useful traits should be engineered via chloroplast genomes of several major crops. This review provides insight into the current state of the art of plastid engineering in relation to agricultural production, especially for engineering agronomic traits. Understanding the bottleneck of this technology and challenges for improvement of major crops in a changing climate are discussed. PMID:21437683

  6. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  7. Adaptive laboratory evolution – principles and applications for biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution is a frequent method in biological studies to gain insights into the basic mechanisms of molecular evolution and adaptive changes that accumulate in microbial populations during long term selection under specified growth conditions. Although regularly performed for more than 25 years, the advent of transcript and cheap next-generation sequencing technologies has resulted in many recent studies, which successfully applied this technique in order to engineer microbial cells for biotechnological applications. Adaptive laboratory evolution has some major benefits as compared with classical genetic engineering but also some inherent limitations. However, recent studies show how some of the limitations may be overcome in order to successfully incorporate adaptive laboratory evolution in microbial cell factory design. Over the last two decades important insights into nutrient and stress metabolism of relevant model species were acquired, whereas some other aspects such as niche-specific differences of non-conventional cell factories are not completely understood. Altogether the current status and its future perspectives highlight the importance and potential of adaptive laboratory evolution as approach in biotechnological engineering. PMID:23815749

  8. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  9. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  10. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  11. Photosynthetic approaches to chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shuchi H; Atsumi, Shota

    2013-12-01

    National interest and environmental advocates encourage alternatives to petroleum-based products. Besides biofuels, many other valuable chemicals used in every-day life are petroleum derivatives or require petroleum for their production. A plausible alternative to production using petroleum for chemical production is to harvest the abundant carbon dioxide resources in the environment to produce valuable hydrocarbons. Currently, efforts are being made to utilize a natural biological system, photosynthetic microorganisms, to perform this task. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attractive to use for biochemical production because they utilize economical resources for survival: sunlight and carbon dioxide. This review examines the various compounds produced by photosynthetic microorganisms.

  12. Oleochemical industry future through biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Mustafa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Lipases are the most widely used class of enzymes in organic synthesis. Enzymatic processes have been implemented in a broad range of industries as they are specific, save raw materials, energy and chemicals, environmentally friendly and fast in action compared to conventional processes. The most notable benefit is the moderate process temperature and pressure with no unwanted side reactions. In the past two decades, intensive research was carried out towards enzymatic synthesis of oleochemicals. This review has a sharp focus on the current implemented enzymatic processes for producing different oleochemicals such as fatty acids, glycerin, biodiesel, biolubricant and different alkyl esters via different processes including hydrolysis, esterification, transesterification and intraesterification.

  13. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  14. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  15. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. L., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    Includes summaries of six articles dealing with engineering education, population management, blood sampling, international pollution control, environmental quality index, and scientific phases in political science. (CC)

  16. The Crosstalk between Tissue Engineering and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Daniela P; Reis, Rui L; Correlo, Vítor M; Marques, Alexandra P

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs made of biotechnology-derived materials have been preferred due to their chemical and physical composition, which offers both high versatility and a support to enclose/ incorporate relevant signaling molecules and/or genes known to therapeutically induce tissue repair. Herein, a critical overview of the impact of different biotechnology-derived materials, scaffolds, and recombinant signaling molecules over the behavior of cells, another element of tissue engineered constructs, as well its regulatory role in tissue regeneration and disease progression is given. Additionally, these tissue-engineered constructs evolved to three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like models that, as an advancement of two-dimensional standard culture methods, are expected to be a valuable tool in the field of drug discovery and pharmaceutical research. Despite the improved design and conception of current proposed 3D tissue-like models, advanced control systems to enable and accelerate streamlining and automation of the numerous labor-intensive steps intrinsic to the development of tissue-engineered constructs are still to be achieved. In this sense, this review intends to present the biotechnology- derived materials that are being explored in the field of tissue engineering to generate 3D tissue-analogues and briefly highlight their foremost breakthroughs in tissue regeneration and drug discovery. It also aims to reinforce that the crosstalk between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology has been fostering the outcomes of tissue engineering approaches through the use of biotechnology-derived signaling molecules. Gene delivery/therapy is also discussed as a forefront area that represents another cross point between tissue engineering and pharmaceutical biotechnology, in which nucleic acids can be considered a "super pharmaceutical" to drive biological responses, including tissue regeneration.

  17. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  18. Biotechnological implications of the salivary proteome.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Massimo; Cabras, Tiziana; Vitali, Alberto; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Messana, Irene

    2011-08-01

    Although very attractive for noninvasive specimen collection, saliva has not yet been considered a relevant bodily fluid for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The functional roles of specific salivary peptides and proteins have also not yet been studied in detail. Recent proteomic analysis of human whole saliva has shown that salivary biomarkers could contribute to the detection of local and systemic diseases, provided the standardization of proper sampling procedures exists. Recently, interesting and novel functions for different families of specific secretory peptides and proteins have been demonstrated, which could be a basis for the design of peptidomimetics with relevant biotechnological applications. In this review, we focus on the most recent advances in analysing salivary proteins and their potential application in biotechnology.

  19. Cyanobacterial genomics for ecology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hess, Wolfgang R

    2011-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes that directly convert solar energy and CO(2) into organic matter by oxygenic photosynthesis, explaining their relevance for primary production in many ecosystems and the increasing interest for biotechnology. At present, there are more than 60 cyanobacteria for which a total genome sequence is publicly available. These cyanobacteria belong to different lifestyles and origins, coming from marine and freshwater aquatic environments, as well as terrestrial and symbiotic habitats. Genome sizes vary by a factor of six, from 1.44 Mb to 9.05 Mb, with the number of reported genes ranging from 1241 to 8462. Several studies have demonstrated how these sequences could be used to successfully infer important ecological, physiological and biotechnologically relevant characteristics. However, sequences of cyanobacterial origin also comprise a significant portion of certain metagenomes. Moreover, genome analysis has been employed for culture-independent approaches and for resequencing mutant strains, a very recent tool in cyanobacterial research.

  20. Space bio-technology in housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data obtained from monitoring atmospheric pollutants in Skylab spurred studies of indoor pollutants in terrestrial buildings. Subsequent studies of techniques for removing the pollutants from space habitats have led to building concepts which achieve the same purpose on earth. The Skylab data indicated that the synthesized organic materials used in many modern buildings, furnishings, personal clothing and aerosols add significant amounts of chemicals to the indoor atmosphere. Lowered circulation and ventilation rates to conserve energy have caused trapping of these substances in buildings. Studies of methods for space modules which will use plants and microbes to absorb airborne and wastewater pollutants have defined biotechnology designs which can be applied to remove pollutants from air and wastewater organically. Plant roots trap pollutants from wastewater and leaves readily absorb air pollutants, as well as improve the overall energy efficiency of buildings. Several designs which incorporate biotechnology to enhance both the aesthetics and efficiency of homes and office buildings are illustrated.

  1. Recent advances of metabolomics in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yozo; Saito, Kazuki

    2012-01-01

    Biotechnology, including genetic modification, is a very important approach to regulate the production of particular metabolites in plants to improve their adaptation to environmental stress, to improve food quality, and to increase crop yield. Unfortunately, these approaches do not necessarily lead to the expected results due to the highly complex mechanisms underlying metabolic regulation in plants. In this context, metabolomics plays a key role in plant molecular biotechnology, where plant cells are modified by the expression of engineered genes, because we can obtain information on the metabolic status of cells via a snapshot of their metabolome. Although metabolome analysis could be used to evaluate the effect of foreign genes and understand the metabolic state of cells, there is no single analytical method for metabolomics because of the wide range of chemicals synthesized in plants. Here, we describe the basic analytical advancements in plant metabolomics and bioinformatics and the application of metabolomics to the biological study of plants.

  2. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Kurath, G

    2008-04-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  3. Metagenomics: advances in ecology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Steele, Helen L; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2005-06-15

    This review highlights the significant advances which have been made in prokaryotic ecology and biotechnology due to the application of metagenomic techniques. It is now possible to link processes to specific microorganisms in the environment, such as the detection of a new phototrophic process in marine bacteria, and to characterise the metabolic cooperation which takes place in mixed species biofilms. The range of prokaryote derived products available for biotechnology applications is increasing rapidly. The knowledge gained from analysis of biosynthetic pathways provides valuable information about enzymology and allows engineering of biocatalysts for specific processes. The expansion of metagenomic techniques to include alternative heterologous hosts for gene expression and the development of sophisticated assays which enable screening of thousands of clones offers the possibility to find out even more valuable information about the prokaryotic world.

  4. Life sciences and biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wang, Hong-Guang; Wen, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Yihuang

    2007-06-29

    Life science and biotechnology have become a top priority in research and development in many countries as the world marches into the new century. China as a developing country with a 1.3 billion population and booming economy is actively meeting the challenge of a new era in this area of research. Owing to support from the government and the scientific community, and reform to improve the infrastructure, recent years have witnessed a rapid progress in some important fields of life science and biotechnology in China, such as genomics and protein sciences, neuroscience, systematics, super-hybrid rice research, stem cell and cloning technology, gene therapy and drug/vaccine development. The planned expansion and development of innovation in related sectors and the area of bioethics are described and discussed.

  5. Biotechnological production of flavours and fragrances.

    PubMed

    Krings, U; Berger, R G

    1998-01-01

    The biotechnological generation of natural aroma compounds is rapidly expanding. Aroma chemicals, such as vanillin, benzaldehyde (bitter almond, cherry) and 4-(R)-decanolide (fruity-fatty) are marketed on a scale of several thousand tons per year. Their possible production by single-step biotransformations, bioconversions and de novo synthesis using microorganisms, plant cells or isolated enzymes is shown. The perspectives of bioprocesses for the oxifunctionalisation of lower terpenes by genetically modified organisms and economic aspects are discussed.

  6. Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods.

  7. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  8. Moral and ethical issues in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Straughan, R

    2000-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has recently become the focus of heated controversy and media attention, particularly in the UK. The most obvious concerns have centred upon the possible effects of the technology on the environment and on human health, but a broader and more fundamental set of considerations has also been evident in much of the debate, these are usually referred to as 'moral' or 'ethical' concerns.

  9. MIPs as Tools in Environmental Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imprints are potentially fantastic constructions. They are selective, robust, and nonbiodegradable if produced from stable polymers. A range of different applications has been presented, everything from separation of enantiomers, via adsorbents for sample preparation before analysis to applications in wastewater treatment. This chapter deals with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as tools in environmental biotechnology, a field that has the potential to become very important in the future.

  10. New bioproduction systems: from molecular circuits to novel reactor concepts in cell-free biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    : The last decades witnessed a strong growth in several areas of biotechnology, especially in fields related to health, as well as in industrial biotechnology. Advances in molecular engineering now enable biotechnologists to design more efficient pathways in order to convert a larger spectrum of renewable resources into industrially used biofuels and chemicals as well as into new pharmaceuticals and therapeutic proteins. In addition material sciences advanced significantly making it more and more possible to integrate biology and engineering. One of the key questions currently is how to develop new ways of engineering biological systems to cope with the complexity and limitations given by the cell. The options to integrate biology with classical engineering advanced cell free technologies in the recent years significantly. Cell free protein production using cellular extracts is now a well-established universal technology for production of proteins derived from many organisms even at the milligram scale. Among other applications it has the potential to supply the demand for a multitude of enzymes and enzyme variants facilitating in vitro metabolic engineering. This review will briefly address the recent achievements and limitations of cell free conversions. Especially, the requirements for reactor systems in cell free biotechnology, a currently underdeveloped field, are reviewed and some perspectives are given on how material sciences and biotechnology might be able to advance these new developments in the future.

  11. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  12. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells.

  13. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  14. Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-Regulation Dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P.; Prosnitz, D.; Velsko, S.

    2016-11-03

    The Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop on August 19, 2016 to consider “Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-­Regulation Dilemma”. The topic was motivated by the observation that non-­government funded biotechnology research and development activities have grown and diversified tremendously over the past decade. This sector encompasses a broad range of actors and activities: individuals with private laboratories, community “hackerspaces,” biotechnology incubators, and individual startups. Motivations and aspirations are diverse and include such things as personal curiosity, community education, the invention of new products or services, and even the realization of certain economic, political, or social goals. One driving force is the “democratization” of ever more powerful biological technologies, allowing individual citizens and groups access to capabilities that have traditionally only been available to researchers in universities, research institutes, national laboratories, and large commercial concerns. Another is the rise of alternative financing mechanisms such as “crowdsourcing,” which ostensibly provide greater freedom to innovate, and greater public visibility, but entail looser management oversight and transparency.

  15. Human rights in the biotechnology era 1

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2002-01-01

    Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562

  16. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  17. Euglenoid flagellates: a multifaceted biotechnology platform.

    PubMed

    Krajčovič, Juraj; Matej Vesteg; Schwartzbach, Steven D

    2015-05-20

    Euglenoid flagellates are mainly fresh water protists growing in highly diverse environments making them well-suited for a multiplicity of biotechnology applications. Phototrophic euglenids possesses complex chloroplasts of green algal origin bounded by three membranes. Euglena nuclear and plastid genome organization, gene structure and gene expression are distinctly different from other organisms. Our observations on the model organism Euglena gracilis indicate that transcription of both the plastid and nuclear genome is insensitive to environmental changes and that gene expression is regulated mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Euglena plastids have been proposed as a site for the production of proteins and value added metabolites of biotechnological interest. Euglena has been shown to be a suitable protist species to be used for production of several compounds that are used in the production of cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals, such as α-tocopherol, wax esters, polyunsaturated fatty acids, biotin and tyrosine. The storage polysaccharide, paramylon, has immunostimulatory properties and has shown a promise for biomaterials production. Euglena biomass can be used as a nutritional supplement in aquaculture and in animal feed. Diverse applications of Euglena in environmental biotechnology include ecotoxicological risk assessment, heavy metal bioremediation, bioremediation of industrial wastewater and contaminated water.

  18. The emerging international regulatory framework for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Komen, John

    2012-01-01

    Debate about the potential risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to the environment or human health spurred attention to biosafety. Biosafety is associated with the safe use of GMOs and, more generally, with the introduction of non-indigenous species into natural or managed ecosystems. Biosafety regulation--the policies and procedures adopted to ensure the environmentally safe application of modern biotechnology--has been extensively discussed at various national and international forums. Much of the discussion has focused on developing guidelines, appropriate legal frameworks and, at the international level, a legally binding international biosafety protocol--the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. The Protocol is one among various international instruments and treaties that regulate specific aspects relevant to agricultural biotechnology. The present article presents the main international instruments relevant to biosafety regulation, and their key provisions. While international agreements and standards provide important guidance, they leave significant room for interpretation, and flexibility for countries implementing them. Implementation of biosafety at the national level has proven to be a major challenge, particularly in developing countries, and consequently the actual functioning of the international regulatory framework for biotechnology is still in a state of flux.

  19. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  20. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of 'thick tails'.

    PubMed

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Aard J; Linton, Jonathan D

    2014-03-25

    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a 'thick tailed' power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is significantly more accurate than the traditionally used Gaussian approach. A study of 287 North-American biotechnology firms gives insights into common problems faced by investors, managers and other stakeholders when using traditional techniques to calculate the commercial value of R&D. This is important because specific quantitative tools to assess the value of high-risk, high-reward R&D do not currently exist. This often leads to an undervaluation of biotechnology R&D and R&D intensive biotechnology firms. For example, the widely used Net Present Value (NPV) method assumes a fixed risk ignoring management flexibility and the changing environment. However, Real Options Pricing models assume that commercial returns from R&D investments are described by a normal random walk. A normal random walk model eliminates the possibility of drastic changes to the marketplace resulting from the introduction of revolutionary products and/or services. It is possible to better understand and manage biotechnology research projects and portfolios using a model that more accurately considers large non-Gaussian price fluctuations with thick tails, which recognize the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with Biotechnology R&D. Our empirical data show that opportunity overcompensates for the downside risk making biotechnology R&D statistically more valuable than other Gaussian options investments, which may otherwise appear to offer a similar combination of risk and return.

  1. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  2. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts.

  3. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  4. Exploring microbial diversity for biotechnology: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brajesh Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Environmental microbes are immensely diverse and have numerous metabolic activities and products that could have industrial applications. However, >99% of environmental microbes cannot be cultured under current laboratory conditions, leaving their potential largely untapped. Metagenomic approaches have been used successfully in recent years to obtain novel microbial products from uncultured microorganisms. The activity, efficiency and stability of these novel enzymes can be further improved by the application of nanotechnology. Here, I highlight the approaches that can be used to obtain efficient microbial products from the uncultivable majority. I propose that a multidisciplinary approach combining different technologies including metagenomics and nanotechnology is the way forward for tapping the real potential of microbial metabolism for applications in biotechnology.

  5. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2014-06-01

    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed.

  6. Japanese technology assessment: Computer science, opto- and microelectronics mechatronics, biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Brandin, D.; Wieder, H.; Spicer, W.; Nevins, J.; Oxender, D.

    1986-01-01

    The series studies Japanese research and development in four high-technology areas - computer science, opto and microelectronics, mechatronics (a term created by the Japanese to describe the union of mechanical and electronic engineering to produce the next generation of machines, robots, and the like), and biotechnology. The evaluations were conducted by panels of U.S. scientists - chosen from academia, government, and industry - actively involved in research in areas of expertise. The studies were prepared for the purpose of aiding the U.S. response to Japan's technological challenge. The main focus of the assessments is on the current status and long-term direction and emphasis of Japanese research and development. Other aspects covered include evolution of the state of the art; identification of Japanese researchers, R and D organizations, and resources; and comparative U.S. efforts. The general time frame of the studies corresponds to future industrial applications and potential commercial impacts spanning approximately the next two decades.

  7. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid.

  8. The development of microalgal biotechnology in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Masojídek, Jiří; Prášil, Ondřej

    2010-12-01

    Microscopic algae and cyanobacteria are excellent sources of numerous compounds, from raw biomass rich in proteins, oils, and antioxidants to valuable secondary metabolites with potential medical use. In the former Czechoslovakia, microalgal biotechnology developed rapidly in the 1960s with the main aim of providing industrial, high-yield sources of algal biomass. Unique cultivation techniques that are still in use were successfully developed and tested. Gradually, the focus changed from bulk production to more sophisticated use of microalgae, including production of bioactive compounds. Along the way, better understanding of the physiology and cell biology of productive microalgal strains was achieved. Currently, microalgae are in the focus again, mostly as possible sources of bioactive compounds and next-generation biofuels for the 21st century.

  9. Biotechnological applications of brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins.

    PubMed

    Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Henrique da Silva, Paulo; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Paludo, Kátia Sabrina; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Gremski, Waldemiro; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2008-01-01

    Loxoscelism (the term used to define accidents by the bite of brown spiders) has been reported worldwide. Clinical manifestations following brown spider bites are frequently associated with skin degeneration, a massive inflammatory response at the injured region, intravascular hemolysis, platelet aggregation causing thrombocytopenia and renal disturbances. The mechanisms by which the venom exerts its noxious effects are currently under investigation. The whole venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched with low molecular mass proteins in the range of 5-40 kDa. Toxins including alkaline phosphatase, hyaluronidase, metalloproteases (astacin-like proteases), low molecular mass (5.6-7.9 kDa) insecticidal peptides and phospholipases-D (dermonecrotic toxins) have been identified in the venom. The purpose of the present review is to describe biotechnological applications of whole venom or some toxins, with especial emphasis upon molecular biology findings obtained in the last years.

  10. Potential biotechnological application of microalgae: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae are diverse microorganisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats with only a small fraction being cultivated for human use. Recently, interest in microalgal research has increased in the quest for alternative renewable fuels due to possible depletion of fossil fuels in the near future. However, costly downstream processing has hampered the commercialization of biofuels derived from microalgae. Several value added products of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural relevance could be simultaneously derived from microalgae during bioenergy production. Despite these value-added products having the potential to offset the high cost of downstream processing of renewable fuels, their production has not been explored in-depth. This review presents a critical overview of the current state of biotechnological applications of microalgae for human benefit and highlights possible areas for further research and development.

  11. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jennifer A

    2008-02-27

    Sub-Saharan Africa could have a shortfall of nearly 90Mt of cereals by the year 2025 if current agricultural practices are maintained. Biotechnology is one of the ways to improve agricultural production. Insect-resistant varieties of maize and cotton suitable for the subcontinent have been identified as already having a significant impact. Virus-resistant crops are under development. These include maize resistant to the African endemic maize streak virus and cassava resistant to African cassava mosaic virus. Parasitic weeds such as Striga attack the roots of crops such as maize, millet, sorghum and upland rice. Field trials in Kenya using a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide have proven very successful. Drought-tolerant crops are also under development as are improved varieties of local African crops such as bananas, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes.

  12. Challenges facing European agriculture and possible biotechnological solutions.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès; Harwood, Wendy; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Sági, László; Hundleby, Penelope; Badea, Elena Marcela; Rosca, Ioan; Cruz, Gabriela; Salema Fevereiro, Manuel Pedro; Marfà Riera, Victoria; Jansson, Stefan; Morandini, Piero; Bojinov, Bojin; Cetiner, Selim; Custers, René; Schrader, Uwe; Jacobsen, Hans-Joerg; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Boisron, Audrey; Kuntz, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture faces many challenges to maximize yields while it is required to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner. In the present study, we analyze the major agricultural challenges identified by European farmers (primarily related to biotic stresses) in 13 countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK and Turkey, for nine major crops (barley, beet, grapevine, maize, oilseed rape, olive, potato, sunflower and wheat). Most biotic stresses (BSs) are related to fungi or insects, but viral diseases, bacterial diseases and even parasitic plants have an important impact on yield and harvest quality. We examine how these challenges have been addressed by public and private research sectors, using either conventional breeding, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, cisgenesis, RNAi technology or mutagenesis. Both national surveys and scientific literature analysis followed by text mining were employed to evaluate genetic engineering (GE) and non-GE approaches. This is the first report of text mining of the scientific literature on plant breeding and agricultural biotechnology research. For the nine major crops in Europe, 128 BS challenges were identified with 40% of these addressed neither in the scientific literature nor in recent European public research programs. We found evidence that the private sector was addressing only a few of these "neglected" challenges. Consequently, there are considerable gaps between farmer's needs and current breeding and biotechnology research. We also provide evidence that the current political situation in certain European countries is an impediment to GE research in order to address these agricultural challenges in the future. This study should also contribute to the decision-making process on future pertinent international consortia to fill the identified research gaps.

  13. The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

  14. From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: Tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Joshua D.

    2015-09-25

    As part of my NSD Innovation awarded funds (95470 Powell Innovation: charge code N38540) one my deliverables was a review article for journal submission summarizing my work on this project. My NSD Innovation project is expressing Ebola antibodies in tobacco plants. I've attached abstract below Title: From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America Abstract: Abstract: In 2012 scientists funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) produced 10 million doses of influenza vaccine in tobacco in a milestone deadline of one month. Recently the experimental antibody cocktail Zmapp™, also produced in tobacco, has shown promise as an emergency intervention therapeutic against Ebola. These two examples showcase how collaborative efforts between government, private industry and academia are applying plant biotechnology to combat pathogenic agents. Opportunities now exist repurposing tobacco expression systems for exciting new applications in synthetic biology, biofuels production and industrial enzyme production. Lastly, as plant-produced biotherapeutics become more mainstream, government funding agencies need to be cognizant of the idea that many plant-produced biologicals are often safer, cheaper and just as efficacious as their counterparts that are produced using traditional expression systems.

  15. From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: Tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America

    DOE PAGES

    Powell, Joshua D.

    2015-09-25

    As part of my NSD Innovation awarded funds (95470 Powell Innovation: charge code N38540) one my deliverables was a review article for journal submission summarizing my work on this project. My NSD Innovation project is expressing Ebola antibodies in tobacco plants. I've attached abstract below Title: From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America Abstract: Abstract: In 2012 scientists funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) produced 10 million doses of influenza vaccine in tobacco in a milestone deadline of one month. Recently the experimental antibody cocktail Zmapp™, also produced inmore » tobacco, has shown promise as an emergency intervention therapeutic against Ebola. These two examples showcase how collaborative efforts between government, private industry and academia are applying plant biotechnology to combat pathogenic agents. Opportunities now exist repurposing tobacco expression systems for exciting new applications in synthetic biology, biofuels production and industrial enzyme production. Lastly, as plant-produced biotherapeutics become more mainstream, government funding agencies need to be cognizant of the idea that many plant-produced biologicals are often safer, cheaper and just as efficacious as their counterparts that are produced using traditional expression systems.« less

  16. Cassava: constraints to production and the transfer of biotechnology to African laboratories.

    PubMed

    Bull, Simon E; Ndunguru, Joseph; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Beeching, John R; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge and technology transfer to African institutes is an important objective to help achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Plant biotechnology in particular enables innovative advances in agriculture and industry, offering new prospects to promote the integration and dissemination of improved crops and their derivatives from developing countries into local markets and the global economy. There is also the need to broaden our knowledge and understanding of cassava as a staple food crop. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a vital source of calories for approximately 500 million people living in developing countries. Unfortunately, it is subject to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses that impact on production, consumption, marketability and also local and country economics. To date, improvements to cassava have been led via conventional plant breeding programmes, but with advances in molecular-assisted breeding and plant biotechnology new tools are being developed to hasten the generation of improved farmer-preferred cultivars. In this review, we report on the current constraints to cassava production and knowledge acquisition in Africa, including a case study discussing the opportunities and challenges of a technology transfer programme established between the Mikocheni Agricultural Research Institute in Tanzania and Europe-based researchers. The establishment of cassava biotechnology platform(s) should promote research capabilities in African institutions and allow scientists autonomy to adapt cassava to suit local agro-ecosystems, ultimately serving to develop a sustainable biotechnology infrastructure in African countries.

  17. An updated view on horseradish peroxidases: recombinant production and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Florian W; Glieder, Anton

    2015-02-01

    Horseradish peroxidase has been the subject of scientific research for centuries. It has been used exhaustively as reporter enzyme in diagnostics and histochemistry and still plays a major role in these applications. Numerous studies have been conducted on the role of horseradish peroxidase in the plant and its catalytic mechanism. However, little progress has been made in its recombinant production. Until now, commercial preparations of horseradish peroxidase are still isolated from plant roots. These preparations are commonly mixtures of various isoenzymes of which only a small fraction has been described so far. The composition of isoenzymes in these mixed isolates is subjected to uncontrollable environmental conditions. Nowadays, horseradish peroxidase regains interest due to its broad applicability in the fields of medicine, life sciences, and biotechnology in cancer therapy, biosensor systems, bioremediation, and biocatalysis. These medically and commercially relevant applications, the recent discovery of new natural isoenzymes with different biochemical properties, as well as the challenges in recombinant production render this enzyme particularly interesting for future biotechnological solutions. Therefore, we reviewed previous studies as well as current developments with biotechnological emphasis on new applications and the major remaining biotechnological challenge-the efficient recombinant production of horseradish peroxidase enzymes.

  18. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  19. Top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Daar, Abdallah S; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla; Martin, Douglas K; Smith, Alyna C; Nast, Shauna; Singer, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Most research into genomics and other related biotechnologies is concerned with the priorities of industrialized nations, and yet a limited number of projects have shown that these technologies could help improve health in developing countries. To encourage the successful application of biotechnology to global health, we carried out a study in which we asked an international group of eminent scientists with expertise in global health issues to identify the top ten biotechnologies for improving health in developing countries. The results offer concrete guidance to those in a position to influence the direction of research and development, and challenge common assumptions about the relevance and affordability of biotechnology for developing countries.

  20. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    PubMed

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  1. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  2. Biotechnology: Opportunities to Enhance Army Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    the history of biotechnology came when the partnership of James D. Watson and Francis H. C. Crick developed a structural I model of the DNA molecule by...relationships between atoms in molecules. In 1953 Watson and Crick published their findings of the now famous double helix pattern of DNA earning them the Nobel...Double Helix I isis1.04 IIs The Watson- Crick model of DNA I I A 54 Appendix A i -r FIGURE A4: DNA Chain /0 0 Uncoiled, ladderlike chain of DNA shows

  3. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  4. Microgravity and its implication for fermentation biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Klaus, D M

    1998-09-01

    Fermentation processes are highly dependent upon physical and chemical environmental parameters, many of which are influenced by gravity. Extending biotechnology into the realm of space flight provides researchers with an opportunity to investigate the role that gravity plays in natural growth processes. Physical factors governing cell sedimentation, nutrient mixing and byproduct dispersion are altered in the absence of the constant sedimenting force of gravity. In addition, space flight has also been shown to give rise to a wide variety of indirect consequences associated with the physiology of the organisms themselves.

  5. Potato in the age of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Ewen; Milbourne, Dan; Petti, Carlo; Doyle-Prestwich, Barbara M; Meade, Conor

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology-based tools are now widely used to enhance and expand the traditional remit of potato in food production. By modifying its functionality, the capacity of the potato to produce, for example, therapeutic or industrial compounds is now a reality, and its ability to resist disease can also be radically improved. Two developments have been crucial to expanding the role of potato: the recent advances in the fields of structural and functional potato genomics and the ability to integrate genes of interest into the potato genome. In this review we discuss how both developments have diversified the remit of this crop.

  6. Downstream processing in the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Kalyanpur, Manohar

    2002-09-01

    The biotechnology industry today employs recombinant bacteria, mammalian cells, and transgenic animals for the production of high-value therapeutic proteins. This article reviews the techniques employed in this industry for the recovery of these products. The methods reviewed extend from the centrifugation and membrane filtration for the initial clarification of crude culture media to the final purification of the products by a variety of membrane-based and chromatographic methods. The subject of process validation including validation of the removal of bacterial and viral contaminants from the final products is also discussed with special reference to the latest regulatory guidelines.

  7. Kluyveromyces lactis: An emerging tool in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Spohner, Sebastian C; Schaum, Vivienne; Quitmann, Hendrich; Czermak, Peter

    2016-03-20

    Kluyveromyces lactis has emerged as one of the most important yeast species for research and industrial biotechnology. This Crabtree-negative species is suitable for the production of metabolites and heterologous proteins, and its ability to achieve high levels of protein secretion makes it an attractive alternative for industrial protein production. Since 1991, almost 100 recombinant proteins have been expressed in K. lactis, 20% of which have been produced in the last 2 years. This review provides an overview of the genetic modifications used to accomplish heterologous gene expression in K. lactis, as well as fermentation techniques, and recent examples of industrial proteins produced in this species.

  8. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-08-20

    Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al.

  9. Are echinoderms of interest to biotechnology?

    PubMed

    Petzelt, C

    2005-01-01

    The huge potential of echinoderms as a so far fairly untapped source of bioactive molecules is described. Examples are presented that show the usefulness of echinoderm-derived molecules for therapeutic application in selected fields of cancer research, in the control of bacterial growth as substances with new antibiotic properties, and finally in the context of technical applications such as antifouling substances. The molecules described here are but the mere beginning of a commercial exploitation of echinoderms and may incite a deeper involvement of biotechnology-oriented research in this material.

  10. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  11. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  12. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  13. Better understanding of homologous recombination through a 12-week laboratory course for undergraduates majoring in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Shen, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Hu, Xiaomei; Hu, Fuquan; Rao, Xiancai

    2017-03-17

    Homologous recombination, a central concept in biology, is defined as the exchange of DNA strands between two similar or identical nucleotide sequences. Unfortunately, undergraduate students majoring in biotechnology often experience difficulties in understanding the molecular basis of homologous recombination. In this study, we developed and implemented a 12-week laboratory course for biotechnology undergraduates in which gene targeting in Streptococcus suis was used to facilitate their understanding of the basic concept and process of homologous recombination. Students worked in teams of two to select a gene of interest to create a knockout mutant using methods that relied on homologous recombination. By integrating abstract knowledge and practice in the process of scientific research, students gained hands-on experience in molecular biology techniques while learning about the principle and process of homologous recombination. The learning outcomes and survey-based assessment demonstrated that students substantially enhanced their understanding of how homologous recombination could be used to study gene function. Overall, the course was very effective for helping biotechnology undergraduates learn the theory and application of homologous recombination, while also yielding positive effects in developing confidence and scientific skills for future work in research. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  14. Biotechnological potential and conservatory of extremophiles from climatically wide ranged developing countries: Lesson from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Technological advances, in developing countries, without considering environmental health issues have generated microsites uninhabitable to organisms including usual bacteria. While extremophilic microorganisms thrive in such locations. It is the high time to isolate and conserve the extremophilic biodiversity from such man made habitats before the environmental awareness treats them to the level of "destructionâ. For biotechnology processes to be geared by employing extremophilic microorganisms, locations characterized with high/low temperature for most part of the year, hypersaline brine and abneutral pH environments may render the respective microbes to do their allotted/required jobs with minimal of extraneous investments. Besides, many known and expected potentials of extremophilic bacteria for biotechnological applications, major attraction lies in operating bioprocesses under non-aseptic conditions for making them economically feasible. This review after giving a thumbnail picture of extremophilies' known features is centered on the triad of biodiversity richness, environmental availabilities/managements of locations suitable for respective biotechnological bioprocesses and their non-aseptic designing for a developing country like Pakistan.

  15. Database Resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these data from 37 distinct databases. The E-utilities serve as the programming interface for the Entrez system. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. New resources released in the past year include iCn3D, MutaBind, and the Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Reference Database; and resources that were updated in the past year include My Bibliography, SciENcv, the Pathogen Detection Project, Assembly, Genome, the Genome Data Viewer, BLAST and PubChem. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:27899561

  16. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (Bookshelf, PubMed Central (PMC) and PubReader); medical genetics (ClinVar, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen); genes and genomics (BioProject, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genome, HomoloGene, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, PopSet, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser, Trace Archive and UniGene); and proteins and chemicals (Biosystems, COBALT, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), Protein Clusters, Protein and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for many of these databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  17. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (PubMed Central (PMC), Bookshelf and PubReader), health (ClinVar, dbGaP, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen), genomes (BioProject, Assembly, Genome, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser and the Trace Archive), genes (Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), HomoloGene, PopSet and UniGene), proteins (Protein, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), COBALT, Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and Protein Clusters) and chemicals (Biosystems and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:26615191

  18. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    PubMed

    2016-01-04

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (PubMed Central (PMC), Bookshelf and PubReader), health (ClinVar, dbGaP, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen), genomes (BioProject, Assembly, Genome, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser and the Trace Archive), genes (Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), HomoloGene, PopSet and UniGene), proteins (Protein, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), COBALT, Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB) and Protein Clusters) and chemicals (Biosystems and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized datasets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  19. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  20. Biotechnology for the Environment, A Report on the Joint United States - European Union Celebration of a Decade of Environmental Biotechnology Exchange Activities for Early Career Scientists, Project ID: 0011751

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Suflita

    2006-09-30

    The joint EU-US Task Force on Environmental Biotechnology held a workshop entitled, 'A Celebration of a Decade of Environmental Biotechnology Exchange Activities' on October 17, 2005 in Brussels, Belgium. This was a fitting venue since Brussels was where the EU-US transatlantic initiative originated. The workshop brought together former trainees who are currently active in the field of environmental biotechnology in order to (1) assess the impact of the past training activities; (2) to promote further collaborations; and (3) to highlight working group and task force activities in this field. Presentations by the early career scientists filled the meeting day (see Appendix I and II for meeting agenda and abstract book, respectively). Task Force members chaired the various sessions. An additional poster session provided an opportunity for more intensive scientific exchange. The day culminated with a formal dinner and gathering of all participants. Agencies supporting the activities included DOE, USDA and NSF. Funds received from the DOE were exhausted and USDA and NSF allowed the Task Force to use unexpended monies (via no cost extensions) to facilitate future fellowship exchange activities. Over the past ten years, there has been a high level of sensitivity for working collaboratively with European colleagues. This philosophy simply pervades each and every activity of the EU-US Task Force. Realistically, this means that there is a careful balance between the US and EU participation in all functions. The Brussels 'Celebration' workshop was no exception. The organizers anticipated funding more former U.S. trainees than actually attended the workshop and raised the necessary funds to accomplish this goal. However, the number of U.S. attendees needed to be tempered since the financial resources for our EU counterparts proved more difficult to obtain. In order to maintain the scholarly and political balance on the program of events, fewer U.S. attendees were invited

  1. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Within England and Wales, river water abstractions are licensed and regulated by the Environment Agency (EA), who uses compliance with the Environmental Flow Indicator (EFI) to ascertain where abstraction may cause undesirable effects on river habitats and species. The EFI is a percentage deviation from natural flow represented using a flow duration curve. The allowable percentage deviation changes with different flows, and also changes depending on an assessment of the sensitivity of the river to changes in flow (Table 1). Within UK abstraction licensing, resource availability is expressed as a surplus or deficit of water resources in relation to the EFI, and utilises the concept of 'hands-off-flows' (HOFs) at the specified flow statistics detailed in Table 1. Use of a HOF system enables abstraction to cease at set flows, but also enables abstraction to occur at periods of time when more water is available. Compliance at low flows (Q95) is used by the EA to determine the hydrological classification and compliance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for identifying waterbodies where flow may be causing or contributing to a failure in good ecological status (GES; Table 2). This compliance assessment shows where the scenario flows are below the EFI and by how much, to help target measures for further investigation and assessment. Currently, the EA is reviewing the EFI methodology in order to assess whether or not it can be used within the reformed water abstraction licensing system which is being planned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to ensure the licensing system is resilient to the challenges of climate change and population growth, while allowing abstractors to meet their water needs efficiently, and better protect the environment. In order to assess the robustness of the EFI, a simple model has been created which allows a number of abstraction, flow and licensing scenarios to be run to determine WFD compliance using the

  2. Dicamba resistance: enlarging and preserving biotechnology-based weed management strategies.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Mark R; Mutlu, Nedim; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Dumitru, Razvan; Jiang, Wen Zhi; Lavallee, Bradley J; Herman, Patricia L; Clemente, Thomas E; Weeks, Donald P

    2007-05-25

    The advent of biotechnology-derived, herbicide-resistant crops has revolutionized farming practices in many countries. Facile, highly effective, environmentally sound, and profitable weed control methods have been rapidly adopted by crop producers who value the benefits associated with biotechnology-derived weed management traits. But a rapid rise in the populations of several troublesome weeds that are tolerant or resistant to herbicides currently used in conjunction with herbicide-resistant crops may signify that the useful lifetime of these economically important weed management traits will be cut short. We describe the development of soybean and other broadleaf plant species resistant to dicamba, a widely used, inexpensive, and environmentally safe herbicide. The dicamba resistance technology will augment current herbicide resistance technologies and extend their effective lifetime. Attributes of both nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded dicamba resistance genes that affect the potency and expected durability of the herbicide resistance trait are examined.

  3. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  4. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  5. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  6. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  7. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  8. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVII, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this volume describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered include: (1) the use of message mapping for speaking and writing instruction; (2) group projects and portfolios as evaluation tools; (3) helping students become strategic learners; (4) using writing assignments to ensure…

  9. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  10. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robbin S.

    2011-04-01

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product's development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  11. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  12. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production.

  13. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Lopes, Mariana R.; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Long, Tanya M.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y.; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P.; Hanson, Sara J.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lipzen, Anna M.; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Ohm, Robin A.; Otillar, Robert P.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Peng, Yi; Rosa, Carlos A.; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A.; Slot, Jason C.; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-01-01

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. PMID:27535936

  14. The locks and keys to industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2009-04-01

    The sustainable use of resources by Nature to synthesize the required products at the right place, when they are needed, continues to be the role model for total synthesis and production in general. The combination of molecular and engineering science and technology in the biotechnological approach needs no protecting groups at all and has therefore been established for numerous large-scale routes to both natural and synthetic products in industry. The use of biobased raw materials for chemical synthesis, and the economy of molecular transformations like atom economy and step economy are of growing importance. As safety, health and environmental issues are key drivers for process improvements in the chemical industry, the development of biocatalytic reactions or pathways replacing hazardous reagents is a major focus. The integration of the biocatalytic reaction and downstream processing with product isolation has led to a variety of in situ product recovery techniques and has found numerous successful applications. With the growing collection of biocatalytic reactions, the retrosynthetic thinking can be applied to biocatalysis as well. The introduction of biocatalytic reactions is uniquely suited to cost reductions and higher quality products, as well as to more sustainable processes. The transfer of Nature's simple and robust sensing and control principles as well as its reaction and separation organization into useful technical systems can be applied to different fermentations, biotransformations and downstream processes. Biocatalyst and pathway discovery and development is the key towards new synthetic transformations in industrial biotechnology.

  15. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    PubMed Central

    De Almeida, Darne G.; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries. PMID:27843439

  16. Biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2017-02-10

    Vanillin is an important and popular plant flavor, but the amount of this compound available from plant sources is very limited. Biotechnological methods have high potential for vanillin production as an alternative to extraction from plant sources. Here, we report a new approach using immobilized enzymes for the production of vanillin. The recently discovered oxygenase Cso2 has coenzyme-independent catalytic activity for the conversion of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. Immobilization of Cso2 on Sepabeads EC-EA anion-exchange carrier conferred enhanced operational stability enabling repetitive use. This immobilized Cso2 catalyst allowed 6.8mg yield of vanillin from isoeugenol through ten reaction cycles at a 1mL scale. The coenzyme-independent decarboxylase Fdc, which has catalytic activity for the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, was also immobilized on Sepabeads EC-EA. We demonstrated that the immobilized Fdc and Cso2 enabled the cascade synthesis of vanillin from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol with repetitive use of the catalysts. This study is the first example of biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes, a process that provides new possibilities for vanillin production.

  17. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  18. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  19. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  20. The Catharanthus alkaloids: pharmacognosy and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    van Der Heijden, Robert; Jacobs, Denise I; Snoeijer, Wim; Hallard, Didier; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The Catharanthus (or Vinca) alkaloids comprise a group of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids. Vinblastine is now marketed for more than 40 years as an anticancer drug and became a true lead compound for drug development. Due to the pharmaceutical importance and the low content in the plant of vinblastine and the related alkaloid vincristine, Catharanthus roseus became one of the best-studied medicinal plants. Consequently it developed as a model system for biotechnological studies on plant secondary metabolism. The aim of this review is to acquaint a broader audience with the recent progress in this research and with its exciting perspectives. The pharmacognostical aspects of the Catharanthus alkaloids cover botanical (including some historical), phytochemical and analytical data. An up-to-date view on the biosynthesis of the alkaloids is given. The pharmacological aspects of these alkaloids and their semi-synthetic derivatives are only discussed briefly. The biotechnological part focuses on alternative production systems for these alkaloids, for example by in vitro culture of C. roseus cells. Subsequently it will be discussed to what extent the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated genetically ("metabolic engineering"), aiming at higher production levels of the alkaloids. Another approach is to produce the alkaloids (or their precursors) in other organisms such as yeast. Despite the availability of only a limited number of biosynthetic genes, the research on C. roseus has already led to a broad scientific spin-off. It is clear that many interesting results can be expected when more genes become available.