Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.
1991-10-01
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center_dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.
Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.
1991-10-01
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.
Current-density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C. )
1992-03-02
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MST reversed-field-pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, ad the measured radial profile of the {ital k} spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, support the view that low-frequency fluctuations ({ital f}{lt}30 kHz) are tearing modes and high-frequency fluctuations (30 kHz{lt}{ital f}{lt}250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., {bold k}{center dot}{bold B}=0). Correlation of current-density and magnetic fluctuations ({l angle}{ital {tilde j}}{sub {parallel}}{ital {tilde B}{ital r}}{r angle}) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.
Current density fluctuations, nonlinear coupling, and transport in MST
Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.E.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.N.; Fiksel, G.; Fonck, R.J.; Henry, J.S.; Hokin, S.A.; Holly, D.J.; Ji, H.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Watts, C.
1992-09-01
New information on magnetic fluctuations and transport in toroidal devices has been obtained in the MST reversed field pinch through measurement of nonlinear coupling of three waves in k-space, and measurement of current density fluctuations. Measurements of nonlinear coupling of magnetic fluctuations reveals that (1) two poloidal mode number m = 1 modes couple strongly to an m = 2 mode, (2) toroidal mode coupling is broad extending up to n = 20, (3) these features agree with predictions for tearing fluctuations from a nonlinear MHD code, (4) during a sawtooth crash the number of modes involved in nonlinear interactions increases dramatically and the k-spectrum broadens simultaneously. Measurements of current density fluctuations over the outer 20% of the minor radius reveal that (1) low frequency fluctuations are consistent with tearing modes, (2) high frequency fluctuations are localized turbulence which maintains resonance with the equilibrium field as q changes with radius, (3) particle transport from magnetic fluctuations is ambipolar (i.e., <{delta}j{sub {parallel}}B{sub r}> = O).
Gorissen, Mieke; Hooyberghs, Jef; Vanderzande, Carlo
2009-02-01
Cumulants of a fluctuating current can be obtained from a free-energy-like generating function, which for Markov processes equals the largest eigenvalue of a generalized generator. We determine this eigenvalue with the density-matrix renormalization group for stochastic systems. We calculate the variance of the current in the different phases, and at the phase transitions, of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Our results can be described in the terms of a scaling ansatz that involves the dynamical exponent z . We also calculate the generating function of the dynamical activity (total number of configuration changes) near the absorbing-state transition of the contact process. Its scaling properties can be expressed in terms of known critical exponents. PMID:19391693
Extracting primordial density fluctuations
Gawiser; Silk
1998-05-29
The combination of detections of anisotropy in cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale distribution of galaxies probes the primordial density fluctuations of the universe on spatial scales varying by three orders of magnitude. These data are found to be inconsistent with the predictions of several popular cosmological models. Agreement between the data and the cold + hot dark matter model, however, suggests that a significant fraction of the matter in the universe may consist of massive neutrinos. PMID:9603724
Density Fluctuations in Liquid Water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
English, Niall J.; Tse, John S.
2011-01-01
The density distributions and fluctuations in grids of varying size in liquid water at ambient pressure, both above the freezing point and in the supercooled state, are analyzed from the trajectories obtained from large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the occurrence of low- and high-density regions (LDL and HDL) is transient and their respective residence times are dependent on the size of the simulated system. The spatial extent of density-density correlation is found to be within 7 Å or less. The temporal existence of LDL and HDL arises as a result of natural density fluctuations of an equilibrium system. The density of bulk water at ambient conditions is homogenous.
RF current drive and plasma fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peysson, Yves; Decker, Joan; Morini, L.; Coda, S.
2011-12-01
The role played by electron density fluctuations near the plasma edge on rf current drive in tokamaks is assessed quantitatively. For this purpose, a general framework for incorporating density fluctuations in existing modelling tools has been developed. It is valid when rf power absorption takes place far from the fluctuating region of the plasma. The ray-tracing formalism is modified in order to take into account time-dependent perturbations of the density, while the Fokker-Planck solver remains unchanged. The evolution of the electron distribution function in time and space under the competing effects of collisions and quasilinear diffusion by rf waves is determined consistently with the time scale of fluctuations described as a statistical process. Using the ray-tracing code C3PO and the 3D linearized relativistic bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck solver LUKE, the effect of electron density fluctuations on the current driven by the lower hybrid (LH) and the electron cyclotron (EC) waves is estimated quantitatively. A thin fluctuating layer characterized by electron drift wave turbulence at the plasma edge is considered. The effect of fluctuations on the LH wave propagation is equivalent to a random scattering process with a broadening of the poloidal mode spectrum proportional to the level of the perturbation. However, in the multipass regime, the LH current density profile remains sensitive to the ray chaotic behaviour, which is not averaged by fluctuations. The effect of large amplitude fluctuations on the EC driven current is found to be similar to an anomalous radial transport of the fast electrons. The resulting lower current drive efficiency and broader current profile are in better agreement with experimental observations. Finally, applied to the ITER ELMy H-mode regime, the model predicts a significant broadening of the EC driven current density profile with the fluctuation level, which can make the stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode potentially
Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions
Virtanen, P.; Giazotto, F.
2015-02-15
We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.
Universal bounds on current fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo
2016-05-01
For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.
Multicellular density fluctuations in epithelial monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zehnder, Steven M.; Wiatt, Marina K.; Uruena, Juan M.; Dunn, Alison C.; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.
2015-09-01
Changes in cell size often accompany multicellular motion in tissue, and cell number density is known to strongly influence collective migration in monolayers. Density fluctuations in other forms of active matter have been explored extensively, but not the potential role of density fluctuations in collective cell migration. Here we investigate collective motion in cell monolayers, focusing on the divergent component of the migration velocity field to probe density fluctuations. We find spatial patterns of diverging and converging cell groups throughout the monolayers, which oscillate in time with a period of approximately 3-4 h. Simultaneous fluorescence measurements of a cytosol dye within the cells show that fluid passes between groups of cells, facilitating these oscillations in cell density. Our findings reveal that cell-cell interactions in monolayers may be mediated by intercellular fluid flow.
Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Coda, S.
2012-09-01
Density fluctuations near the edge of tokamak plasmas can affect the propagation of electron cyclotron (EC) waves. In the present paper, the EC wave propagation in a fluctuating equilibrium is determined using the ray-tracing code C3PO. The evolution of the electron distribution function is calculated self-consistently with the EC wave damping using the 3-D Fokker-Planck solver LUKE. The cumulative effect of fluctuations results in a significant broadening of the current profile combined with a fluctuating power deposition profile. This mechanism improves the simulation of fully non-inductive EC discharges in the TCV tokamaks. Predictive simulations for ITER show that density fluctuations could make the stabilization of NTMs in ITER more challenging.
Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolb, Edward W.; Salopek, David S.; Turner, Michael S.
1990-01-01
The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies.
Density fluctuations from strings and galaxy formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilenkin, A.; Shafi, Q.
1983-01-01
The spectra of density fluctuations caused by strings in a universe dominated either by baryons, neutrinos, or axions are presented. Realistic scenarios for galaxy formation seem possible in all three cases. Examples of grand unified theories which lead to strings with the desired mass scales are given.
Spin-current noise from fluctuation relations
Lim, Jong Soo; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa
2013-12-04
We present fluctuation relations that connect spin-polarized current and noise in mesoscopic conductors. In linear response, these relations are equivalent to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates equilibrium current-current correlations to the linear conductance. More interestingly, in the weakly nonlinear regime of transport, these relations establish a connection between the leading-order rectification spin conductance, the spin noise susceptibility and the third cumulant of spin current fluctuations at equilibrium. Our results are valid even for systems in the presence of magnetic fields and coupled to ferromagnetic electrodes.
Extremal-point densities of interface fluctuations
Toroczkai; Korniss; Das Sarma S; Zia
2000-07-01
We introduce and investigate the stochastic dynamics of the density of local extrema (minima and maxima) of nonequilibrium surface fluctuations. We give a number of analytic results for interface fluctuations described by linear Langevin equations, and for on-lattice, solid-on-solid surface-growth models. We show that, in spite of the nonuniversal character of the quantities studied, their behavior against the variation of the microscopic length scales can present generic features, characteristic of the macroscopic observables of the system. The quantities investigated here provide us with tools that give an unorthodox approach to the dynamics of surface morphologies: a statistical analysis from the short-wavelength end of the Fourier decomposition spectrum. In addition to surface-growth applications, our results can be used to solve the asymptotic scalability problem of massively parallel algorithms for discrete-event simulations, which are extensively used in Monte Carlo simulations on parallel architectures. PMID:11088461
Density fluctuations in premixed turbulent flames
Namazian, M.; Talbot, L.; Robben, F.
1984-03-01
The simultaneous two-point density fluctuations in a V-shaped turbulent flame are measured using a two-point Rayleigh scattering method. A wrinkle laminar flame model with finite instantaneous flame thickness is developed for the flames studied. The reaction front probability density function (pdf) is both measured directly and also calculated from the measured mean density. An analytical expression for this pdf is given which is derived based on a thin flame model. The mean, rms and correlation coefficients are calculated using the finite reaction front thickness model and the results are compared with the experimental data. The pdf of the intermediate states are shown to be due to the reaction front thickness.
Energy density fluctuations in early universe
Guardo, G. L.; Ruggieri, M.; Greco, V.
2014-05-09
The primordial nucleosinthesys of the element can be influenced by the transitions of phase that take place after the Big Bang, such as the QCD transition. In order to study the effect of this phase transition, in this work we compute the time evolution of thermodynamical quantities of the early universe, focusing on temperature and energy density fluctuations, by solving the relevant equations of motion using as input the lattice QCD equation of state to describe the strongly interacting matter in the early universe plasma. We also study the effect of a primordial strong magnetic field by means of a phenomenological equation of state. Our results show that small inhomogeneities of strongly interacting matter in the early Universe are moderately damped during the crossover.
Thermodynamic aspects of nonequilibrium current fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jou, D.; Llebot, J. E.; Casas-Vázquez, J.
1982-06-01
Starting from a macroscopic nonequilibrium entropy, we obtain an expression for the nonequilibrium fluctuations of the electric current in a metallic resistor. Our method goes further than previous theories of irreversible thermodynamics and, as well as microscopic entropies, it leads to results of the same order of magnitude but not completely coincident with the full nonequilibrium corrections obtained from kinetic methods by Tremblay et al.
Suppression of current fluctuations in an intense electron beam
Harris, J. R.; Lewellen, J. W.
2010-10-15
When an intense beam encounters an aperture, the transmitted current depends on the properties of the beam and the transport channel, as well as those of the aperture itself. In some cases, an increase in the incident beam current will be exactly compensated by an increase in the incident beam area, so that the current density at the aperture remains unchanged. When this occurs, the transmitted beam current becomes independent of changes in the incident beam current, providing a passive means for suppressing current fluctuations in the beam. In this article, a key requirement for the existence of this condition is derived. This requirement is shown to be fulfilled in the case of an idealized uniform focusing channel in the small-signal limit, but to be violated when the current fluctuations are not small. Even in this case, the apertured transport system retains the ability to suppress--but not totally eliminate--fluctuations in the transmitted beam current for a wide range of incident beam currents.
Density fluctuations due to Raman forward scattering in quantum plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Punit; Singh, Shiv; Rathore, Nisha Singh
2016-05-01
Density fluctuations due Raman forward scattering (RFS) is analysed in the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with high density quantum plasma. The interaction model is developed using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model which consist of a set of equations describing the transport of charge, density, momentum and energy of a charged particle system interacting through a self-consistent electrostatic potential. The nonlinear source current has been obtained incorporating the effects of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and electron spin. The laser spectrum is strongly modulated by the interaction, showing sidebands at the plasma frequency. Furthermore, as the quiver velocity of the electrons in the high electric field of the laser beam is quit large, various quantum effects are observed which can be attributed to the variation of electron mass with laser intensity.
The Transport of Density Fluctuations Throughout the Heliosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zank, G. P.; Jetha, N.; Hu, Q.; Hunana, P.
2012-01-01
The solar wind is recognized as a turbulent magnetofluid, for which the properties of the turbulent velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are often described by the equations of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). However, low-frequency density turbulence is also ubiquitous. On the basis of a nearly incompressible formulation of MHD in the expanding inhomogeneous solar wind, we derive the transport equation for the variance of the density fluctuations (Rho(exp 2)). The transport equation shows that density fluctuations behave as a passive scalar in the supersonic solar wind. In the absence of sources of density turbulence, such as within 1AU, the variance (Rho(exp 2)) approximates r(exp -4). In the outer heliosphere beyond 1 AU, the shear between fast and slow streams, the propagation of shocks, and the creation of interstellar pickup ions all act as sources of density turbulence. The model density fluctuation variance evolves with heliocentric distance within approximately 300 AU as (Rho(exp 2)) approximates r(exp -3.3) after which it flattens and then slowly increases. This is precisely the radial profile for the density fluctuation variance observed by Voyager 2. Using a different analysis technique, we confirm the radial profile for Rho(exp 2) of Bellamy, Cairns, & Smith using Voyager 2 data. We conclude that a passive scalar description for density fluctuations in the supersonic solar wind can explain the density fluctuation variance observed in both the inner and the outer heliosphere.
Time-dependent density fluctuations in liquid water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waldron, Conor J.; English, Niall J.
2016-04-01
Temporal system-mass-density fluctuation analysis was performed on liquid-water molecular-dynamics simulations at ambient pressure and 200 and 300 K, in three increasingly-large systems. A prominent mode in system-density fluctuations was observed at molecular-librational frequencies of ∼600-800 cm-1 (with pronounced temperature dependence). This mode displayed marked system-size dependence, disappearing for larger systems. Persistent system-density fluctuations were clearly evident at 10-11 cm-1 for all systems and temperatures, with lower-amplitude 'overtones' evident only in larger systems. It is conjectured that this reflects ∼3 ps timescales observed in earlier studies for dissipation of local-density fluctuations in liquid water in this 200-300 K temperature range.
The Phase Coherence of Interstellar Density Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.
2016-08-01
Studies of MHD turbulence often investigate the Fourier power spectrum to provide information on the nature of the turbulence cascade. However, the Fourier power spectrum only contains the Fourier amplitudes and rejects all information regarding the Fourier phases. Here, we investigate the utility of two statistical diagnostics for recovering information on Fourier phases in ISM column density maps: the averaged amplitudes of the bispectrum and the phase coherence index (PCI), a new phase technique for the ISM. We create three-dimensional density and two-dimensional column density maps using a set of simulations of isothermal ideal MHD turbulence with a wide range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. We find that the bispectrum averaged along different angles with respect to either the k 1 or k 2 axis is primarily sensitive to the sonic Mach number while averaging the bispectral amplitudes over different annuli is sensitive to both the sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. The PCI of density suggests that the most correlated phases occur in supersonic sub-Alfvénic turbulence and near the shock scale. This suggests that nonlinear interactions with correlated phases are strongest in shock-dominated regions, in agreement with findings from the solar wind. Our results suggest that the phase information contained in the bispectrum and PCI can be used to find the turbulence parameters in column density maps.
The power associated with density fluctuations and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Intriligator, D. S.
1974-01-01
Direct observations from Pioneer 6 of solar-wind-proton fluctuations have been used to obtain the power spectra associated with solar-wind-proton number density and velocity fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz, extending previous analyses by an order of magnitude at the higher frequencies. The slopes of the power spectra associated with the density fluctuations and the velocity fluctuations are similar and are in agreement with the shape of the power spectra found at the lower frequencies. The power spectra indicate that the power-law density spectrum observed at lower frequencies extends to at least 0.01 Hz. This smooth variation in the spectrum at these frequencies is consistent with previous extrapolations of both spacecraft and interplanetary scintillation observations.
Density fluctuations of polymers in disordered media
Deutsch, Joshua M.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica
2011-03-02
We study self-avoiding random walks in an environment where sites are excluded randomly, in two and three dimensions. For a single polymer chain, we study the statistics of the time averaged monomer density and show that these are well described by multifractal statistics. This is true even far from the percolation transition of the disordered medium. We investigate solutions of chains in a disordered environment and show that the statistics cease to be multifractal beyond the screening length of the solution.
Charge and spin fluctuations in the density functional theory
Gyoerffy, B.L.; Barbieri, A. . H.H. Wills Physics Lab.); Staunton, J.B. . Dept. of Physics); Shelton, W.A.; Stocks, G.M. )
1990-01-01
We introduce a conceptual framework which allow us to treat charge and spin fluctuations about the Local density Approximation (LDA) to the Density Functional Theory (DFT). We illustrate the approach by explicit study of the Disordered Local Moment (DLM) state in Fe above the Curie Temperature {Tc} and the Mott insulating state in MnO. 27 refs., 6 figs.
Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nygârd, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Hyltegren, Kristin; Chodankar, Shirish; Perret, Edith; Buitenhuis, Johan; van der Veen, J. Friso; Kjellander, Roland
2016-01-01
Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.
Density fluctuations of polymers in disordered media.
Deutsch, J M; de la Cruz, M Olvera
2011-03-01
We study self-avoiding random walks in an environment where sites are excluded randomly, in two and three dimensions. For a single polymer chain, we study the statistics of the time averaged monomer density and show that these are well described by multifractal statistics. This is true even far from the percolation transition of the disordered medium. We investigate solutions of chains in a disordered environment and show that the statistics cease to be multifractal beyond the screening length of the solution. PMID:21517516
Topological defects and density fluctuations in collectively moving systems
Schaller, Volker; Bausch, Andreas R.
2013-01-01
Ensembles of collectively moving particles like flocks of birds, bacteria, or filamentous polymers show a broad range of intriguing phenomena, yet seem to obey very similar physical principles. These generic principles have been predicted to lead to characteristic density fluctuations, which are in sharp contrast to normal fluctuations determining the properties of ordered systems in thermal equilibrium. Using high-density motility assays of driven filaments, we characterize here the origin and nature of giant fluctuations that emerge in this class of systems. By showing that these unique statistical properties result from the coupling between particle density and the topology of the velocity field of the particles, we provide insight in the physics of collective motion.
Density fluctuation measurements using beam emission spectroscopy on Heliotron J
Kobayashi, S.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Konoshima, S.; Toushi, K.; Sano, F.; Kado, S.; Oishi, T.; Kagawa, T.; Nagae, Y.; Lee, H. Y.; Minami, T.; Harada, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Estrada, T.; Murakami, S.
2012-10-15
This paper describes the measurement of the density fluctuation using beam emission spectroscopy in Heliotron J, having the non-symmetrical helical-magnetic-axis configuration. In order to optimize the sightlines, the numerical calculations are carried out to estimate the spatial resolution and the observation location. When a tangential neutral beam is used as diagnostic one, suitable sightlines from the newly installed diagnostic port are selected whose spatial resolution {Delta}{rho} is less than {+-}0.07 over the entire plasma region. Modification of the interference filter and the detection systems enables us to measure the radial profile of the density fluctuation. Each of the three coherent modes due to the fast-ion-driven magnetohydrodynamic instabilities has different radial structure of the density fluctuation.
Nearly incompressible fluids: Decay of solar wind density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Shaikh, D.
2008-11-01
The evolution of density fluctuations throughout the solar wind is investigated as the basis of a newly developed theory of nearly incompressible hydrodynamics for an inhomogeneous flow. The model is explored using two-dimensional numerical simulations. The lowest-order density fluctuations (absent in the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory) obey a passive scalar evolution equation with an additional source term that results from coupling to the large-scale inhomogeneous mean density gradient. The importance of this source term is explored, and we estimate analytically an upper bound for the maximum possible effect of a source term for nearly incompressible flows with an inhomogeneous background (static and spherically symmetric). For typical solar wind parameters, we show that this effect is rather weak beyond 0.1 AU and that the density fluctuations can be described sufficiently accurately as a pure passive scalar. Our simulations identify the sensitive dependence of density fluctuation evolution on typical initial length-scale ratio of scalar (density) and velocity fields, an effect known from the theory of passive scalar decay and experimentally measured in grid-generated turbulence. It has long been thought that the variance in the density fluctuations (δρ)2 should decay in the manner analogous to the mean background density, implying that with heliocentric distance (δρ)2 ∝ R-4 throughout the heliosphere. Analysis of plasma data obtained by the Voyager spacecraft by Bellamy et al. (2005) showed that the density fluctuations decay much more slowly than R-4 and the decay rate exhibits a flattening between 20-30 AU and a possible rise afterward. A possible mechanism to reduce the decay rate within 30 AU was suggested to be turbulence driven by stream-stream interactions followed by more dominant pickup ion interactions beyond 30 AU. Here we show that the variance in the density fluctuations as described by the inhomogeneous nearly
MEASUREMENTS OF RAPID DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS IN THE SOLAR WIND
Malaspina, D. M.; Ergun, R. E.; Kellogg, P. J.; Bale, S. D.
2010-03-01
The power spectrum of density fluctuations in the solar wind is inferred by tracking small timescale changes in the electron plasma frequency during periods of strong Langmuir wave activity. STEREO electric field waveform data are used to produce time profiles of plasma density from which the density power spectrum is derived. The power spectra obtained by this method extend the observed frequency range by an order of magnitude while remaining consistent with previous results near a few Hertz. Density power spectral indices are found to be organized by the angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind direction, indicating significant anisotropy in solar wind high-frequency density turbulence.
Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Bergerson, W. F.; Yates, T. F.
2010-10-15
Differential interferometry employs two parallel laser beams with a small spatial offset (less than beam width) and frequency difference (1-2 MHz) using common optics and a single mixer for a heterodyne detection. The differential approach allows measurement of the electron density gradient, its fluctuations, as well as the equilibrium density distribution. This novel interferometry technique is immune to fringe skip errors and is particularly useful in harsh plasma environments. Accurate calibration of the beam spatial offset, accomplished by use of a rotating dielectric wedge, is required to enable broad application of this approach. Differential interferometry has been successfully used on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch plasma to directly measure fluctuation-induced transport along with equilibrium density profile evolution during pellet injection. In addition, by combining differential and conventional interferometry, both linear and nonlinear terms of the electron density fluctuation energy equation can be determined, thereby allowing quantitative investigation of the origin of the density fluctuations. The concept, calibration, and application of differential interferometry are presented.
Beyond Poisson-Boltzmann: Numerical Sampling of Charge Density Fluctuations.
Poitevin, Frédéric; Delarue, Marc; Orland, Henri
2016-07-01
We present a method aimed at sampling charge density fluctuations in Coulomb systems. The derivation follows from a functional integral representation of the partition function in terms of charge density fluctuations. Starting from the mean-field solution given by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, an original approach is proposed to numerically sample fluctuations around it, through the propagation of a Langevin-like stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE). The diffusion tensor of the SPDE can be chosen so as to avoid the numerical complexity linked to long-range Coulomb interactions, effectively rendering the theory completely local. A finite-volume implementation of the SPDE is described, and the approach is illustrated with preliminary results on the study of a system made of two like-charge ions immersed in a bath of counterions. PMID:27075231
Sodium currents and sodium-current fluctuations in rat myelinated nerve fibres
Neumcke, B.; Stämpfli, R.
1982-01-01
1. Sodium currents and fluctuations of sodium currents were measured in myelinated fibres of rat sciatic nerve under voltage clamp at 20 °C. 2. Relaxations of sodium currents during various test potentials were recorded in the presence of 6 nM-TTX in the extracellular solution. The activation of sodium currents at low depolarizations could be described with the m2 formulation. At increasing potentials higher powers of m up to 4 were required. The mid-point of the PNa (E) curve was located near E = -32 mV. Sodium inactivation during various depolarizations developed in two phases. 3. The resistance in series with the nodal membrane was calculated from peak sodium currents without and with 6 nM-TTX in the extracellular solution. The resistance varied between different fibres and ranged between 190 and 620 kΩ. 4. From peak sodium currents at the same mambrane potential without and in the presence of TTX an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 1·6 nM was calculated for TTX binding to sodium channels. 5. The conductance γ and the number N0 (corrected for series-resistance effects) of sodium channels were evaluated from ensemble average values of the mean sodium current and the variance of sodium-current fluctuations at the beginning of a test pulse. The mean values were γ = 14·5 pS, N0 = 21,000 per node. 6. The spectral density of stationary sodium-current fluctuations exhibited two relaxation components whose time constants were comparable to those of sodium activation and inactivation. At low depolarizations the variance produced by inactivation fluctuations was larger than predicted by the m3. h formulation. 7. It is concluded that individual sodium channels of rat and frog nerve have similar gating properties. In mammalian nodes the number of sodium channels is lower and the single-channel conductance higher than in amphibian nodes. PMID:6292404
Suppression of Density Fluctuations in a Quantum Degenerate Fermi Gas
Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-il; Huang Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2010-07-23
We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.
Scattering of radio frequency waves by density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ram, A. K.; Hizanidis, K.; Ioannidis, Z.; Tigelis, I.
2015-11-01
The scattering of radio frequency waves by density fluctuations in magnetized fusion plasmas is studied theoretically and computationally. For coherent fluctuations, such as filaments in the edge region, we use a full-wave model for which the theory is similar to that for Mie scattering of electromagnetic waves by dielectric objects. The filaments are considered to be cylindrical with their axes aligned along the magnetic field. The results from the theoretical model are compared with numerical simulations using COMSOL. The simulations are extended to plasma conditions that are beyond the scope of the theoretical model, e.g., multiple filaments and filaments with density gradients. For incoherent planar fluctuations, which can be either in the core of the plasma or in the edge region, our theory is based on the Kirchhoff approach in tandem with Huygen's principle. The coherent and incoherent fluctuations scatter the incident plane wave, as well as couple some of the power to different plasma waves. The scattered spectrum is affected by the size of the fluctuations, the frequency, and the direction of propagation of the incident wave.
Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations.
Donev, Aleksandar; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-06-21
We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, "Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, "A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law," J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions. PMID:24952531
Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donev, Aleksandar; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-06-01
We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, "Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, "A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law," J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions.
Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations
Donev, Aleksandar Vanden-Eijnden, Eric
2014-06-21
We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, “Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, “A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law,” J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions.
Electronic density fluctuation associated to coherent plasmon excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gervasoni, Juana; Segui, Silvina; Arista, Nestor
2011-10-01
In this work we analyze, in the frame of the coherent states, the fluctuation of the electronic collective modes associated with the wake potential generated by an external particle of charge Ze. This perturbation is described as coherent states of plasmons spatially localized in an average distance of the order of the velocity of the projectile divided by the plasmon frequency of the material. One of the most important features is that in all the cases, for different trajectories of the external particle, and for different structures of the material, the fluctuations are not negligible. In particular, we observe that due to the importance of the surface in nanostructured materials, the fluctuation of density is very sensitive to their geometry and composition, fact that must have taken into account for the nanodevices designs. In this work we analyze, in the frame of the coherent states, the fluctuation of the electronic collective modes associated with the wake potential generated by an external particle of charge Ze. This perturbation is described as coherent states of plasmons spatially localized in an average distance of the order of the velocity of the projectile divided by the plasmon frequency of the material. One of the most important features is that in all the cases, for different trajectories of the external particle, and for different structures of the material, the fluctuations are not negligible. In particular, we observe that due to the importance of the surface in nanostructured materials, the fluctuation of density is very sensitive to their geometry and composition, fact that must have taken into account for the nanodevices designs. Acknowledgements to CNEA and CONICET, Argentina.
Density and temperature of bosons from quantum fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Hua; Giuliani, Gianluca; Bonasera, Aldo
2012-10-01
A method to determine the density and temperature of a system is proposed based on quantum fluctuations typical of bosons in the limit where the temperature T is close to the critical temperature Tc for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at a given density ρ. Quadrupole and particle multiplicity fluctuations using Landau's theory of fluctuations near the critical point are derived. As an example, we apply our approach to heavy ion collisions using the Constrained Molecular Dynamics model (CoMD) which includes the Fermi statistics. The model shows some clusterization into deuteron (d) and alpha (α) clusters but it is not enough to reproduce available experimental data. We propose a modification of the collision term in the approach to include the possibility of α-α collisions. The relevant Bose-Einstein factor in the collision term is properly taken into account. This approach increases the yields of bosons relative to fermions closer to data. Boson fluctuations become larger than 1 as expected. If they are confirmed a new field of research could open up for a mixture of strongly interacting fermions and bosons which requires novel techniques both theoretically and experimentally.
Density fluctuations as an intrinsic mechanism of pressure profile formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vershkov, V. A.; Shelukhin, D. A.; Subbotin, G. F.; Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Danilov, A. V.; Melnikov, A. V.; Eliseev, L. G.; Maltsev, S. G.; Gorbunov, E. P.; Sergeev, D. S.; Krylov, S. V.; Myalton, T. B.; Ryzhakov, D. V.; Trukhin, V. M.; Chistiakov, V. V.; Cherkasov, S. V.
2015-06-01
This article provides new insight into previous and new experimental data regarding behaviour of small-scale density fluctuations in T-10 ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) discharges. The experiments demonstrate the existence of certain peaked-‘marginal’ normalized plasma pressure profiles in both ohmic and discharges with on-axis ECRH. Strong particle confinement degradation occurred when the normalized plasma pressure gradient exceeded this marginal profile gradient (fast density decay in ohmic, ‘density pump out’ in ECRH). The marginal profile could be achieved either with a flat density and peaked temperature profile or vice versa. Minimal turbulence level did not depend on heating power and was observed with the ‘optimal’ pressure profile, which was slightly broader than the marginal profile. The density fluctuations did not significantly contribute to the heat transport but determined particle fluxes to maintain the pressure profile. The experimental density behaviour could be reasonably described with the modified model of canonical profiles, which includes particle confinement deterioration under marginal pressure profile conditions.
Radial evolution of the energy density of solar wind fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.
1995-01-01
On the basis of transport theories appropriate to a radially expanding solar wind, we describe new results for the radial evolution of the energy density in solar wind fluctuations at MHD scales. These models include the effects of 'mixing' and driving as well as the possibility of non-isotropic MHD turbulence. Implications of these results for solar wind heating, cosmic ray diffusion and interstellar pick-up ions will also be addressed.
Nonlinear density fluctuation field theory for large scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Miao, Hai-Xing
2009-05-01
We develop an effective field theory of density fluctuations for a Newtonian self-gravitating N-body system in quasi-equilibrium and apply it to a homogeneous universe with small density fluctuations. Keeping the density fluctuations up to second order, we obtain the nonlinear field equation of 2-pt correlation ξ(r), which contains 3-pt correlation and formal ultra-violet divergences. By the Groth-Peebles hierarchical ansatz and mass renormalization, the equation becomes closed with two new terms beyond the Gaussian approximation, and their coefficients are taken as parameters. The analytic solution is obtained in terms of the hypergeometric functions, which is checked numerically. With one single set of two fixed parameters, the correlation ξ(r) and the corresponding power spectrum P(κ) simultaneously match the results from all the major surveys, such as APM, SDSS, 2dfGRS, and REFLEX. The model gives a unifying understanding of several seemingly unrelated features of large scale structure from a field-theoretical perspective. The theory is worth extending to study the evolution effects in an expanding universe.
Spontaneous density fluctuations in granular flow and traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, Hans J.
It is known that spontaneous density waves appear in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. A similar phenomenon is known from traffic jams on highways. Using numerical simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that the density fluctuations follow a power law spectrum. We also investigate one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. Lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann models reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a non-linear dependence on density or shear rate as it is the case in traffic or granular flow.
Cluster evolution as a probe of primordial density fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.
1993-01-01
Although COBE's detection of large angle microwave background anisotropies fixes the amplitude of density fluctuations on length scales k exp -1 approximately = (300-6000) h(exp -1)Mpc, what is crucial for the level of large scale clustering is the amplitude of density fluctuations on scales (5-50) h(exp -1)Mpc. The level of dynamical clustering is usually parameterized by the size of the mass fluctuations in 8 h exp -1 Mpc spheres, sigma sub 8. For the cold dark matter model, COBE gives sigma sub 8 approximately = 1, while models with extra large scale power give sigma sub 8 approximately = 1/2. The most massive clusters of galaxies (greater than or approximately = 10 exp 15 solar mass) form from rare 'peak patches' found in the initial mass density distribution. Their abundance as a function of redshift is a sensitive probe of the wave number band k(exp -1) approx. (3-8) h(exp -1)Mpc, hence of sigma sub 8, and so cluster evolution can discriminate among models allowed by the COBE results. We use our Hierarchical Peaks Method, which accurately reproduces the results of P3M N-body simulations, to calculate the evolution of cluster x-ray flux counts, luminosity, and temperature functions as a function of sigma sub 8 for CDM models and those with more large scale power. We find that the EMSS and Edge et al. cluster samples support sigma sub 8 in the range from approx. 0.6-0.9, and that models with more large scale power (and hence flatter fluctuation spectra in the cluster regime) fit the x-ray bright end better.
Electrical current from quantum vacuum fluctuations in nanoengines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henriet, Loïc; Jordan, Andrew N.; Le Hur, Karyn
2015-09-01
We theoretically investigate a quantum dot coupled to fermionic (electronic) leads and show how zero-point quantum fluctuations stemming from bosonic environments permit the rectification of the current. The bosonic baths are either external impedances modeled as tunable transmission lines or LC resonators (single-mode cavities). Voltage fluctuations stemming from the external impedances at zero temperature are described through harmonic oscillators (photonlike excitations) producing the quantum vacuum fluctuations. The differing sizes of the zero-point fluctuations of the quantum vacuum break the spatial symmetry of the system if the quantum dot is coupled to two reservoirs or two junctions with different bosonic environments. We consider current rectification and power production when the system is operated as a heat engine in both nonresonant and resonant sequential tunneling cases.
Fluctuating charge-density waves in a cuprate superconductor.
Torchinsky, Darius H; Mahmood, Fahad; Bollinger, Anthony T; Božović, Ivan; Gedik, Nuh
2013-05-01
Cuprate materials hosting high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) also exhibit various forms of charge and spin ordering whose significance is not fully understood. So far, static charge-density waves (CDWs) have been detected by diffraction probes only at particular doping levels or in an applied external field . However, dynamic CDWs may also be present more broadly and their detection, characterization and relationship with HTS remain open problems. Here we present a method based on ultrafast spectroscopy to detect the presence and measure the lifetimes of CDW fluctuations in cuprates. In an underdoped La(1.9)Sr(0.1)CuO4 film (T(c) = 26 K), we observe collective excitations of CDW that persist up to 100 K. This dynamic CDW fluctuates with a characteristic lifetime of 2 ps at T = 5 K that decreases to 0.5 ps at T = 100 K. In contrast, in an optimally doped La(1.84)Sr(0.16)CuO4 film (T(c) = 38.5 K), we detect no signatures of fluctuating CDWs at any temperature, favouring the competition scenario. This work forges a path for studying fluctuating order parameters in various superconductors and other materials. PMID:23435216
Observations of ULF wave related equatorial electrojet and density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Biouele, C. M.; Moldwin, M. B.; Boudouridis, A.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Anad, F.; Pfaff, R. F.; Hartinger, M.
2013-10-01
We report on Pc5 wave related electric field and vertical drift velocity oscillations at the equator as observed by ground magnetometers for an extended period on 9 August 2008. We show that the magnetometer-estimated equatorial E×B drift oscillates with the same frequency as ULF Pc5 waves, creating significant ionospheric density fluctuations. We also show ionospheric density fluctuations during the period when we observed ULF wave activity. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using ground-based magnetometer data from the African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and the South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA). From space, we use magnetic field observations from the GOES 12 and the Communication/Navigation Outage and Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellites. Upstream solar wind conditions are provided by the ACE spacecraft. We find that the wave power observed on the ground also occurs in the upstream solar wind and in the magnetosphere. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere and modulate the equatorial electrodynamics. While no direct drift measurements from equatorial radars exist for the 9 August 2008 event, we used JULIA 150 km radar drift velocities observed on 2 May 2010 and found similar fluctuations with the period of 5-8 min, as a means of an independent confirmation of our magnetometer derived drift dynamics.
Affinity- and topology-dependent bound on current fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo
2016-08-01
We provide a proof of a recently conjectured universal bound on current fluctuations in Markovian processes. This bound establishes a link between the fluctuations of an individual observable current, the cycle affinities driving the system into a non-equilibrium steady state, and the topology of the network. The proof is based on a decomposition of the network into independent cycles with both positive affinity and positive stationary cycle current. This formalism allows for a refinement of the bound for systems in equilibrium or with locally vanishing affinities.
Vallée, R A L; Tomczak, N; Vancso, G J; Kuipers, L; van Hulst, N F
2005-03-15
We investigated the nanometer scale mobility of polymers in the glassy state by monitoring the dynamics of embedded single fluorophores. Recently we reported on fluorescence lifetime fluctuations which reflect the segmental rearrangement dynamics of the polymer in the surroundings of the single molecule probe. Here we focus on the nature of these fluorescence lifetime fluctuations. First the potential role of quenching and molecular conformational changes is discussed. Next we concentrate on the influence of the radiative density of states on the spontaneous emission of individual dye molecules embedded in a polymer. To this end we present a theory connecting the effective-medium theory to a cell-hole model, originating from the Simha-Somcynsky free-volume theory. The relation between the derived distributions of free volume and fluorescence lifetime allows one to determine the number of segments involved in the local rearrangement directly from experimental data. Results for two different polymers as a function of temperature are presented. PMID:15836240
Fluctuation-dissipation theorem density-functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furche, Filipp; Van Voorhis, Troy
2005-04-01
Using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in the context of density-functional theory (DFT), one can derive an exact expression for the ground-state correlation energy in terms of the frequency-dependent density response function. When combined with time-dependent density-functional theory, a new class of density functionals results that use approximations to the exchange-correlation kernel fxc as input. This FDT-DFT scheme holds promise to solve two of the most distressing problems of conventional Kohn-Sham DFT: (i) It leads to correlation energy functionals compatible with exact exchange, and (ii) it naturally includes dispersion. The price is a moderately expensive O(N6) scaling of computational cost and a slower basis set convergence. These general features of FDT-DFT have all been recognized previously. In this paper, we present the first benchmark results for a set of molecules using FDT-DFT beyond the random-phase approximation (RPA)—that is, the first such results with fxc≠0. We show that kernels derived from the adiabatic local-density approximation and other semilocal functionals suffer from an "ultraviolet catastrophe," producing a pair density that diverges at small interparticle distance. Nevertheless, dispersion interactions can be treated accurately if hybrid functionals are employed, as is demonstrated for He2 and HeNe. We outline constraints that future approximations to fxc should satisfy and discuss the prospects of FDT-DFT.
Current fluctuation of electron and hole carriers in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors
Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun Eon; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Young Keun; Shin, Minju
2015-12-14
Two-dimensional materials have outstanding scalability due to their structural and electrical properties for the logic devices. Here, we report the current fluctuation in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs). In order to demonstrate the impact on carrier types, n-type and p-type WSe{sub 2} FETs are fabricated with different work function metals. Each device has similar electrical characteristics except for the threshold voltage. In the low frequency noise analysis, drain current power spectral density (S{sub I}) is inversely proportional to frequency, indicating typical 1/f noise behaviors. The curves of the normalized drain current power spectral density (NS{sub I}) as a function of drain current at the 10 Hz of frequency indicate that our devices follow the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. This means that current fluctuation depends on the trapping-detrapping motion of the charge carriers near the channel interface. No significant difference is observed in the current fluctuation according to the charge carrier type, electrons and holes that occurred in the junction and channel region.
Current fluctuation of electron and hole carriers in multilayer WSe2 field effect transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Kim, Yong Jin; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun Eon; Shin, Minju; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Gyu-Tae
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional materials have outstanding scalability due to their structural and electrical properties for the logic devices. Here, we report the current fluctuation in multilayer WSe2 field effect transistors (FETs). In order to demonstrate the impact on carrier types, n-type and p-type WSe2 FETs are fabricated with different work function metals. Each device has similar electrical characteristics except for the threshold voltage. In the low frequency noise analysis, drain current power spectral density (SI) is inversely proportional to frequency, indicating typical 1/f noise behaviors. The curves of the normalized drain current power spectral density (NSI) as a function of drain current at the 10 Hz of frequency indicate that our devices follow the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. This means that current fluctuation depends on the trapping-detrapping motion of the charge carriers near the channel interface. No significant difference is observed in the current fluctuation according to the charge carrier type, electrons and holes that occurred in the junction and channel region.
Lin, L. Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.
2014-11-15
Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.
Electron density fluctuations in a disturbed ionospheric environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Ganguli, G.
1988-01-01
Electron density fluctuations in the earth's ionosphere can adversely affect SDIO systems which involve electromagnetic wave propagation, e.g., laser beams. This is particularly true for severely disturbed ionospheric conditions produced by high-altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs). This paper briefly describes, in general terms, the HANE environment and the various plasma instabilities which could generate small-scale electron density irregularities. As an example, an analysis of a single instability, the lower-hybrid-drift instability, which is likely to be excited in the ionosphere following a high altitude burst. Both the linear and nonlinear behavior of this instability are discussed. It is shown how these results can be applied to potential SDIO laser systems in a HANE environment.
Fluctuations of a negative ion current in turbulent He-II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, C. W.; Tejwani, M. J.
1984-09-01
The power spectral density of the fluctuations of an ion current through a region of vortex-line turbulence in He-II shows a high frequency asymptotic behavior of f-4 over four orders of magnitude. This frequency dependence is consistent with a generalized description of the motion of ions trapped on vortex-lines.
Random paths and current fluctuations in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics
Gaspard, Pierre
2014-07-15
An overview is given of recent advances in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics about the statistics of random paths and current fluctuations. Although statistics is carried out in space for equilibrium statistical mechanics, statistics is considered in time or spacetime for nonequilibrium systems. In this approach, relationships have been established between nonequilibrium properties such as the transport coefficients, the thermodynamic entropy production, or the affinities, and quantities characterizing the microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics and the chaos or fluctuations it may generate. This overview presents results for classical systems in the escape-rate formalism, stochastic processes, and open quantum systems.
Skewness of steady-state current fluctuations in nonequilibrium systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E. G. D.; Wong, Chun-Shang; Goree, John A.; Feng, Yan
2016-04-01
A skewness of the probability for instantaneous current fluctuations, in a nonequilibrium steady state, is observed experimentally in a dusty plasma. This skewness is attributed to the spatial asymmetry, which is imminent to the nonequilibrium systems due to the external hydrodynamic gradient. Using the modern framework of the large deviation theory, we extend the Onsager-Machlup ansatz for equilibrium fluctuations to systems with a preferred spatial direction, and provide a modulated Gaussian probability distribution, which is tested by simulations. This probability distribution is also of potential interest for other statistical disciplines. Connections with the principles of statistical mechanics, due to Boltzmann and Gibbs, are discussed as well.
Model of m-level low-frequency current fluctuations in metal thermionic cathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghots, S. S.; Bakhtizin, R. Z.
2003-06-01
A new model of low-frequency fluctuations, based on the thermionic current model [Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers, New York, 1961; Introduction to Statistical Radio-Physic. Part 1: Random Processes, Moscow, 1976 (in Russian)], has been designed. The proposed model provides calculation of realization, auto-correlation function (ACF) and power spectral density (PSD) of an m-level quantum signal. This model has allowed to explain the reason of very small magnitude of low-frequency (LF) boundary (10 -4 to 10 -2 Hz) on experimental spectra of LF current fluctuations in a metal thermionic cathodes.
Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER
Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas; Strintzi, Dafni
2009-11-15
The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.
Plasma density fluctuations observed during Space Shuttle Orbiter water releases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pickett, J. S.; D'Angelo, N.; Kurth, W. S.
1989-01-01
Observations by the Langmuir probe on the Plasma Diagnostics Package flown as part of the Spacelab 2 mission in the summer of 1985 show a strong increase in the level of turbulence near the Shuttle Orbiter during operations in which liquid water is released. The spectrum of the plasma density fluctuations peaks at the lowest frequencies measured (a few Hz) and extends up to a few kHz, near the lower hybrid frequency. Two potential mechanisms for generating the plasma turbulence are suggested which are both based on the production of water ions as a result of charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions in the ionosphere. The first mechanism proposed is the ion-plasma instability which arises from the drift of the contaminant with respect to the ambient oxygen ions. The other mechanism proposed is the Ott-Farley instability, which is a result of the ring distribution formed by the 'pick-up' water ions.
Tokuzawa, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ejiri, A.
2010-10-15
In order to measure the internal structure of density fluctuations using a microwave reflectometer, the broadband frequency tunable system, which has the ability of fast and stable hopping operation, has been improved in the Large Helical Device. Simultaneous multipoint measurement is the key issue of this development. For accurate phase measurement, the system utilizes a single sideband modulation technique. Currently, a dual channel heterodyne frequency hopping reflectometer system has been constructed and applied to the Alfven eigenmode measurements.
Simulation of Density Fluctuation Intermittency in Decaying Kinetic Alfvén Wave Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Kurt; Terry, Paul
2006-10-01
We investigate the possibility that the distance-to-source scaling of the temporal width of pulsar signals is caused by intermittency in the turbulent density fluctuations of the interstellar medium. We simulate the small scales near the ion gyroradius where density fluctuations reach equipartition with the turbulent magnetic field in a kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) cascade^1. Examination of decaying KAW turbulence using a fluid model establishes the presence of strong intermittency in the current fluctuation field, and a profile of Gaussian curvature of magnetic field that supports the theoretical prediction that the intermittent current filaments avoid turbulent mixing by refracting turbulent KAW activity away from filaments. The theory predicts correlated structures in electron density. These are observed but their intermittency is less pronounced. The role of parameter values, including the ratio of resistivity to density diffusivity, and the initial spectrum are explored to determine the effect on intermittency.^ ^1P.W. Terry, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2707 (2001).
Scrape-off layer-induced beam density fluctuations and their effect on beam emission spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulton, D.; Marandet, Y.; Tamain, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.
2015-07-01
A statistical model is presented to calculate the magnitude of beam density fluctuations generated by a turbulent scrape-off layer (SOL). It is shown that the SOL can induce neutral beam density fluctuations of a similar magnitude to the plasma density fluctuations in the core, potentially corrupting beam emission spectroscopy measurements. The degree of corruption is quantified by combining simulations of beam and plasma density fluctuations inside a simulated measurement window. A change in pitch angle from the separatrix to the measurement window is found to reduce the effect of beam fluctuations, whose largest effect is to significantly reduce the measured correlation time.
Stochastic protein production and time-dependent current fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorissen, Mieke; Vanderzande, Carlo
2011-03-01
Translation is the cellular process in which ribosomes make proteins from information encoded on messenger RNA. We model this process using driven lattice gases and take into account the finite lifetime of mRNA. The stochastic properties of the translation process can then be determined from the time-dependent current fluctuations of the lattice gas model. We illustrate our ideas with a totally asymmetric exclusion process with extended objects.
Density fluctuations dispersion relationship for a polymer confined to a nanotube
Carpenter, Joshua H.; Karpusenko, Alena; Pan, Junhan; Lim, Shuang Fang; Riehn, Robert
2011-01-01
DNA confined to rigid nanotubes shows density fluctuations around its stretched equilibrium conformation. We report an experimental investigation of the length-scale dependent dynamics of these density fluctuations. We find that for highly elongated molecules a Rouse description is consistent with observations at sufficiently large length scales. We further find that for strongly fluctuating molecules, or short length scales, such Rouse modes cannot be detected due to strong mixing of fluctuation modes. PMID:21772582
Yates, T. F.; Ding, W. X.; Carter, T. A.; Brower, D. L.
2008-10-15
Fluctuations are expected to play an important role in anomalous particle, momentum, and energy transport for magnetic confinement devices. Magnetic and density fluctuations are simultaneously measured using a high-speed laser-based Faraday rotation-interferometry system with a bandwidth of 500 kHz and 8 cm chord spacing. Density fluctuation and magnetic fluctuation profiles are obtained by using a newly developed fitting procedure.
Tokamak Equilibria with Reversed Current Density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martynov, A. A.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Villard, L.
2003-08-01
Observations of nearly zero toroidal current in the central region of tokamaks (the “current hole”) raises the question of the existence of toroidal equilibria with very low or reversed current in the core. The solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation with hollow toroidal current density profile including negative current density in the plasma center are investigated. Solutions of the corresponding eigenvalue problem provide simple examples of such equilibrium configurations. More realistic equilibria with toroidal current density reversal are computed using a new equilibrium problem formulation and computational algorithm which do not assume nested magnetic surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1992-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, and their turbulent fluctuation levels were obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment are compared with previous measurements obtained in the same facility using conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique. Densities and temperatures measured with the current technique agree with the previous surveys to within 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. The fluctuation amplitudes for both variables agree with the measurements obtained using the earlier spectroscopic technique and show evidence of an unsteady, weak shock wave that perturbs the boundary layer.
Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors
Chaudhari, Praveen
2015-06-16
The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.
DENSITY CURRENTS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SECONDARY CLARIFIERS
Density currents form in activated sludge secondary clarifiers because the mixed liquor has a density greater than the treated wastewater in the clarifier. This causes the mixed liquor to plunge to the bottom of the clarifier establishing relatively high velocity currents within ...
Current density and state density in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez Merchancano, S. T.; Paredes Gutiérrez, H.; Zuñiga, J. A.
2016-02-01
We study in this paper the spin-polarized current density components in diluted magnetic semiconductor tunnelling diodes with different sample geometries. We calculate the resonant JxV and the density of states. The differential conductance curves are analyzed as functions of the applied voltage and the magnetic potential strength induced by the magnetic ions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chih-Jen; Panda, Jayanta
2006-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 10 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in a heated air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature, velocity, and density of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 10 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. Power spectral density calculations of temperature, velocity, and density fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are demonstrated for various radial locations in the jet flow at a fixed axial distance from the jet exit plane. Results are compared with constant current anemometry and pitot probe measurements at the same locations.
Spatial density fluctuations and selection effects in galaxy redshift surveys
Labini, Francesco Sylos; Tekhanovich, Daniil; Baryshev, Yurij V. E-mail: d.tekhanovich@spbu.ru
2014-07-01
One of the main problems of observational cosmology is to determine the range in which a reliable measurement of galaxy correlations is possible. This corresponds to determining the shape of the correlation function, its possible evolution with redshift and the size and amplitude of large scale structures. Different selection effects, inevitably entering in any observation, introduce important constraints in the measurement of correlations. In the context of galaxy redshift surveys selection effects can be caused by observational techniques and strategies and by implicit assumptions used in the data analysis. Generally all these effects are taken into account by using pair-counting algorithms to measure two-point correlations. We review these methods stressing that they are based on the a-priori assumption that galaxy distribution is spatially homogeneous inside a given sample. We show that, when this assumption is not satisfied by the data, results of the correlation analysis are affected by finite size effects. In order to quantify these effects, we introduce a new method based on the computation of the gradient of galaxy counts along tiny cylinders. We show, by using artificial homogeneous and inhomogeneous point distributions, that this method identifies redshift dependent selection effects and disentangles them from the presence of large scale density fluctuations. We then apply this new method to several redshift catalogs and we find evidence that galaxy distribution, in those samples where selection effects are small enough, is characterized by power-law correlations with exponent γ=0.9 up to 20 Mpc/h followed by a change of slope that, in the range 20–100 Mpc/h, corresponds to a power-law exponent γ=0.25. Whether a crossover to spatial uniformity occurs at ∼ 100 Mpc/h or larger scales cannot be clarified by the present data.
Hirsch, M.; Hartfuss, H.; Geist, T.; de la Luna, E.
1996-05-01
A broadband heterodyne reflectometer operating in the frequency range 75{endash}110 GHz in extraordinary mode polarization is used at the W7-AS stellarator for both fast density profile determination and density fluctuation studies. The probing signal is amplitude modulated at a frequency 133 MHz using the envelope phase for profile evaluation and the carrier phase to determine the fluctuation information simultaneously. Separate Gaussian beam optics for final signal launch and detection permits a beam waist of about 2 cm at the reflecting layer in the plasma. Amplitude modulated detection is accomplished in the intermediate frequency part by synchronous detection after recovery of the carrier by narrow-band filtering. Voltage controlled solid state oscillators followed by active frequency multiplication allow to scan the full frequency band within less than 1 ms. For typical W7-AS operation the accessible density range is 1{times}10{sup 19} to 6{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} for on axis magnetic field of 2.5 T and 4.5{times}10{sup 19} to 10{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3} for 1.25 T, respectively. The probed radial positions range between 0.2{lt}{ital r}/{ital a}{lt}1.1 depending on plasma conditions ({ital a}{approx_equal}17 cm). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere.
Banakh, V A; Smalikho, I N
2014-09-22
Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere have been studied based on numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation for the complex spectral amplitude of the wave field by the split-step method. It has been shown that under conditions of strong optical turbulence, the relative variance of energy density fluctuations of pulsed radiation of femtosecond duration becomes much less than the relative variance of intensity fluctuations of continuous-wave radiation. The spatial structure of fluctuations of the energy density with a decrease of the pulse duration becomes more large-scale and homogeneous. For shorter pulses the maximal value of the probability density distribution of energy density fluctuations tends to the mean value of the energy density. PMID:25321700
Magnetic-Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport and Density Relaxation in a High-Temperature Plasma
Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Fiksel, G.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.
2009-07-10
The first direct measurement of magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle flux in the core of a high-temperature plasma is reported. Transport occurs due to magnetic field fluctuations associated with global tearing instabilities. The electron particle flux, resulting from the correlated product of electron density and radial magnetic fluctuations, accounts for density profile relaxation during a magnetic reconnection event. The measured particle transport is much larger than that expected for ambipolar particle diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field.
Reflectometer measurements of density fluctuations in tokamak plasmas
Nazikian, R.; Mazzucato, E.
1994-08-01
We show that many anomalous features observed in reflectometer measurements of turbulent fluctuations in tokamak plasmas, such as loss of coherent reflection, large amplitude fluctuations, large angular divergence of the reflected waves and correlation lengths of the order of the free space wavelength of the probe beam, can be explained by modeling the plasma fluctuations as a poloidally varying random phase grating located at the cutoff with a phase magnitude given by 1D geometric optics. A key result of our analysis is that the turbulence spectrum cannot be inferred from phase measurements when large amplitude fluctuations are observed at the receiver. However, the turbulence spectrum may still be recovered from phase measurements by use of imaging optics, and wide angle phase sensitive receivers.
The Fluid Mechanics of Pyroclastic Density Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dufek, Josef
2016-01-01
Pyroclastic density currents are generated in explosive volcanic eruptions when gas and particle mixtures remain denser than the surrounding atmosphere. These mobile currents have a diversity of flow regimes, from energetic granular flows to turbulent suspensions. Given their hazardous nature, much of our understanding of the internal dynamics of these currents has been explored through mathematical and computational models. This review discusses the anatomy of these currents and their phenomenology and places these observations in the context of forces driving the currents. All aspects of the current dynamics are influenced by multiphase interactions, and the study of these currents offers insight into a high-energy end-member of multiphase flow. At low concentration, momentum transfer is dominated by particle-gas drag. At higher concentration, particle collisions, friction, and gas pore pressure act to redistribute momentum. This review examines end-member theoretical models for dilute and concentrated flow and then considers insight gained from multiphase simulations of pyroclastic density currents.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basu, Sunanda; Mackenzie, E.; Basu, Santimay; Fougere, P. F.; Maynard, N. C.; Coley, W. R.; Hanson, W. B.; Winningham, J. D.; Sugiura, M.; Hoegy, W. R.
1988-01-01
A detailed study is presented of simultaneous density and electric field fluctuation spectra over a large-scale length range seen in association with large structured convective plasma flows, field-aligned currents, and particle precipitation at high latitudes. The data were obtained for two Dynamics Explorer 2 orbits at two different altitudes within the F region and the topside ionosphere. The observations are compared with results of nonlinear simulations of shear flow-driven instabilities and predictions based on two-dimensional turbulence arguments, with particular reference to the Kelvin-Helmholtz process.
Lower thermospheric density fluctuations during the time period of Typhoon Dinah
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Johnson, D. L.; Chen, A. J.; Liu, J. M.
1989-01-01
High frequency Doppler sounder arrays were used to study the thermospheric density fluctuations caused by Typhoon Dinah in August, 1987. The results show that the maximum density fluctuations caused by the typhoon at altitudes of 150 to 350 km were close to + or - 30 percent deviation from the quiet background. The time-dependent density fluctuations were in phase with the horizontal phase velocity of major gravity waves excited by the storm. It is suggested that the study demonstrates the use of HF Doppler sounder measurement of gravity waves, horizontal wind velocity in the direction of gravity wave propagation, and density perturbations at thermospheric heights.
Density fluctuations and dielectric constant of water in low and high density liquid states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lascaris, Erik; Zhang, Cui; Galli, Giulia A.; Franzese, Giancarlo; Stanley, H. Eugene
2012-02-01
The hypothesis of a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) in the phase diagram of water, though first published many years ago, still remains the subject of a heated debate. According to this hypothesis there exists a critical point near T 244 K, and P 215 MPa, located at the end of a coexistence line between a high density liquid (HDL) and a low density liquid state (LDL). The LLCP lies below the homogenous nucleation temperature of water and it has so far remained inaccessible to experiments. We study a model of water exhibiting a liquid-liquid phase transition (that is a liquid interacting through the ST2 potential) and investigate the properties of dipolar fluctuations as a function of density, in the HDL and LDL. We find an interesting correlation between the macroscopic dielectric constants and the densities of the two liquids in the vicinity of the critical point, and we discuss possible implications for measurements close to the region where the LLCP may be located.
Additivity, density fluctuations, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for active Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborti, Subhadip; Mishra, Shradha; Pradhan, Punyabrata
2016-05-01
Using an additivity property, we study particle-number fluctuations in a system of interacting self-propelled particles, called active Brownian particles (ABPs), which consists of repulsive disks with random self-propulsion velocities. From a fluctuation-response relation, a direct consequence of additivity, we formulate a thermodynamic theory which captures the previously observed features of nonequilibrium phase transition in the ABPs from a homogeneous fluid phase to an inhomogeneous phase of coexisting gas and liquid. We substantiate the predictions of additivity by analytically calculating the subsystem particle-number distributions in the homogeneous fluid phase away from criticality where analytically obtained distributions are compatible with simulations in the ABPs.
Burnout current density of bismuth nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornelius, T. W.; Picht, O.; Müller, S.; Neumann, R.; Völklein, F.; Karim, S.; Duan, J. L.
2008-05-01
Single bismuth nanowires with diameters ranging from 100nmto1μm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density the wires are able to carry was investigated by ramping up the current until failure occurred. It increases by three to four orders of magnitude for nanowires embedded in the template compared to bulk bismuth and rises with diminishing diameter. Simulations show that the wires are heated up electrically to the melting temperature. Since the surface-to-volume ratio rises with diminishing diameter, thinner wires dissipate the heat more efficiently to the surrounding polymer matrix and, thus, can tolerate larger current densities.
Electrodialysis simulation to achieve optimum current density
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrmann, Cal C.
1993-01-01
Electrodialysis is used to remove salts from waste or other water streams, to yield a concentrated brine and a substatially deionized product water. During the electrodialysis process, the boundary layer adjacent to the ion selective membrane can become depleted of ions, resulting in severe pH changes sometimes accompanied by precipitation, and power losses, by a process known as water splitting. In order to optimize the applied electric current density, to achieve maximum deionization without exceeding the limiting current at any point along the path, a simulation program has been created to plot ion concentrations and fluxes, and cell current densities and voltages along the electrodialysis path. A means for tapering the current density along the path is recommended.
Effects of turbulent fluctuations on density measurements with microwave reflectometry in tokamaks
Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.
1994-08-01
The short-scale turbulence of tokamak plasmas has deleterious effects on the measurement of plasma density with microwave reflectometry. Density fluctuations may lead to large amplitude and phase modulations of the reflected wave which can impair the measurement of the wave group delay, and hence the determination of the plasma density. The role played by different types of turbulent fluctuations and the limitations imposed on microwave reflectometry are discussed in this paper.
The generation of rapid solar flare hard X-ray and microwave fluctuations in current sheets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holman, Gordon D.
1986-01-01
The generation of rapid fluctuations, or spikes, in hard X-ray and microwave bursts via the disruption of electron heating and acceleration in current sheets is studied. It is found that 20 msec hard X-ray fluctuations can be thermally generated in a current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is highly anomalous, the plasma density in the emitting region is relatively high, and the volume of the emitting region is greater than that of the current sheet. A specific mechanism for producing the fluctuations, involving heating in the presence of ion acoustic turbulence and a constant driving electric field, and interruption of the heating by a strong two-stream instability, is discussed. Variations upon this mechanism are also discussed. This mechanism also modulates electron acceleration, as required for the microwave spike emission. If the hard X-ray emission at energies less than approx. 1000 keV is nonthermal bremsstrahlung, the coherent modulation of electron acceleration in a large number of current sheets is required.
Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10.
Yoshikawa, M; Negishi, S; Shima, Y; Hojo, H; Mase, A; Kogi, Y; Imai, T
2010-10-01
Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10. PMID:21033869
Density fluctuations in thermal inflation and non-Gaussianity
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp
2009-12-01
We consider primordial fluctuations in thermal inflation scenario. Since the thermal inflation drives about 10 e-folds after the standard inflation, the time of horizon-exit during inflation corresponding to the present observational scale shifts toward the end of inflation. It generally makes the primordial power spectrum more deviated from a scale-invariant one and hence renders some models inconsistent with observations. We present a mechanism of generating the primordial curvature perturbation at the end of thermal inflation utilizing a fluctuating coupling of a flaton field with the fields in thermal bath. We show that, by adopting the mechanism, some inflation models can be liberated even in the presence of the thermal inflation. We also discuss non-Gaussianity in the mechanism and show that large non-Gaussianity can be generated in this scenario.
Density Fluctuations Upstream and Downstream of Interplanetary Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L.; Chen, C. H. K.; Zastenker, G. N.
2016-03-01
Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream-stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.
Suppression of Interfacial Current Fluctuation in MoTe2 Transistors with Different Dielectrics.
Ji, Hyunjin; Joo, Min-Kyu; Yun, Yoojoo; Park, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Gwanmu; Moon, Byoung Hee; Yi, Hojoon; Suh, Dongseok; Lim, Seong Chu
2016-07-27
For transition metal dichalcogenides, the fluctuation of the channel current due to charged impurities is attributed to a large surface area and a thickness of a few nanometers. To investigate current variance at the interface of transistors, we obtain the low-frequency (LF) noise features of MoTe2 multilayer field-effect transistors with different dielectric environments. The LF noise properties are analyzed using the combined carrier mobility and carrier number fluctuation model which is additionally parametrized with an interfacial Coulomb-scattering parameter (α) that varies as a function of the accumulated carrier density (Nacc) and the location of the active channel layer of MoTe2. Our model shows good agreement with the current power spectral density (PSD) of MoTe2 devices from a low to high current range and indicates that the parameter α exhibits a stronger dependence on Nacc with an exponent -γ of -1.18 to approximately -1.64 for MoTe2 devices, compared with -0.5 for Si devices. The raised Coulomb scattering of the carriers, particularly for a low-current regime, is considered to be caused by the unique traits of layered semiconductors such as interlayer coupling and the charge distribution strongly affected by the device structure under a gate bias, which completely change the charge screening effect in MoTe2 multilayer. Comprehensive static and LF noise analyses of MoTe2 devices with our combined model reveal that a chemical-vapor deposited h-BN monolayer underneath MoTe2 channel and the Al2O3 passivation layer have a dissimilar contribution to the reduction of current fluctuation. The three-fold enhanced carrier mobility due to the h-BN is from the weakened carrier scattering at the gate dielectric interface and the additional 30% increase in carrier mobility by Al2O3 passivation is due to the reduced interface traps. PMID:27362461
Measurements of ICRF wave-induced density fluctuations in LHD by a microwave reflectometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ejiri, A.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujii, N.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H.; Kamio, S.; Seki, R.; Mutoh, T.; Yamada, I.; Takase, Y.
2015-12-01
An O-mode microwave reflectometer has been developed to measure ICRF wave induced electron density fluctuations in LHD plasmas. The system has two probing frequencies (28.8 and 30.1 GHz) to measure two spatial points simultaneously. The rms density fluctuation levels are typically 0.01%. The linearity between the measured density fluctuation amplitude and the square root of the RF power is discussed. The decay length of the RF field was estimated to be 1 to 7 m under the operational condition investigated. A typical spatial distance between the two measurement points corresponding to the two probing frequencies is a few centimeters, and the fluctuation amplitudes at the two points are similar in amplitude. The phase difference between the two fluctuations show in-phase relationship on average. Out-of phase relationships, which implies a standing wave structure, are often observed when the wave absorption is expected to be poor.
Muneoka, Hitoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo
2015-04-01
Experimentally observed electrical breakdown voltages (U(B)) in high-pressure gases and supercritical fluids deviate from classical theories for low-pressure gas discharges, and the underlying breakdown mechanisms for the high-density fluids making the U(B) differ from those in the classical discharges are not yet well understood. In this study, we developed an electrical breakdown model for the high-density fluids taking into account the effects of density fluctuations and ion-enhanced field emission (IEFE). The model is based on the concept that a critical anomaly of the U(B) (local minimum near the critical point) is caused by long mean free electron path leading to a large first Townsend coefficient in locally low-density spatial domains generated by the density fluctuations. Also, a modified Paschen's curve considering the effect of the IEFE on the second Townsend coefficient was used to reproduce the U(B) curve in the high-density fluids. Calculations based on the novel model showed good agreements with the experimentally measured U(B) even near the critical point and it also suggested that the critical anomaly of the U(B) depends on the gap distance. These results indicate that both the density fluctuations and the IEFE have to be considered to comprehend the plasmas in high-density and density-fluctuating fluids. PMID:25974500
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muneoka, Hitoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo
2015-04-01
Experimentally observed electrical breakdown voltages (UB) in high-pressure gases and supercritical fluids deviate from classical theories for low-pressure gas discharges, and the underlying breakdown mechanisms for the high-density fluids making the UB differ from those in the classical discharges are not yet well understood. In this study, we developed an electrical breakdown model for the high-density fluids taking into account the effects of density fluctuations and ion-enhanced field emission (IEFE). The model is based on the concept that a critical anomaly of the UB (local minimum near the critical point) is caused by long mean free electron path leading to a large first Townsend coefficient in locally low-density spatial domains generated by the density fluctuations. Also, a modified Paschen's curve considering the effect of the IEFE on the second Townsend coefficient was used to reproduce the UB curve in the high-density fluids. Calculations based on the novel model showed good agreements with the experimentally measured UB even near the critical point and it also suggested that the critical anomaly of the UB depends on the gap distance. These results indicate that both the density fluctuations and the IEFE have to be considered to comprehend the plasmas in high-density and density-fluctuating fluids.
Silva, Filipe da; Pinto, Martin Campos; Després, Bruno; Heuraux, Stéphane
2015-08-15
This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikawa, Shohei; Tokumasu, Takashi; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Nagashima, Hiroki; Tsuda, Shin-Ichi
2014-11-01
In this study, we evaluated the density fluctuation of diatomic fluids around the critical point. We simulated the density fluctuation of 2-Center-Lennard-Jones (2CLJ) fluids, which have molecular elongations as one of the parameters, by Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. We focused on the effect of anisotropy of diatomic fluid on fluctuation structure to evaluate the principle of corresponding state of the density fluctuation. As the evaluation methods, we calculated the dispersion of number of molecules at certain domain and also computed static structure factor. We calculated those values of diatomic fluids which have various molecular elongations to compare the difference of fluctuation structure of fluids. As results, the principle of corresponding state is satisfied because there is no significant difference in the fluctuation structure between fluids which have shorter molecular elongation and longer one. Hereafter, we are going to calculate the intermediate scattering function and dynamic structure factor to evaluate the principle of corresponding state of the density fluctuation in detail. This study has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (23360380) and the Collaborative Research Project of the Institute of Fluids Science, Tohoku University.
Magnetic Fluctuations in Pair-Density-Wave Superconductors.
Christensen, Morten H; Jacobsen, Henrik; Maier, Thomas A; Andersen, Brian M
2016-04-22
Pair-density-wave superconductivity constitutes a novel electronic condensate proposed to be realized in certain unconventional superconductors. Establishing its potential existence is important for our fundamental understanding of superconductivity in correlated materials. Here we compute the dynamical magnetic susceptibility in the presence of a pair-density-wave ordered state and study its fingerprints on the spin-wave spectrum including the neutron resonance. In contrast to the standard case of d-wave superconductivity, we show that the pair-density-wave phase exhibits neither a spin gap nor a magnetic resonance peak, in agreement with a recent neutron scattering experiment on underdoped La_{1.905}Ba_{0.095}CuO_{4} [Z. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177002 (2014)]. PMID:27152819
Magnetic Fluctuations in Pair-Density-Wave Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Morten H.; Jacobsen, Henrik; Maier, Thomas A.; Andersen, Brian M.
2016-04-01
Pair-density-wave superconductivity constitutes a novel electronic condensate proposed to be realized in certain unconventional superconductors. Establishing its potential existence is important for our fundamental understanding of superconductivity in correlated materials. Here we compute the dynamical magnetic susceptibility in the presence of a pair-density-wave ordered state and study its fingerprints on the spin-wave spectrum including the neutron resonance. In contrast to the standard case of d -wave superconductivity, we show that the pair-density-wave phase exhibits neither a spin gap nor a magnetic resonance peak, in agreement with a recent neutron scattering experiment on underdoped La1.905 Ba0.095 CuO4 [Z. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177002 (2014)].
Modeling of Fluctuating Mass Flux in Variable Density Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Mongia, H. C.; Nikjooy, M.
1983-01-01
The approach solves for both Reynolds and Favre averaged quantities and calculates the scalar pdf. Turbulent models used to close the governing equations are formulated to account for complex mixing and variable density effects. In addition, turbulent mass diffusivities are not assumed to be in constant proportion to turbulent momentum diffusivities. The governing equations are solved by a combination of finite-difference technique and Monte-Carlo simulation. Some preliminary results on simple variable density shear flows are presented. The differences between these results and those obtained using conventional models are discussed.
Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density
Mints, R.G.; Kogan, V.G.
1997-04-01
The magnetic-field dependence of the critical current I{sub c}(H) is considered for a short Josephson junction with the critical current density j{sub c} alternating along the tunnel contact. Two model cases, periodic and randomly alternating j{sub c}, are treated in detail. Recent experimental data on I{sub c}(H) for grain-boundary Josephson junctions in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, Richard; Armstrong, J. W.; Bird, M. K.; Patzold, M.
1995-01-01
The first measurements of fractional electron density fluctuations delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e), where delta-n(sub e) is rms electron density fluctuation and n(sub e) is the mean electron density, have been carried out inside 40 R(sub 0) using 1991 Ulysses dual-frequency S- and X-band (13 and 3.6 cm) ranging (time delay) measurements. In the frequency band of approximately 6 x 10(exp -5) - 8 x 10(exp -4) Hz (periods of 20 min to 5 hr), delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e) varies from a high near 20% in the slow wind close to the neutral line to a low of 1% in the fast wind far from the neutral line. For spatial wavenumber K approximately = 1.4 x 10(exp -6)/km (period of 5 hr at 250 km/s), delta-n(sub e)/n(sub e) is essentially independent of heliocentric distance over 0.03-1.0 AU in the slow wind; it is a factor of 30 lower in the fast wind than in the slow wind inside 0.1 AU, but exhibits dramatic growth with heliocentric distance inside 0.3 AU. This latter result reinforces current views of the evolution of MHD turbulence and the association of Alfven waves with high speed streams based on in situ fields and particles measurements beyond 0.3 AU. That regions of enhanced density fluctuations near or above the neutral line coincide with regions of enhanced density confirms previous conclusions that they are the interplanetary manifestation of the heliospheric current sheet and extensions of coronal streamers. While the regions of enhanced density fluctuations lie within those of enhanced density, they have boundaries that are distinctly more abrupt, suggesting the separation of plasma of different nature and origin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikawa, Shohei; Tokumasu, Takashi; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Tsuda, Shinichi
2014-03-01
In this study, we investigated the principle of corresponding state on the density fluctuation around the critical points of non-polar diatomic fluids. We performed the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation for the extraction of the fluctuation structure around the critical points of 2-Center-Lennard-Jones (2CLJ) fluids, which have anisotropy depending on the molecular elongations. We estimated the fluctuation structure by two methods. One is the evaluation of the dispersion of the number of molecules at a certain domain, and the other is the calculation of static structure factor. As a result, in 2CLJ fluids that have shorter molecular elongations comparatively, the principle of corresponding state is satisfied because of the small differences in the fluctuation structure extracted in the present two methods. In addition, paying attention to the time variation of the density fluctuation, we confirmed that the characteristic frequency of the fluctuation is clearly lower around the critical point compared with the other conditions. Hereafter, we are going to calculate a dynamic structure factor, further investigating the principle of corresponding state of density fluctuation.
Ion Density Fluctuations at the Kinetic Scale: Experimental Investigations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Nemec, F.; Chen, C. H. K.
2014-12-01
It is well established that the solar wind undergoes a heating along its path through the solar system but the sources of this heating are still under debate. Among them, a gradual dissipation of large scale discontinuities toward smaller scales and, eventually, to the heat via turbulent cascades is frequently discussed.The contribution presents the analysis of ion density variations that are measured onboard the Spektr R spacecraft with a unique time resolution of 32 ms. The analysis reveals that (1) the mean frequency spectrum of density variations in the MHD range (up to about 0.05 Hz) is steeper than usually discussed -5/3, and (2) this part is followed by a plateau that is terminated near proton kinetic scales. We study the dependence of the slopes of different parts of the frequency spectra on background plasma parameters and discuss the results in view of present theories of Alfvenic turbulence in the solar wind.
High Speed Digital Holography for Density and Fluctuation Measurements
ThomasJr., C. E.; Baylor, Larry R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.
2010-01-01
The state of the art in electro-optics has advanced to the point where digital holographic acquisition of wavefronts is now possible. Holographic wavefront acquisition provides the phase of the wavefront at every measurement point. This can be done with accuracy on the order of a thousandth of a wavelength, given that there is sufficient care in the design of the system. At wave frequencies which are much greater than the plasma frequency, the plasma index of refraction is linearly proportional to the electron density and wavelength, and the measurement of the phase of a wavefront passing through the plasma gives the chord-integrated density directly for all points measured on the wavefront. High-speed infrared cameras up to 40 000 fps at 644 pixels with resolutions up to 640512 pixels suitable for use with a CO2 laser are readily available, if expensive.
High speed digital holography for density and fluctuation measurements (invited)
Thomas, C. E. Jr.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R. P.; Kaita, R.
2010-10-15
The state of the art in electro-optics has advanced to the point where digital holographic acquisition of wavefronts is now possible. Holographic wavefront acquisition provides the phase of the wavefront at every measurement point. This can be done with accuracy on the order of a thousandth of a wavelength, given that there is sufficient care in the design of the system. At wave frequencies which are much greater than the plasma frequency, the plasma index of refraction is linearly proportional to the electron density and wavelength, and the measurement of the phase of a wavefront passing through the plasma gives the chord-integrated density directly for all points measured on the wavefront. High-speed infrared cameras (up to {approx}40 000 fps at {approx}64x4 pixels) with resolutions up to 640x512 pixels suitable for use with a CO{sub 2} laser are readily available, if expensive.
Dynamical Selection of the Primordial Density Fluctuation Amplitude
Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2011-02-25
In inflationary models, the predicted amplitude of primordial density perturbations Q is much larger than the observed value ({approx}10{sup -5}) for natural choices of parameters. To explain the requisite exponential fine-tuning, anthropic selection is often invoked, especially in cases where microphysics is expected to produce a complex energy landscape. By contrast, we find examples of ekpyrotic models based on heterotic M theory for which dynamical selection naturally favors the observed value of Q.
Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind
Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2014-05-01
We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.
Density fluctuation measurement using motional Stark effect optics in JT-60U
Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oikawa, T.; Asakura, N.; Takechi, M.
2006-10-15
The multichannel motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system in JT-60U has been upgraded to measure density fluctuation profile. A 16-channel fast-sampling digitizer has been added in order to measure photomultiplier-tube signals at measurement frequency of 0.5-1 MHz. The new system works as a MSE and beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Spatially resolved electron density fluctuation profile measurement in various operation regimes is presented. In the core plasma, density fluctuation induced by rotation of tearing mode islands was observed. Temporal evolution of the fluctuation frequency agrees with that measured by Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal mode numbers: 2 and 1, respectively). The phases of the fluctuations on either side of the q=2 surface are inverted, which is consistent with electron cyclotron emission. These measurements show that the density fluctuation is caused by a rotating magnetic island structure induced by the tearing mode. In the scrape-off layer of a H-mode plasma with edge-localized-mode (ELM), i. e., ELMy H-mode outward propagation of strong intermittent emission corresponding to ELM crash was also observed. The propagation velocity is 0.69-2.2 km/s along the MSE measurement points, the time lag and distance between adjacent channels being 67{+-}35 {mu}s and 70 mm, respectively.
Density fluctuation measurement using motional Stark effect optics in JT-60U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oyama, N.; Isayama, A.; Matsunaga, G.; Oikawa, T.; Asakura, N.; Takechi, M.
2006-10-01
The multichannel motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system in JT-60U has been upgraded to measure density fluctuation profile. A 16-channel fast-sampling digitizer has been added in order to measure photomultiplier-tube signals at measurement frequency of 0.5-1MHz. The new system works as a MSE and beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Spatially resolved electron density fluctuation profile measurement in various operation regimes is presented. In the core plasma, density fluctuation induced by rotation of tearing mode islands was observed. Temporal evolution of the fluctuation frequency agrees with that measured by Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal mode numbers: 2 and 1, respectively). The phases of the fluctuations on either side of the q =2 surface are inverted, which is consistent with electron cyclotron emission. These measurements show that the density fluctuation is caused by a rotating magnetic island structure induced by the tearing mode. In the scrape-off layer of a H-mode plasma with edge-localized-mode (ELM), i. e., ELMy H-mode outward propagation of strong intermittent emission corresponding to ELM crash was also observed. The propagation velocity is 0.69-2.2km/s along the MSE measurement points, the time lag and distance between adjacent channels being 67±35μs and 70mm, respectively.
Slow dynamics of ablated zone observed around the density fluctuation ridge of fluid medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koizumi, Masato; Kulinich, Sergei A.; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Ito, Tsuyohito
2013-12-01
In-situ shadowgraph images were recorded to follow and study processes during laser ablation of Sn targets in pressurized carbon dioxide medium. The dynamics of the low-density region with a bubble-like structure forming by ablated Sn in CO2 at different pressures was studied. The lifetime of the region is shown to be pressure-dependent, being the longest near the density fluctuation ridge of the medium, i.e., at 8.8 MPa at 40 °C. The present work is to report on the slower dynamics of ablated zone near the medium density fluctuation maximum, which can be used in nanoparticle synthesis and processing.
Particle-density fluctuations and universality in the conserved stochastic sandpile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickman, Ronald; da Cunha, S. D.
2015-08-01
We examine fluctuations in particle density in the restricted-height, conserved stochastic sandpile (CSS). In this and related models, the global particle density is a temperaturelike control parameter. Thus local fluctuations in this density correspond to disorder; if this disorder is a relevant perturbation of directed percolation (DP), then the CSS should exhibit non-DP critical behavior. We analyze the scaling of the variance Vℓ of the number of particles in regions of ℓd sites in extensive simulations of the quasistationary state in one and two dimensions. Our results, combined with a Harris-like argument for the relevance of particle-density fluctuations, strongly suggest that conserved stochastic sandpiles belong to a universality class distinct from that of DP.
Particle-density fluctuations and universality in the conserved stochastic sandpile.
Dickman, Ronald; da Cunha, S D
2015-08-01
We examine fluctuations in particle density in the restricted-height, conserved stochastic sandpile (CSS). In this and related models, the global particle density is a temperaturelike control parameter. Thus local fluctuations in this density correspond to disorder; if this disorder is a relevant perturbation of directed percolation (DP), then the CSS should exhibit non-DP critical behavior. We analyze the scaling of the variance Vℓ of the number of particles in regions of ℓd sites in extensive simulations of the quasistationary state in one and two dimensions. Our results, combined with a Harris-like argument for the relevance of particle-density fluctuations, strongly suggest that conserved stochastic sandpiles belong to a universality class distinct from that of DP. PMID:26382328
Steadiness in Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, B. J.
2015-12-01
Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are often unsteady, as evidenced by direct observations of dilute lobes or jets emerging from the fronts of larger currents and by deposits that indicate transient transport and depositional regimes. We used scaled experiments to investigate unsteadiness in dilute PDCs. The experimental currents were run in an 8.5x6.1x2.6 m tank and comprised heated or ambient temperature 20-μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air. Experiments were scaled such that densimetric and thermal Richardson numbers, Froude number, and particle Stokes and settling numbers were dynamically similar to natural dilute PDCs. Although the experiment Reynolds numbers are substantially lower than those of natural PDCs, the experiments are fully turbulent. Experiments were observed with video and high-speed cameras and high-frequency thermocouples. Currents were generated with total eruption durations of 100 s. Unsteadiness in source conditions was produced by interrupting supply for intervals, t, with durations of 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 s in the experimental runs at 35 and 70 s. When t<2.5 s, the currents are indistinguishable from currents with steady supply. In runs with t=2.5-5 s, the individual pulses comprising each current are readily apparent near the source, but decay with distance downstream until the currents appear as single (e.g. steady) flows. In experiments with t=10 s, the 3 pulses comprising each run never merge and the currents remain unsteady. Comparison with the integral turbulent timescale, τ, and current velocity, U, show that unsteadiness is persistent when t>3<τ but currents are steady when t<τ. In currents with 3τ>t>τ, unsteadiness decays such that at a distance of ~4Ut, the currents are again steady. Applied to natural dilute PDCs, our results suggest that currents and their resulting deposits, will only show evidence of unsteadiness if they are disrupted for many seconds and those breaks may "heal" over distances of 100s of meters.
Analytic Approach to the Cloud-in-Cloud Problem for Non-Gaussian Density Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Nagashima, Masahiro
2002-07-01
We revisit the cloud-in-cloud problem for non-Gaussian density fluctuations. We show that the extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism for non-Gaussian fluctuations has a flaw in describing mass functions regardless of the type of filtering. As an example, we consider non-Gaussian models in which density fluctuations at a point obey a χ2 distribution with ν degrees of freedom. We find that mass functions predicted by using an integral formula proposed by Jedamzik and Yano, Nagashima, and Gouda, properly taking into account correlation between objects at different scales, deviate from those predicted by using the EPS formalism, especially for strongly non-Gaussian fluctuations. Our results for the mass function at large mass scales are consistent with those by Avelino and Viana obtained from numerical simulations.
A Robust High Current Density Electron Gun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mako, F.; Peter, W.; Shiloh, J.; Len, L. K.
1996-11-01
Proof-of-principle experiments are proposed to validate a new concept for a robust, high-current density Pierce electron gun (RPG) for use in klystrons and high brightness electron sources for accelerators. This rugged, long-life electron gun avoids the difficulties associated with plasma cathodes, thermionic emitters, and field emission cathodes. The RPG concept employs the emission of secondary electrons in a transmission mode as opposed to the conventional mode of reflection, i.e., electrons exit from the back face of a thin negative electron affinity (NEA) material, and in the same direction as the incident beam. Current amplification through one stage of a NEA material could be over 50 times. The amplification is accomplished in one or more stages consisting of one primary emitter and one or more secondary emitters. The primary emitter is a low current density robust emitter (e.g., thoriated tungsten). The secondary emitters are thin NEA electrodes which emit secondary electrons in the same direction as the incident beam. Specific application is targeted for a klystron gun to be used by SLAC with a cold cathode at 30-40 amps/cm^2 output from the secondary emission stage, a ~2 μs pulse length, and ~200 pulses/second.
Goswami, Varun R; Getz, Lowell L; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Ozgul, Arpat; Oli, Madan K
2011-08-01
Although ecologists have long recognized that certain mammalian species exhibit high-amplitude, often multiannual, fluctuations in abundance, their causes have remained poorly understood and the subject of intense debate. A key contention has been the relative role of density-dependent and density-independent processes in governing population dynamics. We applied capture-mark-recapture analysis to 25 years of monthly trapping data from a fluctuating prairie vole Microtus ochrogaster population in Illinois, USA, to estimate realized population growth rates and associated vital rates (survival and recruitment) and modeled them as a function of vole density and density-independent climatic variation. We also tested for phase dependence and seasonality in the effects of the above processes. Variation in the realized population growth rate was best explained by phase-specific changes in vole density lagged by one month and mean monthly temperatures with no time lags. The underlying vital rates, survival and recruitment, were influenced by the additive and interactive effects of phase, vole density, and mean monthly temperatures. Our results are consistent with the observation that large-scale population fluctuations are characterized by phase-specific changes in demographic and physiological characteristics. Our findings also support the growing realization that the interaction between climatic variables and density-dependent factors may be a widespread phenomenon, and they suggest that the direction and magnitude of such interactive effects may be phase specific. We conclude that density-dependent and density-independent climatic variables work in tandem during each phase of density fluctuations to drive the dynamics of fluctuating populations. PMID:21905434
Linear magnetoresistance in n-type silicon due to doping density fluctuations
Porter, Nicholas A.; Marrows, Christopher H.
2012-01-01
We report the observation of a large linear magnetoresistance in the ohmic regime in commonplace commercial n-type silicon wafer with a P dopant density of (1.4±0.1) ×1015 cm–3, and report measurements of it in the temperature range 30–200 K. It arises from the deformation of current paths, which causes a part of the Hall field to be detected at the voltage probes. In short, wide samples we found linear magnetoresistance as large as 4707% in an 8 tesla field at 35 K. Sample geometry effects like these are commonplace in commercial Hall sensors. However, we found that the effect persisted in long, thin samples where the macroscopic current flow should be uniform between the voltage probes: we observed a magnetoresistance of 445% under the same conditions as above. We interpret this result as arising due to spatial fluctuations in the donor density, in the spirit of the Herring model. PMID:22876340
Spectral density of velocity fluctuations under switching field conditions in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iglesias, J. M.; Martín, M. J.; Pascual, E.; Rengel, R.
2016-05-01
In this paper we present an analysis of the velocity fluctuations during transient regimes arising from an abrupt shift of the electric field in bulk monolayer graphene. For this purpose a material Ensemble Monte Carlo simulator is used to examine these fluctuations by means of the transient autocorrelation function and power spectral density. The evolution of these quantities as well as the non-stationary phenomena taking place during the transients is explained with a microscopic approach.
Salimullah, M.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.
2007-11-15
Dust charge fluctuation instability in a dusty plasma in the presence of equilibrium density and external/ambient static magnetic field inhomogeneities has been examined in detail. The plasma ions acquire a uniform drift speed due to the equilibrium magnetic field gradient. For strongly magnetized electrons and ions, the dust charge fluctuation effect is contributed dominantly by ion dynamics. This results in an instability when the ion drift speed exceeds the perpendicular phase velocity of the waves under consideration.
High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V
Werner, S.A.; Fawcett, E.; Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G.
1992-11-01
Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.
High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V
Werner, S.A. . Dept. of Physics); Fawcett, E. . Dept. of Physics); Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G. )
1992-01-01
Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.
Maps of the little bangs through energy density and temperature fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Sumit; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nandi, Basanta K.; Nayak, Tapan K.
2016-01-01
Heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies are often referred to as little bangs. We propose for the first time to map the heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, similar to the maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation, using fluctuations of energy density and temperature in small phase space bins. We study the evolution of fluctuations at each stage of the collision using an event-by-event hydrodynamic framework. We demonstrate the feasibility of making fluctuation maps from experimental data and its usefulness in extracting considerable information regarding the early stages of the collision and its evolution.
Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Dingemanse, Niels J
2016-04-01
Heritable personality variation is subject to fluctuating selection in many animal taxa; a major unresolved question is why this is the case. A parsimonious explanation must involve a general ecological process: a likely candidate is the omnipresent spatiotemporal variation in conspecific density. We tested whether spatiotemporal variation in density within and among nest box plots of great tits (Parus major) predicted variation in selection acting on exploratory behaviour (n = 48 episodes of selection). We found viability selection favouring faster explorers under lower densities but slower explorers under higher densities. Temporal variation in local density represented the primary factor explaining personality-related variation in viability selection. Importantly, birds did not anticipate changes in selection by means of adaptive density-dependent plasticity. This study thereby provides an unprecedented example of the key importance of the interplay between fluctuating selection and lack of adaptive behavioural plasticity in maintaining animal personality variation in the wild. PMID:26929092
Effect of Heating on Turbulent Density Fluctuations and Noise Generation From High Speed Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Elam, Kristie A.; Mielke, Amy F.; Eck, Dennis G.
2004-01-01
Heated jets in a wide range of temperature ratios (TR), and acoustic Mach numbers (Ma) were investigated experimentally using far field microphones and a molecular Rayleigh scattering technique. The latter provided density fluctuations measurements. Two sets of operating conditions were considered: (1) TR was varied between 0.84 and 2.7 while Ma was fixed at 0.9; (2) Ma was varied between 0.6 and 1.48, while TR was fixed at 2.27. The implementation of the molecular Rayleigh scattering technique required dust removal and usage of a hydrogen combustor to avoid soot particles. Time averaged density measurements in the first set of data showed differences in the peripheral density shear layers between the unheated and heated jets. The nozzle exit shear layer showed increased turbulence level with increased plume temperature. Nevertheless, further downstream the density fluctuations spectra are found to be nearly identical for all Mach number and temperature ratio conditions. To determine noise sources a correlation study between plume density fluctuations and far field sound pressure fluctuations was conducted. For all jets the core region beyond the end of the potential flow was found to be the strongest noise source. Except for an isothermal jet, the correlations did not differ significantly with increasing temperature ratio. The isothermal jet created little density fluctuations. Although the far field noise from this jet did not show any exceptional trend, the flow-sound correlations were very low. This indicated that the density fluctuations only acted as a "tracer parameter" for the noise sources.
Schlickeiser, R.
2012-01-15
A systematic calculation of the electromagnetic properties (Poynting vector, electromagnetic energy, and pressure) of the collective transverse fluctuations in unmagnetized plasmas with velocity-anisotropic plasma particle distributions functions is presented. Time-averaged electromagnetic properties for monochromatic weakly damped wave-like fluctuations and space-averaged electromagnetic properties for monochromatic weakly propagating and aperiodic fluctuations are calculated. For aperiodic fluctuations, the Poynting vector as well as the sum of the space-averaged electric and magnetic field energy densities vanish. However, aperiodic fluctuations possess a positive pressure given by its magnetic energy density. This finite pressure density p{sub a} of aperiodic fluctuations has important consequences for the dynamics of cosmic unmagnetized plasmas such as the intergalactic medium after reionization. Adopting the standard cosmological evolution model, we show that this additional pressure changes the expansion law of the universe leading to further deceleration. Negative vacuum pressure counterbalances this deceleration to an accelerating universe provided that the negative vacuum pressure is greater than 1.5p{sub a}, which we estimate to be of the order 2.1 {center_dot} 10{sup -16} dyn cm{sup -2}.
Density Fluctuation in Asymmetric Nozzle Plumes and Correlation with Far Field Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2001-01-01
A comparative experimental study of air density fluctuations in the unheated plumes of a circular, 4-tabbed-circular, chevron-circular and 10-lobed rectangular nozzles was performed at a fixed Mach number of 0.95 using a recently developed Rayleigh scattering based technique. Subsequently, the flow density fluctuations are cross-correlated with the far field sound pressure fluctuations to determine sources for acoustics emission. The nearly identical noise spectra from the baseline circular and the chevron nozzles are found to be in agreement with the similarity in spreading, turbulence fluctuations, and flow-sound correlations measured in the plumes. The lobed nozzle produced the least low frequency noise, in agreement with the weakest overall density fluctuations and flow-sound correlation. The tabbed nozzle took an intermediate position in the hierarchy of noise generation, intensity of turbulent fluctuation and flow-sound correlation. Some of the features in the 4-tabbed nozzle are found to be explainable in terms of splitting of the jet in a central large core and 4 side jetlets.
Bettelheim, F A; Paunovic, M
1979-01-01
Light-scattering intensities in the I parallel and I+ mode were obtained on thin sections of three human lenses. Random density and orientation fluctuation theory, without cross correlation, was employed to evaluate light-scattering parameters. Both the density correlation distances, as well as the orientation correlation distances, were related to structural elements in the lens fiber cell that have been observed by other investigators with different techniques. The magnitude of these fluctuations were evaluated, and it was demonstrated that the density fluctuations are the main contributors to light scattering in normal human lenses. Changes in the light-scattering parameters were evaluated as a function of position within the lens. The changes observed agree with the biochemical data in the literature that reflects that an aging process occurs when one proceeds from the periphery of the lens toward the center. PMID:262413
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higdon, J. C.
1984-10-01
A model of anisotropic magnetogasdynamic turbulence is developed in order to investigate quantitatively a turbulent fluid origin for the small spatial scale density fluctuations observed in 1981 by Armstrong, Cordes, and Rickett in the interstellar medium. The anisotropy at these small spatial scales results from the presence of a large-scale approximately uniform magnetic field that is a sum of the steady-state galactic magnetic field and the large-scale turbulent magnetic field fluctuations. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted to be two-dimensional isobaric entropy variations with oppositely directed gradients in temperature and density projected transverse to the local approximately uniform magnetic field. Three possible sites - cloud shell H II regions, diffuse H II regions produced by O stars, and the tenuous intercloud medium - are investigated as possible locations for turbulent flows.
Control of density fluctuations in atomistic-continuum simulations of dense liquids.
Kotsalis, E M; Walther, J H; Koumoutsakos, P
2007-07-01
We present a control algorithm to eliminate spurious density fluctuations associated with the coupling of atomistic and continuum descriptions for dense liquids. A Schwartz domain decomposition algorithm is employed to couple molecular dynamics for the simulation of the atomistic system with a continuum solver for the simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The lack of periodic boundary conditions in the molecular dynamics simulations hinders the proper accounting for the virial pressure leading to spurious density fluctuations at the continuum-atomistic interface. An ad hoc boundary force is usually employed to remedy this situation. We propose the calculation of this boundary force using a control algorithm that explicitly cancels the density fluctuations. The results demonstrate that the present approach outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. The conceptual and algorithmic simplicity of the method makes it suitable for any type of coupling between atomistic and continuum descriptions of dense fluids. PMID:17677596
Investigation of Density Fluctuations in Supersonic Free Jets and Correlation with Generated Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.
2000-01-01
The air density fluctuations in the plumes of fully-expanded, unheated free jets were investigated experimentally using a Rayleigh scattering based technique. The point measuring technique used a continuous wave laser, fiber-optic transmission and photon counting electronics. The radial and centerline profiles of time-averaged density and root-mean-square density fluctuation provided a comparative description of jet growth. To measure density fluctuation spectra a two-Photomultiplier tube technique was used. Crosscorrelation between the two PMT signals significantly reduced electronic shot noise contribution. Turbulent density fluctuations occurring up to a Strouhal number (Sr) of 2.5 were resolved. A remarkable feature of density spectra, obtained from the same locations of jets in 0.5< M<1.5 range, is a constant Strouhal frequency for peak fluctuations. A detailed survey at Mach numbers M = 0.95, 1.4 and 1.8 showed that, in general, distribution of various Strouhal frequency fluctuations remained similar for the three jets. In spite of the similarity in the flow fluctuation the noise characteristics were found to be significantly different. Spark schlieren photographs and near field microphone measurements confirmed that the eddy Mach wave radiation was present in Mach 1.8 jet, and was absent in Mach 0.95 jet. To measure correlation between the flow and the far field sound pressure fluctuations, a microphone was kept at a distance of 50 diameters, 30 deg. to the flow direction, and the laser probe volume was moved from point to point in the flow. The density fluctuations in the peripheral shear layer of Mach 1.8 jet showed significant correlation up to the measurement limit of Sr = 2.5, while for Mach 0.95 jet no correlation was measured. Along the centerline measurable correlation was found from the end of the potential core and at the low frequency range (Sr less than 0.5). Usually the normalized correlation values increased with an increase of the jet Mach
Tsikata, S.; Pisarev, V.; Gresillon, D. M.; Lemoine, N.
2009-03-15
Kinetic models and numerical simulations of E-vectorxB-vector plasma discharges predict microfluctuations at the scales of the electron cyclotron drift radius and the ion plasma frequency. With the help of a specially designed collective scattering device, the first experimental observations of small-scale electron density fluctuations inside the plasma volume are obtained, and observed in the expected ranges of spatial and time scales. The anisotropy, dispersion relations, form factor, amplitude, and spatial distribution of these electron density fluctuations are described and compared to theoretical expectations.
Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L
2010-04-01
Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems. PMID:20481672
Comparison of density fluctuation measurements between O-mode and X-mode reflectometry on Tore Supra
Gerbaud, T.; Clairet, F.; Sabot, R.; Sirinelli, A.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Vermare, L.
2006-10-15
Reflectometry is a versatile diagnostic which allows both electronic density profile and density fluctuation measurements. Fast sweep heterodyne technique is particularly suitable for precise measurement of the phase of the reflected signal, which records the story of the wave propagation through the plasma up to the cutoff layer, including the density fluctuations. The present article exhibits a comparison of the density fluctuation radial profile measurements between fast sweep frequency technique, both using O-mode and X-mode polarizations, and fixed frequency technique. The correct agreement between all measurements of the relative values of the density fluctuation profiles reinforces the validity of the approximations used.
Gas density fluctuations in the Perseus Cluster: clumping factor and velocity power spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arévalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Allen, S. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W. R.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.
2015-07-01
X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core of the Perseus Cluster are analysed, using deep observations with the Chandra observatory. The amplitude of gas density fluctuations on different scales is measured in a set of radial annuli. It varies from 7 to 12 per cent on scales of ˜10-30 kpc within radii of 30-220 kpc from the cluster centre. Using a statistical linear relation between the observed amplitude of density fluctuations and predicted velocity, the characteristic velocity of gas motions on each scale is calculated. The typical amplitudes of the velocity outside the central 30 kpc region are 90-140 km s-1 on ˜20-30 kpc scales and 70-100 km s-1 on smaller scales ˜7-10 kpc. The velocity power spectrum (PS) is consistent with cascade of turbulence and its slope is in a broad agreement with the slope for canonical Kolmogorov turbulence. The gas clumping factor estimated from the PS of the density fluctuations is lower than 7-8 per cent for radii ˜30-220 kpc from the centre, leading to a density bias of less than 3-4 per cent in the cluster core. Uncertainties of the analysis are examined and discussed. Future measurements of the gas velocities with the Astro-H, Athena and Smart-X observatories will directly measure the gas density-velocity perturbation relation and further reduce systematic uncertainties in this analysis.
Characterisation of SOL density fluctuations in front of the LHCD PAM launcher in Tore
Oosako, T.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Achard, J.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.
2011-12-23
The density fluctuations, modified by Lower Hybrid Wave (LHW), is analyzed in Tore Supra with reference to the injected LHW power, density and the gap between LCFS (Last Closed Flux Surface) and the PAM (passive-active-multijunction) launcher. The density fluctuations are measured with RF probes installed at the PAM launcher front. A density scan at nominal toroidal field (3.8 T) shows that the fluctuations rate stays nearly constant ({approx}50%) for
Inversion methods for the measurements of MHD-like density fluctuations by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malaquias, A.; Henriques, R. B.; Nedzelsky, I. S.
2015-09-01
We report here on the recent developments in the deconvolution of the path integral effects for the study of MHD pressure-like fluctuations measured by Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic. In particular, we develop improved methods to account for and remove the path integral effect on the determination of the ionization generation factors, including the double ionization of the primary beam. We test the method using the HIBD simulation code which computes the real beam trajectories and attenuations due to electron impact ionization for any selected synthetic profiles of plasma current, plasma potential, electron temperature and density. Simulations have shown the numerical method to be highly effective in ISTTOK within an overall accuracy of a few percent (< 3%). The method here presented can effectively reduce the path integral effects and may serve as the basis to develop improved retrieving techniques for plasma devices working even in higher density ranges. The method is applied to retrieve the time evolution and spatial structure of m=1 and m=2 modes. The 2D MHD mode-like structure is reconstructed by means of a spatial projection of all 1D measurements obtained during one full rotation of the mode. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics
Yang, Shanshan; Cai, Suxian; Zheng, Fang; Wu, Yunfeng; Liu, Kaizhi; Wu, Meihong; Zou, Quan; Chen, Jian
2014-10-01
This article applies advanced signal processing and computational methods to study the subtle fluctuations in knee joint vibroarthrographic (VAG) signals. Two new features are extracted to characterize the fluctuations of VAG signals. The fractal scaling index parameter is computed using the detrended fluctuation analysis algorithm to describe the fluctuations associated with intrinsic correlations in the VAG signal. The averaged envelope amplitude feature measures the difference between the upper and lower envelopes averaged over an entire VAG signal. Statistical analysis with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicates that both of the fractal scaling index (p=0.0001) and averaged envelope amplitude (p=0.0001) features are significantly different between the normal and pathological signal groups. The bivariate Gaussian kernels are utilized for modeling the densities of normal and pathological signals in the two-dimensional feature space. Based on the feature densities estimated, the Bayesian decision rule makes better signal classifications than the least-squares support vector machine, with the overall classification accuracy of 88% and the area of 0.957 under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Such VAG signal classification results are better than those reported in the state-of-the-art literature. The fluctuation features of VAG signals developed in the present study can provide useful information on the pathological conditions of degenerative knee joints. Classification results demonstrate the effectiveness of the kernel feature density modeling method for computer-aided VAG signal analysis. PMID:25096412
Current Density Scaling in Electrochemical Flow Capacitors
Hoyt, NC; Wainright, JS; Savinell, RF
2015-02-18
Electrochemical flow capacitors (EFCs) are a recently developed energy storage technology. One of the principal performance metrics of an EFC is the steady-state electrical current density that it can accept or deliver. Numerical models exist to predict this performance for specific cases, but here we present a study of how the current varies with respect to the applied cell voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, and slurry properties using scaling laws. The scaling relationships are confirmed by numerical simulations and then subsequently by comparison to results from symmetric cell EFC experiments. This modeling approach permits the delimitation of three distinct operational regimes dependent on the values of two nondimensional combinations of the pertinent variables (specifically, a capacitive Graetz number and a conductivity ratio). Lastly, the models and nondimensional numbers are used to provide design guidance in terms of criteria for proper EFC operation. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.
Nanoscale density fluctuations in swift heavy ion irradiated amorphous SiO{sub 2}
Kluth, P.; Giulian, R.; Ridgway, M. C.; Pakarinen, O. H.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Byrne, A. P.
2011-12-15
We report on the observation of nanoscale density fluctuations in 2 {mu}m thick amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers irradiated with 185 MeV Au ions. At high fluences, in excess of approximately 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, where the surface is completely covered by ion tracks, synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering measurements reveal the existence of a steady state of density fluctuations. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, this steady state is consistent with an ion track ''annihilation'' process, where high-density regions generated in the periphery of new tracks fill in low-density regions located at the center of existing tracks.
Mukamel, Shaul
2005-02-01
Time-ordered superoperators are used to develop a unified description of nonlinear density response and spontaneous fluctuations of many-electron systems. The pth-order density response functions are decomposed into 2{sup p+1} non-causal Liouville space pathways. Individual pathways are symmetric to the interchange of their space, time, and superoperator indices and can thus be calculated as functional derivatives. Other combinations of these pathways represent spontaneous density fluctuations and the response of such fluctuations to an external field. The resolution of the causality paradox of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is shown to be intimately connected with the nonretarded nature of fluctuations.
Superstatistical view of stress-induced electric current fluctuations in rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter
2014-11-01
The concepts of non-extensive statistical physics, which have recently been applied in the study of complex systems, have been used here to analyse stress-induced electric current data in triaxially deformed Carrara marble samples. The fluctuations of electric current appear to follow a q-Gaussian distribution, with the PDF exhibiting ‘fat tails’. The application of super-statistical techniques to these electric current fluctuations shows to good approximation that they can be described by local Gaussian processes with fluctuating variance.
Langmuir turbulence driven by beams in solar wind plasmas with long wavelength density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.
2016-03-01
The self-consistent evolution of Langmuir turbulence generated by electron beams in solar wind plasmas with density inhomogeneities is calculated by numerical simulations based on a 1D Hamiltonian model. It is shown, owing to numerical simulations performed with parameters relevant to type III solar bursts' conditions at 1 AU, that the presence of long-wavelength random density fluctuations of sufficiently large average level crucially modifies the well-known process of beam interaction with Langmuir waves in homogeneous plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saravia, Eduardo
A Heavy Ion Beam Probe Diagnostic System with dual energy analyzers was used to measure potential, pressure and density fluctuations in RENTOR. The main advantage of the system is the capability to measure directly the correlation length of the fluctuations by varying the primary beam injection conditions. Broadband density and potential spectra obtained in these experiments are characteristics of turbulent plasmas, with most of the power concentrated in the low part of the spectrum, below 100 kHz. The spectra fall off as f^{rm -n}, where the power-index n is approximately 3.5. The density fluctuation levels n/n are about 10% and they are independent of the plasma radius. Pressure and density fluctuations in RENTOR scale approximately like 3rho_ {rm s}/L_{rm p}~ 0.06, except for points near the plasma center. This is in agreement with the scaling observed in other small and medium tokamak experiments. Strong potential fluctuations were measured all across the plasma with levels nearly ten times larger than the corresponding n/n values. These results agree with the prediction that e~{phi }/k_{rm B}T _{rm e} > n/n in the resistive-MHD rippling mode theory developed by Thayer and Diamond. An rms value for the poloidal correlation length l_{rm c} ~sigma_{rm k}^ {-1} of about 5 mm is obtained for sample points in the plasma interior. The total particle flux across the field lines due to electrostatic fluctuations was estimated at 3 times 10 ^{19} particles/sec, which yields an estimate for the particle confinement time of tau_{rm p}~ 2 ms. Similarly, the total heat loss rate due to fluctuations was estimated at 12 times 10 ^{20} eV/sec, which gives an energy confinement time of tau_{rm E}~ 1 ms. The results clearly indicate that the particle and energy losses in RENTOR due to electrostatic fluctuations of the plasma account for a very significant part of the limited plasma confinement. The results of the experiments performed in this thesis have demonstrated the
Short-term variations in gene flow related to cyclic density fluctuations in the common vole.
Gauffre, Bertrand; Berthier, Karine; Inchausti, Pablo; Chaval, Yannick; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Cosson, Jean-François
2014-07-01
In highly fluctuating populations with complex social systems, genetic patterns are likely to vary in space and time due to demographic and behavioural processes. Cyclic rodents are extreme examples of demographically instable populations that often exhibit strong social organization. In such populations, kin structure and spacing behaviour may vary with density fluctuations and impact both the composition and spatial structure of genetic diversity. In this study, we analysed the multiannual genetic structure of a cyclic rodent, Microtus arvalis, using a sample of 875 individuals trapped over three complete cycles (from 1999 to 2007) and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. We tested the predictions that genetic diversity and gene flow intensity vary with density fluctuations. We found evidences for both spatial scale-dependant variations in genetic diversity and higher gene flow during high density. Moreover, investigation of sex-specific relatedness patterns revealed that, although dispersal is biased toward males in this species, distances moved by both sexes were lengthened during high density. Altogether, these results suggest that an increase in migration with density allows to restore the local loss of genetic diversity occurring during low density. We then postulate that this change in migration results from local competition, which enhances female colonization of empty spaces and male dispersal among colonies. PMID:24888708
Density fluctuations in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas as observed in free expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gawryluk, Krzysztof; Gajda, Mariusz; Brewczyk, Mirosław
2015-10-01
We study, within the framework of the classical-field approximation, the density correlations of a weakly interacting expanding Bose gas for the whole range of temperatures across the Bose-Einstein condensation threshold. We focus on elongated quasi-one-dimensional systems where there is a huge discrepancy between the existing theory and experimental results [A. Perrin et al., Nat. Phys. 8, 195 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2212]. We find that the density correlation function is not reduced for temperatures below the critical one as it is predicted for the ideal gas or for a weakly interacting system within the Bogoliubov approximation. This behavior of the density correlations agrees with the above-mentioned experiment with the elongated system. Although the system was much larger than that studied here, we believe that the behavior of the density correlation function found there is quite generic. Our theoretical study indicates also large density fluctuations in the trap in the quasicondensate regime where only phase fluctuations were expected. We argue that the enhanced density fluctuations can originate in the presence of interactions in the system, or more precisely in the presence of spontaneous dark solitons in the elongated gas at thermal equilibrium.
Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madi, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K. Y.
2015-12-01
The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations.
Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster
Wu, Huan Liu, Hui Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren
2015-12-15
The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.
Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Huan; Liu, Hui; Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren
2015-12-01
The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.
Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport and Density Relaxation in a Stochastic Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brower, David L.
2009-11-01
Particle transport and density relaxation associated with electromagnetic fluctuations is an unresolved problem of long standing in plasma physics and magnetic fusion research. In toroidal fusion plasmas, magnetic field fluctuations can arise spontaneously from global MHD instabilities, e.g., tearing fluctuations associated with sawtooth oscillations. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) have also been externally imposed to mitigate the effect of edge localized modes (ELMs) by locally enhancing edge transport in Tokamaks. Understanding stochastic-field-driven transport processes is thus not only of basic science interest but possibly critical to ELM control in ITER. We report on the first direct measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced particle transport in the core of a high-temperature plasma, the MST reversed field pinch. Measurements focus on the sawtooth crash, when the stochastic field resulting from tearing reconnection is strongest, and are accomplished using newly developed, laser-based, differential interferometry and Faraday rotation techniques. The measured electron particle flux, resulting from the correlated product of electron density (δn) and radial magnetic fluctuations (δbr), accounts for density profile relaxation during these magnetic reconnection events. Surprisingly, the electron diffusion is 30 times larger than estimates of ambipolarity-constrained transport in a stochastic magnetic field. A significant ion flux associated with parallel ion flow velocity fluctuations (δvi,//) correlated with δbr appears responsible for transport larger than predictions from the quasi-linear test particle model. These results indicate the need for improved understanding of particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. Work performed in collaboration with W.X. Ding, W.F. Bergerson, T.F. Yates, UCLA; D.J. Den Hartog, G. Fiksel, S.C. Prager, J.S. Sarff and the MST Group, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Reid, M. T. H.; Jin, Weiliang; Johnson, Steven G.; White, Jacob K.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.
2015-10-01
We describe a fluctuating volume-current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that extends our recent work on heat exchange and Casimir interactions between arbitrarily shaped homogeneous bodies [A. W. Rodriguez, M. T. H. Reid, and S. G. Johnson, Phys. Rev. B 88, 054305 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.054305] to situations involving incandescence and luminescence problems, including thermal radiation, heat transfer, Casimir forces, spontaneous emission, fluorescence, and Raman scattering, in inhomogeneous media. Unlike previous scattering formulations based on field and/or surface unknowns, our work exploits powerful techniques from the volume-integral equation (VIE) method, in which electromagnetic scattering is described in terms of volumetric, current unknowns throughout the bodies. The resulting trace formulas (boxed equations) involve products of well-studied VIE matrices and describe power and momentum transfer between objects with spatially varying material properties and fluctuation characteristics. We demonstrate that thanks to the low-rank properties of the associated matrices, these formulas are susceptible to fast-trace computations based on iterative methods, making practical calculations tractable. We apply our techniques to study thermal radiation, heat transfer, and fluorescence in complicated geometries, checking our method against established techniques best suited for homogeneous bodies as well as applying it to obtain predictions of radiation from complex bodies with spatially varying permittivities and/or temperature profiles.
Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Andersen, Hans C.
2014-01-01
A diagrammatic kinetic theory of density fluctuations in simple dense liquids at long times, described in Paper I, is applied to a high density Lennard-Jones liquid to calculate various equilibrium time correlation functions. The calculation starts from the general theory and makes two approximations. (1) The general diagrammatic expression for an irreducible memory kernel is approximated using a one-loop approximation. (2) The generalized Enskog projected propagator, which is required for the calculation, is approximated using a simple kinetic model for the hard sphere memory function. The coherent intermediate scattering function (CISF), the longitudinal current correlation function (LCCF), the transverse current correlation function (TCCF), the incoherent intermediate scattering function (IISF), and the incoherent longitudinal current correlation function are calculated and compared with simulation results for the Lennard-Jones liquid at high density. The approximate theoretical results are in good agreement with the simulation data for the IISF for all wave vectors studied and for the CISF and LCCF for large wave vector. The approximate results are in poor agreement with the simulation data for the CISF, LCCF, and TCCF for small wave vectors because these functions are strongly affected by hydrodynamic fluctuations at small wave vector that are not well described by the simple kinetic model used. The possible implications of this approach for the study of liquids are discussed.
Two Point Space-Time Correlation of Density Fluctuations Measured in High Velocity Free Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta
2006-01-01
Two-point space-time correlations of air density fluctuations in unheated, fully-expanded free jets at Mach numbers M(sub j) = 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8 were measured using a Rayleigh scattering based diagnostic technique. The molecular scattered light from two small probe volumes of 1.03 mm length was measured for a completely non-intrusive means of determining the turbulent density fluctuations. The time series of density fluctuations were analyzed to estimate the integral length scale L in a moving frame of reference and the convective Mach number M(sub c) at different narrow Strouhal frequency (St) bands. It was observed that M(sub c) and the normalized moving frame length scale L*St/D, where D is the jet diameter, increased with Strouhal frequency before leveling off at the highest resolved frequency. Significant differences were observed between data obtained from the lip shear layer and the centerline of the jet. The wave number frequency transform of the correlation data demonstrated progressive increase in the radiative part of turbulence fluctuations with increasing jet Mach number.
The nucleation process and the roles of structure and density fluctuations in supercooled liquid Fe
Li, Rong; Wu, Yongquan Xiao, Junjiang
2014-01-21
We observed homogeneous nucleation process of supercooled liquid Fe by molecular dynamics simulations. Using bond-orientational order parameters together with Voronoi polyhedron method, we characterized local structure, calculated the volume of Voronoi polyhedra of atoms and identified the structure and density fluctuations. We monitored the formation of nucleus and analyzed its inner structure. The birth and growth of the pre-nucleus and nucleus are accompanied with aggregating and disaggregating processes in the time scale of femtosecond. Only the initial solid-like clusters (ISLC), ranging from 1 to 7 atoms, pop up directly from liquid. The relation between the logarithm of number of clusters and the cluster size was found to be linear for ISLCs and was observed to be parabolic for all solid-like clusters (SLC) due to aggregating and disaggregating effects. The nucleus and pre-nuclei mainly consist of body centered cubic (BCC) and hexagonal close packed atoms, while the BCC atoms tend to be located at the surface. Medium-range structure fluctuations induce the birth of ISLCs, benefit the aggregation of embryos and remarkably promote the nucleation. But density fluctuations contribute little to nucleation. The lifetime of most icosahedral-like atoms (ICO) is shorter than 0.7 ps. No obvious relationship was found between structure/density fluctuations and the appearance of ICO atoms.
Intermediate-k density and magnetic field fluctuations during inter-ELM pedestal evolution in MAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillesheim, J. C.; Dickinson, D.; Roach, C. M.; Saarelma, S.; Scannell, R.; Kirk, A.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.; Meyer, H.; the MAST Team
2016-01-01
Measurements of local density and magnetic field fluctuations near the pedestal top, conditionally averaged over the edge localized mode (ELM) cycle, have been made in Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). A Doppler backscattering (DBS) system installed at MAST was used to measure intermediate-k ≤ft({{k}\\bot}{ρi}≈ 3~\\text{to}~4\\right) density fluctuations at the top of the pedestal. A novel diagnostic technique combining DBS with cross-polarization scattering (CP-DBS) enabled magnetic field fluctuations to also be locally measured at similar wave numbers. Polarization isolation and other effects for CP-DBS are discussed. Both measurements were used in a series of high-β ≤ft({βn}≈ 4.0\\right. –4.5) MAST plasmas with large type-I ELMs with an ∼ 8~\\text{to}~9~\\text{ms} period where microtearing modes (MTMs) had been predicted to be unstable in similar conditions (Dickinson 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 135002). The measured density fluctuation level increased by a factor of about 4 between 2 and 4 ms after the ELM, which was correlated with the recovery of the density profile while the temperature pedestal height continued to increase slowly. Magnetic field fluctuations showed different temporal behaviors, slowly increasing throughout the ELM cycle as the local β increased. Linear GS2 calculations show both MTM and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes unstable at similar wave numbers as the measurements (although with more overlap between ETG wave numbers and diagnostic spectral resolution) at the top of the pedestal, along with kinetic ballooning modes are unstable lower in the pedestal (at larger wavelengths). The inferred ratio of fluctuation levels from experiment was ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 1/20 . The comparable ratios from GS2 were ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.4 for the MTM and ≤ft(δ B/B\\right)/≤ft(δ n/n\\right)≈ 0.02 for the ETG. Both the experimental wave number range and the fluctuation
Characterising density fluctuations in liquid yttria aluminates with small angle x-ray scattering
Greaves, G. Neville; Wilding, Martin C.; Vu Van, Quang; Majerus, Odile; Hennet, Louis
2009-01-29
Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been measured in the wavevector range 0.01density fluctuations deriving from isothermal compressibility. With decreasing Q a minimum is located close to 0.1 A{sup -1} at the foot of the inter-atomic structure factor, below which SAXS rises, suggesting scatter from longer range fluctuating volumes.
Size scaling effects on the particle density fluctuations in confined plasmas
Vazquez, Federico; Markus, Ferenc
2009-11-15
In this paper, memory and nonlocal effects on fluctuating mass diffusion are addressed in the context of fusion plasmas. Nonlocal effects are included by considering a diffusivity coefficient depending on the size of the container in the transverse direction to the applied magnetic field. It is obtained by resorting to the general formulation of the extended version of irreversible thermodynamics in terms of the higher order dissipative fluxes. The developed model describes two different types of the particle density time correlation function. Both have been observed in tokamak and nontokamak devices. These two kinds of time correlation function characterize the wave and the diffusive transport mechanisms of particle density perturbations. A transition between them is found, which is controlled by the size of the container. A phase diagram in the (L,2{pi}/k) space describes the relation between the dynamics of particle density fluctuations and the size L of the system together with the oscillating mode k of the correlation function.
Anomalous Cross-Field Current and Fluctuating Equilibrium of Magnetized Plasmas
Rypdal, K.; Garcia, O.E.; Paulsen, J.
1997-09-01
It is shown by simple physical arguments and fluid simulations that electrostatic flute-mode fluctuations can sustain a substantial cross-field current in addition to mass and energy transport. The simulations show that this current determines essential features of the fluctuating plasma equilibrium, and explain qualitatively the experimental equilibria and the coherent flute-mode structures observed in a simple magnetized torus. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Lin; He, Yuheng; Wu, Zefei; Cai, Yuan; Zhang, Mingwei; Wang, Yang; Han, Yu; Lortz, Rolf W.; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Sheng, Ping; Wang, Ning
2013-01-01
We demonstrate that fluctuations of the local density of states (LDOS) in strongly disordered graphene play an important role in determining the quantum capacitance of the top-gate graphene devices. Depending on the strength of the disorder induced by metal-cluster decoration, the measured quantum capacitance of disordered graphene can dramatically decrease in comparison with pristine graphene. This is opposite to the common belief that quantum capacitance should increase with disorder. To explain this counterintuitive behavior, we present a two-parameter model which incorporates both the non-universal power law behavior for the ADOS and a lognormal distribution of LDOS. We find excellent quantitative agreements between the model and measured quantum capacitance for three disordered samples in a wide range of Fermi energies. Thus, by measuring the quantum capacitance, we can simultaneously determine the ADOS and its fluctuations. It is the LDOS fluctuations that cause the dramatic reduction of the quantum capacitance.
Simultaneous Microwave Imaging System for Density and Temperature Fluctuation Measurements on TEXTOR
H. Park; E. Mazzucato; T. Munsat; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol
2004-05-07
Diagnostic systems for fluctuation measurements in plasmas have, of necessity, evolved from simple 1-D systems to multi-dimensional systems due to the complexity of the MHD and turbulence physics of plasmas illustrated by advanced numerical simulations. Using the recent significant advancements in millimeter wave imaging technology, Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) and Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI), simultaneously measuring density and temperature fluctuations, are developed for TEXTOR. The MIR system was installed on TEXTOR and the first experiment was performed in September, 2003. Subsequent MIR campaigns have yielded poloidally resolved spectra and assessments of poloidal velocity. The new 2-D ECE Imaging system (with a total of 128 channels), installed on TEXTOR in December, 2003, successfully captured a true 2-D images of Te fluctuations of m=1 oscillation (''sawteeth'') near the q {approx} 1 surface for the first time.
Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Juan Ezequiel
2009-01-01
Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…
High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte
Li, Shelly X.
2010-06-29
A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.
Nanotransformation and current fluctuations in exciton condensate junctions.
Soller, H; Dolcini, F; Komnik, A
2012-04-13
We analyze the nonlinear transport properties of a bilayer exciton condensate that is contacted by four metallic leads by calculating the full counting statistics of electron transport for arbitrary system parameters. Despite its formal similarity to a superconductor the transport properties of the exciton condensate turn out to be completely different. We recover the generic features of exciton condensates such as counterpropagating currents driven by excitonic Andreev reflections and make predictions for nonlinear transconductance between the layers as well as for the current (cross)correlations and generalized Johnson-Nyquist relationships. Finally, we explore the possibility of connecting another mesoscopic system (in our case a quantum point contact) to the bottom layer of the exciton condensate and show how the excitonic Andreev reflections can be used for transforming voltage at the nanoscale. PMID:22587267
Current density partitioning in time-dependent current density functional theory
Mosquera, Martín A.; Wasserman, Adam; Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
2014-05-14
We adapt time-dependent current density functional theory to allow for a fragment-based solution of the many-electron problem of molecules in the presence of time-dependent electric and magnetic fields. Regarding a molecule as a set of non-interacting subsystems that individually evolve under the influence of an auxiliary external electromagnetic vector-scalar potential pair, the partition 4-potential, we show that there are one-to-one mappings between this auxiliary potential, a sharply-defined set of fragment current densities, and the total current density of the system. The partition electromagnetic (EM) 4-potential is expressed in terms of the real EM 4-potential of the system and a gluing EM 4-potential that accounts for exchange-correlation effects and mutual interaction forces between fragments that are required to yield the correct electron dynamics. We prove the zero-force theorem for the fragmented system, establish a variational formulation in terms of action functionals, and provide a simple illustration for a charged particle in a ring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinoni, A.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Osborne, T. H.; White, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Davis, E. M.; Ernst, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.
2015-09-01
The I-mode regime, routinely observed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, is characterized by an edge energy transport barrier without an accompanying particle barrier and with broadband instabilities, known as weakly coherent modes (WCM), believed to regulate particle transport at the edge. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak exhibit I-mode characteristics in various physical quantities. These DIII-D plasmas evolve over long periods, lasting several energy confinement times, during which the edge electron temperature slowly evolves towards an H-mode-like profile, while maintaining a typical L-mode edge density profile. During these periods, referred to as I-mode phases, the radial electric field at the edge also gradually reaches values typically observed in H-mode. Density fluctuations measured with the phase contrast imaging diagnostic during I-mode phases exhibit three features typically observed in H-mode on DIII-D, although they develop progressively with time and without a sharp transition: the intensity of the fluctuations is reduced; the frequency spectrum is broadened and becomes non-monotonic; two dimensional space-time spectra appear to approach those in H-mode, showing phase velocities of density fluctuations at the edge increasing to about 10 km s-1. However, in DIII-D there is no clear evidence of the WCM. Preliminary linear gyro-kinetic simulations are performed in the pedestal region with the GS2 code and its recently upgraded model collision operator that conserves particles, energy and momentum. The increased bootstrap current and flow shear generated by the temperature pedestal are shown to decrease growth rates, thus possibly generating a feedback mechanism that progressively stabilizes fluctuations.
Brookman, M. W. Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.
2015-12-10
Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cranmer, Steven R.
2016-05-01
The solar corona has been revealed in the past few decades to be a highly dynamic nonequilibrium plasma environment. Both the loop-filled coronal base and the extended acceleration region of the solar wind appear to be strongly turbulent, and models that invoke the dissipation of incompressible Alfvenic fluctuations have had some success in explaining the heating. However, many of these models neglect the mounting evidence that density and pressure variations may play an important role in the mass and energy balance of this system. In this presentation I will briefly review observations of both compressible and incompressible MHD fluctuations in the corona and solar wind, and discuss future prospects with DKIST. I will also attempt to outline the many ways that these different fluctuation modes have been proposed to interact with one another -- usually with an eye on finding ways to enhance their dissipation and heating. One under-appreciated type of interaction is the fact that Alfven waves will undergo multiple reflections and refractions in a "background plasma" filled with localized density fluctuations. It is becoming increasingly clear that models must not only include the effects of longitudinal variability (e.g., magnetoacoustic waves and pulse-like jets) but also transverse "striations" that appear naturally in a structured magnetic field with small-scale footpoint variability. Future off-limb observations, such as those with DKIST's Cryo-NIRSP instrument, will be crucial for providing us with a detailed census of MHD waves and their mutual interactions in the corona.
Quantifying Density Fluctuations in Water at a Hydrophobic Surface: Evidence for Critical Drying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Robert; Wilding, Nigel B.
2015-07-01
Employing smart Monte Carlo sampling techniques within the grand canonical ensemble, we investigate the properties of water at a model hydrophobic substrate. By reducing the strength of substrate-water attraction, we find that fluctuations in the local number density, quantified by a rigorous definition of the local compressibility χ (z ) , increase rapidly for distances z within one or two molecular diameters from the substrate as the degree of hydrophobicity, measured by the macroscopic contact angle θ , increases. Our simulations provide evidence for a continuous (critical) drying transition as the substrate-water interaction becomes very weak: cos (θ )→-1 . We speculate that the existence of such a transition might account for earlier simulation observations of strongly enhanced density fluctuations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.; Logan, P.
1987-01-01
A laser-induced fluorescence method has been developed that provides simultaneous measurements of temperature, density, and their fluctuations owing to turbulence in unheated compressible flows. Pressure and its fluctuations are also deduced using the equation of state. Fluorescence is induced in nitric oxide that has been seeded into a nitrogen flow in concentrations of 100 ppm. Measurements are obtained from each laser pulse, with a spatial resolution of 1 mm and a temporal resolution of 125 ns. The method was applied to a supersonic, turbulent, boundary-layer flow with a free-stream Mach number of 2. For stream conditions in the range from 150-300 K and 0.3-1 atm, temperature is measured with an uncertainty of approximately 1 percent rms, while density and pressure uncertainties are approximately 2 percent rms.
Effects of Density Fluctuations on Weakly Nonlinear Alfven Waves: An IST Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, R.; Hadley, N.
2012-12-01
The effects of random density fluctuations on oblique, 1D, weakly nonlinear Alfven waves is examined through a numerical study of an analytical model developed by Ruderman [M.S. Ruderman, Phys. Plasmas, 9 (7), pp. 2940-2945, (2002).]. Consistent with Ruderman's application to the one-parameter dark soliton, the effects on both one-parameter bright and dark solitons, the two-parameter soliton as well as pairs of one-parameter solitons were similar to that of Ohmic dissipation found by Hamilton et al. [R. Hamilton, D. Peterson, and S. Libby, J. Geophys. Res 114, A03104,doi:10.1029/2008JA013582 (2009).] It was found in all cases where bright or two-parameter solitons are present initially, that the effects of density fluctuations results in the eventual damping of such compressive wave forms and the formation of a train of dark solitons, or magnetic depressions.
Wavelike charge density fluctuations and van der Waals interactions at the nanoscale.
Ambrosetti, Alberto; Ferri, Nicola; DiStasio, Robert A; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2016-03-11
Recent experiments on noncovalent interactions at the nanoscale have challenged the basic assumptions of commonly used particle- or fragment-based models for describing van der Waals (vdW) or dispersion forces. We demonstrate that a qualitatively correct description of the vdW interactions between polarizable nanostructures over a wide range of finite distances can only be attained by accounting for the wavelike nature of charge density fluctuations. By considering a diverse set of materials and biological systems with markedly different dimensionalities, topologies, and polarizabilities, we find a visible enhancement in the nonlocality of the charge density response in the range of 10 to 20 nanometers. These collective wavelike fluctuations are responsible for the emergence of nontrivial modifications of the power laws that govern noncovalent interactions at the nanoscale. PMID:26965622
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, R. A.
1979-01-01
Scalar density fluctuations were measured nonintrusively in the shear layer of a 5.08-cm (2-in.) cold air jet using a crossed-beam schlieren method. Two statistics, covariance and three-dimensional spectrum function, were estimated for an exit Mach number range of 0.3 to 0.97. The density fluctuation intensity, integral scale, and eddy convection speed were calculated and compared to available data where possible. Spectra were found to change significantly in shape becoming less peaked between 3 and 9 jet diameters downstream from the orifice, but they consistently exhibited a -5/3 power law decay at 3, 6, and 9 diameters for frequencies above the peak.
Density fluctuations and radiated noise for a high-temperature supersonic jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parthasarathy, S. P.; Massier, P. F.; Cuffel, R. F.; Radbill, J. R.
1975-01-01
Experimental data on density fluctuations were obtained by the laser Schlieren method in a supersonic jet which at the nozzle exit had a Mach number of 1.43 and a stagnation temperature of about 1090 K. The jet emerged into the ambient atmosphere in an anechoic chamber, correctly expanded from a nozzle which had an exit diameter of 10.8 cm. Using the information on the density fluctuations and the mean shear obtained by probes, the autocorrelation of the radiated noise was calculated by a theory that is suitable for Mach wave emission. This theory is a modification of that developed by Ffowcs Williams and Maidanik (1965). The calculated noise field agrees well with that obtained by using microphones outside the jet.
Space-potential and density fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak
Hallock, G.A.; Wootton, A.J.; Hickok, R.L.
1987-09-21
The fluctuating plasma potential and electron density has been measured in Ohmic and neutral-beam--heated tokamak discharges. Radial profiles are presented in the outer two-thirds of the plasma, and the E x B transport calculated. The transport is found to be an order of magnitude larger for beam driven plasmas. Measurements indicate the linearized Boltzman equation is satisfied in the interior, but not at the plasma edge.
Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Decker, J.; Kabalan, K.
2015-12-01
In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.
Interaction between the lower hybrid wave and density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer
Peysson, Y.; Madi, M.; Kabalan, K.; Decker, J.
2015-12-10
In the present paper, the perturbation of the launched power spectrum of the Lower Hybrid wave at the separatrix by electron density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer is investigated. Considering a slab geometry with magnetic field lines parallel to the toroidal direction, the full wave equation is solved using Comsol Multiphysics® for a fully active multi-junction like LH antenna made of two modules. When electron density fluctuations are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, it is shown that the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the wave propagates. The diffraction effect leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions, a feature consistent with the recently developed model that has been applied successfully to high density discharges on the Tokamak Tore Supra corresponding to the large spectral gap regime [Decker J. et al. Phys. Plasma 21 (2014) 092504]. The perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massey, G. A.; Lemon, C. J.
1984-01-01
A tunable line-narrowed ArF laser can selectively excite several rotation al lines of the Schumann-Runge band system of O2 in air. The resulting ultraviolet fluorescence can be monitored at 90 deg to the laser beam axis, permitting space and time resolved observation of density and temperature fluctuations in turbulence. Experiments and calculations show that + or - 1 K, + or - 1 percent density, 1 cu mm spatial, and 1 microsecond temporal resolution can be achieved simultaneously under some conditions.
A new interferometry-based electron density fluctuation diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasten, C. P.; Irby, J. H.; Murray, R.; White, A. E.; Pace, D. C.
2012-10-01
The two-color interferometry diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has been upgraded to measure fluctuations in the electron density and density gradient for turbulence and transport studies. Diagnostic features and capabilities are described. In differential mode, fast phase demodulation electronics detect the relative phase change between ten adjacent, radially-separated (ΔR = 1.2 cm, adjustable), vertical-viewing chords, which allows for measurement of the line-integrated electron density gradient. The system can be configured to detect the absolute phase shift of each chord by comparison to a local oscillator, measuring the line-integrated density. Each chord is sensitive to density fluctuations with kR < 20.3 cm-1 and is digitized at up to 10 MS/s, resolving aspects of ion temperature gradient-driven modes and other long-wavelength turbulence. Data from C-Mod discharges is presented, including observations of the quasi-coherent mode in enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas and the weakly coherent mode in I-mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y. G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, H. X.; Deng, Z. C.; Yi, J.; Ji, X. Q.; HL-2A Team
2016-02-01
Based on the fact that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the electron density fluctuation amplitude, the four-channel formic acid (HCOOH, λ=432.5 um) laser interferometer has been firstly upgraded to measure the far-forward collective scattering (FCS) from the electron density fluctuation (ñe) on HL-2A tokamak in 2014-15 experimental campaign. The HCOOH-FCS system provides the line-integrated measurement of fluctuations covering the wavenumber range: k⊥ <1.6 cm-1 (perpendicular to the magnetic field). A lot of electron density fluctuations have been successfully measured by the HCOOH-FCS. In especial, the high-frequency density fluctuation (up to 500 kHz) induced by the core-localized Alfvénic eigenmode (AE) has been observed by the innermost scattering chord. The HCOOH-FCS system will be extremely helpful for the research of energetic particles instability on HL-2A.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schunck, M.; Hegmann, M.; Sedlmayr, E.
2007-01-01
We investigate the effects of stochastic density fluctuations on the dust temperatures and the resulting infrared (IR) emission spectra of interstellar clouds as an extension of preceding investigations by Hegmann & Kegel. We consider absorption and scattering by dust grains in spherical clouds which are, on average, homogeneous but have a fluctuating density. The spatial variation of the density is described by means of a Markov process. This clump model introduces two parameters: the correlation length ln and the Gaussian width σn of the density fluctuations. As the intensity Iλ,n inherits the randomness of the density n, the ordinary radiative transfer equation has to be replaced by a generalized transfer equation of Fokker-Planck type. In the first part, we investigate the influence of our model parameters on the radiative transport in the ultraviolet (UV) and use the results to calculate the dust temperature in radiative equilibrium. Afterwards, the IR emission of the dust is modelled for the same set of clump parameters. We find that the presence of clumps decreases the effective extinction and therefore leads to substantial differences in UV illumination and dust temperatures, compared with the homogeneous case. Because of the distribution of dust temperatures, the presence of clumps also affects the IR emission and thus possible observations. In the second part, we use a fit with two blackbody spectra to determine the cloud dust mass from our synthetic IR fluxes. It is shown that in a clumpy environment the overall dust mass is generally underestimated. This effect correlates with the degree of cloud fragmentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiaolong; Li, Wei; Wang, Lin; He, Yuheng; Wu, Zefei; Cai, Yuan; Zhang, Mingwei; Wang, Yang; Han, Yu; Lortz, Rolf W.; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Sheng, Ping; Wang, Ning
2013-03-01
We demonstrate that local fluctuations of the density of states (DOS) in strongly disordered graphene play an important role in determining the quantum capacitance of the top-gate device geometry. Depending on the strength of the disorder induced by metal-cluster decoration, the measured quantum capacitance of disordered graphene could dramatically decrease in comparison with pristine graphene (previous work on transport of metal-cluster decoration has been published on Phys. Rev. B 84, 045431, 2011). A quantitative model for correlating fluctuations of local density of states with the disorder strength and quantum capacitance is presented and discussed. The DOS of disordered graphene obeys a non-universal power law. By measuring the quantum capacitance of disordered graphene, we simultaneously determined both the DOS and its local fluctuations, which is in agreement with the lognormal distributions reported previously for localized samples. Financial support from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project Nos. HKUST9/CRF/08, 604112) and technical support of the Raith-HKUST Nanotechnology Laboratory (Project No. SEG_HKUST08) are hereby acknowledged.
Impact of density and environmental factors on population fluctuations in a migratory passerine.
Pasinelli, Gilberto; Schaub, Michael; Häfliger, Guido; Frey, Monika; Jakober, Hans; Müller, Mathis; Stauber, Wolfgang; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Zollinger, Jean-Luc; Jenni, Lukas
2011-01-01
1. Populations of plants and animals typically fluctuate because of the combined effects of density-dependent and density-independent processes. The study of these processes is complicated by the fact that population sizes are typically not known exactly, because population counts are subject to sampling variance. Although the existence of sampling variance is broadly acknowledged, relatively few studies on time-series data have accounted for it, which can result in wrong inferences about population processes. 2. To increase our understanding of population dynamics, we analysed time series from six Central European populations of the migratory red-backed shrike Lanius collurio by simultaneously assessing the strength of density dependence, process and sampling variance. In addition, we evaluated hypotheses predicting effects of factors presumed to operate on the breeding grounds, at stopover sites in eastern Africa during fall and spring migration and in the wintering grounds in southern Africa. We used both simple and state-space formulations of the Gompertz equation to model population size. 3. Across populations and modelling approaches, we found consistent evidence for negative density-dependent population regulation. Further, process variance contributed substantially to variation in population size, while sampling variance did not. Environmental conditions in eastern and southern Africa appear to influence breeding population size, as rainfall in the Sahel during fall migration and in the south African wintering areas were positively related to population size in the following spring in four of six populations. In contrast, environmental conditions in the breeding grounds were not related to population size. 4. Our findings suggest negative density-dependent regulation of red-backed shrike breeding populations and are consistent with the long-standing hypothesis that conditions in the African staging and wintering areas influence population numbers of species
Density fluctuations in saturated phospholipid bilayers increase as the acyl-chain length decreases.
Ipsen, J H; Jørgensen, K; Mouritsen, O G
1990-01-01
A systematic computer simulation study is conducted for a model of the main phase transition of fully hydrated saturated diacyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers (DMPC, DPPC, and DSPC). With particular focus on the fluctuation effects on the thermal properties in the transition region, the study yields data for the specific heat, the lateral compressibility, and the lipid-domain size distribution. Via a simple model assumption the transmembrane passive ion permeability is derived from the lipid-domain interfacial measure. A comparative analysis of the various data shows, in agreement with a number of experiments, that the lateral density fluctuations and hence the response functions increase as the acyl-chain length is decreased. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:2291936
Fluctuation effects on the Raman scattering from the charge-density-wave system TTF-TCNQ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Y.; Eldridge, J. E.
1998-08-01
The resonant Raman spectrum of TTF-TCNQ has been measured from room temperature to 10 K, using a Fourier Raman spectrometer. Only features due to the TCNQ molecule are observed. New Raman lines appear at temperatures below 150 K as the fluctuating charge-density wave (CDW) occurs. The intensity of the new Raman lines increases with decreasing temperature. In addition to the Raman allowed modes, we observe numerous lines originating from the usually infrared-active-only modes, which become Raman active via the Fröhlich interaction in the fluctuating and static CDW phases. The appearance of the strong out-of-plane intramolecular B3u vibrational modes of TCNQ confirms an earlier x-ray study that found that the CDW on the TCNQ chain involved such an out-of-plane distortion of the TCNQ molecule. The condensation of the longitudinal acoustic phonon is also observed in the Raman spectrum.
Quantum Lattice Fluctuations in the Charge Density Wave State beyond the Adiabatic Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shida, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yuko; Gomi, Hiroki; Takahashi, Akira; Tomita, Norikazu
2015-12-01
We have developed a tractable numerical method in which large-amplitude quantum lattice fluctuations can be described beyond the adiabatic approximation using the coherent state representation of phonons. A many-body wave function is constructed by the superposition of direct products of non-orthogonal Slater determinants for electrons and coherent states of phonons. Both orbitals in all the Slater determinants and the amplitudes of all the coherent states are simultaneously optimized. We apply the method to the one-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with the on-site and nearest-neighbor-site Coulomb interactions. It is shown the lattice fluctuations in doped charge density wave (CDW) systems are described by the translational and vibrational motion of lattice solitons. Such lattice solitons induce bond alternation in the doped CDW system while the lattice becomes equidistant in the half-filled CDW system.
Scaling laws of turbulence and heating of fast solar wind: the role of density fluctuations.
Carbone, V; Marino, R; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Noullez, A; Bruno, R
2009-08-01
Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvénic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind. PMID:19792547
Scaling Laws of Turbulence and Heating of Fast Solar Wind: The Role of Density Fluctuations
Carbone, V.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Bruno, R.
2009-08-07
Incompressible and isotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in plasmas can be described by an exact relation for the energy flux through the scales. This Yaglom-like scaling law has been recently observed in the solar wind above the solar poles observed by the Ulysses spacecraft, where the turbulence is in an Alfvenic state. An analogous phenomenological scaling law, suitably modified to take into account compressible fluctuations, is observed more frequently in the same data set. Large-scale density fluctuations, despite their low amplitude, thus play a crucial role in the basic scaling properties of turbulence. The turbulent cascade rate in the compressive case can, moreover, supply the energy dissipation needed to account for the local heating of the nonadiabatic solar wind.
Effect of fluctuations on the onset of density-driven convection in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bestehorn, Michael; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2012-11-01
We study the dissolution of CO2 in saline aquifers. The long diffusion times can be accelerated by orders of magnitude from mass transfer that origins from convection. Convection occurs at a critical time via a phase transition from the horizontally homogeneous diffusion state. To start the instability, perturbations that break the horizontal translation symmetry are necessary. We start with the basic equations and the boundary conditions, examine the linearized equations around the diffusive time and z-dependent base state and compare different definitions of the critical time found in the literature. Taking a simple model we show the role of fluctuations for delayed instabilities if the control parameter is slowly swept through the bifurcation point. Apart from the critical time we use a "visible" time where convection is manifested in the vertical CO2 transport. We specify the perturbations with respect to their strength and length scale, and compute the critical times for various cases by numerical integration of the basic equations in two spatial dimensions. Fluctuating concentration at the upper boundary, fluctuating porosity as well fluctuating permeability are studied in detail. For the permeability fluctuation, the compressibility of the fluid becomes important and the velocity field cannot be derived from a stream function. Our work also includes non-isothermal conditions with a prescribed vertical geothermal gradient and space dependent thermal conductivity. Temperature fields for different standard configurations are computed numerically and serve as starting condition for density-driven convection. Based on our work, we conclude that the visible time is much larger than the critical time. The visible time is a strong function of strength and length scale of the perturbations.
Incommensurate charge density fluctuations in underdoped YBCO detected by resonant x-ray scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiringhelli, Giacomo
2013-03-01
A key issue in high Tc superconductivity is the short and mid range ordering of spin and charge degrees of freedom when doping disrupts the long range antiferromagnetic order of parent compounds. Cu sites are the main, although not the only, actors in the play. Inelastic and elastic scattering of x rays, when performed at the Cu L3 absorption resonance, can be used to map the spin and charge excitation spectra and, simultaneously, to unveil the presence of spatial modulations in the charge or spin densities. We have used angle-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) and resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering (REXS) to identify two-dimensional charge fluctuations with an incommensurate periodicity of ~ 3 . 2 lattice units in the copper oxide planes of the superconductors (Y,Nd)Ba2Cu3O6+x with hole concentrations 0 . 09 < p < 0 . 13 per planar Cu ion [G. Ghiringhelli et al, Science 337, 821 (2012)]. The intensity and correlation length of the fluctuation signal increase strongly upon cooling down to the superconducting transition temperature, Tc; further cooling below Tc abruptly reverses the divergence of the charge correlations. In combination with prior observations of a large gap in the spin excitation spectrum, these data indicate an incipient charge-density-wave instability that competes with superconductivity. Further measurements on an Ortho III sample have confirmed that the charge fluctuations are independent of the chain ordering [A. J. Achkar et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 167001 (2012)]. Put into perspective, these results show that often elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering experiments should be ideally performed jointly, to explore with the greatest sensitivity charge and spin fluctuations [L. Braicovich et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 077002, (2010)].
Large-scale fluctuations in the number density of galaxies in independent surveys of deep fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirokov, S. I.; Lovyagin, N. Yu.; Baryshev, Yu. V.; Gorokhov, V. L.
2016-06-01
New arguments supporting the reality of large-scale fluctuations in the density of the visible matter in deep galaxy surveys are presented. A statistical analysis of the radial distributions of galaxies in the COSMOS and HDF-N deep fields is presented. Independent spectral and photometric surveys exist for each field, carried out in different wavelength ranges and using different observing methods. Catalogs of photometric redshifts in the optical (COSMOS-Zphot) and infrared (UltraVISTA) were used for the COSMOS field in the redshift interval 0.1 < z < 3.5, as well as the zCOSMOS (10kZ) spectroscopic survey and the XMM-COSMOS and ALHAMBRA-F4 photometric redshift surveys. The HDFN-Zphot and ALHAMBRA-F5 catalogs of photometric redshifts were used for the HDF-N field. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the fluctuations in the numbers of galaxies obtained for independent surveys of the same deep field reaches R = 0.70 ± 0.16. The presence of this positive correlation supports the reality of fluctuations in the density of visible matter with sizes of up to 1000 Mpc and amplitudes of up to 20% at redshifts z ~ 2. The absence of correlations between the fluctuations in different fields (the correlation coefficient between COSMOS and HDF-N is R = -0.20 ± 0.31) testifies to the independence of structures visible in different directions on the celestial sphere. This also indicates an absence of any influence from universal systematic errors (such as "spectral voids"), which could imitate the detection of correlated structures.
Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.; Speck, T.
2013-11-28
We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, R.; Armstrong, J. W.
1979-01-01
Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2-215 solar radii and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances of about 20 solar radii the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrum is well modeled by a single power law in the frequency range 0.0001-0.05 Hz. The flattening of the density spectrum within 20 solar radii is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.; Speck, T.
2013-11-01
We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadić, Bosiljka; Thurner, Stefan; Rodgers, G. J.
2004-03-01
We study the microscopic time fluctuations of traffic load and the global statistical properties of a dense traffic of particles on scale-free cyclic graphs. For a wide range of driving rates R the traffic is stationary and the load time series exhibits antipersistence due to the regulatory role of the superstructure associated with two hub nodes in the network. We discuss how the superstructure affects the functioning of the network at high traffic density and at the jamming threshold. The degree of correlations systematically decreases with increasing traffic density and eventually disappears when approaching a jamming density Rc. Already before jamming we observe qualitative changes in the global network-load distributions and the particle queuing times. These changes are related to the occurrence of temporary crises in which the network-load increases dramatically, and then slowly falls back to a value characterizing free flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Asenov, Asen; Slavcheva, G.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, S.
2000-01-01
In this paper we present a detailed simulation study of the influence of quantum mechanical effects in the inversion layer on random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering in sub 100 nm MOSFETs. The simulations have been performed using a 3-D implementation of the density gradient (DG) formalism incorporated in our established 3-D atomistic simulation approach. This results in a self-consistent 3-D quantum mechanical picture, which implies not only the vertical inversion layer quantisation but also the lateral confinement effects related to current filamentation in the 'valleys' of the random potential fluctuations. We have shown that the net result of including quantum mechanical effects, while considering statistical dopant fluctuations, is an increase in both threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering. At the same time, the random dopant induced threshold voltage lowering partially compensates for the quantum mechanical threshold voltage shift in aggressively scaled MOSFETs with ultrathin gate oxides.
Phase Separation, Density Fluctuations, and Boiling Near the Liquid-Gas Critical Point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegseth, John; Oprisan, Ana; Roy, Arun; Nikolayev, Vadim; Beysens, Daniel; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre-Chabot, Carole
2002-11-01
A pure liquid-gas mixture is one of the simplest examples of a soft-matter system. In fact, when co-existing gas and liquid phases of pure fluid are heated to their critical point, large-scale density fluctuations make the fluid extremely compressible (to external forces), expandable (to heating), slows the diffusive transport, and decreases the surface tension. In principle these properties and others either diverge to infinity or converge to zero at the critical temperature. These properties lead to some very unusual behavior: large density gradients at the laboratory scale, a large mechanical response to heating, and perfect wetting of a solid wall by the liquid phase (zero contact-angle). We have further simplified this system by performing experiments in weightlessness (Mir spaces station). By controlling the fluid's temperature, these properties may be varied over large ranges in a single sample. When the fluid is driven out of equilibrium by a fast temperature quench from the single-phase (supercritical fluid) state into the two-phase state, we have observed universal growth laws of minority domains (gas bubbles) during phase separation. Prior to this quench we have also observed density fluctuations using optical microscopy near the critical point. When heat is applied to a liquid-gas mixture, we have observed a spectacular spreading of a gas bubble along a hot solid wall as well as gas bubble over-heating (where the interior of a gas bubble gains a higher temperature than the heating wall). Although this gas phase over-heating appears to violate the second law, it is really a transient our-of-equilibrium effect. Inside of these unusual bubbles we also have observed unusually large variations in liquid wetting film thickness that often appear to evolve into spreading contact lines on the sapphire wall when heat is applied. We have observed coarsening and growth of minority domains (gas bubbles) in SF6 near its liquid-gas critical point. Phase separation in
Theory of small-scale density and electric field fluctuations in the nightside Venus ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huba, J. D.
1992-01-01
Recently, it has been reported that small-scale (lambda about 0.1-2 km) density irregularities occur during 100-Hz electric field bursts in the nightside ionosphere of Venus. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the lower-hybrid-drift instability as a mechanism to generate the observed irregularities. A fully electromagnetic theory is developed that is relevant to the finite beta plasma in Venus's ionosphere and includes collisional effects (e.g., electron-ion, electron-neutral, and ion-neutral collisions). The key features of the analysis that favor this instability are the following: (1) it is a flute mode and propagates orthogonal to the ambient magnetic field; (2) it is a relatively short wavelength mode and the Doppler-shifted frequency can be greater than about 100 Hz; (3) it can produce both electric field and density fluctuations, as well as magnetic field fluctuations in a finite beta plasma; and (4) it is most unstable in low-beta plasmas so that it is likely to occur in the low-density, high-magnetic-field ionospheric holes. These features are consistent with observational results.
Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations.
Hecksher, Tina
2016-04-28
This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus. PMID:27131521
Exact analytic solution for non-linear density fluctuation in a ΛCDM universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Jaiyul; Gong, Jinn-Ouk
2016-07-01
We derive the exact third-order analytic solution of the matter density fluctuation in the proper-time hypersurface in a ΛCDM universe, accounting for the explicit time-dependence and clarifying the relation to the initial condition. Furthermore, we compare our analytic solution to the previous calculation in the comoving gauge, and to the standard Newtonian perturbation theory by providing Fourier kernels for the relativistic effects. Our results provide an essential ingredient for a complete description of galaxy bias in the relativistic context.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravichandran, S.; Bagchi, Biman
1996-01-01
We have carried out a computer ``experiment'' of orientational relaxation in a spatially random and orientationally disordered dipolar lattice (RDL), generated by quenching only the translational motion of a dense liquid. In the high polarity limit, the orientational relaxation of the RDL is dramatically different from that of the parent liquid, the former exhibits a very slow, nonexponential long time decay of the orientational correlation functions and markedly non-Debye dielectric relaxation. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of spatial density fluctuations in orientational relaxation.
Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hecksher, Tina
2016-04-01
This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus.
Kharchev, Nikolay; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2008-10-01
A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k(s) approximately 34 cm(-1)) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose. PMID:19044538
Kharchev, Nikolay; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji
2008-10-15
A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k{sub s}{approx_equal}34 cm{sup -1}) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose.
Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface
A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey
2010-10-10
The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.
Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Duff, J. R.; Sarff, J. S.
2012-10-15
The multichannel polarimeter-interferometer system on the MST reversed-field pinch can be utilized to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The collective scattering system has 11 viewing chords with {approx}8 cm spacing. The source is a 432 {mu}m (694 GHz) far infrared laser and the scattered power is measured using a heterodyne detection scheme. Collective scattering provides a line-integrated measurement of fluctuations within the divergence of the probe beam covering wavenumber range: k{sub Up-Tack} < 1.3 cm{sup -1}, corresponding k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub s} < 1.3 ({rho}{sub s} is the ion-sound Larmor radius), the region of primary interest for turbulent fluctuation-induced transport. The perpendicular wavenumber consists of toroidal, poloidal, and radial contributions, which vary with chord position. Coherent modes associated with tearing instabilities and neutral-beam driven fast particles are observed along with broadband turbulence at frequencies up to 500 kHz. Changes in frequency are consistent with a Doppler shift due to parallel plasma flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, M.
1972-01-01
Fluctuations in electron density and temperature coupled through Ohm's law are studied for an ionizable medium. The nonlinear effects are considered in the limit of a third order quasi-linear treatment. Equations are derived for the amplitude of the fluctuation. Conditions under which a steady state can exist in the presence of the fluctuation are examined and effective transport properties are determined. A comparison is made to previously considered second order theory. The effect of third order terms indicates the possibility of fluctuations existing in regions predicted stable by previous analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. M.
1972-01-01
Fluctuations in electron density and temperature coupled through Ohm's law are studied for an ionizable medium. The nonlinear effects are considered in the limit of a third order quasi-linear treatment. Equations are derived for the amplitude of the fluctuation. Conditions under which a steady state can exist in the presence of the fluctuation are examined and effective transport properties are determined. A comparison is made to previously considered second order theory. The effect of third order terms indicates the possibility of fluctuations existing in regions predicted stable by previous analysis.
Effect of the electromagnetic environment on current fluctuations in driven tunnel junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann
2016-07-01
We examine current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a superposition of a constant and a sinusoidal voltage source. In standard setups, the external voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. The modes of this environment are excited by the time-dependent voltage and are the source of Johnson-Nyquist noise. We determine the autocorrelation function of the current flowing in the leads of the junction in the weak tunneling limit up to terms of second order in the tunneling Hamiltonian. The driven modes of the electromagnetic environment are treated exactly by means of a unitary transformation introduced recently. Particular emphasis is placed on the spectral function of the current fluctuations. The spectrum is found to comprise three contributions: a term arising from the Johnson-Nyquist noise of the environmental impedance, a part due to the shot noise of the tunneling element, and a third contribution which comes from the cross correlation between fluctuations caused by the electromagnetic environment and fluctuations of the tunneling current. All three parts of the spectral function occur already for devices under dc bias. The spectral function of ac driven tunneling elements can be determined from the result for a dc bias by means of a photoassisted tunneling relation of the Tien-Gordon type. Specific results are given for an Ohmic environment and for a junction driven through a resonator.
Fluctuation current in a superconducting ring caused by a thin solenoid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuratsuji, Hiroshi; Tsuchida, Satoshi
2015-07-01
The fluctuating current due to the Cooper pair is calculated for a superconducting ring threaded by a thin magnetic solenoid that is arranged by time-varying flux. The formulation is based on the Fokker-Planck equation derived by the Langevin-type Landau-Ginzburg equation. The statistical average of the fluctuation current is calculated. As a special case, for the equilibrium state, the current shows a critical behavior near the transition point. In the presence of the time-varying flux, the current is calculated to be a highly nonlinear function of the electric field induced by the time variation of the flux, which yields a sort of the Ohmic law in the limit of the weak field.
Note: A real-time beam current density meter
Liu Junliang; Yu Deyang; Ruan Fangfang; Xue Yingli; Wang Wei
2013-03-15
We have developed a real-time beam current density meter for charged particle beams. It measures the mean current density by collimating a uniform and large diameter primary beam. The suppression of the secondary electrons and the deflection of the beam were simulated, and it was tested with a 105 keV Ar{sup 7+} ion beam.
Density fluctuation spectrum of solar wind turbulence between ion and electron scales.
Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; Bonnell, J W; Mozer, F S; Bale, S D
2012-07-20
We present a measurement of the spectral index of density fluctuations between ion and electron scales in solar wind turbulence using the EFI instrument on the ARTEMIS spacecraft. The mean spectral index at 1 AU was found to be -2.75±0.06, steeper than predictions for pure whistler or kinetic Alfvén wave turbulence but consistent with previous magnetic field measurements. The steep spectra are also consistent with expectations of increased intermittency or damping of some of the turbulent energy over this range of scales. Neither the spectral index nor the flattening of the density spectra before ion scales were found to depend on the proximity to the pressure anisotropy instability thresholds, suggesting that they are features inherent to the turbulent cascade. PMID:22861861
Critical density fluctuations in lipid bilayers detected by fluorescence lifetime heterogeneity.
Ruggiero, A; Hudson, B
1989-01-01
The heterogeneity of the decay of the fluorescence of transparinaric acid in single-component lipid bilayers at temperatures above their gel/liquid crystalline phase transition is shown to be due to the presence of regions of higher local density and higher acyl chain order than the predominant fluid regions. This conclusion is based on selective excitation behavior and the observation of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies that increase at long times. The fractional amplitude of the long lifetime component of the fluorescence shows a temperature variation that conforms to conventional descriptions of critical behavior. The critical exponent extracted from this variation is 1.1, close to the value of 1.0 that describes ultrasonic data. We therefore conclude that liquid crystalline lipid bilayers exhibit critical behavior with significant density and order fluctuations. This behavior must be taken into account in the interpretation of fluorescence and other spectroscopic measurements of the properties of bilayers. PMID:2765649
Measurement of temperature and density fluctuations in turbulence using an ultraviolet laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massey, G. A.
1984-01-01
Noninvasive measurement of density and temperature fluctuations in turbulent air flow was examined. The approach used fluorescence of oxygen molecules which are selectively excited by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser beam. The strength of the fluorescence signal and its dependence on laser wavelength vary with the density and temperature of the air in the laser beam. Because fluorescence can be detected at 90 degrees from the beam propagation direction, spatial resolution in three dimensions, rather than path-integrated measurements can be achieved. With spatial resolutions of the order of a millimeter and at supersonic air velocities it is necessary to perform each measurement in a time of the order of a microsecond; this is possible by by using laser pulses of ten nanosecond duration. In this method atmospheric O2 is excited by the emission of a tunable ArF excimer laser, and the fluorescence, which spans the 210 to 420 range, is detected by an ultraviolet phototube.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Choi, M. J.; Kim, J. B.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Tobias, B.; Liang, T.; Kong, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Donné, A. J. H.
2010-10-01
The ECE imaging (ECEI) diagnostic tested on the TEXTOR tokamak revealed the sawtooth reconnection physics in unprecedented detail, including the first observation of high-field-side crash and collective heat transport [H. K. Park, N. C. Luhmann, Jr., A. J. H. Donné et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 195003 (2006)]. An improved ECEI system capable of visualizing both high- and low-field sides simultaneously with considerably better spatial coverage has been developed for the KSTAR tokamak in order to capture the full picture of core MHD dynamics. Direct 2D imaging of other MHD phenomena such as tearing modes, edge localized modes, and even Alfvén eigenmodes is expected to be feasible. Use of ECE images of the optically thin edge region to recover 2D electron density changes during L/H mode transitions is also envisioned, providing powerful information about the underlying physics. The influence of density fluctuations on optically thin ECE is discussed.
Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Used to Measure Velocity and Density Fluctuation Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seasholtz, Richard G.; Panda, Jayanta; Elam, Kristie A.
2003-01-01
A new, molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based flow diagnostic developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been used for the first time to measure the power spectrum of both gas density and radial velocity components in the plumes of high-speed jets. The objective of the work is to develop an unseeded, nonintrusive dynamic measurement technique for studying turbulent flows in NASA test facilities. This technique provides aerothermodynamic data not previously obtainable. It is particularly important for supersonic flows, where hot wire and pitot probes are difficult to use and disturb the flow under study. The effort is part of the nonintrusive instrumentation development program supporting propulsion research at the NASA Glenn Research Center. In particular, this work is measuring fluctuations in flow velocity, density, and temperature for jet noise studies. These data are valuable to researchers studying the correlation of flow fluctuations with far-field noise. One of the main objectives in jet noise research is to identify noise sources in the jet and to determine their contribution to noise generation. The technique is based on analyzing light scattered from molecules within the jet using a Fabry-Perot interferometer operating in a static imaging mode. The PC-based data acquisition system can simultaneously sample velocity and density data at rates to about 100 kHz and can handle up to 10 million data records. We used this system to interrogate three different jet nozzle designs in a Glenn free-jet facility. Each nozzle had a 25.4-mm exit diameter. One was convergent, used for subsonic flow measurements and to produce a screeching underexpanded jet with a fully expanded Mach number of 1.42. The other nozzles (Mach 1.4 and 1.8) were convergent-divergent types. The radial component of velocity and gas density were simultaneously measured in this work.
Klatt, Michael A; Torquato, Salvatore
2016-08-01
In the first paper of this series, we introduced Voronoi correlation functions to characterize the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales. In the present paper, we determine a variety of different correlation functions that arise in rigorous expressions for the effective physical properties of MRJ sphere packings and compare them to the corresponding statistical descriptors for overlapping spheres and equilibrium hard-sphere systems. Such structural descriptors arise in rigorous bounds and formulas for effective transport properties, diffusion and reactions constants, elastic moduli, and electromagnetic characteristics. First, we calculate the two-point, surface-void, and surface-surface correlation functions, for which we derive explicit analytical formulas for finite hard-sphere packings. We show analytically how the contact Dirac delta function contribution to the pair correlation function g_{2}(r) for MRJ packings translates into distinct functional behaviors of these two-point correlation functions that do not arise in the other two models examined here. Then we show how the spectral density distinguishes the MRJ packings from the other disordered systems in that the spectral density vanishes in the limit of infinite wavelengths; i.e., these packings are hyperuniform, which means that density fluctuations on large length scales are anomalously suppressed. Moreover, for all model systems, we study and compute exclusion probabilities and pore size distributions, as well as local density fluctuations. We conjecture that for general disordered hard-sphere packings, a central limit theorem holds for the number of points within an spherical observation window. Our analysis links problems of interest in material science, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. In the third paper of this series, we will evaluate bounds and estimates of a host of different physical properties of the MRJ sphere packings that are based on the
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav
2012-04-01
Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain - calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA) data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC) method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006) is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.
Pedestal density fluctuation dynamics during the inter-ELM cycle in DIII-D
Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Groebner, R. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Osborne, T. H.; Burrell, K. H.; Beurskens, M. N.
2011-05-15
Detailed 2D measurements of long-wavelength density fluctuations in the pedestal region with beam emission spectroscopy during the period between edge localized modes (ELMs) indicate two distinct bands of fluctuations propagating in opposite poloidal directions in the plasma frame: one lower frequency band (50-150 kHz) advects in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction (ion mode) and a higher frequency band (200-400 kHz) advects in the electron diamagnetic drift direction (electron mode). The ion mode amplitude is modulated with the ELM cycle: it increases rapidly after an ELM and then saturates, similar to the evolution of the pedestal electron pressure and density gradients. The electron mode, in contrast, has no significant time evolution between ELMs. The decorrelation time of the ion mode is <5 {mu}s[{tau}{sub c}(c{sub s}/c{sub s}aa){<=}1], the radial correlation length is of order 10 {rho}{sub i} and has poloidal wave-number k{sub {theta}{rho}i{approx}}0.1, and the mode advects at near the ion diamagnetic velocity in the plasma frame. These spatiotemporal dynamics are qualitatively similar to features predicted for kinetic ballooning modes.
White, A. E.; Schmitz, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Carter, T. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Holland, C.; Tynan, G. R.; Austin, M. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; DeBoo, J. C.; Prater, R.; Staebler, G. M.; Waltz, R. E.; Makowski, M. A.
2008-05-15
For the first time, profiles (0.3<{rho}<0.9) of electron temperature and density fluctuations in a tokamak have been measured simultaneously and the results compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. Electron temperature and density fluctuations measured in neutral beam-heated, sawtooth-free low confinement mode (L-mode) plasmas in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] are found to be similar in frequency and normalized amplitude, with amplitude increasing with radius. The measured radial profile of two fluctuation fields allows for a new and rigorous comparison with gyrokinetic results. Nonlinear gyrokinetic flux-tube simulations predict that electron temperature and density fluctuations have similar normalized amplitudes in L-mode. At {rho}=0.5, simulation results match experimental heat diffusivities and density fluctuation amplitude, but overestimate electron temperature fluctuation amplitude and particle diffusivity. In contrast, simulations at {rho}=0.75 do not match either the experimentally derived transport properties or the measured fluctuation levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zachary, Chase E.; Torquato, Salvatore
2011-05-01
We provide numerical constructions of one-dimensional hyperuniform many-particle distributions that exhibit unusual clustering and asymptotic local number density fluctuations growing more slowly than the volume of an observation window but faster than the surface area. Hyperuniformity, defined by vanishing infinite-wavelength local density fluctuations, provides a quantitative metric of global order within a many-particle configuration and signals the onset of an “inverted” critical point in which the direct correlation function becomes long ranged. By targeting a specified form of the structure factor at small wavenumbers (S(k)~kα for 0<α<1) using collective density variables, we are able to tailor the form of asymptotic local density fluctuations while simultaneously measuring the effect of imposing weak and strong constraints on the available degrees of freedom within the system. This procedure is equivalent to finding the (possibly disordered) classical ground state of an interacting many-particle system with up to four-body interactions. Even in one dimension, the long-range effective interactions induce clustering and nontrivial phase transitions in the resulting ground-state configurations. We provide an analytical connection between the fraction of constrained degrees of freedom within the system and the disorder-order phase transition for a class of target structure factors by examining the realizability of the constrained contribution to the pair correlation function. Our results explicitly demonstrate that disordered hyperuniform many-particle ground states, and therefore also point distributions, with substantial clustering can be constructed. We directly relate the local coordination structure of our point patterns to the distribution of the void space external to the particles, and we provide a scaling argument for the configurational entropy (analogous to spin-frustated system) of the disordered ground states. By emphasizing the intimate
Voltage Fluctuation to Current Converter with Coulomb-Coupled Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, F.; Pfeffer, P.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.
2015-04-01
We study the rectification of voltage fluctuations in a system consisting of two Coulomb-coupled quantum dots. The first quantum dot is connected to a reservoir where voltage fluctuations are supplied and the second one is attached to two separate leads via asymmetric and energy-dependent transport barriers. We observe a rectified output current through the second quantum dot depending quadratically on the noise amplitude supplied to the other Coulomb-coupled quantum dot. The current magnitude and direction can be switched by external gates, and maximum output currents are found in the nA region. The rectification delivers output powers in the pW region. Future devices derived from our sample may be applied for energy harvesting on the nanoscale beneficial for autonomous and energy-efficient electronic applications.
Precipitation-Induced Voltage-Dependent Ion Current Fluctuations in Conical Nanopores
Vlassiouk, Ivan V
2010-01-01
Single conically shaped nanopores produce stable ion current fluctuations when in contact with weakly soluble salts, such as calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO{sub 4}) and cobalt hydrogen phosphate (CoHPO{sub 4}). The pore spontaneously switches between high and low conductance states, called open and closed states, respectively. Pore opening and closing are linked to the dynamic formation of the calcium and cobalt precipitates at the small opening of the pore. The probabilities of pore opening and closing are voltage-dependent, and this characteristic of ion current signal is known for biological voltage-gated channels. We show that new types of ion current fluctuations are obtained in conditions at which precipitates of CaHPO{sub 4} and CoHPO{sub 4} can form in the pore at the same time.
Cosmological Inflation with Multiple Fields and the Theory of Density Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Tent, B. J. W.
2002-09-01
Inflation is a stage of extremely rapid expansion in the very early universe. It was proposed to solve a number of problems in the standard Big Bang theory. In particular it others an explanation for the origin of structures like (clusters of) galaxies on the one hand (by generating small density fluctuations that act as gravitational seeds), and for the largescale homogeneity of the universe on the other hand (because of the enormous expansion). Inflation is driven by one or more scalar fields with an appropriate potential. In this thesis we develop an analytical formalism to describe the generation of density fluctuations during inflation with multiple scalar fields. We allow these fields to live on a non-trivial (curved) field manifold, as is often the case in high-energy theories. We also treat the evolution of the fluctuations after inflation, until the time of recombination when the cosmic microwave background radiation was formed. Using our formalism observations of the CMBR can then be used to set constraints on the parameters in (multiple-field) inflation models. In more detail this thesis covers the following topics. After introductory chapters on cosmology in general and single-field inflation, the theory of inflation with multiple fields and a general (non-trivial) field metric is derived. In particular we introduce a basis in field space that is induced by the background dynamics and allows a clear distinction between effectively single-field and truly multiple-field effects. The important slow-roll approximation is generalized to the case of multiple fields. Next we derive how scalar and tensor fluctuations are generated from a quantum origin during multiple-field inflation, paying special attention to the transition that occurs when a perturbation mode crosses the Hubble scale. Using some simplifying assumptions the evolution of both adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation modes after inflation is treated. The final results are expressions for the
Individual differences in transcranial electrical stimulation current density
Russell, Michael J; Goodman, Theodore; Pierson, Ronald; Shepherd, Shane; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Wiley, David F
2013-01-01
Transcranial electrical stimulation (TCES) is effective in treating many conditions, but it has not been possible to accurately forecast current density within the complex anatomy of a given subject's head. We sought to predict and verify TCES current densities and determine the variability of these current distributions in patient-specific models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment estimated conductivity from MRIs and compared the current density results against actual measurements from the scalp surface of 3 subjects. In the second experiment, virtual electrodes were placed on the scalps of 18 subjects to model simulated current densities with 2 mA of virtually applied stimulation. This procedure was repeated for 4 electrode locations. Current densities were then calculated for 75 brain regions. Comparison of modeled and measured external current in experiment 1 yielded a correlation of r = .93. In experiment 2, modeled individual differences were greatest near the electrodes (ten-fold differences were common), but simulated current was found in all regions of the brain. Sites that were distant from the electrodes (e.g. hypothalamus) typically showed two-fold individual differences. MRI-based modeling can effectively predict current densities in individual brains. Significant variation occurs between subjects with the same applied electrode configuration. Individualized MRI-based modeling should be considered in place of the 10-20 system when accurate TCES is needed. PMID:24285948
The physicist's companion to current fluctuations: one-dimensional bulk-driven lattice gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarescu, Alexandre
2015-12-01
One of the main features of statistical systems out of equilibrium is the currents they exhibit in their stationary state: microscopic currents of probability between configurations, which translate into macroscopic currents of mass, charge, etc. Understanding the general behaviour of these currents is an important step towards building a universal framework for non-equilibrium steady states akin to the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. In this review, we consider one-dimensional bulk-driven particle gases, and in particular the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with open boundaries, which is one of the most popular models of one-dimensional transport. We focus, in particular, on the current of particles flowing through the system in its steady state, and on its fluctuations. We show how one can obtain the complete statistics of that current, through its large deviation function, by combining results from various methods: exact calculation of the cumulants of the current, using the integrability of the model; direct diagonalization of a biased process in the limits of very high or low current; hydrodynamic description of the model in the continuous limit using the macroscopic fluctuation theory. We give a pedagogical account of these techniques, starting with a quick introduction to the necessary mathematical tools, as well as a short overview of the existing works relating to the ASEP. We conclude by drawing the complete dynamical phase diagram of the current. We also remark on a few possible generalizations of these results.
On bottom density currents on the continental shelves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anuchin, V. N.; Gusev, A. M.; Pyrkin, Y. G.; Khapayev, M. M.
1975-01-01
The turbulent characteristics of bottom density currents on the continental shelves and their influence on the vertical profiles of current velocities are studied by considering plane parallel flows of a liquid with one density in a motionless liquid and with lighter density along an inclined plane. The motion of the liquid is a result of gravitational force directed along the parallel plane. Vertical distribution of turbulent stress is determined from a known average velocity profile and is used to obtain the vertical profile of the average current velocity.
Lower-hybrid poloidal current drive for fluctuation reduction in a reversed field pinch
Uchimoto, E.; Cekic, M.; Harvey, R.W.; Litwin, C.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Sovinec, C.R.
1994-06-01
Current drive using the lower-hybrid slow wave is shown to be a promising candidate for improving confinement properties of a reversed field pinch (RFP). Ray-tracing calculations indicate that the wave will make a few poloidal turns while spiraling radially into a target zone inside the reversal layer. The poloidal antenna wavelength of the lower hybrid wave can be chosen so that efficient parallel current drive will occur mostly in the poloidal direction in this outer region. Three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computation demonstrates that an additive poloidal current in this region will reduce the magnetic fluctuations and magnetic stochasticity.
Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.
2001-02-10
The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1-D reflectometer model taking into account the influence of finite density fluctuation levels and the upper hybrid resonance. It is found that a high level of O-X correlation can only be achieved for sufficiently small density fluctuation levels (typically much less than 1%) or very low magnetic field strengths. The influence of the upper hybrid resonance on the O-X correlation was found to also degrade the correlation between the O and X mode signals for very low magnetic field strengths or for very short density scale lengths. The extrapolation of these results to reactor-scale parameters indicates that the magnetic field strength can reliably be measured in the core plasma provided the density fluctuation level is typically much less than 1%.
Structure and Function of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps.
Battipaglia, Giovanna; Campelo, Filipe; Vieira, Joana; Grabner, Michael; De Micco, Veronica; Nabais, Cristina; Cherubini, Paolo; Carrer, Marco; Bräuning, Achim; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; García-González, Ignacio; Koprowski, Marcin; Klisz, Marcin; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Zafirov, Nikolay; de Luis, Martin
2016-01-01
Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical, and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic and external factors, and their interaction during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs) can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1) the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2) the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3) the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events. PMID:27200063
Structure and Function of Intra–Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps
Battipaglia, Giovanna; Campelo, Filipe; Vieira, Joana; Grabner, Michael; De Micco, Veronica; Nabais, Cristina; Cherubini, Paolo; Carrer, Marco; Bräuning, Achim; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; García-González, Ignacio; Koprowski, Marcin; Klisz, Marcin; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.; Zafirov, Nikolay; de Luis, Martin
2016-01-01
Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical, and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic and external factors, and their interaction during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs) can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1) the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2) the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3) the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events. PMID:27200063
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altaner, Bernhard; Wachtel, Artur; Vollmer, Jürgen
2015-10-01
Unlike macroscopic engines, the molecular machinery of living cells is strongly affected by fluctuations. Stochastic thermodynamics uses Markovian jump processes to model the random transitions between the chemical and configurational states of these biological macromolecules. A recently developed theoretical framework [A. Wachtel, J. Vollmer, and B. Altaner, Phys. Rev. E 92, 042132 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.042132] provides a simple algorithm for the determination of macroscopic currents and correlation integrals of arbitrary fluctuating currents. Here we use it to discuss energy conversion and nonequilibrium response in different models for the molecular motor kinesin. Methodologically, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in dealing with parameter-dependent stochastic models. For the concrete biophysical problem our results reveal two interesting features in experimentally accessible parameter regions: the validity of a nonequilibrium Green-Kubo relation at mechanical stalling as well as a negative differential mobility for superstalling forces.
Altaner, Bernhard; Wachtel, Artur; Vollmer, Jürgen
2015-10-01
Unlike macroscopic engines, the molecular machinery of living cells is strongly affected by fluctuations. Stochastic thermodynamics uses Markovian jump processes to model the random transitions between the chemical and configurational states of these biological macromolecules. A recently developed theoretical framework [A. Wachtel, J. Vollmer, and B. Altaner, Phys. Rev. E 92, 042132 (2015)] provides a simple algorithm for the determination of macroscopic currents and correlation integrals of arbitrary fluctuating currents. Here we use it to discuss energy conversion and nonequilibrium response in different models for the molecular motor kinesin. Methodologically, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in dealing with parameter-dependent stochastic models. For the concrete biophysical problem our results reveal two interesting features in experimentally accessible parameter regions: the validity of a nonequilibrium Green-Kubo relation at mechanical stalling as well as a negative differential mobility for superstalling forces. PMID:26565194
Quenching of the beam-plasma instability by 3-D spectra of large scale density fluctuations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muschietti, L.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D.
1984-01-01
A model is presented to explain the highly variable yet low level of Langmuir waves measured in situ by spacecraft when electron beams associated with Type III solar bursts are passing by; the low level of excited waves allows the propagation of such streams from the Sun to well past 1 AU without catastrophic energy losses. The model is based, first, on the existence of large scale density fluctuations that are able to efficiently diffuse small k beam unstable Langmuir waves in phase space, and, second, on the presence of a significantly isotropic nonthermal tail in the distribution function of the background electron population, which is capable of stabilizing larger k modes. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict various levels of Langmuir waves depending on the parameters. This feature is consistent with the high variability actually observed in the measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjhung, Elsen; Berthier, Ludovic
2015-04-01
The emergence of particle irreversibility in periodically driven colloidal suspensions has been interpreted as resulting either from a nonequilibrium phase transition to an absorbing state or from the chaotic nature of particle trajectories. Using a simple model of a driven suspension, we show that a nonequilibrium phase transition is accompanied by hyperuniform static density fluctuations in the vicinity of the transition, where we also observe strong dynamic heterogeneities reminiscent of dynamics in glassy materials. We find that single particle dynamics becomes intermittent and strongly non-Fickian, and that collective dynamics becomes spatially correlated over diverging length scales. Our results suggest that the two theoretical scenarii can be experimentally discriminated using particle-resolved measurements of standard static and dynamic observables.
Alternating-Current Equipment for the Measurement of Fluctuations of Air Speed in Turbulent Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mock, W C , Jr
1937-01-01
Recent electrical and mechanical improvements have been made in the equipment developed at the National Bureau of Standards for measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow. Data useful in the design of similar equipment are presented. The design of rectified alternating-current power supplies for such apparatus is treated briefly, and the effect of the power supplies on the performance of the equipment is discussed.
Magnetic Resonance Current Density Imaging of Chemical Processes and Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beravs, Katarina; Demš Ar, Alojz; Demsar, Franci
1999-03-01
Electric current density imaging was used to image conductivity changes that occur as a chemical process or reaction progresses. Feasibility was assessed in two models representing the dissolving of an ionic solid and the formation of an insoluble precipitate. In both models, temporal and spatial changes in ionic concentrations were obtained on current density images. As expected, the images showed significant signal enhancement along the ionization/dissociation sites.
High current density pulsed cathode experiments at SLAC
Koontz, R.; Fant, K.; Vlieks, A.
1990-06-01
A 1.9 microperveance beam diode has been constructed to test high current density cathodes for use in klystrons. Several standard and specially coated dispenser cathodes are being tested. Results of tests to date show average cathode current densities in excess of 25 amps/cm, and maximum electric field gradients of more than 450 kV/cm for pulses of the order of 1{mu}sec. 3 refs., 11 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parke, Eli
Due to long fast ion confinement times, neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) yields large fast ion populations with substantial density gradients. Novel application of the unique high-rep-rate (>10 kHz) Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST has enabled characterization of a newly observed beam-driven instability, and detailed measurement of equilibrium changes caused by the fast ion population. While previous work has focused on high-frequency energetic particle modes (EPMs), recent observations indicate that fast ions drive a bursting instability near the plasma rotation frequency under appropriate conditions. The mode chirps strongly, with a frequency of approximately 7 kHz in the plasma reference frame at peak amplitude. Bursts are correlated with EPM activity and core neutral particle analyzer signals drop by 30% during a burst, suggesting that this mode participates in avalanches of the higher frequency EPMs and drives enhanced fast ion transport. Electron temperature fluctuations correlated with this low-frequency mode exhibit a core-peaked structure with a sensitive dependence on the safety factor q. Although this mode has not yet been positively identified, its characteristics and internal structure are suggestive of an internal kink (fishbone) or beta-induced Alfven eigenmode. In addition to driving EPMs, the large fast ion population also modifies the current profile. An increase in on-axis current density driven by NBI is offset by a reduction in the mid-radius, leading to net-zero current drive. This results in a slight flattening of the safety factor profile, observed by precise measurement of the rational surface locations of the dominant tearing modes; these are identified from the phase flip in correlated electron temperature fluctuations recorded by Thomson scattering. For the core n = 6 rational surface, an inward shift of 1.1 +/- 0.6 cm is observed, with an estimated reduction in q0 of 5%. This technique provides a
Current density and plasma displacement near perturbed rational surfaces
Boozer, Allen H.; Pomphrey, Neil
2010-11-15
The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement. A resolution of the paradox of a jump in the displacement is required for interpreting perturbed tokamak equilibria.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg; Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio Alejandro
2016-07-01
In collisionless magnetic reconnection, dissipation region, where frozen-in condition of magnetic field breaks down, develops two scale structure, viz., electron current sheets embedded inside ion current sheets. Instabilities of these current sheets lead to the development of electromagnetic turbulence which can cause anomalous dissipation enhancing the reconnection rate. Laboratory experiments, e.g., Magnetic Reconnection Experiment and VINETA-II have measured fluctuations in electron current sheets in the lower hybrid frequency range. We present simulations of the electromagnetic turbulence generated by current sheet instabilities. The characteristic features of the electromagnetic turbulence, which can be used to identify the unstable modes responsible for the turbulence, will be studied. The results will be compared with the laboratory experiments.
A determination of the current density in electron beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beil, R. J.
1982-01-01
Current gathering rotating probe techniques were used to examine the envelope shape and power density profile of electron beams used in electron beam welding devices. The electron power density contours which determine the shape of the weld vapor cavity, penetration, and local heat distribution were considered. A mathematical analysis consistent with a rotating probe technique necessary to determine the current density distribution (assumed symmetrically radial) in a cross-section of the beam is provided. An explanation of the experimental technique for obtaining data, a BASIC language computer program to determine the current density from the data, and a study indicating the level of confidence to be associated with results obtained are also provided. An example of the application of the analysis to some experimental electron beam data is included.
Ruff, R L
1977-01-01
1. The effect of the local anaesthetic QX222 on the kinetics of miniature end-plate currents (m.e.p.c.s) and acetylcholine (ACh) induced end-plate current (e.p.c) fluctuations was studied in voltage-clamped frog cutaneous pectoris neuromuscular junctions made visible with Nomarski differential interference contrast optics. 2. In Ringer solution the m.e.p.c.s decayed with a single exponential time course and the e.p.c. fluctuation spectra were characterized by single Lorentzian functions, with the spectral cut-off frequency well predicted by the m.e.p.c. decay rate. 3. In the presence of 0-1-0-5 mm QX222 at-50 to -100 mV holding potential both the e.p.c. fluctuation spectrum and the m.e.p.c. decay consisted of a fast and a slow component, with the cut-off frequency of each spectral component predicted by the decay rate of the corresponding constituent of the m.e.p.c. 4. Hyperpolarization increased the decay rate and relative amplitude of the fast component of the m.e.p.c. and decreased the decay rate of the slow m.e.p.c. component. 5. With 0-05 mm QX222 and -70 mV holding potential the m.e.p.c.s. and e.p.c. fluctuation spectra consisted of three components. The third component of the m.e.p.c. and e.p.c. spectra had nearly the same decay rate and cut-off frequency as was found at the same end-plate under equivalent conditions before drug exposure. 6. The kinetic predictions of four different schemes for local anaesthetic action were compared with observed m.e.p.c.s. and e.p.c. fluctuations. 7. Schemes in which the local anaesthetic acted by creating two kinetically distinct populations of acetylcholine receptors or by interacting with ACh receptor to produce a biphasic exponential decay of the end-plate channel conductance did not accurately predict the e.p.c. fluctuation spectrum. 8. The variance of the e.p.c. fluctuations vanished at the reversal potential indicating that local anaesthetic action was not due to the presence of different ion selective end
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clukey, Steven J.
1988-01-01
The high speed Dynamic Data Acquisition System (DDAS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. The data acquisition and data reduction process has been combined within DDAS. DDAS receives input from hot wires and anemometers, amplifies and filters the signals with computer controlled modules, and converts the analog signals to digital with real-time simultaneous digitization followed by digital recording on disk or tape. Automatic acquisition (either from a computer link to an existing wind tunnel acquisition system, or from data acquisition facilities within DDAS) collects necessary calibration and environment data. The generation of hot wire sensitivities is done in DDAS, as is the application of sensitivities to the hot wire data to generate turbulence quantities. The presentation of the raw and processed data, in terms of root mean square values of velocity, density and temperature, and the processing of the spectral data is accomplished on demand in near-real-time- with DDAS. A comprehensive description of the interface to the DDAS and of the internal mechanisms will be prosented. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAS will be provided.
Power Spectral Density of Fluctuations of Bulk and Thermal Speeds in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L.; Chen, C. H. K.; Zastenker, G. N.
2016-07-01
This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s‑1 bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are ‑1.43 and ‑1.38, respectively, whereas they are ‑3.08 and ‑2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.
Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode
Jay L. Hirshfield
2005-12-19
High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes
Estimation of nighttime dip-equatorial E-region current density using measurements and models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Kuldeep; Sekar, R.; Anandarao, B. G.; Gupta, S. P.; Chakrabarty, D.
2016-08-01
The existence of the possible ionospheric current during nighttime over low-equatorial latitudes is one of the unresolved issues in ionospheric physics and geomagnetism. A detailed investigation is carried out to estimate the same over Indian longitudes using in situ measurements from Thumba (8.5 ° N, 76.9 ° E), empirical plasma drift model (Fejer et al., 2008) and equatorial electrojet model developed by Anandarao (1976). This investigation reveals that the nighttime E-region current densities vary from ∼0.3 to ∼0.7 A/km2 during pre-midnight to early morning hours on geomagnetically quiet conditions. The nighttime current densities over the dip equator are estimated using three different methods (discussed in methodology section) and are found to be consistent with one another within the uncertainty limits. Altitude structures in the E-region current densities are also noticed which are shown to be associated with altitudinal structures in the electron densities. The horizontal component of the magnetic field induced by these nighttime ionospheric currents is estimated to vary between ∼2 and ∼6 nT during geomagnetically quiet periods. This investigation confirms the existence of nighttime ionospheric current and opens up a possibility of estimating base line value for geomagnetic field fluctuations as observed by ground-based magnetometer.
Magneto-optical imaging of transport current densities in superconductors
Crabtree, G.W.; Welp, U.; Gunter, D.O.; Zhong, W.; Balachandran, U.; Haldar, P.; Sokolowski, R.S.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V.K.; Nikitenko, V.I.
1995-12-31
Direct imaging of the paths of transport currents in superconductors creates many new possibilities for exploring the basic features of vortex pinning mechanisms and for improving the performance of superconducting materials. A technique for imaging the path and magnitude of the transport current density flowing in superconductors is described. Results are given for a 37-filament BSCCO 2223 powder-in-tube wire, showing a highly inhomogeneous current path within the filaments.
Characteristics of density currents over regular and irregular rough surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaganagar, K.
2013-12-01
Direct numerical simulation is used as a tool to understand the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of density currents. Simulations have been performed for lock-exchange flow with gate separating the dense and the lighter fluid. As the lock is released the dense fluid collapses with the lighter fluid on the top, resulting in formation of horizontally evolving density current. The talk will focus on the fundamental differences between the propagation of the density current over regular and irregular rough surfaces. The flow statistics and the flow structures are discussed. The results have revealed the spacing between the roughness elements is an important factor in classifying the density currents. The empirical relations of the front velocity and location for the dense and sparse roughness have been evaluated in terms of the roughness height, spacing between the elements and the initial amount of lock fluid. DNS results for a dense current flowing over a (a) smooth and (b) rough bottom with egg-carton roughness elements in a regular configuration. In these simulations the lock-exchange box is located in the middle of the channel and has two gates which allow two dense currents to be generated, one moving to the right and one to the left side of the channel. Note how the dense current interface presents smaller structures when over a rough bottom (right).
Direct Measurements of Upper Limits for Transient Density Fluctuations in the Zodiacal Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, B.
1997-12-01
Questions regarding the density of the local zodiacal clouds have recently become important in many areas. Several planned searches for extrasolar system planets require a better knowledge of the behavior of zodiacal clouds, the solar system zodiacal cloud has been suggested as a driving force for glaciations, and it is becoming clear that discussions regarding prebiotic chemistry must include the flux of interplanetary particles onto Earth. No certain upper limits can today be set for transient density variations in the local zodiacal cloud, nor for fluctuations in the particle-flux onto Earth. Some new results have, however, created a possibility to measure this in the geological record. An interdisciplinary project is described. The goal for the project is to set upper limits for the zodiacal dust-flux onto Earth during passages through IRAS dust-bands during the last 2.5 million years, and use these limits to calculate the maximum density of the bands. We estimate the predicted flux of zodiacal particles onto Earth through orbital modeling., where it is assumed that the source for the IRAS dust-bands are a few Hirayama asteroid families. The orbits of the asteroids and the produced dust are integrated to find the times when Earth revolved within a dust-band. This forms the basis for a geochemical analysis of oceanic sediments, lake sediments, ice-cores and loess-deposits, with the goal to find the signal from a passage through a dust-band. Apart from providing an excellent stratigraphic dating tool, the identification and characterization of such a signal would give important information about the behavior of the zodiacal cloud over shorter times (1-2 My). Some astronomical results are presented and compared with sedimentological observations.
Dispersal and air entrainment in unconfined dilute pyroclastic density currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, Benjamin J.
2014-09-01
Unconfined scaled laboratory experiments show that 3D structures control the behavior of dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) during and after liftoff. Experiments comprise heated and ambient temperature 20 μm talc powder turbulently suspended in air to form density currents within an unobstructed 8.5 × 6 × 2.6-m chamber. Comparisons of Richardson, thermal Richardson, Froude, Stokes, and settling numbers and buoyant thermal to kinetic energy densities show good agreement between experimental currents and dilute PDCs. The experimental Reynolds numbers are lower than those of PDCs, but the experiments are fully turbulent; thus, the large-scale dynamics are similar between the two systems. High-frequency, simultaneous observation in three orthogonal planes shows that the currents behave very differently than previous 2D (i.e., confined) currents. Specifically, whereas ambient temperature currents show radial dispersal patterns, buoyancy reversal, and liftoff of heated currents focuses dispersal along narrow axes beneath the rising plumes. The aspect ratios, defined as the current length divided by a characteristic width, are typically 2.5-3.5 in heated currents and 1.5-2.5 in ambient temperature currents, reflecting differences in dispersal between the two types of currents. Mechanisms of air entrainment differ greatly between the two currents: entrainment occurs primarily behind the heads and through the upper margins of ambient temperature currents, but heated currents entrain air through their lateral margins. That lateral entrainment is much more efficient than the vertical entrainment, >0.5 compared to ˜0.1, where entrainment is defined as the ratio of cross-stream to streamwise velocity. These experiments suggest that generation of coignimbrite plumes should focus PDCs along narrow transport axes, resulting in elongate rather than radial deposits.
Superconducting toroidal field coil current densities for the TFCX
Kalsi, S.S.; Hooper, R.J.
1985-04-01
A major goal of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) study was to minimize the size of the device and achieve lowest cost. Two key factors influencing the size of the device employing superconducting magnets are toroidal field (TF) winding current density and its nuclear heat load withstand capability. Lower winding current density requires larger radial build of the winding pack. Likewise, lower allowable nuclear heating in the winding requires larger shield thickness between the plasma and coil. In order to achieve a low-cost device, it is essential to maximize the winding's current density and nuclear heating withhstand capability. To meet the above objective, the TFCX design specification adopted as goals a nominal winding current density of 3500 A/cm/sup 2/ with 10-T peak field at the winding and peak nuclear heat load limits of 1 MW/cm/sup 3/ for the nominal design and 50 MW/cm/sup 3/ for an advanced design. This study developed justification for these current density and nuclear heat load limits.
White, A. E.; Schmitz, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Staebler, G. M.; Burrell, K. H.; DeBoo, J. C.; Prater, R.
2010-02-15
New measurements show that long-wavelength (k{sub t}hetarho{sub s}<0.5) electron temperature fluctuations can play an important role in determining electron thermal transport in low-confinement mode (L-mode) tokamak plasmas. In neutral beam-heated L-mode tokamak plasmas, electron thermal transport and the amplitude of long-wavelength electron temperature fluctuations both increase in cases where local electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used to modify the plasma profiles. In contrast, the amplitude of simultaneously measured long-wavelength density fluctuations does not significantly increase. Linear stability analysis indicates that the ratio of the trapped electron mode (TEM) to ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode growth rates increases in the cases with ECH. The increased importance of the TEM drive relative to the ITG mode drive in the cases with ECH may be associated with the increases in electron thermal transport and electron temperature fluctuations.
Current drive at plasma densities required for thermonuclear reactors.
Cesario, R; Amicucci, L; Cardinali, A; Castaldo, C; Marinucci, M; Panaccione, L; Santini, F; Tudisco, O; Apicella, M L; Calabrò, G; Cianfarani, C; Frigione, D; Galli, A; Mazzitelli, G; Mazzotta, C; Pericoli, V; Schettini, G; Tuccillo, A A
2010-01-01
Progress in thermonuclear fusion energy research based on deuterium plasmas magnetically confined in toroidal tokamak devices requires the development of efficient current drive methods. Previous experiments have shown that plasma current can be driven effectively by externally launched radio frequency power coupled to lower hybrid plasma waves. However, at the high plasma densities required for fusion power plants, the coupled radio frequency power does not penetrate into the plasma core, possibly because of strong wave interactions with the plasma edge. Here we show experiments performed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) based on theoretical predictions that nonlinear interactions diminish when the peripheral plasma electron temperature is high, allowing significant wave penetration at high density. The results show that the coupled radio frequency power can penetrate into high-density plasmas due to weaker plasma edge effects, thus extending the effective range of lower hybrid current drive towards the domain relevant for fusion reactors. PMID:20975718
Scaling rules for critical current density in anisotropic biaxial superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yingxu; Kang, Guozheng; Gao, Yuanwen
2016-06-01
Recent researches highlight the additional anisotropic crystallographic axis within the superconducting plane of high temperature superconductors (HTS), demonstrating the superconducting anisotropy of HTS is better understood in the biaxial frame than the previous uniaxial coordinates within the superconducting layer. To quantitatively evaluate the anisotropy of flux pinning and critical current density in HTS, we extend the scaling rule for single-vortex collective pinning in uniaxial superconductors to account for flux-bundle collective pinning in biaxial superconductors. The scaling results show that in a system of random uncorrected point defects, the field dependence of the critical current density is described by a unified function with the scaled magnetic field of the isotropic superconductor. The obtained angular dependence of the critical current density depicts the main features of experimental observations, considering possible corrections due to the strong-pinning interaction.
Valiante, T A; Abdul-Ghani, M A; Carlen, P L; Pennefather, P
1997-01-01
1. We have studied macroscopic current fluctuations associated with the after-hyperpolarization current (IAHP) that follows a 200 ms voltage-clamp step to 0 mV in dentate granule (DG) neurones of the rat hippocampus. This maximally effective stimulus produced a peak IAHP of 205 +/- 20 pA. Background noise was minimized by using the whole-cell single-electrode voltage-clamp configuration. 2. Conventional current-variance analysis was performed on IAHP to obtain estimates of the unitary AHP channel current (i) and the maximal attainable AHP current (Imax). A second approach, utilizing changes in the power spectrum of IAHP 'noise' during the decay of IAHP, was employed to yield an independent estimate of Imax as well as an estimate of the mean open-state duration of AHP channels. 3. Changes in the power spectrum during IAHP decay revealed that the mean channel open time is fixed at 6.9 +/- 0.5 ms and that the decay is due to changes in channel closed-state duration. The same analysis gave a value for Imax of 320 +/- 20 pA (n = 7). 4. Current-variance analysis suggests that channels responsible for generation of IAHP have a unitary current of 0.29 +/- 0.08 pA at -45 mV in 5 mM extracellular potassium and an Imax of 400 +/- 180 (n = 7). Thus, both methods indicate that about 1200 channels are available to generate IAHP in DG neurones and that about 60% are open at the peak of a maximal IAHP. 5. Computer simulations of IAHP currents in a model neurone show that dendritic current sources will result in an underestimation of i while Imax is underestimated to a lesser extent. Estimates of Imax obtained from power-spectrum analysis are more accurate and less affected by neuronal electrotonic structure than estimates of Imax based on current-variance analysis. PMID:9061644
Single Nanotube Voltammetry: Current Fluctuations Are Due to Physical Motion of the Nanotube
2016-01-01
Nanoimpacts of single palladium-coated carbon nanotubes on a gold substrate are studied to elucidate the origins of the fluctuation in the current–time response of the hydrogen oxidation reaction mediated at its surface. The chronoamperometric and cyclic voltammetric responses from a single nanotube immobilized on the gold surface were compared to analogous data on a carbon substrate to determine the possible influence of substrate material on the nanotube–electrode electrical contact. No significant distinction between the gold and carbon was found, indicating in light of the considerable differences in the substrate materials’ intrinsic electronic structures that it is the nanomotion of a nanotube at the electrode surface which is likely responsible for the observed current modulation. This nanomotion creates a varying contact resistance, to which the noise in the current–time signal of the mediated reaction is attributed. In addition, stochastic ex-situ adsorption of single nanotubes onto the gold electrode followed by careful drying of the electrode surface was found to drastically reduce the current fluctuation, again implying that a contact resistance arising from physical motion of the nanotube at the electrode is responsible for the modulation of current. PMID:27066159
Reprint of : Semiclassical theory of persistent current fluctuations in ballistic chaotic rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brouwer, Piet W.; Danon, Jeroen
2016-08-01
The persistent current in a mesoscopic ring has a Gaussian distribution with small non-Gaussian corrections. Here we report a semiclassical calculation of the leading non-Gaussian correction, which is described by the three-point correlation function. The semiclassical approach is applicable to systems in which the electron dynamics is ballistic and chaotic, and includes the dependence on the Ehrenfest time. At small but finite Ehrenfest times, the non-Gaussian fluctuations are enhanced with respect to the limit of zero Ehrenfest time.
Critical current density in railgrun accelerators with composite electrodes
Stankevich, S.V.; Shvetsov, G.A.
1995-11-01
The present paper is intended to study the possibilities of increasing the critical current density in railgun accelerators using composite electrodes of various structure. Before proceeding to the analysis this way, it should be noted that the requirements for materials selected for the rails go beyond the values of the current density. In real practice account should be taken of the technological problems concerned with the production of the electrodes, as well as of those concerned with the railgun performance, including the multishot life.
Fluctuation and transport reduction in a reversed field pinch by inductive poloidal current drive
Sarff, J.S.; Hokin, S.A.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.C.; Sovinec, C.R.
1993-12-01
An auxilliay poloidal inductive electric field applied to a reversed field pinch plasma reduces the current density gradient, slows the growth of m=1 tearing fluctations, suppresses their associated sawteeth, and doubles the energy confinement time. Small sawteeth occur in the improved state but with m=0 precursors. By requiring a change of toroidal flux embedding the plasma, inductive poloidal current profile drive is transient, but the improvement encourages the program of RFP transport suppression using current profile control.
Noise distribution and denoising of current density images
Beheshti, Mohammadali; Foomany, Farbod H.; Magtibay, Karl; Jaffray, David A.; Krishnan, Sridhar; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Umapathy, Karthikeyan
2015-01-01
Abstract. Current density imaging (CDI) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique that could be used to study current pathways inside the tissue. The current distribution is measured indirectly as phase changes. The inherent noise in the MR imaging technique degrades the accuracy of phase measurements leading to imprecise current variations. The outcome can be affected significantly, especially at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We have shown the residual noise distribution of the phase to be Gaussian-like and the noise in CDI images approximated as a Gaussian. This finding matches experimental results. We further investigated this finding by performing comparative analysis with denoising techniques, using two CDI datasets with two different currents (20 and 45 mA). We found that the block-matching and three-dimensional (BM3D) technique outperforms other techniques when applied on current density (J). The minimum gain in noise power by BM3D applied to J compared with the next best technique in the analysis was found to be around 2 dB per pixel. We characterize the noise profile in CDI images and provide insights on the performance of different denoising techniques when applied at two different stages of current density reconstruction. PMID:26158100
Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.
2012-01-01
The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential nonuniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to 10% of the average current density in the discharge and 5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.
Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.
2012-01-01
The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential non-uniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to +/-10% of the average current density in the discharge and +/-5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 - 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.
2015-03-07
Kirkwood-Buff or Fluctuation Solution Theory can be used to provide experimental pair fluctuations, and/or integrals over the pair distribution functions, from experimental thermodynamic data on liquid mixtures. Here, this type of approach is used to provide triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and the corresponding integrals over the triplet and quadruplet distribution functions, in a purely thermodynamic manner that avoids the use of structure factors. The approach is then applied to binary mixtures of water + methanol and benzene + methanol over the full composition range under ambient conditions. The observed correlations between the different species vary significantly with composition. The magnitude of the fluctuations and integrals appears to increase as the number of the most polar molecule involved in the fluctuation or integral also increases. A simple physical picture of the fluctuations is provided to help rationalize some of these variations.
Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna
2016-01-01
Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052
Field equation of the correlation function of mass-density fluctuations for self-gravitating systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Chen, Qing
2015-09-01
We study the mass-density distribution of Newtonian self-gravitating systems. Modeling the system as a fluid in hydrostatical equilibrium, we obtain from first principles the field equation and its solution of the correlation function ξ(r) of the mass-density fluctuation itself. We apply this to studies of the large-scale structure of the Universe within a small redshift range. The equation shows that ξ(r) depends on the point mass m and the Jeans wavelength scale λ0, which are different for galaxies and clusters. It explains several long-standing prominent features of the observed clustering: that the profile of ξcc(r) of clusters is similar to ξgg(r) of galaxies, but with a higher amplitude and a longer correlation length, and that the correlation length increases with the mean separation between clusters as a universal scaling r0 ≃ 0.4d. Our solution ξ(r) also shows that the observed power-law correlation function of galaxies ξgg(r) ≃ (r0/r)1.7 is only valid in a range 1
Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna
2016-01-01
Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanova, I. V.; Dmitriev, D. I.; Sirazetdinov, V. S.
2007-02-01
In this paper we analyze some results of natural and numerical experiments on probability density of intensity fluctuations on an axis for 1,06 microns and 0,53 microns laser beams in comparison with theoretical dependences (lognormal, exponential and K-distribution). Beams were propagated in aviation engine exhaust at various angles between the jet and beam axes. It has been shown that for a beam with a wavelength of 0,53 microns experimental data can be approximated as exponential and K-distribution, while for radiation with a wavelength of 1,06 microns good conformity to K-distribution has been observed. Optimum conditions for image registration with CCD-cameras of laser beams distorted by turbulence have been chosen. For this purpose transfer characteristics of several same type samples of CCD-cameras have been studied at various irradiation modes and registration tunings. It has been shown that the dynamic range of the cameras is used to maximum capacity for image recording when gamma-correction is applied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, M. C.; Kuo, S. P.
1985-01-01
The physical mechanism of thermal filamentation instability of radio waves whose frequencies can be as low as in the VLF band and as high as in the SHF band are investigated. This instability can excite large-scale magnetic and plasma density fluctuations simultaneously in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. Relevant experiments are reviewed in terms of this instability and other mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pribram-Jones, Aurora; Grabowski, Paul E.; Burke, Kieron
2016-06-01
The van Leeuwen proof of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is generalized to thermal ensembles. This allows generalization to finite temperatures of the Gross-Kohn relation, the exchange-correlation kernel of TDDFT, and fluctuation dissipation theorem for DFT. This produces a natural method for generating new thermal exchange-correlation approximations.
Three-dimensional structure of dilute pyroclastic density currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, B. J.
2013-12-01
Unconfined experimental density currents dynamically similar to pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) suggest that cross-stream motions of the currents and air entrainment through currents' lateral margins strongly affects PDC behavior. Experiments are conducted within an air-filled tank 8.5 m long by 6.1 m wide by 2.6 m tall. Currents are generated by feeding heated powders down a chute into the tank at controlled rates to form dilute, particle-laden, turbulent gravity currents that are fed for 30 to 600 seconds. Powders include 5 μm aluminum oxide, 25 μm talc, 27 μm walnut, 76 μm glass beads and mixtures thereof. Experiments are scaled such that Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, particle Stokes and Settling numbers, and thermal to kinetic energy densities are all in agreement with dilute PDCs; experiments have lower Reynolds numbers that natural currents, but the experiments are fully turbulent, thus the large scale structures should be similar. The experiments are illuminated with 3 orthogonal laser sheets (650, 532, and 450 nm wavelengths) and recorded with an array of HD video cameras and a high speed camera (up to 3000 fps); this system provides synchronous observation of a vertical streamwise and cross-stream planes, and a horizontal plane. Ambient temperature currents tend to spread out radially from the source and have long run out distances, whereas warmer currents tend to focus along narrow sectors and have shorter run outs. In addition, when warm currents lift off to form buoyant plumes, lateral spreading ceases. The behavior of short duration currents are dominated by the current head; as eruption duration increases, current transport direction tends to oscillate back and forth (this is particularly true for ambient temperature currents). Turbulent structures in the horizontal plane show air entrainment and advection downstream. Eddies illuminated by the vertical cross-stream laser sheet often show vigorous mixing along the current margins
Electric fields and current densities under small Florida thunderstorms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deaver, Lance E.; Krider, E. P.
1991-01-01
Results are presented of measurements of the electric field E and Maxwell current density that were performed simultaneously under and near small Florida thunderstorms. It is shown that the amplitude of JM is of the order of 1 nA/sq cm or less in the absence of precipitation and that there are regular time variations in JM during the intervals between lightning discharges that tend to have the same shapes after different discharges in different storms. It is argued that the major causes of time variations in JM between lightning discharges are currents that flow in the finitely conducting atmosphere in response to the field changes rather than rapid time variations in the strength of cloud current sources. The displacement current densities that are computed from the E records dominate JM except when there is precipitation, when E is large and steady, or when E is unusually noisy.
On the current density reduction ahead of dipolarization fronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, San; Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Quanming; Liu, Jiang
2016-05-01
During their earthward propagation, dipolarization fronts (DFs) interact with the ambient plasma sheet on kinetic scales. The interaction region is important to the front's structure, propagation, and regional closure of the current system. However, the physics in this region, especially of its current system, is poorly understood. We present Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations of the interaction region between DFs and the ambient plasma sheet at x ~ - 12 RE downtail; these observations show that the current density ahead of the DFs is significantly reduced near the neutral plane. We use a two-dimensional particle-in-cell model to simulate the current density reduction ahead of DFs and investigate the physical mechanism that causes it: Ion reflection and acceleration at the front cause positive charge density to build up. The resultant electrostatic field, Ez, is directed away from the neutral plane. The positive cross-tail Ez × Bx drift of electrons (which remain magnetized) does not affect demagnetized ions. This electron-ion decoupling results in a dawnward cross-field current carried by electrons that reduces the cross-tail current ahead of the approaching front.
Miao, Xinyu; Yin, Longfei; Zhuang, Wei; Luo, Bin; Dang, Anhong; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong
2011-08-01
We demonstrate an external-cavity laser system using an anti-reflection coated laser diode as gain medium with about 60 nm fluorescence spectrum, and a Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as frequency-selecting element with a transmission bandwidth of 1.3 GHz. With 6.4% optical feedback, a single stable longitudinal mode is obtained with a linewidth of 69 kHz. The wavelength of this laser is operating within the center of the highest transmission peak of FADOF over a diode current range from 55 mA to 142 mA and a diode temperature range from 15 °C to 35 °C, thus it is immune to the fluctuations of current and temperature. PMID:21895284
Magnetically modulated critical current densities of Co/Nb hybrid
Li, Zhigang; Wang, Weike; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng
2015-01-01
By tuning morphology and size of magnetic subsystem, ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid system provides an effective way to modulate superconductivity due to the interaction between superconducting and magnetic-order parameters at the mesoscopic length scale. In this work, we report on investigations of critical current density in a large-area Co/Nb hybrid via facile colloidal lithography. Here, Co hexagon shell array as a magnetic template build on Nb film to modulate the critical current density. A novel superconducting transition has been observed in I-V curve with two metastable transition states: double-transition and binary-oscillation-transition states. Importantly, such unusual behavior can be adjusted by temperature, magnetic field and contact area of F/S. Such hybrid film has important implications for understanding the role of magnetic subsystem modulating superconductivity, as well as applied to low-energy electronic devices such as superconducting current fault limiters. PMID:26678595
Magnetically modulated critical current densities of Co/Nb hybrid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhigang; Wang, Weike; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhaorong; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng
2015-12-01
By tuning morphology and size of magnetic subsystem, ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid system provides an effective way to modulate superconductivity due to the interaction between superconducting and magnetic-order parameters at the mesoscopic length scale. In this work, we report on investigations of critical current density in a large-area Co/Nb hybrid via facile colloidal lithography. Here, Co hexagon shell array as a magnetic template build on Nb film to modulate the critical current density. A novel superconducting transition has been observed in I-V curve with two metastable transition states: double-transition and binary-oscillation-transition states. Importantly, such unusual behavior can be adjusted by temperature, magnetic field and contact area of F/S. Such hybrid film has important implications for understanding the role of magnetic subsystem modulating superconductivity, as well as applied to low-energy electronic devices such as superconducting current fault limiters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.
2003-01-01
Noise sources in high-speed jets were identified by directly correlating flow density fluctuation (cause) to far-field sound pressure fluctuation (effect). The experimental study was performed in a nozzle facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of NASA s initiative to reduce the noise emitted by commercial airplanes. Previous efforts to use this correlation method have failed because the tools for measuring jet turbulence were intrusive. In the present experiment, a molecular Rayleigh-scattering technique was used that depended on laser light scattering by gas molecules in air. The technique allowed accurate measurement of air density fluctuations from different points in the plume. The study was conducted in shock-free, unheated jets of Mach numbers 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8. The turbulent motion, as evident from density fluctuation spectra was remarkably similar in all three jets, whereas the noise sources were significantly different. The correlation study was conducted by keeping a microphone at a fixed location (at the peak noise emission angle of 30 to the jet axis and 50 nozzle diameters away) while moving the laser probe volume from point to point in the flow. The following figure shows maps of the nondimensional coherence value measured at different Strouhal frequencies ([frequency diameter]/jet speed) in the supersonic Mach 1.8 and subsonic Mach 0.95 jets. The higher the coherence, the stronger the source was.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, R.; Yang, F.-C.; Yip, K. W.; Kendall, W. B.
1976-01-01
It is demonstrated that phase-difference scintillations measured with a coherent dual-frequency radio system such as that on Mariner 10 can be used to study the structure of density fluctuations in the solar wind covering a wider range of scale sizes than has ever been possible before. The Mariner 10 observations at solar elongations of 11.5 and 12.6 deg show that the density spectrum in the frequency range from 0.0001 to 0.5 Hz, which corresponds to the spatial wavenumber range of 2 millionths to 0.001 inverse km if the solar wind velocity is assumed to be 350 km/s, is approximately power-law and close to Kolmogorov (spectral index of 11/3). The results are consistent with direct spacecraft observations near earth and provide strong evidence that the density fluctuations are produced by turbulence. The potential and benefits of future extensive measurements are also discussed.
Transport and sedimentation in unconfined experimental dilute pyroclastic density currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramirez, G.; Andrews, B. J.; Dennen, R. L.
2013-12-01
We present results from experiments conducted in a new facility that permits the study of large, unconfined particle laden density currents that are dynamically similar to natural dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Experiments were run in a sealed, air-filled tank measuring 8.5 m long by 6.1 m wide by 2.6 m tall. Currents were generated by feeding mixture of heated particles (5 μm aluminum oxide, 25 μm talc, 27 μm walnut shell, 76 μm glass beads) down a chute at controlled rates to produce dilute, turbulent gravity currents. Comparison of experimental currents with natural PDCs shows good agreement between Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, and particle Stokes and settling numbers; experimental currents have lower Reynolds numbers than natural PDCs, but are fully turbulent. Currents were illuminated with 3 orthogonal laser sheets (650, 532, and 450 nm wavelengths) and recorded with an array of HD video cameras and a high speed camera (up to 3000 fps). Deposits were mapped using a grid of sedimentation traps. We observe distinct differences between ambient temperature and warm currents: * warm currents have shorter run out distances, narrow map view distributions of currents and deposits, thicken with distance from the source, and lift off to form coignimbrite plumes; * ambient temperature currents typically travel farther, spread out radially, do not thicken greatly with transport distance, and do not form coignimbrite plumes. Long duration currents (600 s compared to 30-100 s) oscillate laterally with time (e.g. transport to the right, then the left, and back); this oscillation happens prior to any interaction with the tank walls. Isopach maps of the deposits show predictable trends in sedimentation versus distance in response to eruption parameters (eruption rate, duration, temperature, and initial current mass), but all sedimentation curves can be fit with 2nd order polynomials (R2>.9). Proximal sedimentation is similar in comparable warm
Large-eddy simulation of density currents on inclined beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chawdhary, Saurabh; Khosronejad, Ali; Christodoulou, George; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2013-11-01
Density currents are stratified flow in presence of density differential and gravity field. We carry out Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to simulate the flow of a density current formed over sloped bed due to an incoming jet of heavy density salty water for two different cases of bed slope: (a) 5 degrees and (b) 15 degrees. The Reynolds and Richardson numbers based on inlet height and inlet velocity were (a) 1100 and 0.471, and (b) 2000 and 0.0355, respectively. The Schmidt number is set equal to 620, which corresponds to the value for salt-water. The computed results are compared with laboratory experiments in terms of overall shape of the heavy-density plume and its spreading rate and are shown to be in reasonable agreement. The instantaneous LES flow fields are further analyzed to gain novel insights into the rich dynamics of coherent vortical structures in the flow. The half-width of the plume is plotted as a function of downstream length and found to exhibit three different regions on a log scale, in agreement with previous experimental findings. We acknowledge computational support from the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Mechanisms of current fluctuation in ambipolar black phosphorus field-effect transistors.
Li, Xuefei; Du, Yuchen; Si, Mengwei; Yang, Lingming; Li, Sichao; Li, Tiaoyang; Xiong, Xiong; Ye, Peide; Wu, Yanqing
2016-02-14
Multi-layer black phosphorus has emerged as a strong candidate owing to its high carrier mobility with most of the previous research work focused on its p-type properties. Very few studies have been performed on its n-type electronic characteristics which are important not only for the complementary operation for logic, but also crucial for understanding the carrier transport through the metal-black phosphorus junction. A thorough understanding and proper evaluation of the performance potential of both p- and n-types are highly desirable. In this paper, we investigate the temperature dependent ambipolar operation of both electron and hole transport from 300 K to 20 K. On-currents as high as 85 μA μm(-1) for a 0.2 μm channel length BP nFET at 300 K are observed. Moreover, we provide the first systematic study on the low frequency noise mechanisms for both n-channel and p-channel BP transistors. The dominated noise mechanisms of the multi-layer BP nFET and pFET are mobility fluctuation and carrier number fluctuations with correlated mobility fluctuations, respectively. We have also established a baseline of the low electrical noise of 8.1 × 10(-9)μm(2) Hz(-1) at 10 Hz at room temperature for BP pFETs, which is 3 times improvement over previous reports, and 7.0 × 10(-8)μm(2) Hz(-1) for BP nFETs for the first time. PMID:26806878
Mechanisms of current fluctuation in ambipolar black phosphorus field-effect transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xuefei; Du, Yuchen; Si, Mengwei; Yang, Lingming; Li, Sichao; Li, Tiaoyang; Xiong, Xiong; Ye, Peide; Wu, Yanqing
2016-02-01
Multi-layer black phosphorus has emerged as a strong candidate owing to its high carrier mobility with most of the previous research work focused on its p-type properties. Very few studies have been performed on its n-type electronic characteristics which are important not only for the complementary operation for logic, but also crucial for understanding the carrier transport through the metal-black phosphorus junction. A thorough understanding and proper evaluation of the performance potential of both p- and n-types are highly desirable. In this paper, we investigate the temperature dependent ambipolar operation of both electron and hole transport from 300 K to 20 K. On-currents as high as 85 μA μm-1 for a 0.2 μm channel length BP nFET at 300 K are observed. Moreover, we provide the first systematic study on the low frequency noise mechanisms for both n-channel and p-channel BP transistors. The dominated noise mechanisms of the multi-layer BP nFET and pFET are mobility fluctuation and carrier number fluctuations with correlated mobility fluctuations, respectively. We have also established a baseline of the low electrical noise of 8.1 × 10-9 μm2 Hz-1 at 10 Hz at room temperature for BP pFETs, which is 3 times improvement over previous reports, and 7.0 × 10-8 μm2 Hz-1 for BP nFETs for the first time.
An edge density fluctuation diagnostic for DIII-D using lithium beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, D. M.
1991-12-01
This report covers the research conducted under DOE grant FG03-90ER-081 during the period August 15, 1990 through November 15, 1991. Progress during the period March 15, 1990 through August 15, 1990 was covered in a previous report. Highlights during this period include the development of a compact neutral lithium accelerator capable of producing several mA at up to 30 kV, measurements of intrinsic beam fluctuation levels, and the design and partial completion of the diagnostic installation on the D3-D tokamak. We also had one journal article describing the system published in Reviews of Scientific Instruments, presented a poster on our recent progress at the APS Plasma Physics conference, and submitted an abstract to the 9th Topical Conference on Plasma Diagnostics. The overall objective of this project is to provide detailed information about the behavior of the electron density in the edge region of D3-D, and in particular to examine the local character of the associated degradation in confinement properties. Measurements should provide important data for testing theories of the L-H transition in tokamaks and should help in assessing the role of various instabilities in anomalous transport. The work on this project may be naturally organized according to the following six subareas: Ion source/beam system, neutralizer system, optical system, data acquisition, data analysis, and machine (D3-D) interface. Progress in each of these areas will be discussed briefly. We also briefly discuss our plans for future work on this program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezapour, Arash; Rezapour, Pegah
2015-09-01
We investigate the effect of dopant random fluctuation on threshold voltage and drain current variation in a two-gate nanoscale transistor. We used a quantum-corrected technology computer aided design simulation to run the simulation (10000 randomizations). With this simulation, we could study the effects of varying the dimensions (length and width), and thicknesses of oxide and dopant factors of a transistor on the threshold voltage and drain current in subthreshold region (off) and overthreshold (on). It was found that in the subthreshold region the variability of the drain current and threshold voltage is relatively fixed while in the overthreshold region the variability of the threshold voltage and drain current decreases remarkably, despite the slight reduction of gate voltage diffusion (compared with that of the subthreshold). These results have been interpreted by using previously reported models for threshold current variability, load displacement, and simple analytical calculations. Scaling analysis shows that the variability of the characteristics of this semiconductor increases as the effects of the short channel increases. Therefore, with a slight increase of length and a reduction of width, oxide thickness, and dopant factor, we could correct the effect of the short channel.
High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current
Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.
2015-12-15
A dislocation density of as high as 10{sup 17} /m{sup 2} in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10{sup 3} A/ cm{sup 2}. The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining.
Local Current Density Calculations for Molecular Films from Ab Initio.
Walz, Michael; Bagrets, Alexei; Evers, Ferdinand
2015-11-10
We present a formalism relying on density functional theory for the calculation of the spatially continuous electron current density j(r) and induced magnetic fields B(r) in molecular films in dc transport. The proposed method treats electron transport in graphene ribbons containing on the of order 10(3) atoms. The employed computational techniques scale efficiently when using several thousand CPUs. An application to transport through hydrogenated graphene will be presented. As we will show, the adatoms have an impact on the transmission function not only because they introduce additional states but also because their presence modifies the geometry of the carbon host lattice (lattice relaxation). PMID:26574313
Planets in other universes: habitability constraints on density fluctuations and galactic structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Fred C.; Coppess, Katherine R.; Bloch, Anthony M.
2015-09-01
Motivated by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes, this paper delineates the galactic structure parameters that allow for habitable planets and revisits constraints on the amplitude Q of the primordial density fluctuations. Previous work indicates that large values of Q lead to galaxies so dense that planetary orbits cannot survive long enough for life to develop. Small values of Q lead to delayed star formation, loosely bound galaxies, and compromised heavy element retention. This work generalizes previous treatments in the following directions: [A] We consider models for the internal structure of the galaxies, including a range of stellar densities, and find the fraction of the resulting galactic real estate that allows for stable, long-lived planetary orbits. [B] For high velocity encounters, we perform a large ensemble of numerical simulations to estimate cross sections for the disruption of planetary orbits due to interactions with passing stars. [C] We consider the background radiation fields produced by the galaxies: if a galaxy is too compact, the night sky seen from a potentially habitable planet can provide more power than the host star. [D] One consequence of intense galactic background radiation fields is that some portion of the galaxy, denoted as the Galactic Habitable Zone, will provide the right flux levels to support habitable planets for essentially any planetary orbit including freely floating bodies (but excluding close-in planets). As the value of Q increases, the fraction of stars in a galaxy that allow for (traditional) habitable planets decreases due to both orbital disruption and the intense background radiation. However, the outer parts of the galaxy always allow for habitable planets, so that the value of Q does not have a well-defined upper limit (due to scattering or radiation constraints). Moreover, some Galactic Habitable Zones are large enough to support more
Tarrab, Leticia; Garcia, Carlos M.; Cantero, Mariano I.; Oberg, Kevin
2012-01-01
This work presents a systematic analysis quantifying the role of the presence of turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties (random errors) of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) discharge measurements from moving platforms. Data sets of three-dimensional flow velocities with high temporal and spatial resolution were generated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow. Dimensionless functions relating parameters quantifying the uncertainty in discharge measurements due to flow turbulence (relative variance and relative maximum random error) to sampling configuration were developed from the DNS simulations and then validated with field-scale discharge measurements. The validated functions were used to evaluate the role of the presence of flow turbulence fluctuations on uncertainties in ADCP discharge measurements. The results of this work indicate that random errors due to the flow turbulence are significant when: (a) a low number of transects is used for a discharge measurement, and (b) measurements are made in shallow rivers using high boat velocity (short time for the boat to cross a flow turbulence structure).
Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi
2015-06-26
We present a microscopic derivation of the nematic charge-density wave (CDW) formation in cuprate superconductors based on the three-orbital d-p Hubbard model by introducing the vertex correction (VC) into the charge susceptibility. The CDW instability at q=(Δ(FS),0), (0,Δ(FS)) appears when the spin fluctuations are strong, due to the strong charge-spin interference represented by the VC. Here, Δ(FS) is the wave number between the neighboring hot spots. The obtained spin-fluctuation-driven CDW is expressed as the "intra-unit-cell orbital order" accompanied by the charge transfer between the neighboring atomic orbitals, which is actually observed by the scanning tunneling microscope measurements. We predict that the cuprate CDW and the nematic orbital order in Fe-based superconductors are closely related spin-fluctuation-driven phenomena. PMID:26197139
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.
1992-01-01
Theory suggests that three distinct types of turbulence can occur in the low Mach number limit of polytropic flow: nearly incompressible flows dominated by vorticity, nearly pure acoustic turbulence dominated by compression, and flows characterized by near statistical equipartition of vorticity and compressions. Distinctions between these kinds of turbulence are investigated here by direct numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic turbulence. Dynamical scalings of density fluctuations, examination of the ratio of transverse to longitudinal velocity fluctuations, and spectral decomposition of the fluctuations are employed to distinguish the nature of these low Mach number solutions. A strong dependence on the initial data is observed, as well as a tendency for enhanced effects of compressibility at later times and at higher wave numbers, as suggested by theories of nearly incompressible flows.
Ionic screening effect on low-frequency drain current fluctuations in liquid-gated nanowire FETs.
Lu, Ming-Pei; Vire, Eric; Montès, Laurent
2015-12-11
The ionic screening effect plays an important role in determining the fundamental surface properties within liquid-semiconductor interfaces. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) to obtain physical insight into the effect of ionic screening on low-frequency current fluctuation. When the NW FET was operated close to the gate voltage corresponding to the maximum transconductance, the magnitude of the low-frequency noise for the NW exposed to a low-ionic-strength buffer (0.001 M) was approximately 70% greater than that when exposed to a high-ionic-strength buffer (0.1 M). We propose a noise model, considering the charge coupling efficiency associated with the screening competition between the electrolyte buffer and the NW, to describe the ionic screening effect on the low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated NW FET systems. This report not only provides a physical understanding of the ionic screening effect behind the low-frequency current noise in liquid-gated FETs but also offers useful information for developing the technology of NW FETs with liquid-gated architectures for application in bioelectronics, nanosensors, and hybrid nanoelectronics. PMID:26574477
Ionic screening effect on low-frequency drain current fluctuations in liquid-gated nanowire FETs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Ming-Pei; Vire, Eric; Montès, Laurent
2015-12-01
The ionic screening effect plays an important role in determining the fundamental surface properties within liquid-semiconductor interfaces. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) to obtain physical insight into the effect of ionic screening on low-frequency current fluctuation. When the NW FET was operated close to the gate voltage corresponding to the maximum transconductance, the magnitude of the low-frequency noise for the NW exposed to a low-ionic-strength buffer (0.001 M) was approximately 70% greater than that when exposed to a high-ionic-strength buffer (0.1 M). We propose a noise model, considering the charge coupling efficiency associated with the screening competition between the electrolyte buffer and the NW, to describe the ionic screening effect on the low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated NW FET systems. This report not only provides a physical understanding of the ionic screening effect behind the low-frequency current noise in liquid-gated FETs but also offers useful information for developing the technology of NW FETs with liquid-gated architectures for application in bioelectronics, nanosensors, and hybrid nanoelectronics.
Aperture Size Effect on Extracted Negative Ion Current Density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Esch, H. P. L.; Svensson, L.; Riz, D.
2009-03-01
This paper discusses experimental results obtained at the 1 MV testbed at CEA Cadarache that appear to show a higher extracted D- current density from small apertures. Plasma grids with different shapes have been installed and tested. All grids had one single aperture. The tests were done in volume operation and in caesium operation. We tested four grids, two with O/14 mm, one with O/11 mm and one with O/8 mm apertures. No aperture size effect was observed in volume operation. In caesiated operation the extracted current density for the O/8 mm aperture appears to be significantly higher (˜50%) than for the O/14 mm aperture. Simulations with a 3D Monte Carlo Trajectory Following Code have shown an aperture size effect of about 20%. Finally, as byproducts of the experiments, data on backstreaming positive ions and the temperature of the plasma grid have been obtained.
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E.
2015-01-28
Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined.
Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Karunaweera, Sadish; Smith, Paul E
2015-01-28
Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined. PMID:25637990
Karunaweera, Sadish
2015-01-01
Fluctuation solution theory has provided an alternative view of many liquid mixture properties in terms of particle number fluctuations. The particle number fluctuations can also be related to integrals of the corresponding two body distribution functions between molecular pairs in order to provide a more physical picture of solution behavior and molecule affinities. Here, we extend this type of approach to provide expressions for higher order triplet and quadruplet fluctuations, and thereby integrals over the corresponding distribution functions, all of which can be obtained from available experimental thermodynamic data. The fluctuations and integrals are then determined using the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Formulation 1995 (IAPWS-95) equation of state for the liquid phase of pure water. The results indicate small, but significant, deviations from a Gaussian distribution for the molecules in this system. The pressure and temperature dependence of the fluctuations and integrals, as well as the limiting behavior as one approaches both the triple point and the critical point, are also examined. PMID:25637990
Thin-film Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshe, Maayan; Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.
2009-01-01
We study the field dependence of the maximum current Im(H) in narrow edge-type thin-film Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density. Im(H) is evaluated within nonlocal Josephson electrodynamics taking into account the stray fields that affect the difference of the order-parameter phases across the junction and therefore the tunneling currents. We find that the phase difference along the junction is proportional to the applied field, depends on the junction geometry, but is independent of the Josephson critical current density gc , i.e., it is universal. An explicit form for this universal function is derived for small currents through junctions of the width W≪Λ , the Pearl length. The result is used to calculate Im(H) . It is shown that the maxima of Im(H)∝1/H and the zeros of Im(H) are equidistant but only in high fields. We find that the spacing between zeros is proportional to 1/W2 . The general approach is applied to calculate Im(H) for a superconducting quantum interference device with two narrow edge-type junctions. If gc changes sign periodically or randomly, as it does in grain boundaries of high- Tc materials and superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructures, Im(H) not only acquires the major side peaks, but due to nonlocality the following peaks decay much slower than in bulk junctions.
Dynamics of uniform quantum gases, I: Density and current correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.
2010-02-01
A unified approach valid for any wavenumber q, frequency ω, and temperature T is presented for uniform ideal quantum gases allowing for a comprehensive study of number density and particle-current density response functions. Exact analytical expressions are obtained for spectral functions in terms of polylogarithms. Also, particle-number and particle-current static susceptibilities are presented which, for fugacity less than unity, additionally involve Kummer functions. The q- and T-dependent transverse-current static susceptibility is used to show explicitly that current correlations are of long range in a Bose-condensed uniform ideal gas but for bosons at T>Tc and for Fermi and Boltzmann gases at all temperatures these correlations are of short range. Contact repulsive interactions for systems of neutral quantum particles are considered within the random phase approximation. The expressions for particle-number and transverse-current susceptibilities are utilized to discuss the existence or nonexistence of superfluidity in the systems under consideration.
Simple theory of current fluctuations and noise in bridge-mediated nano-junctions.
Kornyshev, A A; Kuznetsov, A M
2008-09-17
We develop a simplified, model theory of noise caused by highly damped oscillating conformational fluctuations of a chain molecule mediating a nano-junction. Considering the most 'primitive' approximation of direct tunneling of electrons and barrier coupling with collective coordinates that describe internal conformations of the chain molecule, we derive approximate analytical formulas for the temporary current correlation function, noise power, and Fano factor. We analyze the role of different cumulative parameters of the model that affect the noise, as well as the effect of the temperature and of the number of groups in the chain. We present this analysis in expectation of experiments on this type of noise and in an attempt to trigger such experiments. PMID:21694411
Three-dimensional structure of electron density fluctuations in the Hall thruster plasma: ExB mode
Tsikata, S.; Honore, C.; Gresillon, D. M.; Lemoine, N.
2010-11-15
Collective scattering measurements have been conducted on the plasma of a Hall thruster, in which the electron density fluctuations are fully characterized by the dynamic form factor. The dynamic form factor amplitude distribution has been measured depending on the k-vector spatial and frequency components at different locations. Fluctuations are seen as propagating waves. The largest amplitude mode propagates nearly along the cross-field direction but at a phase velocity that is much smaller than the ExB drift velocity. Refined directional analysis of this largest amplitude mode shows a thin angular emission diagram with a mean direction that is not strictly along the ExB direction but at small angles near it. The deviation is oriented toward the anode in the (E,ExB) plane and toward the exterior of the thruster channel in the (B,ExB) plane. The density fluctuation rate is on the order of 1%. These experimentally determined directional fluctuation characteristics are discussed with regard to the linear kinetic theory model and particle-in-cell simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burmistrov, I. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.
2016-05-01
We develop a theory of the local density of states (LDOS) of disordered superconductors, employing the nonlinear sigma-model formalism and the renormalization-group framework. The theory takes into account the interplay of disorder and interaction couplings in all channels, treating the systems with short-range and Coulomb interactions on equal footing. We explore two-dimensional systems that would be Anderson insulators in the absence of interaction and two- or three-dimensional systems that undergo an Anderson transition in the absence of interaction. We evaluate both the average tunneling density of states and its mesoscopic fluctuations which are related to the LDOS multifractality in normal disordered systems. The obtained average LDOS shows a pronounced depletion around the Fermi energy, both in the metallic phase (i.e., above the superconducting critical temperature Tc) and in the insulating phase near the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). The fluctuations of the LDOS are found to be particularly strong for the case of short-range interactions, especially, in the regime when Tc is enhanced by Anderson localization. On the other hand, the long-range Coulomb repulsion reduces the mesoscopic LDOS fluctuations. However, also in a model with Coulomb interaction, the fluctuations become strong when the systems approach the SIT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Geissler, Phillip
2014-03-01
The physics of air-water interfaces plays a central role in modern theories of the hydrophobic effect such as the Lum-Chandler-Weeks (LCW) theory. Implementing these theories, however, has been hampered by the difficulty of addressing fluctuations in the shape of such soft interfaces. We show that this challenge is a fundamental consequence of mapping long wavelength density variations onto discrete degrees of freedom. Specifically, through an analysis of the lattice gas model and related approximations, we identify a narrow parameter regime in which the lattice gas model can optimally be used to describe long wavelength liquid density fluctuations such as the capillary modes at a liquid-vapor interface. Coupling fluctuations in the lattice model to fluctuations on finer molecular scales through the least complicated realization of the LCW perspective, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian for lattice occupation variables in the presence of a hydrophobic solute. We show that this Hamiltonian - with no unknown parameters - in fact suffices to describe quantitatively the the solvation of hydrophobic objects with various shapes and sizes. This model is uniquely well suited for exploring hydrophobic and interfacial phenomena that involve disparate length scales.
Morphology and Density Structure of Post-CME Current Sheets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vrsnak, B.; Poletto, G.; Vujic, E.; Vourlidas, A.
2009-01-01
Eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is believed to drag and open the coronal magnetic field, presumably leading to the formation of a large-scale current sheet and field relaxation by magnetic reconnection. This paper analyzes the physical characteristics of ray-like coronal features formed in the aftermath of CMEs, to confirm whether interpreting such phenomena in terms of a reconnecting current sheet is consistent with observations. Methods: The study focuses on UVCS/SOHO and LASCO/SOHO measurements of the ray width, density excess, and coronal velocity field as a function of the radial distance. The morphology of the rays implies that they are produced by Petschek-like reconnection in the large-scale current sheet formed in the wake of CME. The hypothesis is supported by the flow pattern, often showing outflows along the ray, and sometimes also inflows into the ray. The inferred inflow velocities range from 3 to 30 km/s, and are consistent with the narrow opening-angle of rays, which add up to a few degrees. The density of rays is an order of magnitude higher than in the ambient corona. The model results are consistent with the observations, revealing that the main cause of the density excess in rays is a transport of the dense plasma from lower to higher heights by the reconnection outflow.
Magnetohydrodynamically stable plasma with supercritical current density at the axis
Burdakov, A. V.; Postupaev, V. V. Sudnikov, A. V.
2014-05-15
In this work, an analysis of magnetic perturbations in the GOL-3 experiment is given. In GOL-3, plasma is collectively heated in a multiple-mirror trap by a high-power electron beam. During the beam injection, the beam-plasma interaction maintains a high-level microturbulence. This provides an unusual radial profile of the net current (that consists of the beam current, current of the preliminary discharge, and the return current). The plasma core carries supercritical current density with the safety factor well below unity, but as a whole, the plasma is stable with q(a) ≈ 4. The net plasma current is counter-directed to the beam current; helicities of the magnetic field in the core and at the edge are of different signs. This forms a system with a strong magnetic shear that stabilizes the plasma core in good confinement regimes. We have found that the most pronounced magnetic perturbation is the well-known n = 1, m = 1 mode for both stable and disruptive regimes.
Venglarik, C J; Schultz, B D; Frizzell, R A; Bridges, R J
1994-07-01
The cystic fibrosis gene product cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a low conductance, cAMP-regulated Cl- channel. Removal of cytosolic ATP causes a cessation of cAMP-dependent kinase-phosphorylated CFTR channel activity that resumes upon ATP addition. (Anderson, M. P., H. A. Berger, D. R. Rich, R. J. Gregory, A. E. Smith, and M. J. Welsh. 1991. Cell. 67:775-784). The aim of this study was to quantify possible effects of ATP on CFTR gating. We analyzed multichannel records since only 1 of 64 patches contained a single channel. ATP increased the channel open probability (Po) as a simple Michaelis-Menten function of concentration; the effect was half maximal at 24 microM, reached a maximum of 0.44, and had a Hill coefficient of 1.13. Since the maximum Po was not 1, the simplest description of the effect of ATP on CFTR gating is the noncooperative three-state mechanism of del Castillo and Katz (1957. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B. 146:369-381). We analyzed current fluctuations to quantify possible changes in CFTR gating. The power density spectra appeared to contain a single Lorentzian in the range of 0.096-31 Hz. Analysis of the corner frequency (fc) of this Lorentzian revealed that ATP increased 2 pi fc as a Michaelis-Menten function with a Hill coefficient of 1.08, and it provided estimates of the ATP dissociation constant (44 tau open (154 ms), and the ATP-sensitive tau close [(185 ms) (44 microM/[ATP] + 1)]. These results suggest that the binding reaction is rapid compared to the opening and closing rates. Assuming that there is a single set of closed-to-open transitions, it is possible to verify the outcome of fluctuation analysis by comparing fluctuation-derived estimates of Po with measures of Po from current records. The two values were nearly identical. Thus, noise analysis provides a quantitative description of the effect of ATP on CFTR opening. The noncooperative three-state model should serve as a basis to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babst, Flurin; Wright, William; Szejner, Paul; Wells, Leon; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Monson, Russell
2016-04-01
Rapidly rising evaporative demand threatens forests in semi-arid areas around the world, but the timing of stem growth response to drought is often coarsely known. This is partly due to a shortage of sub-annual growth records, particularly outside the Mediterranean region where most intra-annual density fluctuation (IADF) chronologies are based. We anticipate that an automated, cost-effective, and easily implementable method to characterize IADFs could foster more widespread development of sub-annual chronologies. Here, we applied a peak detection algorithm to fine-spatial resolution blue intensity (BI) profiles of Ponderosa pine tree rings from two sites located in neighboring mountain ranges in southern Arizona (~300 m elevation difference). This automated procedure proved reliable to isolate and characterize IADFs, thus offering an efficient and objective alternative to visual identification. Out of seven investigated BI parameters, peak height, width, and area showed satisfactory chronology statistics. We assessed the response of these BI and radial growth parameters to six monthly-resolved climate variables and to the onset date of the North American summer monsoon (NAM). The NAM is an atmospheric mode that provides a clear time marker for the termination of a pre-summer drought period (May-June) causing regular IADFs in trees growing near the dry margin of their distribution range. We observed divergent water limitation at the two sites, despite comparable site characteristics. Radial growth at the lower-elevation site depended mainly on winter precipitation, whereas the higher site relied on spring and monsoon precipitation. The pre-summer drought period indeed promoted IADFs in early ring portions at both sites. Yet, IADFs at the higher site were only formed, if spring was sufficiently humid to assume enough radial growth. Late-position IADFs were caused by a weak monsoon and additionally promoted by favorable conditions towards the end of the growing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clukey, Steven J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Stainback, P. Calvin
1988-01-01
The use of a high-speed Dynamic Data Acquisition System (DDAS) to measure simultaneously velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations is described. The DDAS is used to automate the acquisition of hot-wire calibration data. The data acquisition, data handling, and data reporting techiques used by DDAS are described. Sample data are used to compare results obtained with the DDAS with those obtained from the FM tape and post-test digitization method.
Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2008-03-15
We analyze the non-Gaussian density perturbations generated in ekpyrotic/cyclic models based on heterotic M theory. In this picture, two scalar fields produce nearly scale-invariant entropic perturbations during an ekpyrotic phase that are converted into curvature modes after the ekpyrotic phase is complete and just before the big bang. Both intrinsic nonlinearity in the entropy perturbation and the conversion process contribute to non-Gaussianity. The range of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} depends on how gradual the conversion process is and the steepness of the scalar field potential during the ekpyrotic phase. Although a wider range is possible, in principle, natural values of the ekpyrotic parameters combined with a gradual conversion process lead to values of -50 < or approx. f{sub NL} < or approx. +200, typically much greater than slow-roll inflation but within the current observational bounds.
High current density, cryogenically cooled sliding electrical joint development
Murray, H.
1986-09-01
In the past two years, conceptual designs for fusion energy research devices have focussed on compact, high magnetic field configurations. The concept of sliding electrical joints in the large magnets allows a number of technical advantages including enhanced mechanical integrity, remote maintainability, and reduced project cost. The rationale for sliding electrical joints is presented. The conceptual configuration for this generation of experimental devices is highlghted by an approx. 20 T toroidal field magnet with a flat top conductor current of approx. 300 kA and a sliding electrical joint with a gross current density of approx. 0.6 kA/cm/sup 2/. A numerical model was used to map the conductor current distribution as a function of time and position in the conductor. A series of electrical joint arrangements were produced against the system code envelope constraints for a specific version of the Ignition Studies Project (ISP) which is designated as 1025.
Influence of the fluid density on the statistics of power fluctuations in von Kármán swirling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opazo, A.; Sáez, A.; Bustamante, G.; Labbé, R.
2016-02-01
Here, we report experimental results on the fluctuations of injected power in confined turbulence. Specifically, we have studied a von Kármán swirling flow with constant external torque applied to the stirrers. Two experiments were performed at nearly equal Reynolds numbers, in geometrically similar experimental setups. Air was utilized in one of them and water in the other. With air, it was found that the probability density function of power fluctuations is strongly asymmetric, while with water, it is nearly Gaussian. This suggests that the outcome of a big change of the fluid density in the flow-stirrer interaction is not simply a change in the amplitude of stirrers' response. In the case of water, with a density roughly 830 times greater than air density, the coupling between the flow and the stirrers is stronger, so that they follow more closely the fluctuations of the average rotation of the nearby flow. When the fluid is air, the coupling is much weaker. The result is not just a smaller response of the stirrers to the torque exerted by the flow; the PDF of the injected power becomes strongly asymmetric and its spectrum acquires a broad region that scales as f-2. Thus, the asymmetry of the probability density functions of torque or angular speed could be related to the inability of the stirrers to respond to flow stresses. This happens, for instance, when the torque exerted by the flow is weak, due to small fluid density, or when the stirrers' moment of inertia is large. Moreover, a correlation analysis reveals that the features of the energy transfer dynamics with water are qualitatively and quantitatively different to what is observed with air as working fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jaewook; Ghim, Young-Chul; Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Lab Team
2014-10-01
A BES (beam emission spectroscopy) system and an MIR (Microwave Imaging Reflectometer) system installed in KSTAR measure 2D (radial and poloidal) density fluctuations at two different toroidal locations. This gives a possibility of measuring the parallel correlation length of ion-scale turbulence in KSTAR. Due to lack of measurement points in toroidal direction and shorter separation distance between the diagnostics compared to an expected parallel correlation length, it is necessary to confirm whether a conventional statistical method, i.e., using a cross-correlation function, is valid for measuring the parallel correlation length. For this reason, we generated synthetic 3D density fluctuation data following Gaussian random field in a toroidal coordinate system that mimic real density fluctuation data. We measure the correlation length of the synthetic data by fitting a Gaussian function to the cross-correlation function. We observe that there is disagreement between the measured and actual correlation lengths, and the degree of disagreement is a function of at least, correlation length, correlation time and advection velocity of synthetic data. We identify the cause of disagreement and propose an appropriate method to measure correct correlation length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnikov, N. B.; Reser, B. I.; Paradezhenko, G. V.
2016-08-01
To study the spin-density correlations in the ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we relate the spin correlator and neutron scattering cross-section. In the dynamic spin-fluctuation theory, we obtain explicit expressions for the effective and local magnetic moments and spatial spin-density correlator. Our theoretical results are demonstrated by the example of bcc Fe. The effective and local moments are found in good agreement with results of polarized neutron scattering experiment over a wide temperature range. The calculated short-range order is small (up to 4 Å) and slowly decreases with temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quiroz-Martinez, B.; Schmitt, F. G.; Dauvin, J.-C.
2012-01-01
We consider here the dynamics of two polychaete populations based on a 20 yr temporal benthic survey of two muddy fine sand communities in the Bay of Morlaix, Western English Channel. These populations display high temporal variability, which is analyzed here using scaling approaches. We find that population densities have heavy tailed probability density functions. We analyze the dynamics of relative species abundance in two different communities of polychaetes by estimating in a novel way a "mean square drift" coefficient which characterizes their fluctuations in relative abundance over time. We show the usefulness of using new tools to approach and model such highly variable population dynamics in marine ecosystems.
Effects of 2D and Finite Density Fluctuations on O-X Correlation Reflectometry
G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian; E. Valeo
2001-07-05
The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1D and 2D reflectometer model in order to explore its feasibilities as a q-profile diagnostic. It was found that 2D effects and finite fluctuation levels both decrease the O-X correlation. At very low fluctuation levels, which are usually present in the plasma core, there is good possibility to determine the local magnetic field strength and use that as a constraint for the equilibrium reconstruction.
Incorporation Of Air Into The Campanian Ignimbrite Pyroclastic Density Current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ort, M. H.; Giordano, G.; Zanella, E.; Isaia, R.
2015-12-01
Knowing the temperature of emplacement of an ignimbrite can tell us how much cooling air it incorporated during eruption and transport. Currents that incorporate cool matter (air, water, cold clasts) cool more than those that do not. Lithic fragments record the maximum temperature they reached, up to their maximum unblocking temperature. Studies of large ignimbrites (e.g. Cerro Galan Ignimbrite) emplaced by dense currents show they do not cool very much, with emplacement temperatures often above 580 oC. Smaller currents, such as those from Vesuvius and Colima, lose significant heat in the eruption column, and then lose some, but less, heat as they travel laterally. The amount of atmosphere incorporated by large dilute currents is not known. The ~40 ka Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) erupted from the Campi Flegrei caldera near Naples, Italy, and extends to ~75 km from the caldera. The CI was emplaced from a density-stratified current with a dilute transport system and a denser depositional system that overtopped 1600-m-high ridges, with the depositional system re-forming on the far side. Modeling of dilute currents shows that they can pass over obstacles ~1.5 times their thickness without losing momentum, which implies the CI current was >1 km thick. Much of that dilute current was gas, but how much was atmospheric? Partial thermal demagnetization of lithic clasts allows the identification of the temperature of emplacement. We sampled lithic fragments from the CI in 13 locations from proximal to distal along several azimuths. The current passed over 30-35 km of sea to get to two sites. Partial thermal demagnetization of 10 specimens from each site show that they were heated and deposited above 580 oC, the unblocking temperature of magnetite, implying the temperature of emplacement was at or above this temperature. The CI is poor in lithic clasts (<1% in most places) and evidence of non-magmatic water in the outflow sheet is absent. We suggest the CI current was a large
Critical current density and flux pinning in an unconventional superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, S.; Kaul, S. N.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Fernández Barquín, L.
2009-12-01
The functional dependence of the critical current density on magnetic field, J(H), observed at fixed temperatures in the unconventional type-II superconductor, LaAgMn ( c=0.1,0.2,0.3) alloys, but not the relative magnitude of J in different alloy compositions at any given temperature and field, is adequately described by the exponential-decay critical state model. In accordance with the predictions of the Kramer's flux-pinning model, the peak value of the pinning force density FPmax∝( with the exponent 1.7⩽m⩽2.8 and F/FPmax scales with h=H/Hc_2, where Hc_2 is the upper critical field. Irrespective of sample composition and temperature in the superconducting state, the pinning of the flux line lattice (FLL) dominates over the plastic FLL shear.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, D. J.; Kabirzadeh, R.; Burchill, J. K.; Pfaff, R. F.; Wallis, D. D.; Bounds, S. R.; Clemmons, J. H.; Pinçon, J.-L.
2012-02-01
The Geoelectrodynamics and Electro-Optical Detection of Electron and Suprathermal Ion Currents (GEODESIC) sounding rocket encountered more than 100 filamentary density cavities associated with enhanced plasma waves at ELF (<3 kHz) and VLF (3-10 kHz) frequencies and at altitudes of 800-990 km during an auroral substorm. These cavities were similar in size (˜20 m diameter in most cases) to so-called lower-hybrid cavities (LHCs) observed by previous sounding rockets and satellites; however, in contrast, many of the GEODESIC cavities exhibited up to tenfold enhancements in magnetic wave power throughout the VLF band. GEODESIC also observed enhancements of ELF and VLF electric fields both parallel and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field B0 within cavities, though the VLF E field increases were often not as large proportionally as seen in the magnetic fields. This behavior is opposite to that predicted by previously published theories of LHCs based on passive scattering of externally incident auroral hiss. We argue that the GEODESIC cavities are active wave generation sites capable of radiating VLF waves into the surrounding plasma and producing VLF saucers, with energy supplied by cold, upward flowing electron beams composing the auroral return current. This interpretation is supported by the observation that the most intense waves, both inside and outside cavities, occurred in regions where energetic electron precipitation was largely inhibited or absent altogether. We suggest that the wave-enhanced cavities encountered by GEODESIC were qualitatively different from those observed by earlier spacecraft because of the fortuitous timing of the GEODESIC launch, which placed the payload at apogee within a substorm-related return current during its most intense phase, lasting only a few minutes.
Advances in time-dependent current-density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Arjan
In this work we solve the problem of the gauge dependence of molecular magnetic properties (magnetizabilities, circular dichroism) using time-dependent current-density functional theory [1]. We also present a new functional that accurately describes the optical absorption spectra of insulators, semiconductors and metals [2] N. Raimbault, P.L. de Boeij, P. Romaniello, and J.A. Berger Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 066404 (2015) J.A. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 137402 (2015) This study has been partially supported through the Grant NEXT No. ANR-10-LABX-0037 in the framework of the Programme des Investissements d'Avenir.
Discretizing Transient Current Densities in the Maxwell Equations
Stowell, M L
2008-11-25
We will briefly discuss a technique for applying transient volumetric current sources in full-wave, time-domain electromagnetic simulations which avoids the need for divergence cleaning. The method involves both 'edge-elements' and 'face-elements' in conjunction with a particle-in-cell scheme to track the charge density. Results from a realistic, 6.7 million element, 3D simulation are shown. While the author may have a finite element bias the technique should be applicable to finite difference methods as well.
The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlemmer, Jan; Zahn, Jochen
2015-08-01
We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac's method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space-times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress-energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.
The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials
Schlemmer, Jan; Zahn, Jochen
2015-08-15
We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac’s method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space–times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress–energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.
A measurement of perpendicular current density in an aurora
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bering, E. A.; Mozer, F. S.
1975-01-01
A Nike Tomahawk sounding rocket was launched into a 400-gamma auroral substorm from Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden. The rocket instrumentation included a split Langmuir-probe plasma-velocity detector and a double-probe electric-field detector. Above 140-km altitude, the electric field deduced from the ion-flow velocity measurement and the electric field measured by the double probe agree to an accuracy within the uncertainties of the two measurements. The difference between the two measurements at altitudes below 140 km provides an in situ measurement of current density and conductivity. Alternatively, if values for the conductivity are assumed, the neutral-wind velocity can be deduced. The height-integrated current was 0.11 A/m flowing at an azimuth angle of 276 deg. The neutral winds were strong, exhibited substantial altitude variation in the east-west component, and were predominantly southward.
Thomas, D.M.
1994-01-01
The pivotal role played by edge physics in tokamak transport and performance is widely appreciated but not completely understood at this time. The evident bifurcation in transport behavior during the L-to-H transition and the modification of the edge region by edge localized modes (ELMs) are just two examples of this relationship. There is a clear need to understand the role that turbulence plays in the plasma transport problem. Various workers have seen a suppression of both the magnetic and plasma density fluctuations during the transition. It is clear that the turbulence and transport behavior are linked and we are coming to an understanding of the transition evolution, based on a model of shear suppression of the turbulence and the creation of a transport barrier. In the case of the H-mode, this barrier is known to form a short distance radially inside the location of the last closed flux surface. The VH-mode may be thought of as a natural extension of this situation where the transport barrier moves deeper into the core of the discharge. As summarized in the May 1989 report of the DOE Transport Task Force, one of the key issues to be addressed in making progress on the transport question was to characterize the nature of local fluctuations. The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of one particular measurement technique to determine density fluctuations in the region of interest on the DIII-D tokamak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayub, M. K.; Yun, G. S.; Leem, J.; Kim, M.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.
2016-03-01
A novel technique to estimate the range of radial size and density fluctuation amplitude of edge localized modes (ELMs) in the KSTAR tokamak plasma is presented. A microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) system is reconfigured as a multi-channel microwave interferometer array (MIA) to measure the density fluctuations associated with ELMs, while electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system is used as a reference diagnostics to confirm the MIA observation. Two dimensional full-wave (FWR2D) simulations integrated with optics simulation are performed to investigate the Gaussian beam propagation and reflection through the plasma as well as the MIA optical components and obtain the interferometric phase undulations of individual channels at the detector plane due to ELM perturbation. The simulation results show that the amplitude of the phase undulation depends linearly on both radial size and density perturbation amplitude of ELM. For a typical discharge with ELMs, it is estimated that the ELM structure observed by the MIA system has density perturbation amplitude in the range ~ 7 % to 14 % while radial size in the range ~ 1 to 3 cm.
Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S; Lampert, M; Kovácsik, Ákos; Wi, H M
2014-11-01
Beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has recently been upgraded. The background intensity was reduced from 30% to 2% by suppressing the stray lights. This allows acquisition of the relative electron density profiles on the plasma edge without background subtraction from the beam power modulation signals. The KSTAR BES system has its spatial resolution of 1 cm, the temporal resolution of 2 MHz, and a total 32 channel (8 radial × 4 poloidal) avalanche photo diode array. Most measurements were done on the plasma edge, r/a ∼ 0.9, with 8 cm radial measurement width that covers the pedestal range. High speed density profile measurements reveal temporal behaviors of fast transient events, such as the precursors of edge localized modes and the transitions between confinement modes. Low background level also allows analysis of the edge density fluctuation patterns with reduced background fluctuations. Propagation of the density structures can be investigated by comparing the phase delays between the spatially distributed channels. PMID:25430341
Nam, Y. U. Wi, H. M.; Zoletnik, S.; Lampert, M.; Kovácsik, Ákos
2014-11-15
Beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has recently been upgraded. The background intensity was reduced from 30% to 2% by suppressing the stray lights. This allows acquisition of the relative electron density profiles on the plasma edge without background subtraction from the beam power modulation signals. The KSTAR BES system has its spatial resolution of 1 cm, the temporal resolution of 2 MHz, and a total 32 channel (8 radial × 4 poloidal) avalanche photo diode array. Most measurements were done on the plasma edge, r/a ∼ 0.9, with 8 cm radial measurement width that covers the pedestal range. High speed density profile measurements reveal temporal behaviors of fast transient events, such as the precursors of edge localized modes and the transitions between confinement modes. Low background level also allows analysis of the edge density fluctuation patterns with reduced background fluctuations. Propagation of the density structures can be investigated by comparing the phase delays between the spatially distributed channels.
Lower hybrid counter current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D
Fenstermacher, M.E.; Nevins, W.M.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Harvey, R.W.
1993-07-01
Each of the Advanced Tokamak operating modes in DIII-D is thought to have a distinctive current density profile. So far these modes have only been achieved transiently through experiments which ramp the plasma current and shape. Extension of these modes to steady state requires non-inductive current profile control, e.g. with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). Calculations of LHCD have been done for DIII-D using the ACCOME and CQL3D codes, showing that counter driven current at the plasma edge can cancel some of the undesirable edge bootstrap current and potentially extend the VH-mode. Results are presented for scenarios using 2.45 GHz LH waves launched from both the midplane and off-axis ports. The sensitivity of the results to injected power, n{sub e} and T{sub e}, and launched wave spectrum is also shown.
Lower-hybrid counter current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D
Fenstermacher, M.E.; Nevins, W.M. ); Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T. ); Harvey, R.W. )
1994-10-15
Each of the Advanced Tokamak operating modes in DIII-D is thought to have a distinctive current density profile. So far these modes have only been achieved transiently through experiments which ramp the plasma current and shape. Extension of these modes to steady state requires non-inductive current profile control, e.g., with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). Calculations of LHCD have been done for DIII-D using the ACCOME and CQL3D codes, showing that counter driven current at the plasma edge can cancel some of the undesirable edge bootstrap current and potentially extend the VH-mode. Results will be presented for scenarios using 2.45 GHz LH waves launched from both the midplane and off-axis ports. The sensitivity of the results to injected power, [ital n][sub [ital e
High-current density coils for high-radiation environments
Harvey, A.
1981-01-01
This paper concentrates on the problems of providing normal (that is, nonsuperconducting) magnet coils for present and short-term-future requirements where significant radiation doses are involved. Projects such as 100-mA deuteron accelerators and bundle diverter coils for TOKAMAKS are typical of applications where conventional organic insulation limited to 10/sup 10/ rads makes epoxy-based systems unacceptable. Moreover, even in present-day accelerators, radiation levels can be high enough to give rise to problems with oxidation of copper conductors if water is used in direct contact with the copper. The radiolytic oxygen, being formed in situ, cannot be controlled by external deoxygenators. An acceptable insulation for such environments has been described previously, and is being employed where radiation is expected to be a problem. Being a compacted magnesium oxide powder, the insulation has advantages. Analysis of constraints on maximum current densities achievable in such a coil construction, using computer codes, leads to coil configurations that operate at higher current densities than are usually found in directly cooled coils. An example of the thermal analysis of one coil configuration is given. The problems are addressed here.
MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density
ROSENTHAL,STEPHEN E.; DESJARLAIS,MICHAEL P.; SPIELMAN,RICK B.; STYGAR,WILLIAM A.; ASAY,JAMES R.; DOUGLAS,M.R.; HALL,C.A.; FRESE,M.H.; MORSE,R.L.; REISMAN,D.B.
2000-08-29
In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator, the authors have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. Unlike the 1-Tesla MITLs of pulsed power accelerators used to produce intense particle beams, Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100--1,200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 they have been investigating the conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are (1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into the MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clukey, Steven J.
1991-01-01
The real time Dynamic Data Acquisition and Processing System (DDAPS) is described which provides the capability for the simultaneous measurement of velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations. The system of hardware and software is described in context of the wind tunnel environment. The DDAPS replaces both a recording mechanism and a separate data processing system. DDAPS receives input from hot wire anemometers. Amplifiers and filters condition the signals with computer controlled modules. The analog signals are simultaneously digitized and digitally recorded on disk. Automatic acquisition collects necessary calibration and environment data. Hot wire sensitivities are generated and applied to the hot wire data to compute fluctuations. The presentation of the raw and processed data is accomplished on demand. The interface to DDAPS is described along with the internal mechanisms of DDAPS. A summary of operations relevant to the use of the DDAPS is also provided.
Fluctuating defect density probed with noise spectroscopy in hydrogenated amorphous silicon
Verleg, P.A.W.E.; Uca, O.; Dijkhuis, J.I.
1997-07-01
Resistance fluctuations have been studied in hydrogenated amorphous silicon in the temperature range between 300 K and 450 K. The primary noise source has a power spectrum of approximately 1/f and is ascribed to hydrogen motion. Hopping of weakly bound hydrogen is thermally activated at such low temperatures with an average activation energy of 0.85 eV. The attempt rate amounts to 7 {center_dot} 10{sup 12} s{sup {minus}1}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla; Chen, Yixiong; Doyon, Benjamin; Hoogeveen, Marianne
2014-03-01
We evaluate the exact energy current and scaled cumulant generating function (related to the large-deviation function) in non-equilibrium steady states with energy flow, in any integrable model of relativistic quantum field theory (IQFT) with diagonal scattering. Our derivations are based on various recent results of Bernard and Doyon. The steady states are built by connecting homogeneously two infinite halves of the system thermalized at different temperatures Tl, Tr, and waiting for a long time. We evaluate the current J(Tl, Tr) using the exact QFT density matrix describing these non-equilibrium steady states and using Zamolodchikov’s method of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA). The scaled cumulant generating function is obtained from the extended fluctuation relations which hold in integrable models. We verify our formula in particular by showing that the conformal field theory (CFT) result is obtained in the high-temperature limit. We analyze numerically our non-equilibrium steady-state TBA equations for three models: the sinh-Gordon model, the roaming trajectories model, and the sine-Gordon model at a particular reflectionless point. Based on the numerics, we conjecture that an infinite family of non-equilibrium c-functions, associated with the scaled cumulants, can be defined, which we interpret physically. We study the full scaled distribution function and find that it can be described by a set of independent Poisson processes. Finally, we show that the ‘additivity’ property of the current, which is known to hold in CFT and was proposed to hold more generally, does not hold in general IQFT—that is, J(Tl, Tr) is not of the form f(Tl) - f(Tr).
Critical current density and current distribution in field cooled superconducting disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, Pierre; Noudem, Jacques; Dupont, Louis
2016-07-01
Applications of bulk superconductors concern superconducting motors and generators, the levitation of vehicles, the generation of high magnetic fields with small size cryo-magnets, the shielding of magnetic fields and other applications. For all of them, it is essential to determine the critical current density, and to understand the effect of the shape and size of the bulks on the properties of interest. In this contribution, we show how the combination of levitation force and trapped field measurements allow one to determine the characteristics and the potential performances of superconducting disks using analytical modeling. As examples of applications we detail the effects of the magnetizing field and of the bulk sheet critical current density on the levitation force. An important result of the reported measurements is that in field-cooled samples, the shielding currents possibly do not flow along the whole thickness of the disks.
Online diagnoses of high current-density beams
Gilpatrick, J.D.
1994-07-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed several CW-proton-beam facilities for production of tritium or transmutation of nuclear waste with beam-current densities greater than 5 mA/mm{sup 2}. The primary beam-diagnostics-instrumentation requirement for these facilities is provision of sufficient beam information to understand and minimize beam-loss. To accomplish this task, the beam-diagnostics instrumentation must measure beam parameters such as the centroids and profiles, total integrated current, and particle loss. Noninterceptive techniques must be used for diagnosis of high-intensity CW beam at low energies due to the large quantity of power deposited in an interceptive diagnostic device by the beam. Transverse and longitudinal centroid measurements have been developed for bunched beams by measuring and processing image currents on the accelerator walls. Transverse beam-profile measurement-techniques have also been developed using the interaction of the particle beam with the background gases near the beam region. This paper will discuss these noninterceptive diagnostic Techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, A. E.
2009-11-01
Multi-field fluctuation measurements provide opportunities for rigorous comparison between experiment and nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations. A unique set of diagnostics on DIII-D allows for simultaneous study of local, long-wavelength (0 < kθρs< 0.5) electron temperature and density fluctuations in the core plasma (0.4 < ρ< 0.8). Previous experiments in L-mode indicate that normalized electron temperature fluctuation levels (40 < f < 400,kHz) increase with radius from ˜0.4% at ρ= 0.5 to ˜2% at ρ=0.8, similar to simultaneously measured density fluctuations. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is used to increase Te, which increases electron temperature fluctuation levels and electron heat transport in the experiments. In contrast, long wavelength density fluctuation levels change very little. The different responses are consistent with increased TEM drive relative to ITG-mode drive. A new capability at DIII-D is the measurement of phase angle between electron temperature and density fluctuations using coupled correlation electron cyclotron emission radiometer and reflectometer diagnostics. Linear and nonlinear GYRO runs have been used to design validation experiments that focus on measurements of the phase angle. GYRO shows that if Te and ∇Te increase 50% in a beam-heated L-mode plasma (ρ=0.5), then the phase angle between electron temperature and density fluctuations decreases 30%-50% and electron temperature fluctuation levels increase a factor of two more than density fluctuations. Comparisons between these predictions and experimental results will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higdon, J. C.
1986-10-01
A model of anisotropic plasma fluids is developed to examine the origin of the spectra of random, electron-density variations inferred by Armstrong, Cordes, and Rickett from measurements of pulsar radio signals. These electron variations are interpreted as density components of an anisotropic stationary mode of nonlinear magnetogasdynamics-tangetial pressure balances. It is demonstrated that turbulent flows, generated by the disruption of H I clouds in O star H II regions, reproduce well the mean electron spectrum inferred by Armstrong et al., if the relative rms density variation, >(n-n0)2<1/2/n0 is 0.125, where n0 is the mean density.
Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode
Wang, Qi
2008-04-22
A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.
Identifying Distinguishing Characteristics of Secondary Pyroclastic Density Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isom, S. L.; Brand, B. D.
2014-12-01
Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of volcanic particles and gas that travel down the slopes of erupting volcanoes. The combination of high velocities, high bulk densities (due to particles in the current) and high temperatures make PDCs the most dangerous and deadly hazard associated with explosive volcanism. Secondary explosive phenomenon associated with PDCs, such as inland-directed surges (e.g., Montserrat, 2003) and phreatic explosions (e.g., Mt St Helens 1980) can increase the area affected and duration of the hazard. However, little work has been done on distinguishing the deposits of secondary explosive phenomenon from primary phenomenon. Samples have been acquired from the 1980 Mt St Helens phreatic explosion crater deposits and the 2003 eruptive event at Montserrat where a PDC flowed into the ocean, causing an inland-directed surge (Edmonds and Herd, 2005. Geology 33.4:245-248). The samples will be analyzed via depositional characteristics, granulometry, componentry, microscopic analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. We hypothesize that thermal cracking or vesicle distortion (e.g., compression or hindered expansion) may occur in hot pyroclasts that enter a body of water, leading to a difference between the ash textures of primary PDCs, phreatic surges and inland-directed surge deposits. Analyzing granulometry and componentry from parent flows and secondary flows may also reveal distinguishing characteristics that will allow us to constrain differences in segregation mechanisms of particles for each phenomenon. Determining distinguishing depositional characteristics of these secondary phenomena is important for assessing their occurrence during past eruptions and identifying conditions conducive to the formation of secondary explosions. This will result in the ability to make more accurate hazard maps for volcanoes prone to explosive activity.
Bardóczi, L; Rhodes, T L; Carter, T A; Bañón Navarro, A; Peebles, W A; Jenko, F; McKee, G
2016-05-27
We report the first observation of localized modulation of turbulent density fluctuations n[over ˜] (via beam emission spectroscopy) by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in the core of the DIII-D tokamak. NTMs are important as they often lead to severe degradation of plasma confinement and disruptions in high-confinement fusion experiments. Magnetic islands associated with NTMs significantly modify the profiles and turbulence drives. In this experiment n[over ˜] was found to be modulated by 14% across the island. Gyrokinetic simulations suggest that n[over ˜] could be dominantly driven by the ion temperature gradient instability. PMID:27284662
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Peebles, W. A.; Jenko, F.; McKee, G.
2016-05-01
We report the first observation of localized modulation of turbulent density fluctuations n ˜ (via beam emission spectroscopy) by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) in the core of the DIII-D tokamak. NTMs are important as they often lead to severe degradation of plasma confinement and disruptions in high-confinement fusion experiments. Magnetic islands associated with NTMs significantly modify the profiles and turbulence drives. In this experiment n ˜ was found to be modulated by 14% across the island. Gyrokinetic simulations suggest that n ˜ could be dominantly driven by the ion temperature gradient instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woo, K. M.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.
2013-06-01
It is well known that the imperfection of pulse power sources that drive the linear induction accelerators can lead to time-varying fluctuation in the accelerating voltages, which in turn leads to longitudinal emittance growth. We show that this source of emittance growth is correctable, even in space-charge dominated beams with significant transients induced by space-charge waves. Two correction methods are proposed, and their efficacy in reducing longitudinal emittance is demonstrated with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.
Wall current closure effects on plasma and sheath fluctuations in Hall thrusters
Frias, Winston Smolyakov, Andrei I.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Raitses, Yevgeny
2014-06-15
The excitation of negative energy, ion sound type modes driven by the E × B drift and the reactive/dissipative response of the wall sheath interface is analyzed for conditions typical in a Hall thruster. Such sheath impedance modes are sensitive to the dielectric properties of the thruster wall material, which therefore may have direct influence (other than via the secondary electron emission) on fluctuations and transport. Our results predict mode frequencies consistent with the frequencies of fluctuations observed experimentally.
Reduction of current density at disk electrode periphery by shaping current pulse edges.
Wang, Boshuo; Weiland, James D
2012-01-01
Previous studies reveal that the primary distribution of the current density is sharply enhanced at the edge of a disk electrode submerged into a semi-infinite space of conductive solution. The current enhancement will cause the double layer capacitance at the periphery of the electrode to be charged much faster compared to the center, and can also lead to severe corrosion at the edge. While several studies focused on the geometric design of the electrode to reduce this enhancement, we explore the feasibility of achieving similar effect by shaping the edges of the current input. The simulation uses finite element analysis software to solve the system of partial differential equations and results show that the edge enhancement could be greatly reduced without significantly changing the input efficacy of current and/or charge. PMID:23367085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, A. E.; Schmitz, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Carter, T. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Zeng, L.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Deboo, J. C.; Staebler, G. M.
2008-11-01
An increase in the ratio of the amplitudes of two fluctuating fields, (Te/Te)/(n/n), is observed in DIII-D beam-heated (˜2.5 MW, co-injected) L-mode plasmas during ECH (˜2.5 MW deposited at ρ 0.17). The amplitude of long wavelength temperature fluctuations, Te/Te, measured with a correlation ECE diagnostic (CECE), increases significantly during ECH. In contrast, the amplitude of long wavelength density fluctuations, n/n, measured simultaneously with a BES diagnostic, does not change. Linear stability analysis with the TGLF code shows that during ECH the ratio of the TEM and ITG growth rates increases at long wavelengths in the range relevant for the CECE and BES diagnostics. These TGLF results are found to be more sensitive to changes in the TEM drive term a/Lne compared with changes in a/LTe or a/LTi. Sensitivity scans with TGLF and comparisons with experimental results for the ratio (Te/Te)/(n/n) measured in Ohmic plasmas with ECH will be presented.
High current density contacts for photoconductive semiconductor switches
Baca, A.G.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Loubriel, G.M.; McLaughlin, D.L.; Zutavern, F.J.
1993-08-01
The current densities implied by current filaments in GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are in excess of 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. As the lateral switches are tested repeatedly, damage accumulates at the contacts until electrical breakdown occurs across the surface of the insulating region. In order to improve the switch lifetime, the incorporation of n- and p-type ohmic contacts in lateral switches as well as surface geometry modifications have been investigated. By using p-type AuBe ohmic contacts at the anode and n-type AuGe ohmic contacts at the cathode, contact lifetime improvements of 5--10x were observed compared to switches with n-type contacts at both anode and cathode. Failure analysis on samples operated for 1--1,000 shots show that extensive damage still exists for at least one contact on all switches observed and that temperatures approaching 500{degrees}C are can be reached. However, the n-type AuGe cathode is often found to have no damage observable by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The observed patterns of contact degradation indicate directions for future contact improvements in lateral switches.
Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of Velocity and Density Fluctuation Spectra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seasholtz, Richard G.; Panda, Jayanta; Elam, Kristie A.
2002-01-01
A new molecular Rayleigh scattering based flow diagnostic is used for the first time to measure the power spectrum of gas density and radial velocity component in the plumes of high speed jets. The technique is based on analyzing the Rayleigh scattered light with a Fabry-Perot interferometer used in the static, imaging mode. The PC based data acquisition system is capable of simultaneous sampling of velocity and density at rates to 100 kHz and data record lengths to 10 million. Velocity and density power spectra and velocity-density cross spectra are presented for a subsonic jet, an underexpanded screeching jet, and for Mach 1.4 and Mach 1.8 supersonic jets. Software and hardware interfaces were developed to allow computer control of all aspects of the experiment and data acquisition.
Zhang, Yi-Jun; Gao, Song; Su, Ru-Keng Zhang, Yi-Jun Gao, Song Su, Ru-Keng
1997-12-01
Based on thermofield dynamics, the temperature- and density-dependent effective mass and screening mass of {rho} meson have been calculated. The effects of vacuum fluctuation corrections through effective nucleon mass are examined. We have shown that vacuum fluctuations give an important correction to the self-energy of the {rho} meson and lead to a reduction of the {rho}-meson mass in hot and dense matter. The temperature and density dependence of one-{rho}-meson exchange potential with vacuum fluctuation correction is also given. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Multipoint measurements of field aligned current density in the auroral zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Yihua
2001-08-01
In this thesis we discuss the results of the Enstrophy sounding rocket, launched from Poker Flat Research Range on the evening of February 11, 1999. The rocket flew through a very dynamic auroral region with multiple bright arcs and into the polar cap. Four Free Flying Magnetometers employing autonomous, nano-spacecraft technology and designed by JPL were deployed from the main payload during the flight and multipoint magnetic field measurements were made. Magnetic field data reduction was performed on data obtained from the FFMs. The data reduction procedure is very complicated in the sense that it requires transformation from a spinning and precessing coordinate system (measurements are in this system) to a non- spinning, non-processing, Earth-magnetic-field aligned B-L system (z axis is along B-the Earth magnetic field, x is in the B-L plane and pointing away from L-the angular momentum vector, and y axis comprises the right-handed coordinate system) and the extraction of magnetic fluctuation on the order of 10s nanotesla (nT) from a signal on the order of 10 4 nT. Therefore, very accurate fitting of all the involved parameters is a necessity. Details of the data reduction procedure are discussed. Large magnetic field fluctuations were seen by all the FFMs when the rocket was near its apogee (about 1070 km), at the poleward edge of an auroral arc. Field Aligned Current (FAC) density was calculated from the multipoint magnetic field measurements by Taylor series expansion to the first order. Both spatial structures and temporal variations are seen during this event and interpretations of the results are made. The delays in the magnetic fluctuations between the FFMs indicates current sheet structures were moving relative to each other, which is further supported by the fact that the results from a simple model of multiple payloads crossing through several moving current sheets could reproduce most of the delays in magnetic field measurements. But at other times
Local Density Fluctuations Predict Photoisomerization Quantum Yield of Azobenzene-Modified DNA.
Kingsland, Addie; Samai, Soumyadyuti; Yan, Yunqi; Ginger, David S; Maibaum, Lutz
2016-08-01
Azobenzene incorporated into DNA has a photoisomerization quantum yield that depends on the DNA sequence near the azobenzene attachment site. We use Molecular Dynamics computer simulations to elucidate which physical properties of the modified DNA determine the quantum yield. We show for a wide range of DNA sequences that the photoisomerization quantum yield is strongly correlated with the variance of the number of atoms in close proximity to the outer phenyl ring of the azobenzene group. We infer that quantum yield is controlled by the availability of fluctuations that enable the conformational change. We demonstrate that these simulations can be used as a qualitative predictive tool by calculating the quantum yield for several novel DNA sequences, and confirming these predictions using UV-vis spectroscopy. Our results will be useful for the development of a wide range of applications of photoresponsive DNA nanotechnology. PMID:27428569
Clemente, R. A.; Gilli, M.; Farengo, R.
2008-10-15
Steady state solutions, suitable for field-reversed configurations (FRCs) sustained by rotating magnetic fields (RMFs) are obtained by properly including three-dimensional effects, in the limit of large FRC elongation, and the radial component of Ohm's law. The steady electrostatic potential, necessary to satisfy Ohm's law, is considered to be a surface function. The problem is analyzed at the midplane of the configuration and it is reduced to the solution of two coupled nonlinear differential equations for the real and imaginary parts of the phasor associated to the longitudinal component of the vector potential. Additional constraints are obtained by requesting that the steady radial current density and poloidal magnetic flux vanish at the plasma boundary which is set at the time-averaged separatrix. The results are presented in terms of the degree of synchronism of the electrons with the RMF and compared with those obtained when radial current effects are neglected. Three important differences are observed when compared with the case without radial current density. First, at low penetration of the RMF into the plasma there is a significant increase in the driven azimuthal current. Second, the RMF amplitude necessary to access the high synchronism regime, starting from low synchronism, is larger and the difference appears to increase as the separatrix to classical skin depth ratio increases. Third, the minimum RMF amplitude necessary to sustain almost full synchronism is reduced.
Fluctuations, Linear Response, and Currents in Out-of-Equilibrium Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciliberto, S.; Gomez-Solano, R.; Petrosyan, A.
2013-04-01
In this review we discuss, from an experimental point of view, several concepts of statistical mechanics for systems that are out of equilibrium either because they are driven by external forces or because they are slowly relaxing toward equilibrium. We focus on the case where the mean injected energy is of the order of thermal fluctuations, which therefore cannot be neglected. We first introduce the main concepts of fluctuation theorems (FTs) for work and heat using measurements of (a) a harmonic oscillator driven out of equilibrium by an external force and (b) a colloidal particle trapped in a time-dependent double-well potential. We use the example of the Brownian particle to analyze the problem of the fluctuation-dissipation relation ( FDR ) in out-of-equilibrium systems. We next study the fluctuations of the position of a Brownian particle inside an aging gelatin after a fast quench. Using the experimental data of this experiment, we show that the mean heat flux is quantitatively related to the violation of the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem or equivalently to the entropy production rate. Finally, we discuss briefly the problems and the new directions for the stochastic thermodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fadda, G. C.; Lairez, D.; Zalczer, G.
2009-10-01
Voltage-clamp measurements on lipid bilayers at the onset of peptide attacks before pore formation are reported. With four different peptides [alamethicin, melittin, and two synthetic peptides of the leucine (L)-lysine(K) copolymers (LK series)], correlations of conductivity fluctuations slowly decay over four decades in time. This slow dynamics is interpreted as being due to fluctuations of peptide concentration at the crowded surface of the bilayer and found to be compatible with the t-1/2 relaxation of the RSA model.
Vibration effect on magnetization and critical current density of superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golovchanskiy, Igor A.; Pan, Alexey V.; George, Jonathan; Wells, Frederick S.; Fedoseev, Sergey A.; Rozenfeld, Anatoly
2016-07-01
In this work the effect of vibrations on critical current density (J c ) of superconductors has been studied. The vibrations are shown to affect J c of all types of superconductors during their measurements, employing a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Increasing vibration frequency (f) and/or amplitude (A) leads to progressive reduction of J c as a function of magnetic field (B a ). The effect of vibrations is substantially stronger in thin films. It leads to development of unexpected kinks on {J}c({B}a) curves. Analysis of magnetization loops and relaxation of magnetization in YBCO films revealed that the vibration effect can be treated as the effective reduction of pinning potential. The asymmetry of the vibration effect in ascending and descending B a is observed, indicating differences in free energy of the corresponding vortex structures. Thermal effects induced by vibrations with large f and A are shown to have rather insignificant influence, while the vibrational vortex dynamics exhibit a strong impact. The irreversibility field ({B}{{irr}}) is shown to be instrumentally defined, and its value depends on VSM settings. In addition, the practical importance of {B}{{irr}} for J c modeling is demonstrated.
High-density matter: current status and future challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, J. R.
2015-05-01
There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Peiwan; Shi, Zhongbing; Chen, Wei; Zhong, Wulyu; Yang, Zengchen; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Boyu; Li, Yonggao; Yu, Liming; Liu, Zetian; Ding, Xuantong
2016-07-01
A multichannel microwave interferometer system has been developed on the HL-2A tokomak. Its working frequency is well designed to avoid the fringe jump effect. Taking the structure of HL-2A into account, its antennas are installed in the horizontal direction, i.e. one launcher in high field side (HFS) and four receivers in low field side (LFS). The fan-shaped measurement area covers those regions where the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities are active. The heterodyne technique contributes to its high temporal resolution (1 μs). It is possible for the multichannel system to realize simultaneous measurements of density and its fluctuation. The quadrature phase detection based on the zero-crossing method is introduced to density measurement. With this system, reliable line-averaged densities and density profiles are obtained. The location of the saturated internal kink mode can be figured out from the mode showing different intensities on four channels, and the result agrees well with that measured by electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI). supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB104002, 2013GB107002, 2014GB107001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475058, 11475057, 11261140326, 11405049)
Modeling Spin Fluctuations and Magnetic Excitations from Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorni, Tommaso; Timrov, Iurii; Dal Corso, Andrea; Baroni, Stefano
Harnessing spin fluctuations and magnetic excitations in materials is key in many fields of technology, spanning from memory devices to information transfer and processing, to name but a few. A proper understanding of the interplay between collective and single-particle spin excitations is still lacking, and it is expected that first-principle simulations based on TDDFT may shed light on this interplay, as well as on the role of important effects such as relativistic ones and related magnetic anisotropies. All the numerical approaches proposed so far to tackle this problem are based on the computationally demanding solution of the Sternheimer equations for the response orbitals or the even more demanding solution of coupled Dyson equations for the spin and charge susceptibilities. The Liouville-Lanczos approach to TDDFT has already proven to be a valuable alternative, the most striking of its features being the avoidance of sums over unoccupied single-particle states and the frequency-independence of the main numerical bottleneck. In this work we present an extension of this methodology to magnetic systems and its implementation in the
Schuster, Andrea C; Herde, Antje; Mazzoni, Camila J; Eccard, Jana A; Sommer, Simone
2016-07-01
Strong spatiotemporal variation in population size often leads to reduced genetic diversity limiting the adaptive potential of individual populations. Key genes of adaptive variation are encoded by the immune genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) playing an essential role in parasite resistance. How MHC variation persists in rodent populations that regularly experience population bottlenecks remains an important topic in evolutionary genetics. We analysed the consequences of strong population fluctuations on MHC class II DRB exon 2 diversity in two distant common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations in three consecutive years using a high-throughput sequencing approach. In 143 individuals, we detected 25 nucleotide alleles translating into 14 unique amino acid MHC alleles belonging to at least three loci. Thus, the overall allelic diversity and amino acid distance among the remaining MHC alleles, used as a surrogate for the range of pathogenic antigens that can be presented to T-cells, are still remarkably high. Both study populations did not show significant population differentiation between years, but significant differences were found between sites. We concluded that selection processes seem to be strong enough to maintain moderate levels of MHC diversity in our study populations outcompeting genetic drift, as the same MHC alleles were conserved between years. Differences in allele frequencies between populations might be the outcome of different local parasite pressures and/or genetic drift. Further understanding of how pathogens vary across space and time will be crucial to further elucidate the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in cyclic populations. PMID:27225422
Abrasion in pyroclastic density currents: Insights from tumbling experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kueppers, Ulrich; Putz, Constanze; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.
2012-01-01
During granular mass movements of any kind, particles may interact with one another. The degree of interaction is a function of several variables including; grain-size distribution, particle concentration, density stratification and degree of fluidisation. The impact of particle interaction is additionally influenced by the relative speed, impact angle and clast temperature. Thus, both source conditions and transport-related processes are expected to influence the flow dynamics of pyroclastic density currents and their subsequent deposition. Here, we use tumbling experiments to shed light on the susceptibility of porous clasts to abrasion. We investigated the abrasion of unaltered volcanic rocks (5.7-80 vol.% porosity) from Unzen (Japan), Bezymianny (Russia) and Santorini (Greece) volcanoes as well as one synthetic analogue material, an insulating material with the trade name Foamglas® (95 vol.% porosity). Each experiment started with angular fragments generated in a jaw crusher from larger clasts. Two experimental series were performed; on samples with narrow and broader grain-size distributions, respectively. The dry samples were subject to rotational movement at constant speed and ambient temperature in a gum rotational tumbler for durations of 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min. The amount of volcanic ash (particles <2 mm) generated was evaluated as a function of experimental duration and sample porosity. We term “abrasion” as the ash fraction generated during the experiments. The observed increase of “abrasion” with increasing sample porosity and experimental duration is initially non-linear but becomes linear for experiments of 30 min duration or longer. For any given sample, abrasion appears to be more effective for coarser samples and larger initial mass. The observed range of ash generated in our experiments is between 1 and 35 wt.%. We find that this amount generally increases with increasing initial clast size or increasing breadth of the initial grain
The Critical Current Density in High Critical Temperature Superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sengupta, Suvankar
Critical current density, j_{ rm c}, is an important parameter for determining the usefulness. This work focuses on the understanding of various phenomena related to the j_{ rm c} in type II superconductor. Various methods to enhance j_{rm c} by introducing pinning are also considered. In particular, the effect of secondary phase addition and mechanical treatment on the microstructure and j _{rm c} of various high T _{rm c} superconducting system is investigated. Fine inclusions (<0.1 μm) can be introduced by secondary phase additions. An enhancement in j_{ rm c} is always observed associated with the presence of fine inclusions. These cavities are found to interact strongly with flux lines in a high T _{rm c} superconductor. However, the cavities are found ineffective to pin a large number of flux lines. Dislocations and other structural defects are introduced by consolidating Bi_2Sr _2CaCu_2O _{rm x} by hot isotatically pressing (HIP). Samples HIPed for 15 min. contained a high density of dislocations and showed a substantial higher j_{rm c} than the samples HIPed for 45 min. and 120 min., where most of the dislocations were annihilated during the recovery process. Various methods of determining the irreversibility line are also considered. Using the criterion of a constant j_{rm c}, the irreversibility line obtained from magnetic hysteresis measurements was found to improve with the enhancement of flux pinning and reduction of interlayer spacing. The results can be best explained by the model proposed by Kim et al (1) and Clem (2). Magnetic relaxation of various type II superconductors is also reported. The non-logarithmic of decay of magnetization can be understood by assuming a non-linear U-j relationship. A method to extract U-j relationship from magnetic relaxation experiments is also developed. The effect of flux pinning on the U-j relationship is also investigated. Melt-processed YBa_2Cu _3O_{rm x} samples with strong levitation force are also fabricated
Structure of Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents During Transport, Buoyancy Reversal and Liftoff
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, B. J.
2014-12-01
Scaled laboratory experiments provide insight into structure, entrainment and liftoff in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Experiments are conducted in a 8.5×6.1×2.6 m air-filled tank and comprise turbulently suspended mixtures of heated 20-μm talc particles introduced to the tank at steady and sustained rates; the tank is large enough that the currents are effectively unconfined. Experiments are scaled with bulk (densimetric and thermal Richardson numbers, Froude number) and turbulent (Stokes and settling numbers) parameters dynamically similar to natural currents. The Reynolds numbers of experiments are smaller than those of natural PDCs, but analysis of the experiments demonstrates that they are fully turbulent. Red, green, and blue laser sheets illuminate orthogonal planes within the currents for imaging and recording with HD video cameras; those data are reprojected into cross-sectional and map-view planes for analysis of turbulent velocity fields and fluctuations in particle concentration. A green laser sheet can be swept through the tank at 60 Hz and imaged with a high-speed CCD camera at up to 3000 fps; sequences of 60-300 images are used to make 3D volumetric reconstructions of the currents at up to 10 Hz. Currents typically comprise a lower "bypass" region and an upper entraining region that turbulently mixes with the ambient air. The bypass region is generally about half of the total current thickness and moves faster than the overlying, entraining region. The bypass region controls runout distance and steadiness of currents. If turbulent structures in the entraining region penetrate through the bypass region, the trailing portion of the current can stall before resuming forward progress; thus a single, "steady" current can generate multiple currents. When a current lifts off, it focuses along a narrow axis beneath the rising (coignimbrite) plume. At that time, ambient air entrainment occurs primarily through the lateral margins of the narrow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Chandra, Amalendu
2013-06-01
A first principles study of the dynamics of supercritical methanol is carried out by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, the fluctuation dynamics of hydroxyl stretch frequencies, hydrogen bonds, dangling hydroxyl groups, and orientation of methanol molecules are investigated for three different densities at 523 K. Apart from the dynamical properties, various equilibrium properties of supercritical methanol such as the local density distributions and structural correlations, hydrogen bonding aspects, frequency-structure correlations, and dipole distributions of methanol molecules are also investigated. In addition to the density dependence of various equilibrium and dynamical properties, their dependencies on dispersion interactions are also studied by carrying out additional simulations using a dispersion corrected density functional for all the systems. It is found that the hydrogen bonding between methanol molecules decreases significantly as we move to the supercritical state from the ambient one. The inclusion of dispersion interactions is found to increase the number of hydrogen bonds to some extent. Calculations of the frequency-structure correlation coefficient reveal that a statistical correlation between the hydroxyl stretch frequency and the nearest hydrogen-oxygen distance continues to exist even at supercritical states of methanol, although it is weakened with increase of temperature and decrease of density. In the supercritical state, the frequency time correlation function is found to decay with two time scales: One around or less than 100 fs and the other in the region of 250-700 fs. It is found that, for supercritical methanol, the times scales of vibrational spectral diffusion are determined by an interplay between the dynamics of hydrogen bonds, dangling OD groups, and inertial rotation of methanol molecules and the roles of these various components are found to vary with density of the supercritical solvent. Effects
Realizing life-scalable experimental pyroclastic density currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cronin, S. J.; Lube, G.; Breard, E.; Jones, J.; Valentine, G.; Freundt, A.; Hort, M. K.; Bursik, M. I.
2013-12-01
Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) - the most deadly threat from volcanoes - are extremely hot, ground-hugging currents of rock fragments and gas that descend slopes at hundreds of kilometers per hour. These hostile flows are impossible to internally measure, thus volcanologists are persistently blocked in efforts to realistically forecast their internal mechanics and hazards. Attempts to fill this gap via laboratory-scale experiments continue to prove difficult, because they usually mismatch the dynamic and kinematic scaling of real-world flows by several orders of magnitude. In a multi-institutional effort, the first large-scale pyroclastic flow generator that can synthesize repeatable hot high-energy gas-particle mixture flows in safety has been commissioned in New Zealand. The final apparatus stands 15 m high, consisting of a tower/elevator system; an instrumented hopper that can hold >6000 kg (or 3.2 m3) of natural volcanic materials, which can be discharged at a range of controlled rates onto an instrumented, variably inclinable (6-25°) glass-sided chute for examining the vertical profiles of PDCs in motion. The use of rhyolitic pyroclastic material from the 1800 AD Taupo Eruption (with its natural grain-size, sorting and shape characteristics) and gas ensures natural coupling between the solids and fluid phases. PDC analogues with runout of >15 meters and flow depths of 1.5-6 meters are created by generating variably heated falling columns of natural volcanic particles (50-1300 kg/s), dispersed and aerated to controlled particle densities between 3 and 60 vol.% at the base of the elevated hopper. The descending columns rapidly generate high-velocity flows (up to 14 m/s) once impacting on the inclined channel, reproducing many features of natural flows, including segregation into dense and dilute regimes, progressive aggradational and en masse deposition of particles and the development of high internal gas-pore-pressures during flow. The PDC starting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muscatello, C. M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Ren, X.; Spear, A.; Tobias, B. J.
2012-10-01
An imaging diagnostic capable of measuring simultaneously the poloidal and radial structure of density fluctuations is being developed for DIII-D. The success of electron-cyclotron emission imaging developed by UC Davis for DIII-D is a testament to the powerful utility of microwave imaging diagnostics for tokamaks. Since its first deployment on TEXTOR, the MIR concept has undergone several improvements in optical and electronics design. For example, the shape of the wavefront of the probing beam and the curvature of the cutoff layer strongly affect the integrity of the reflected signal. This is addressed with transmitting optical elements that are designed to control the shape of the probing beam. Advances in microwave electronics make it possible to transmit and detect multiple frequencies simultaneously, permitting fluctuation measurements at multiple radial locations. Interesting physics occurs over the entire poloidal cross-section of the plasma, on disparate spatial scales. MIR is flexible in this respect, allowing a remote user to rapidly tune the individual probing frequencies for a variety of correlation studies. Synthetic diagnostic simulations and extensive laboratory tests corroborate our confidence in a successful implementation of MIR on DIII-D.
Fluctuation of the charge density wave in TTF-TCNQ under high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murata, Keizo; Weng, Yufeng; Seno, Yuki; Rani Tamilselvan, Natarajan; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Arumugam, Sonachalam; Takashima, Yusaku; Yoshino, Harukazu; Kato, Reizo
2009-03-01
Temperature dependence of the resistivity of TTF-TCNQ along the b-(1D)- and a-axes was studied under hydrostatic pressure up to 8 GPa. A striking contrast was seen between the b-(1D)- and a-axes in the power-law dependence of resistivity ρ=ρ0Tα in the metallic region as well as the activation energy in the charge density wave (CDW) insulating state. We note that the careful terminal configuration is essentially important to obtain these properties.
The Effect of Input Torque Ramps on Density Fluctuations Generated in the QH-mode Edge on DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rost, Chris; Davis, E. M.; Marinoni, A.; Porkolab, M. A.; Burrell, K. H.
2015-11-01
Recent studies of Quiescent H-mode with varied input torque have exhibited two regimes of edge density turbulence, as observed with the Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) density fluctuation diagnostic. The PCI is especially sensitive to turbulence in regions of large velocity shear, as seen in the Er well in the H-mode edge. QH-modes were first discovered in discharges with large input torque from neutral beams. Such plasmas possess a deep Er well inside the separatrix and have highly sheared ion-scale turbulence in the outer portion of the well propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction at 50 % of the largest E × B velocity. As input torque decreases, additional sheared turbulence appears which propagates at 2-3 × the largest E × B velocity, coincident with discontinuous changes in the velocity shear in the Er well and the characteristics of the Edge Harmonic Oscillation. Robust performance is observed to continue throughout these qualitative changes in the QH-mode edge parameters and density turbulence. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
Anisotropic density fluctuations, plasmons, and Friedel oscillations in nodal line semimetal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Yong Baek
2016-04-01
Motivated by recent experimental efforts on three-dimensional semimetals, we investigate the static and dynamic density response of the nodal line semimetal by computing the polarizability for both undoped and doped cases. The nodal line semimetal in the absence of doping is characterized by a ring-shape zero energy contour in momentum space, which may be considered as a collection of Dirac points. In the doped case, the Fermi surface has a torus shape and two independent processes of the momentum transfer contribute to the singular features of the polarizability even though we only have a single Fermi surface. In the static limit, there exist two independent singularities in the second derivative of the static polarizability. This results in the highly anisotropic Friedel oscillations which show the angle-dependent algebraic power law and the beat phenomena in the oscillatory electron density near a charged impurity. Furthermore, the dynamical polarizability has two singular lines along {\\hslash }ω =γ p and {\\hslash }ω =γ p{sin}η , where η is the angle between the external momentum {p} and the plane where the nodal ring lies. From the dynamical polarizability, we obtain the plasmon modes in the doped case, which show anisotropic dispersions and angle-dependent plasma frequencies. Qualitative differences between the low and high doping regimes are discussed in light of future experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Silva-Cadoux, Cécile; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Testemale, Denis; Proux, Olivier; Rochas, Cyrille
2012-01-01
Synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering measurements on water and alkaline bromine aqueous solutions (XBr, with X = Li, Rb, or Cs) were carried out from ambient to supercritical conditions. The temperature was increased from 300 to 750 K along several isobars between 24 and 35 MPa. The correlation length and the structure factor were extracted from the data following the Ornstein-Zernike formalism. We obtained experimental evidence of the shift of the critical point and isochore and their dependence on the ions concentration (0.33 mol/kg and 1.0 mol/kg). We also observed that the size of the density fluctuations and the structure factor increase with the presence of the ions and that this effect is positively correlated with the atomic number of the cation. These behaviors were compared with ZnBr2 and NaCl systems from the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, G. M.; Li, Y. D.; Li, Q.; Sun, P. J.; Wu, G. J.; Hu, L. Q.; the EAST Team
2015-08-01
Beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) during strong tearing modes (TMs) have been frequently observed in fast-electron plasmas of EAST tokamak. The dynamics of the short-scale ({k}\\perp {ρ }s~{1.5-4.3}) density fluctuations during the activity of BAEs with strong TMs has been preliminarily investigated by a tangential CO2 laser collective scattering system. The results suggest the active, but different, response of short-scale density fluctuations to the TMs and BAEs. In the low-frequency (0-10 kHz) part of density fluctuations, there are harmonic oscillations totally corresponding to those of TMs. In the medium-high frequency (10-250 kHz) part of density fluctuations, with the appearance of the BAEs, the medium-high frequency density fluctuations begin to be dominated by several quasi-coherent (QC) modes, and the frequencies of the QC modes seem to be related to the changes of both TMs and BAEs. These results would shed some light on the understanding of the multi-scale interaction physics.
Hazards from pyroclastic density currents at Mt. Etna (Italy)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behncke, Boris
2009-03-01
Despite the recent recognition of Mount Etna as a periodically violently explosive volcano, the hazards from various types of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) have until now received virtually no attention at this volcano. Large-scale pyroclastic flows last occurred during the caldera-forming Ellittico eruptions, 15-16 ka ago, and the risk of them occurring in the near future is negligible. However, minor PDCs can affect much of the summit area and portions of the upper flanks of the volcano. During the past ~ 20 years, small pyroclastic flows or base-surge-like vapor and ash clouds have occurred in at least 8 cases during summit eruptions of Etna. Four different mechanisms of PDC generation have been identified during these events: (1) collapse of pyroclastic fountains (as in 2000 and possibly in 1986); (2) phreatomagmatic explosions resulting from mixing of lava with wet rock (2006); (3) phreatomagmatic explosions resulting from mixing of lava with thick snow (2007); (4) disintegration of the unstable flanks of a lava dome-like structure growing over the rim of one of the summit craters (1999). All of these recent PDCs were of a rather minor extent (maximum runout lengths were about 1.5 km in November 2006 and March 2007) and thus they represented no threat for populated areas and human property around the volcano. Yet, events of this type pose a significant threat to the lives of people visiting the summit area of Etna, and areas in a radius of 2 km from the summit craters should be off-limits anytime an event capable of producing similar PDCs occurs. The most likely source of further PDCs in the near future is the Southeast Crater, the youngest, most active and most unstable of the four summit craters of Etna, where 6 of the 8 documented recent PDCs originated. It is likely that similar hazards exist in a number of volcanic settings elsewhere, especially at snow- or glacier-covered volcanoes and on volcano slopes strongly affected by hydrothermal alteration.
Polycrystalline Superconducting Thin Films: Texture Control and Critical Current Density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Feng
1995-01-01
The growth processes of polycrystalline rm YBa_2CU_3O_{7-X} (YBCO) and yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) thin films have been developed. The effectiveness of YSZ buffer layers on suppression of the reaction between YBCO thin films and metallic substrates was carefully studied. Grown on the chemically inert surfaces of YSZ buffer layers, YBCO thin films possessed good quality of c-axis alignment with the c axis parallel to the substrate normal, but without any preferred in-plane orientations. This leads to the existence of a large percentage of the high-angle grain boundaries in the YBCO films. The critical current densities (rm J_{c}'s) found in these films were much lower than those in single crystal YBCO thin films, which was the consequence of the weak -link effect of the high-angle grain boundaries in these films. It became clear that the in-plane alignment is vital for achieving high rm J_{c }s in polycrystalline YBCO thin films. To induce the in-plane alignment, ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) technique was integrated into the conventional pulsed laser deposition process for the growth of the YSZ buffer layers. It was demonstrated that using IBAD the in-plane orientations of the YSZ grains could be controlled within a certain range of a common direction. This ion -bombardment induced in-plane texturing was explained using the anisotropic sputtering yield theory. Our observations and analyses have provided valuable information on the optimization of the IBAD process, and shed light on the texturing mechanism in YSZ. With the in-plane aligned YSZ buffer layers, YBCO thin films grown on metallic substrates showed improved rm J_{c}s. It was found that the in-plane alignment of YSZ and that of YBCO were closely related. A direct correlation was revealed between the rm J_{c} value and the degree of the in-plane alignment for the YBCO thin films. To explain this correlation, a numerical model was applied to multi-grain superconducting paths with different
Clast comminution during pyroclastic density current transport: Mt St Helens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, B.; Brand, B. D.; Dufek, J.
2011-12-01
Volcanic clasts within pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) tend to be more rounded than those in fall deposits. This rounding reflects degrees of comminution during transport, which produces an increase in fine-grained ash with distance from source (Manga, M., Patel, A., Dufek., J. 2011. Bull Volcanol 73: 321-333). The amount of ash produced due to comminution can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash lofted into the upper atmosphere, and increase internal pore pressure (e.g., Wohletz, K., Sheridan, M. F., Brown, W.K. 1989. J Geophy Res, 94, 15703-15721). For example, increased pore pressure has been shown to produce longer runout distances than non-comminuted PDC flows (e.g., Dufek, J., and M. Manga, 2008. J. Geophy Res, 113). We build on the work of Manga et al., (2011) by completing a pumice abrasion study for two well-exposed flow units from the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens (MSH). To quantify differences in comminution from source, sampling and the image analysis technique developed in Manga et al., 2010 was completed at distances proximal, medial, and distal from source. Within the units observed, data was taken from the base, middle, and pumice lobes within the outcrops. Our study is unique in that in addition to quantifying the degree of pumice rounding with distance from source, we also determine the possible range of ash sizes produced during comminution by analyzing bubble wall thickness of the pumice through petrographic and SEM analysis. The proportion of this ash size is then measured relative to the grain size of larger ash with distance from source. This allows us to correlate ash production with degree of rounding with distance from source, and determine the fraction of the fine ash produced due to comminution versus vent-fragmentation mechanisms. In addition we test the error in 2D analysis by completing a 3D image analysis of selected pumice samples using a Camsizer. We find that the roundness of PDC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knudsen, D. L.; Kabirzadeh, R.; Burchill, J. K.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Wallis, D. D.; Bounds, S. R.; Clemmons, J. H.; Pincon, J.-L.
2012-01-01
The Geoelectrodynamics and Electro-Optical Detection of Electron and SuprathermalIon Currents (GEODESIC) sounding rocket encountered more than 100 filamentary densitycavities associated with enhanced plasma waves at ELF (3 kHz) and VLF (310 kHz)frequencies and at altitudes of 800990 km during an auroral substorm. These cavities weresimilar in size (20 m diameter in most cases) to so-called lower-hybrid cavities (LHCs)observed by previous sounding rockets and satellites; however, in contrast, many of theGEODESIC cavities exhibited up to tenfold enhancements in magnetic wave powerthroughout the VLF band. GEODESIC also observed enhancements of ELF and VLFelectric fields both parallel and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field B0 within cavities,though the VLF E field increases were often not as large proportionally as seen in themagnetic fields. This behavior is opposite to that predicted by previously published theoriesof LHCs based on passive scattering of externally incident auroral hiss. We argue thatthe GEODESIC cavities are active wave generation sites capable of radiating VLF wavesinto the surrounding plasma and producing VLF saucers, with energy supplied by cold,upward flowing electron beams composing the auroral return current. This interpretation issupported by the observation that the most intense waves, both inside and outside cavities,occurred in regions where energetic electron precipitation was largely inhibited orabsent altogether. We suggest that the wave-enhanced cavities encountered by GEODESICwere qualitatively different from those observed by earlier spacecraft because of thefortuitous timing of the GEODESIC launch, which placed the payload at apogee within asubstorm-related return current during its most intense phase, lasting only a few minutes.
X-Ray Fluctuation Power Spectral Densities of Seyfert 1 Galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markowitz, A.; Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; George, I. M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Kaspi, S.; Lawrence, A.; McHandy, I.; Nandra, K.
2003-01-01
By combining complementary monitoring observations spanning long, medium and short time scales, we have constructed power spectral densities (PSDs) of six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs span approx. greater than 4 orders of magnitude in temporal frequency, sampling variations on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to over a year. In at least four cases, the PSD shows a "break," a significant departure from a power law, typically on time scales of order a few days. This is similar to the behavior of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), lower mass compact systems with breaks on time scales of seconds. NGC 3783 shows tentative evidence for a doubly-broken power law, a feature that until now has only been seen in the (much better-defined) PSDs of low-state XRBs. It is also interesting that (when one previously-observed object is added to make a small sample of seven), an apparently significant correlation is seen between the break time scale T and the putative black hole mass M(sub BH), while none is seen between break time scale and luminosity. The data are consistent with the linear relation T = M(sub BH) /10(exp 6.5) solar mass; extrapolation over 6-7 orders of magnitude is in reasonable agreement with XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert 1s and XRBs.
Ikefuji, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Masahiro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Mori, Toshifumi; Kondo, Noriyasu; Ieishi, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Sayuri; Ito, Susumu
2007-02-01
A close relationship exists between electric current and the magnetic field. However, electricity and magnetism have different physical characteristics, and magnetocardiography (MCG) may provide information on cardiac current that is difficult to obtain by electrocardiography (ECG). In the present study, we investigated the issue of whether the current density map method, in which cardiac current is estimated from the magnetic gradient, facilitates the visualization of cardiac current undetectable by ECG. The subjects were 50 healthy adults (N group), 40 patients with left ventricular overloading (LVO group), 15 patients with right ventricular overloading (RVO group), 10 patients with an old inferior myocardial infarction (OMI group), and 30 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM group). MCGs were recorded with a second derivative superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometer using liquid helium. Isopotential maps and current density maps from unipolar precordial ECG leads and MCGs, respectively, were prepared, and the cardiac electric current was examined. The current density map at the ventricular depolarization phase showed one peak of current density in the N group. However, in the OMI group, the current density map showed multiple peaks of current density areas. In the RVO group, two peaks of current densities were detected at the right superior region and left thoracic region and these two diploles appeared to be from the right and left ventricular derived cardiac currents, respectively. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the magnitude of the current density from the right ventricle and the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure. The current density map at the ventricular repolarization phase in the N group showed only a single current source. However, abnormal current sources in the current density maps were frequently detected even in patients showing no abnormalities on isopotential maps in the LVO, DM, and OMI groups. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Milligen, B. Ph.; Estrada, T.; García, L.; López Bruna, D.; Carreras, B. A.; Xu, Y.; Ochando, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Reynolds-Barredo, J. M.; López Fraguas, A.; the TJ-II Team
2016-01-01
This work explores the relation between magnetic islands, long range temporal correlations and heat transport. A low order rational surface ({\\rlap- \\iota}=3/2 ) was purposely scanned outward through an electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) plasma in the TJ-II stellarator. Density turbulence and the poloidal flow velocity were characterized using a two channel Doppler reflectometer. Simultaneously, the ECRH power was modulated to characterize heat transport, using measurements from a 12 channel electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. A systematic variation of the poloidal velocity was found to be associated with the {\\rlap- \\iota}=3/2 rational surface. Near the rational surface, the Hurst exponent, quantifying the nature of long-range correlations, was reduced below 0.5 (indicating subdiffusion), while at radii smaller than that of the rational surface, it was found to be significantly enhanced (superdiffusion). In the latter region, heat transport was enhanced as well, thus establishing a link between density fluctuations and anomalous heat transport. The observed variation of the Hurst exponent was consistent with a magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, J. J.; Sun, H. J.; Gao, Z. Y.
2008-09-01
Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a useful tool to measure the long-range power-law correlations in 1/f noise. In this paper, we investigate the power-law dynamics behavior of the density fluctuation time series generated by the famous Kerner-Klenov-Wolf cellular automata model in road traffic. Then the complexities of spatiotemporal, average speed, and the average density have been analyzed in detail. By introducing the DFA method, our main observation is that the free flow and wide moving jam phases correspond to the long-range anticorrelations. On the contrary, at the synchronized flow phase, the long-range correlated property is observed.
Laboratory Study Of Magnetic Reconnection With A Density Asymmetry Across The Current Sheet
Yoo, Joseph; Yamada, Massaaki; Ji, Hantao; Meyers,, Clayton E.; Jara-Almonte,; Chen, Li-Jen
2014-04-18
The effects of an upstream density asymmetry on magnetic reconnection are studied systematically in a laboratory plasma. Despite a significant upstream density asymmetry of up to 10, the reconnecting magnetic field pro file is not signifi cantly changed. On the other hand, the out-of-plane magnetic field profile is considerably modified; it is almost bipolar in structure with the density asymmetry, as compared to the quadrupolar structure in the symmetric configuration. The in-plane ion flow pattern and the electrostatic potential pro file are also affected by the density asymmetry. Strong bulk electron heating is observed near the low-density-side separatrix together with electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range. The dependence of the ion outflow and reconnection electric field on the density asymmetry is measured and compared with theoretical expectations.
Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report
Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porkolab, M.
1993-08-04
Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients.
CdS-metal contact at higher current densities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stirn, R. J.; Boeer, K. W.; Dussel, G. A.
1973-01-01
An investigation is conducted concerning the mechanisms by which a steady flow of current proceeds through the contact when an external voltage is applied. The main characteristics of current mechanisms are examined, giving attention to photoemission from the cathode, thermionic emission, minority-carrier extraction, and the tunneling of electrons. A high-field domain analysis is conducted together with experimental studies. Particular attention is given to the range in which tunneling predominates.
Butman, B.
1988-01-01
Eulerian current measurements made 5-7 m above bottom at six stations along the United States east coast continental margin show a net downslope flow of 1-5 cm s-1. Although the scalar current speed decreases with water depth and toward the bottom, fluctuations in the cross-isobath flow were stronger and increasingly asymmetric near the bottom. Maximum downslope flow exceeded maximum upslope flow by a factor of two to three. The strength of the low-passed downslope flow was proportional to the upslope Reynolds flux of density as well as to the amplitude of the current fluctuations that have periods shorter than 30 h. These flow characteristics may be caused by differential vertical mixing in the bottom boundary layer where a stratified fluid flows upslope (unstable) and downslope (stable). The asymmetry in current strength clearly favors net downslope transport of sediments that move as bedload. ?? 1988.
Can the current density map topology be extracted from the nucleus independent chemical shifts?
Van Damme, Sofie; Acke, Guillaume; Havenith, Remco W A; Bultinck, Patrick
2016-04-28
Aromatic compounds are characterised by the presence of a ring current when in a magnetic field. As a consequence, current density maps are used to assess (the degree of) aromaticity of a compound. However, often a more discrete set of so-called Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) values is used that is derived from the current density. It is shown here that there is no simple one-to-one relationship that allows reconstructing current density maps from only NICS-values. NICS values should therefore not be used as aromaticity indices without analysis of the ab initio computed current density map. PMID:26762574
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levchenko, I.; Keidar, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Yu, M. Y.
2006-01-01
Plasma transport in a hybrid dc vacuum arc plasma source for ion deposition and plasma immersion treatment is considered. It is found that external crossed electric and magnetic fields near the substrate can significantly reduce the relative amplitude of ion current fluctuations If at the substrate surface. In particular, If decreases with the applied magnetic field when the bias voltage exceeds 300 V, thus allowing one to reduce the deviations from the rated process parameters. This phenomenon can be attributed to an interaction between the metal-plasma jet from the arc source and the discharge plasma in the crossed fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, B. J.; Li, Y. C.; Zhang, L.; Li, M. H.; Wei, W.; Kong, E. H.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Wang, S. L.; Xu, G. S.; Zhao, L. M.; Hu, H. C.; Jia, H.; Cheng, M.; Yang, Y.; Liu, L.; Zhao, H. L.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Goniche, M.; Amicucci, L.; Cesario, R.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Baek, S. G.; Parker, R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Paoletti, F.; Yang, C.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Gao, X.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; the EAST Team
2015-09-01
Two important issues in achieving lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) high confinement plasma in EAST are to improve lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma coupling and to drive the plasma current at a high density. Studies in different configurations with different directions of toroidal magnetic field (Bt) show that the density near the antenna is affected by both the radial electric field induced by plasma without a LHW (Er_plasma) in the scrape off layer (SOL), and the radial electric field induced by LHW power (Er_LH) near the grill. Investigations indicate that Er × Bt in the SOL leads to a different effect of configuration on the LHW-plasma coupling and Er_LH × Bt accounts for the asymmetric density behaviour in the SOL observed in the experiments, where Er is the total radial electric field in the SOL. Modelling of parametric instability (PI), collisional absorption (CA) and scattering from density fluctuations (SDF) in the edge region, performed considering the parameters of high density LHCD experiments in EAST, has shown that these mechanisms could be responsible for the low current drive (CD) efficiency at high density. Radiofrequency probe spectra, useful for documenting PI occurrence, show sidebands whose amplitude in the case of the lithiated vacuum chamber is smaller than in the case of poor lithiation, consistently with growth rates from PI modeling of the respective reference discharges. Since strong lithiation is also expected to diminish the parasitic effect on the LHCD of the remaining possible mechanisms, this appears to be a useful method for improving LHCD efficiency at a high density.
Critical current density and trapped field in HTS with asymmetric magnetization loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gokhfeld, D.
2016-03-01
Applications of the extended critical state model are considered. The trapped magnetic field, the penetration field and the field dependence of the critical current density are analysed. The critical current density and the trapped field in superconducting grains depend on the grain size. Asymmetry of the hysteresis curves relative to the M = 0 axis is related to the scale of the current circulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCray, J. E.; Downs, W.; Falta, R. W.; Housley, T.
2005-12-01
DNAPL sources of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vapors are of interest at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The site is underlain by thick fractured basalt that includes sedimentary interbeds, each are a few meters thick. Daily atmospheric pressure fluctuations serve as driving forces for CT vapor transport in the subsurface. Other important transport processes for vapor movement include gas-phase diffusion and density-driven transport. The objective of this research is to investigate the influence and relative importance of these processes on gaseous transport of CT. Gas pressure and vapor concentration measurements were conducted at various depths in two wells. A numerical multiphase flow model (TOUGH2), calibrated to field pressure data, is used to conduct sensitivity analyses to elucidate the importance of the different transport mechanisms. Results show that the basalt is highly permeable to vertical air flow. The pressure dampening occurs mainly in the sedimentary interbeds. Model-calibrated permeability values for the interbeds are similar to those obtained in a study by the U.S. Geological Survey for shallow sediments, and an order of magnitude higher than column-scale values obtained by previous studies conducted by INEEL scientists. The transport simulations indicate that considering the effect of barometric pressure changes is critical to simulating transport of pollutants in the vadose zone above the DNAPL source. Predicted concentrations can be orders of magnitude smaller than actual concentrations if the effect is not considered. Below the DNAPL vapor source, accounting for density and diffusion alone would yield acceptable results provided that a 20% error in concentrations are acceptable, and that simulating concentrations trends (and not actual concentrations) is the primary goal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Israelsson, Ulf E. (Inventor); Strayer, Donald M. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A contact-less method for determining transport critical current density and flux penetration depth in bulk superconductor material. A compressor having a hollow interior and a plunger for selectively reducing the free space area for distribution of the magnetic flux therein are formed of superconductor material. Analytical relationships, based upon the critical state model, Maxwell's equations and geometrical relationships define transport critical current density and flux penetration depth in terms of the initial trapped magnetic flux density and the ratio between initial and final magnetic flux densities whereby data may be reliably determined by means of the simple test apparatus for evaluating the current density and flux penetration depth.
A Cutoff in the X-Ray Fluctuation Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3516
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edelson, Rick; Nandra, Kirpal
1999-01-01
During 1997 March-July, RXTE observed the bright, strongly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 once every approx. 12.8 hr for 4.5 months and nearly continuously (with interruptions due to SAA passage but not Earth occultation) for a 4.2 day period in the middle. These were followed by ongoing monitoring once every approx. 4.3 days. These data are used to construct the first well-determined X-ray fluctuation power density spectrum (PDS) of an active galaxy to span more than 4 decades of usable temporal frequency. The PDS shows no signs of any strict or quasi-periodicity, but does show a progressive flattening of the power-low slope from -1.74 at short time scales to -0.73 at longer time scales. This is the clearest observation to date of the long-predicted cutoff in the PDS. The characteristic variability time scale corresponding to this cutoff temporal frequency is approx. 1 month. Although it is unclear how this time scale may be interpreted in terms of a physical size or process, there are several promising candidate models. The PDS appears similar to those seen for Galactic black hole candidates such as Cyg X-1, suggesting that these two classes of objects with very different luminosities and putative black hole masses (differing by more than a factor of 10(exp 5)) may have similar X-ray generation processes and structures.
Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo
2014-02-01
Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of δ(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E. arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. PMID:23848555
Current Densities in speed analyzer with different symmetries
Valdeblanquez, E.
2006-12-04
A comparative analysis of the currents in speed analyzer of speeds is made with different symmetries. Three kinds of symmetries are considered; plane, cylindrical and spherical. The analyzers considered are formed by threes electrodes, the selector grid, the discriminator and the collector. The selector grid has a negative potential and for the coulombian effect the space charge is formed with the ionic thermal bath. Using kinetic theory a strongly non linear differential equation is obtained which is solved by numerical calculation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dufek, J.; Benage, M. C.; Geist, D.; Harpp, K. S.
2013-12-01
Pyroclastic density currents are ground hugging flows composed of hot gases, fragments of juvenile magmatic material, and entrained clasts from the conduit or the edifice over which the flows have traveled. The interior of these flows are opaque to observation due to their large ash content, but recent investigations have highlighted that there are likely strong gradients in particle concentration and segregation of particle sizes in these particle-laden gravity currents. Pyroclastic density currents refer to a broad range of phenomena from dense flows in which the dynamics are dominated by frictional interaction between particles (dense granular flows), to gas fluidized flows, to dilute flows dominated by particle-gas turbulent interaction. However, abrupt flow transformation (e.g. from dense to dilute pyroclastic density currents) can arise due to energy exchange across multiple length scales and phases, and understanding these flow transformations is important in delineating the entrainment and erosion history of these flows, interpretations of their deposits, and in better understanding the hazards they present. During the 2006 eruption of Tungurahua, Ecuador numerous, dense pyroclastic density currents descended the volcano as result of boiling-over or low column collapse eruptions. The deposits of these flows typically have pronounced snouts and levees, and are often dominated by large, clasts (meter scale in some locations). There is an exceptional observational record of these flows and their deposits, permitting detailed field constraints of their dynamics. A particularly interesting set of flows occurred on Aug. 17, 2006 during the paroxysmal phase of the eruption that descended the slope of the volcano, filled in the river channel of the Chambo river, removing much of the larger clasts from the flow, and resulting in a dilute ';surge' that transported finer material across the channel and uphill forming dune features on the opposite bank of the river. We
The critical current density of yttrium barium copper oxide coated conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Il
The critical current density Jc of YBa 2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors is determined by the connectivity of the polycrystalline grain network and by vortex pinning. The aim of this work is to explore these two key scientific issues. Current obstruction effects of the grain boundary network were first studied by measuring variable width tracks in variously-textured ex situ coated conductors. We found that the global texture exercises a significant effect on Jc especially in low fields. We then grew low angle [001]-tilt bicrystal YBCO films with controlled doping so as to study the influence that variable size and charge segregants would have on the inter-grain Jc. The beneficial effects of Ca doping was already proven, but here we were able to show that the optimum doping of low angle grain boundaries was obtained with the smaller substitutions of 15% Ca for Y, rather than the 30% previously employed. We then studied Ca-doping in the small rare-earth (RE) ion Yb variant of the RE-123 structure, YbBa2Cu3O7-x, and the influence of substitutions for Y of the large RE ion Nd in YBa2Cu3O7-x. We found that strain- and charge-driven segregation to the grain boundary was consistent with the segregation model of Gurevich. Very interestingly, the 6° Nd-doped YBCO grain boundaries exhibited no degradation of intergrain Jc compared to the intragrain Jc without significant Tc reduction. Then, the vortex pinning was studied by sequential ion milling of YBCO films with various vortex pinning microstructures. YBCO films without strong pins exhibited two-dimensional collective pinning behavior and thermal fluctuation depinning effect, and thus Jc fell off fast with increasing thickness, magnetic field and temperature. In contrast, a YBCO film with dense, insulating, nanoscale pins exhibited strong three-dimensional pinning behavior and a high and uniform Jc through thickness. Analysis of the through-thickness properties of ex situ high Jc coated conductors showed them to be well
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnier, N.; Ciliberto, S.
2005-06-01
In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I , and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P¯ =R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs’ symmetries.
Matsuo, K.; Uchida, N.; Kawakubo, M.; Iguchi, H.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Akiyama, T.
2008-10-15
A near-infrared laser phase contrast optical system incorporating a folded beam was developed in order to measure the distribution of density fluctuations in a high-temperature plasma. The coherent light source used was an yttrium aluminum garnet laser stabilized by a ring oscillator. The probe beam system separates and reflects the incident and exiting beams with a polarizer and a fully reflective mirror with a waveplate. This system was employed with a compact helical system to detect fluctuations at the plasma edge.
Fluctuating currents in stochastic thermodynamics. I. Gauge invariance of asymptotic statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wachtel, Artur; Vollmer, Jürgen; Altaner, Bernhard
2015-10-01
Stochastic thermodynamics uses Markovian jump processes to model random transitions between observable mesoscopic states. Physical currents are obtained from antisymmetric jump observables defined on the edges of the graph representing the network of states. The asymptotic statistics of such currents are characterized by scaled cumulants. In the present work, we use the algebraic and topological structure of Markovian models to prove a gauge invariance of the scaled cumulant-generating function. Exploiting this invariance yields an efficient algorithm for practical calculations of asymptotic averages and correlation integrals. We discuss how our approach generalizes the Schnakenberg decomposition of the average entropy-production rate, and how it unifies previous work. The application of our results to concrete models is presented in an accompanying publication.
Fluctuating currents in stochastic thermodynamics. I. Gauge invariance of asymptotic statistics.
Wachtel, Artur; Vollmer, Jürgen; Altaner, Bernhard
2015-10-01
Stochastic thermodynamics uses Markovian jump processes to model random transitions between observable mesoscopic states. Physical currents are obtained from antisymmetric jump observables defined on the edges of the graph representing the network of states. The asymptotic statistics of such currents are characterized by scaled cumulants. In the present work, we use the algebraic and topological structure of Markovian models to prove a gauge invariance of the scaled cumulant-generating function. Exploiting this invariance yields an efficient algorithm for practical calculations of asymptotic averages and correlation integrals. We discuss how our approach generalizes the Schnakenberg decomposition of the average entropy-production rate, and how it unifies previous work. The application of our results to concrete models is presented in an accompanying publication. PMID:26565193
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devynck, P.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.
2005-05-01
It is shown that intermittent density bursts observed in the scrape-off layer of Tore Supra [J. Jacquinot, Nucl. Fusion 43, 1583 (2003)] are detected in packs on the probe. In such a pack, typically two to three bursts are separated by time intervals smaller than the mean separation time. The long tails above 50μs observed on the autocorrelation function of the density fluctuations are found to be the temporal correlation between the individual bursts within their pack. Packs of density bursts can be detected in two limiting states of the turbulence: when the coupling between density and potential is strong and large density bursts split during their radial propagation or at the opposite when the coupling is weak so that different density bursts can propagate radially along the potential valleys. The lack of spatial resolution of the diagnostic does not allow to discriminate between the two mechanisms.
Devynck, P.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.
2005-05-15
It is shown that intermittent density bursts observed in the scrape-off layer of Tore Supra [J. Jacquinot, Nucl. Fusion 43, 1583 (2003)] are detected in packs on the probe. In such a pack, typically two to three bursts are separated by time intervals smaller than the mean separation time. The long tails above 50 {mu}s observed on the autocorrelation function of the density fluctuations are found to be the temporal correlation between the individual bursts within their pack. Packs of density bursts can be detected in two limiting states of the turbulence: when the coupling between density and potential is strong and large density bursts split during their radial propagation or at the opposite when the coupling is weak so that different density bursts can propagate radially along the potential valleys. The lack of spatial resolution of the diagnostic does not allow to discriminate between the two mechanisms.
Constraining dark energy fluctuations with supernova correlations
Blomqvist, Michael; Enander, Jonas; Mörtsell, Edvard E-mail: enander@fysik.su.se
2010-10-01
We investigate constraints on dark energy fluctuations using type Ia supernovae. If dark energy is not in the form of a cosmological constant, that is if the equation of state w≠−1, we expect not only temporal, but also spatial variations in the energy density. Such fluctuations would cause local variations in the universal expansion rate and directional dependences in the redshift-distance relation. We present a scheme for relating a power spectrum of dark energy fluctuations to an angular covariance function of standard candle magnitude fluctuations. The predictions for a phenomenological model of dark energy fluctuations are compared to observational data in the form of the measured angular covariance of Hubble diagram magnitude residuals for type Ia supernovae in the Union2 compilation. The observational result is consistent with zero dark energy fluctuations. However, due to the limitations in statistics, current data still allow for quite general dark energy fluctuations as long as they are in the linear regime.
Wilbanks, Matt C.; Yuter, S. E.; de Szoeke, S.; Brewer, W. A.; Miller, Matthew A.; Hall, Andrew M.; Burleyson, Casey D.
2015-09-01
Density currents (i.e. cold pools or outflows) beneath marine stratocumulus clouds are characterized using a 30-d data set of ship-based observations obtained during the 2008 Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific. An objective method identifies 71 density current fronts using an air density criterion and isolates each density current’s core (peak density) and tail (dissipating) zone. Compared to front and core zones, most density current tails exhibited weaker density gradients and wind anomalies elongated about the axis of the mean wind. The mean cloud-level advection relative to the surface layer wind (1.9 m s-1) nearly matches the mean density current propagation speed (1.8 m s-1). The similarity in speeds allows drizzle cells to deposit tails in their wakes. Based on high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar data, prefrontal updrafts had a mean intensity of 0.91 m s-1, reached an average altitude of 800 m, and were often surmounted by low-lying shelf clouds not connected to the overlying stratocumulus cloud. Nearly 90% of density currents were identified when C-band radar estimated 30-km diameter areal average rain rates exceeded 1 mm d-1. Rather than peaking when rain rates are highest overnight, density current occurrence peaks between 0600 and 0800 local solar time when enhanced local drizzle co-occurs with shallow subcloud dry and stable layers. The dry layers may contribute to density current formation by enhancing subcloud evaporation of drizzle. Density currents preferentially occur in regions of open cells but also occur in regions of closed cells.
Gain and loss as a function of current density and temperature in interband cascade lasers.
Merritt, C D; Bewley, W W; Kim, C S; Canedy, C L; Vurgaftman, I; Meyer, J R; Kim, M
2015-11-01
We characterize the internal efficiency, internal loss, and optical gain versus current density in 7-stage interband cascade lasers operating at λ=3.1 and 3.45 μm using a cavity-length study of the external differential quantum efficiency (EDQE) and threshold current density at temperatures between 300 and 345 K. We find that the pronounced efficiency droop of the EDQE at high current densities is primarily due to an increase in the internal loss rather than a reduction in the internal efficiency. On the other hand, if the current density J is fixed, the temperature variation of the EDQE at that J is due primarily to a decrease of the internal efficiency. The gain versus current density is fit well by a logarithmic relationship, although the magnitude of the experimental gain is >20% below the theoretical estimate. PMID:26560596
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zong, Jing; Wang, Qiang
2013-03-01
How fluctuations change the order-disorder transition (ODT) of symmetric diblock copolymers (DBC) is a classic yet unsolved problem in polymer physics.[1] Taking a model system of discrete Gaussian chains interacting with soft, finite-range repulsions as commonly used in dissipative-particle dynamics simulations we formulate a density-functional theory (DFT) based on the polymer integral equation theories,[2] which includes the system fluctuations and correlations neglected by the mean-field theory (i.e., the widely applied self-consistent field theory) and can be reduced to the latter under the mean-spherical approximation. We then unambiguously reveal the fluctuation/correlation effects on the ODT of symmetric DBC by direct comparisons among the mean-field theory, DFT, and fast off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations,[3] all using exactly the same model system (Hamiltonian) and thus without any parameter-fitting.
Effect of Circular p- n Junction Curvature on the Diode Current Density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borblik, Vitalii
2016-08-01
The influence of the circular geometry of a p- n junction built into a nanowire or a nanorod, on the radial diode current density is investigated. While the current density from the core to the shell proves to be larger than that in a planar diode at the same values of the parameters, the density of the diode current from the shell to the core, on the contrary, proves to be smaller. A dependence of the effect on the core and the shell radii has been demonstrated. The nature of the effect is explained on the basis of radial distributions of the nonequilibrium current carriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Junyeong; Sim, Junyoung; Lee, Hyung-Sool
2015-06-01
Voltage reversal is a critical issue for serially stacking microbial fuel cells (MFCs). It occurs when current density in stacked MFCs increases over critical current density (jcritical). In this study, we clearly show that no voltage reversal occurs in stacked MFCs if current density is maintained below jcritical where the anode and the cathode potential in an inferior unit become identical, with an external resistance placed between individual MFCs. We define threshold resistance (Rthreshold) that enables current density below jcritical in stacked MFCs, and demonstrate the validity of Rthreshold theoretically and experimentally. Voltage reversal is controlled in the stacked MFC equipped with Rthreshold by which the current density in the stacked MFC is kept below jcritical. In comparison, a stacked MFC without Rthreshold faces voltage reversal over jcritical. Energy loss in Rthreshold is comparable to energy loss with other voltage control methods, such as passive or active methods. However, the Rthreshold approach is a simple, inexpensive way of controlling voltage reversal, especially for small MFCs (<50 mL).
Critical fluctuations of the proton density in A+A collisions at 158 A GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Białkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Bunčić, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gaździcki, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Höhne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kowalski, M.; Kresan, D.; Laszlo, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A. I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Pálla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Pühlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Siklér, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G. I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranić, D.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarć, A.; Antoniou, N. G.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F. K.
2015-12-01
We look for fluctuations expected for the QCD critical point using an intermittency analysis in the transverse momentum phase space of protons produced around midrapidity in the 12.5 % most central C+C, Si+Si and Pb+Pb collisions at the maximum SPS energy of 158 A GeV. We find evidence of power-law fluctuations for the Si+Si data. The fitted power-law exponent φ 2 = 0.96^{+0.38}_{-0.25}{ (stat.)} ± 0.16{ (syst.)} is consistent with the value expected for critical fluctuations. Power-law fluctuations had previously also been observed in low-mass π ^+ π ^- pairs in the same Si+Si collisions.
Relationship of dislocation density of silicon to solar cell current loss at low temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mandelkorn, J.; Baraona, C. R.; Lamneck, J. H., Jr.
1972-01-01
Large decreases in short circuit current of silicon solar cells have been reported to occur as temperature is decreased below -60 C. Experimental results are presented which relate high dislocation density of the silicon bulk material of cells to the large current loss effect. These results reveal a direct relationship between low bulk dislocation density and low current loss at low temperature. Oxygen content does not appear to play a significant role in the low temperature-large current loss effect, since some Czochralski cells did not suffer from this effect whereas some float-zone cells did. Other float-zone silicon cells had only medium current losses at low temperature despite their high bulk dislocation density. It appears that use of low-dislocation-density silicon can eliminate the current loss problem in low temperature cell operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutaghane, A.; Bouhadef, K.; Valensi, F.; Pellerin, S.; Benkedda, Y.
2011-04-01
This paper presents results of theoretical and experimental investigation of the welding arc in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes. A theoretical model consisting in simultaneous resolution of the set of conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and current, Ohm's law and Maxwell equation is used to predict temperatures and current density distribution in argon welding arcs. A current density profile had to be assumed over the surface of the cathode as a boundary condition in order to make the theoretical calculations possible. In stationary GTAW process, this assumption leads to fair agreement with experimental results reported in literature with maximum arc temperatures of ~21 000 K. In contrast to the GTAW process, in GMAW process, the electrode is consumable and non-thermionic, and a realistic boundary condition of the current density is lacking. For establishing this crucial boundary condition which is the current density in the anode melting electrode, an original method is setup to enable the current density to be determined experimentally. High-speed camera (3000 images/s) is used to get geometrical dimensions of the welding wire used as anode. The total area of the melting anode covered by the arc plasma being determined, the current density at the anode surface can be calculated. For a 330 A arc, the current density at the melting anode surface is found to be of 5 × 107 A m-2 for a 1.2 mm diameter welding electrode.
Observation of Lower-Hybrid Current Drive at High Densities in the Alcator C Tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porkolab, M.; Schuss, J. J.; Lloyd, B.; Takase, Y.; Texter, S.; Bonoli, P.; Fiore, C.; Gandy, R.; Gwinn, D.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E.; Pappas, D.; Parker, R.; Pribyl, P.
1984-07-01
A quasi-steady-state lower-hybrid current-drive operation is demonstrated in the Alcator C tokamak at densities up to n―e~=1×1014 cm-3. The current-drive efficiency is measured experimentally over a wide range of densities and magnetic fields. The radial distribution of high-energy x rays indicates that the current-carrying electrons peak near the plasma axis.
Marushka, Viktor; Zabeida, Oleg Martinu, Ludvik
2014-11-01
The uniformity of ion density is critical for applications relying on the ion assisted deposition technique for the fabrication of the high quality thin films. The authors propose and describe here a method allowing one to calculate the ion density distribution on spherical substrate holders under stationary and rotating conditions for different positions of the ion source. The ion beam shape was approximated by a cos{sup n} function, and the ion current density was represented by a function inversely proportional to the distance from the ion source in accordance with our experimental results. As an example, a calculation of the current density distribution on the spherical cap substrate was performed for a broad beam ion source operated with an anode current of 3 A. The authors propose an approach for process optimization with respect to the ion source position and its inclination, in terms of uniformity and absolute value of the ion current density.
Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A
2015-12-01
Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities
White, A. E.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Carter, T. A.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L.; Holland, C. H.; Wang, G.; McKee, G. R.; Staebler, G. M.; Waltz, R. E.; DeBoo, J. C.; Petty, C. C.; Burrell, K. H.
2010-05-15
This paper presents new measurements of the cross-phase angle, alpha{sub n{sub eT{sub e}}}, between long-wavelength (k{sub t}hetarho{sub s}<0.5) density, n-tilde{sub e}, and electron temperature, T-tilde{sub e}, fluctuations in the core of DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] tokamak plasmas. The coherency and cross-phase angle between n-tilde{sub e} and T-tilde{sub e} are measured using coupled reflectometer and correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostics that view the same plasma volume. In addition to the experimental results, two sets of local, nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that are performed with the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] are described. One set, called the pre-experiment simulations, was performed prior to the experiment in order to predict a change in alpha{sub n{sub eT{sub e}}} given experimentally realizable increases in the electron temperature, T{sub e}. In the experiment the cross-phase angle was measured at three radial locations (rho=0.55, 0.65, and 0.75) in both a 'Base' case and a 'High T{sub e}' case. The measured cross-phase angle is in good qualitative agreement with the pre-experiment simulations, which predicted that n-tilde{sub e} and T-tilde{sub e} would be out of phase. The pre-experiment simulations also predicted a decrease in cross-phase angle as T{sub e} is increased. Experimentally, this trend is observed at the inner two radial locations only. The second set of simulations, the postexperiment simulations, is carried out using local parameters taken from measured experimental profiles as input to GYRO. These postexperiment simulation results are in good quantitative agreement with the measured cross-phase angle, despite disagreements with transport fluxes. Directions for future modeling and experimental work are discussed.
Grøtan, Vidar; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; van Balen, Johan H; Perdeck, Albert C; Visser, Marcel E
2009-03-01
1. The aim of the present study is to model the stochastic variation in the size of five populations of great tit Parus major in the Netherlands, using a combination of individual-based demographic data and time series of population fluctuations. We will examine relative contribution of density-dependent effects, and variation in climate and winter food on local dynamics as well as on number of immigrants. 2. Annual changes in population size were strongly affected by temporal variation in number of recruits produced locally as well as by the number of immigrants. The number of individuals recruited from one breeding season to the next was mainly determined by the population size in year t, the beech crop index (BCI) in year t and the temperature during March-April in year t. The number of immigrating females in year t + 1 was also explained by the number of females present in the population in year t, the BCI in autumn year t and the temperature during April-May in year t. 3. By comparing predictions of the population model with the recorded number of females, the simultaneous modelling of local recruitment and immigration explained a large proportion of the annual variation in recorded population growth rates. 4. Environmental stochasticity especially caused by spring temperature and BCI did in general contribute more to annual fluctuations in population size than density-dependent effects. Similar effects of climate on local recruitment and immigration also caused covariation in temporal fluctuations of immigration and local production of recruits. 5. The effects of various variables in explaining fluctuations in population size were not independent, and the combined effect of the variables were generally non-additive. Thus, the effects of variables causing fluctuations in population size should not be considered separately because the total effect will be influenced by covariances among the explanatory variables. 6. Our results show that fluctuations in the
Critical current density of domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniguchi, T.; Imamura, H.
2011-04-01
The domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque was studied by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. For a domain wall whose rotation angle θmax is less than 180°, we found the existence of the critical current density above which the magnetization dynamics are induced. We studied the dependence of the critical current density on the rotation angle θmax and found that the critical current density is proportional to 180° - θmax.
Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas
Kato, S.; Seya, A.; Asano, A.
1996-12-31
To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.
Depairing current density through a low-angle grain boundary in a superconducting film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Feng; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Zeng, Jun; Gou, Xiaofan
2016-05-01
In this paper, the effect of a grain boundary (GB) on the depairing current density of a high-temperature superconducting film is investigated. The modified effective free energy is proposed by considering the interaction of the superconducting condensate with the deformation of the superconductor due to the dislocations which constitute a grain boundary. After the elastic strain field of the dislocation is obtained, we analyzed the depress effect of the GB on the depairing current density of a superconducting film. The results are qualitatively agreement with the classic exponential relationship with the misorientation angles of the critical current density of high-temperature superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coillot, C.; Elbourki, K.; Bouabdellah, A.; Seran, H.-C.; Rezeau, L.; de Feraudy, H.; Krasnoselsikikhk, V.
2003-04-01
The Current Density Coil (CDC) has been designed in the aim at measuring field aligned currents. The principle of the sensor is the following : a magnetic core wound with a high number of turns which induce a voltage proportional to the time derivative of the current density flowing through the core. Space environment constraints and the small amplitude of the currents (μAm-2) require a particular design. A flux feedback guaranties a flat transfer function on several decades. Many tests performed in laboratory and in a vacuum chamber, they have led us to investigate capacitive and magnetic coupling between the sensor and plasma. We will present the main lines of the design and the first results produced by the CDC launched onboard the CUSP Rocket. This flight is the first test of the instrument in real space environment.
Relationship of dislocation density of silicon to solar cell current loss at low temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mandelkorn, J.; Baraona, C. R.; Lamneck, J. H., Jr.
1972-01-01
Large decreases in short circuit current of silicon solar cells have been reported to occur as temperature is decreased below -60 C. Experimental results are presented which relate high dislocation density of the silicon bulk material of cells to the large current loss effect. Solar cells were made by the same processes from a variety of silicon materials, namely low-dislocation-density, high-dislocation-density float-zone, and Czochralski silicon. All cells were etched in a manner which revealed the dislocation density of the cell bulk silicon. It was found that every cell made from any of the various low-dislocation starting materials obtained from three suppliers still had a low-dislocation bulk after cell processing, and that all such cells belonged to category good. Cells made from float-zone materials showed high dislocation densities in their bulk and either fell into category poor, or had intermediate losses of short-circuit current at low temperature.
Cold smoke: smoke-induced density currents cause unexpected smoke transport near large wildfires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lareau, N. P.; Clements, C. B.
2015-07-01
First observations of smoke-induced density currents originating from large wildfires are presented. Using a novel mobile Doppler LiDAR and additional in situ measurements we document a deep (~ 2 km) smoke-filled density current that propagates more than 25 km at speeds up to 4.5 m s-1 near a large forest fire in northern California. Based on these observations we show that the dynamics governing the spread of the smoke layer result from differential solar heating between the smoke-filled and smoke-free portions of the atmospheric boundary layer. A calculation of the theoretical density current speed agrees well with the observed propagation speed. Additional LiDAR and photographic documentation of other smoke-filled density currents demonstrate that these previously unknown phenomena are relatively common near large wildfires and can cause severe and unexpected smoke inundation of populated areas.
Cold Smoke: smoke-induced density currents cause unexpected smoke transport near large wildfires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lareau, N. P.; Clements, C. B.
2015-10-01
The first observations of smoke-induced density currents originating from large wildfires are presented. Using a novel mobile Doppler lidar and additional in situ measurements, we document a deep (~ 2 km) smoke-filled density current that propagates more than 25 km at speeds up to 4.5 m s-1 near a large forest fire in northern California. Based on these observations we show that the dynamics governing the spread of the smoke layer result from differential solar heating between the smoke-filled and smoke-free portions of the atmospheric boundary layer. A calculation of the theoretical density current speed agrees well with the observed propagation speed. Additional lidar and photographic documentation of other smoke-filled density currents demonstrate that these previously unknown phenomena are relatively common near large wildfires and can cause severe and unexpected smoke inundation of populated areas.
Influence of electropolishing current densities on sulfur generation at niobium surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Noguchi, T.; Sawabe, M.; Saeki, T.; Hayano, H.; Kato, S.
2013-11-01
We report the effect of different current densities on sulfur generation at Nb surface in the electropolishing (EP) with aged electrolyte. In this regard, we conducted a series of electropolishing (EP) experiments in aged EP electrolyte with high (≈50 mA/cm2) and low (≈30 mA/cm2) current densities on Nb surfaces. The experiments were carried out both for laboratory coupons and a real Nb single cell cavity with six witness samples located at three typical positions (equator, iris and beam pipe). Sample's surfaces were investigated by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscope) and EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). The surface analysis showed that the EP with a high current density produced a huge amount of sulfate/sulfite particles at Nb surface whereas the EP with a low current density was very helpful to mitigate sulfate/sulfite at Nb surface in both the experiments.
Characterizing a December 2005 density current event in the Chicago River, Chicago, Illinois
Garcia, C.M.; Jackson, P.R.; Oberg, K.A.; Johnson, K.K.; Garcia, M.H.
2007-01-01
During the winter months, the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois is subject to bi-directional flows, and density currents are thought to be responsible for these flow variations. This paper presents detailed field measurements using three acoustic Doppler current profiler instruments and simultaneous water-quality measurements made during December 2005. Observations indicate that the formation of density currents within the Chicago River and density differences are mostly due to salinity differences between the North Branch and the main stem of the Chicago River, whereas temperature difference does not appreciably affect the creation of density currents. Sources of higher water temperature, conductivity, and salinity values should be addressed in future studies. ?? 2007 ASCE.
Finite temperature bosonic charge and current densities in compactified cosmic string spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, A.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the expectation values of the induced charge and current densities for a massive bosonic field with nonzero chemical potential in the geometry of a higher-dimensional compactified cosmic string with magnetic fluxes along the string core and also enclosed by the compactified direction in thermal equilibrium at finite temperature T . These densities are calculated by decomposing them into the vacuum expectation values and finite temperature contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. The only nonzero components correspond to the charge, azimuthal, and axial current densities. By using the Abel-Plana formula, we decompose the components of the densities into the part induced by the cosmic string and the one by the compactification. The charge density is an odd function of the chemical potential and even periodic function of the magnetic flux with a period equal to the quantum flux. Moreover, the azimuthal (axial) current density is an even function of the chemical potential and an odd (even) periodic function of the magnetic flux with the same period. In this paper, our main concern is the thermal effect on the charge and current densities, including some limiting cases, the low- and high-temperature approximations. We show that in all cases, the temperature enhances the induced densities.
You, Chun-Yeol
2014-01-28
We investigate the switching current density reduction of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junctions using micromagnetic simulations. We find that the switching current density can be reduced with elongated lateral shapes of the magnetic tunnel junctions, and additional reduction can be achieved by using a noncollinear polarizer layer. The reduction is closely related to the details of spin configurations during switching processes with the additional in-plane anisotropy.
Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.
2013-08-15
In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.
Influence of current density on microstructure of pulse electrodeposited tin coatings
Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Sen, Ranjan; Reddy, B.S.B.; Fecht, H.-J.; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha
2012-06-15
Pulse electrodeposited tin coatings on copper substrate have been synthesized from an aqueous solution containing sodium stannate (Na{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The effect of current density on surface morphology of the deposits has been investigated. As deposited coatings are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and line profile analysis. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposits consist of tetragonal ({beta}-Sn) structure with microcrystalline grains. The deposits plated at lower current density exhibit (110) texture which decreases with increasing current densities. The effects of current density on Cu-Sn diffusion and whisker growth of the electrodeposited tin coatings are also reported here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulse electrodeposition of Sn from aqueous alkaline solution without adding any organic additive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of current density on morphology and whisker growth in tin coatings aged for 1 year. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution bath is stable and can be operated over a wide range of current density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khorashadizadeh, S. M.; Taghadosi, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.
2015-12-01
The magnetic field generation due to the filamentation instability (FI) of a high density current-driven plasma is studied through a new nonlinear diffusion equation. This equation is obtained on the basis of quantum hydrodynamic model and numerically solved by applying the Crank-Nicolson method. The spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic field and the electron density distribution exhibits the current filament merging as a nonlinear phase of the FI which is responsible for the strong magnetic fields in the current-driven plasmas. It is found that the general behaviour of the FI is the same as that of the classical case but the instability growth rate, its magnitude, and the saturation time are affected by the quantum effects. It is eventually concluded that the quantum effects can play a stabilizing role in such situation.
Spatial variation of charge carrier density in graphene under a large bias current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jie; Zhang, Haijing; Zheng, Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Ting; Sheng, Ping
2016-03-01
By carrying out the Hall measurements under a large bias current, we have directly observed the spatial variation of the carrier density in graphene. This carrier density variation is found to depend on the bias direction; hence it cannot be caused by the heating effect, which should be independent of the bias current direction. A simple back-gate tuning model, involving a self-consistent calculation on longitudinal transport coupled with carrier density variation, is shown to explain the experimental results very well. Various implications of this phenomenon, including the shift of charge neutrality point under a large bias, are investigated and discussed.
Faraday-Effect Polarimeter-Interferometer System for current density measurement on EAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Ding, Weixing; Brower, David Lyn; Zou, Zhiyong; Qian, Jinping; Li, Weiming; Zeng, Long; Zhang, Shoubiao; Hu, Liqun; Wan, Baonian
2015-11-01
An eleven-channel far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for current density and electron density profile measurements in the EAST tokamak. Both polarimetric and interferometric measurement are obtained in a long pulse (~ 52s) discharge. The electron line-integrated density resolution of POINT is less than 5 × 1016 m-2 (~ 2°), and the Faraday rotation angle rms phase noise is <0.1°. With the high temporal (~ 1 μsec) and phase resolution (<0.1°), density perturbations associated with the sawteeth cycle and tearing mode activities have been observed. It is evident that tearing modes are well correlated to dynamics of equilibrium current profile (or q-profile). Faraday rotation angle shows clear variation with low hybrid current drive while line-integrated density remains little changed, implying the current drive in the core. A Digital Phase Detector with 250 kHz bandwidth provides real-time Faraday rotation angle and density phase shift output, which will be integrated into current profile control system in a long pulse discharge in future. This work is supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China with contract No. 2012GB101002 and partly supported by the US D.O.E. contract DESC0010469.
Diode laser threshold current density and lasing wavelength as functions of active region thickness
Streifer, W.; Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.
1983-03-01
Based on a simple model of the band-to-band absorption of a diode laser active region, we formulatean expression for modal gain as a function of pumping current. Using this result yields expressions for threshold current density and lasing photon energy which depend on device parameters including active region thickness, laser length, internal losses, facet reflectivity, etc.
Depairing current density of Nd2-xCexCuO4-δ superconducting films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunchur, Milind N.; Dean, Charles; Liang, Manlai; Moghaddam, Nahid S.; Guarino, Anita; Nigro, Angela; Grimaldi, Gaia; Leo, Antonio
2013-12-01
We report a measurement of the depairing critical current density in the electron-doped Nd2-xCexCuO4-δ cuprate superconductor. Resistance-versus-temperature transition curves measured at high pulsed current densities show the classic proportionality between the transition-temperature shift and the two-thirds power of the applied current. The measurement provides an alternative method for obtaining the penetration depth purely through transport measurements that is not affected by the large paramagnetic background that arises from the Nd3+ ions, which affects inductive investigations of this quantity.
Engelund, Mads; Godlewski, Szymon; Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafał; Such, Bartosz; Frederiksen, Thomas; Szymonski, Marek; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel
2016-07-28
Dangling bond (DB) arrays on Si(001):H and Ge(001):H surfaces can be patterned with atomic precision and they exhibit complex and rich physics making them interesting from both technological and fundamental perspectives. But their complex behavior often makes scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images difficult to interpret and simulate. Recently it was shown that low-temperature imaging of unoccupied states of an unpassivated dimer on Ge(001):H results in a symmetric butterfly-like STM pattern, despite the fact that the equilibrium dimer configuration is expected to be a bistable, buckled geometry. Here, based on a thorough characterization of the low-bias switching events on Ge(001):H, we propose a new imaging model featuring a dynamical two-state rate equation. On both Si(001):H and Ge(001):H, this model allows us to reproduce the features of the observed symmetric empty-state images which strongly corroborates the idea that the patterns arise due to fast switching events and provides an insight into the relationship between the tunneling current and switching rates. We envision that our new imaging model can be applied to simulate other bistable systems where fluctuations arise from transiently charged electronic states. PMID:27375264
Measurement of local current density of all-vanadium redox flow batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Wen-Yen; Leu, Chih-Hsing; Wu, Chun-Hsing; Chen, Yong-Song
2014-12-01
This article presents a preliminary study of the measurement of local current density in all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Two batteries are designed and manufactured in this study, and the experimental results are compared. In the first cell, the current collector is divided into 25 segments, and the flow field plate is not segmented, whereas in the other cell, the flow field plate is segmented. The effects of the electrolyte flow rate on the battery efficiencies and the local current density variation are investigated. The experimental results show that the current density near the outlet significantly decreases when the discharge capacity approaches zero. In addition, the battery has a larger discharge depth at a higher electrolyte flow rate.
Non-iterative conductivity reconstruction algorithm using projected current density in MREIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Hyun Soo; Park, Chunjae; In Kwon, Oh
2008-12-01
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to visualize the current density and the conductivity distribution in an electrical object Ω using the measured magnetic flux data by an MRI scanner. MREIT uses only one component Bz of the magnetic flux density B = (Bx, By, Bz) generated by an injected electrical current into the object. In this paper, we propose a fast and direct non-iterative algorithm to reconstruct the internal conductivity distribution in Ω with the measured Bz data. To develop the algorithm, we investigate the relation between the projected current density JP, a uniquely determined component of J by the map from current J to measured Bz data and the isotropic conductivity. Three-dimensional numerical simulations and phantom experiments are studied to show the feasibility of the proposed method by comparing with those using the conventional iterative harmonic Bz algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Avinash; Eckel, Stephen; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Campbell, Gretchen
We study the decay of a persistent, quantized current state in a toroidal geometry. Our experiment involves trapping neutral 23Na atoms in an all optical ``target trap'' shaped potential. This potential consists of a disc surrounded by an annular potential. A current in a superfluid can be sustained only below a critical current. This critical current can be tuned by introducing a density perturbation which depletes the local density. The decay time of a persistent current state can also be controlled by enhancing fluctuations of the system thermally. We study the decay at four different temperatures between 30 nK and 190 nK. For each temperature we record the decay at four different perturbation strengths. We find that increasing the magnitude of the density depletion or the temperature leads to a faster decay, and have seen the decay constant change by over two orders of magnitude. We also studied the size of hysteresis loop between different current states as a function of temperature, allowing us to extract a critical velocity. We find that the discrepancies between the experimentally extracted critical velocity and theoretically calculated critical velocity (using local-density approximation) decreases as the temperature is decreased. Now at University of Heidelberg.
Hu Ying; Liang Zhaoxin; Hu Bambi
2009-10-15
We investigate a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of weak disorder within the framework of the Bogoliubov theory. In particular, we analyze the combined effects of disorder and an optical lattice on quantum fluctuations and superfluid density of the BEC system. Accordingly, the analytical expressions of the ground-state energy and quantum depletion of the system are obtained. Our results show that the lattice still induces a characteristic three-dimensional (3D) to one-dimensional crossover in the behavior of quantum fluctuations, despite the presence of weak disorder. Furthermore, we use the linear response theory to calculate the normal fluid density of the condensate induced by disorder. Our results in the 3D regime show that the combined presence of disorder and lattice induce a normal fluid density that asymptotically approaches 4/3 of the corresponding condensate depletion. Conditions for possible experimental realization of our scenario are also proposed.
Charge density waves or dynamical fluctuations at the Pb/Ge(111) and Sn/Ge(111) interfaces?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asensio, M. C.
2001-03-01
Critical phenomena are a fascinating area of current research in solid state physics. The complex phenomenology associated to the phase transitions can be analyzed in a simple playground of low-dimensional systems. In particular, Carpinelli et al. (Nature 381(1996)398) have initially reported a temperature-driven phase transition for a Pb or Sn layer deposited on Ge(111). The low temperature 3x3 phase was described as the stabilization of a charge density wave (CDW) in the Pb layer, driven by electron-phonon coupling in the two dimensional Fermi surface. A similar phenomenology has been observed for Sn/Ge(111). This picture, however, was seriously questioned in several aspects by further investigations. First, the experimental Fermi surface exhibits no significant nesting, a crucial point for the proposed CDW model. Second, valence-band photoemission results do not support that electron correlation plays a major role and the surface valence bands in both phases are split, in disagreement with CDW theoretical calculations. Third, Core-level photoemission for Sn/Ge(111) at room and low temperature indicates the existence of two kinds of Sn atoms. All these experimental facts could be rationalized assuming a corrugated Sn or Pb layer, which we have recently confirmed using surface X-R Diffraction and theoretical calculations (Phys. Rev. Lett 82 (1999) 2524 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 442 ) .We conclude that the origin of this reversible temperature transition is not a CDW. Both phases have a strong rippling of the Sn (Pb) layer ( ~ 0.49 Åwith two well distinctive Sn (or Pb) sites. Hence, the room temperature phase is the result of a vertical flipping of the Sn (or Pb) adatoms, which is frozen at low temperature.
Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina
2016-01-01
Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883
Camparo, James; Fathi, Gilda
2009-05-15
Atomic clocks that fly on global-navigation satellites such as global positioning system (GPS) and Galileo employ light from low-temperature, inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) for atomic signal generation and detection (i.e., alkali/noble-gas rf-discharge lamps). In this application, the performance of the atomic clock and the capabilities of the navigation system depend sensitively on the stability of the ICP's optical emission. In order to better understand the mechanisms that might lead to instability in these rf-discharge lamps, and hence the satellite atomic clocks, we studied the optical emission from a Rb/Xe ICP as a function of the rf power driving the plasma. Surprisingly, we found that the electron density in the plasma was essentially independent of increases in rf power above its nominal value (i.e., 'rf-power gain') and that the electron temperature was only a slowly varying function of rf-power gain. The primary effect of rf power was to increase the temperature of the neutrals in the plasma, which was manifested by an increase in Rb vapor density. Interestingly, we also found evidence for electron temperature fluctuations (i.e., fluctuations in the plasma's high-energy electron content). The variance of these fluctuations scaled inversely with the plasma's mean electron temperature and was consistent with a simple model that assumed that the total electron density in the discharge was independent of rf power. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that the electrons in alkali/noble-gas ICPs are little affected by slight changes in rf power and that the primary effect of such changes is to heat the plasma's neutral species.
Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina
2016-01-01
Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883
Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents
Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.
2014-01-01
Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Rowland, D. E.; Klenzing, J.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Martin, S. C.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Hurd, L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Bishop, R. L.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Fish, C. S.; Bullett, T. W.; Mabie, J. J.; Murphy, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Leinweber, H. K.; Bernal, I.; Chi, P. J.
2015-12-01
To investigate the ion-neutral coupling that creates the global electrical daytime "dynamo" currents in the mid-latitude, lower ionosphere, NASA carried out two multiple sounding rocket experiments from Wallops Island, VA on July 10, 2011 (14:00 UT, 10:00 LT) and July 4, 2013 (14:31 UT, 10:31 LT). The rockets were launched in the presence of well-defined, westward Hall currents observed on the ground with ΔH values of -25 nT and -30 nT, respectively, as well as a well-defined, daytime ionospheric density observed by the VIPIR ionosonde at Wallops. During the 2011 experiment, a narrow, intense sporadic-E layer was observed near 102 km. Each experiment consisted of a pair of rockets launched 15 sec apart. The first rocket of each pair carried instruments to measure DC electric and magnetic fields, as well as the ambient plasma and neutral gases and attained apogees of 158 km and 135 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. The second rocket of each pair carried canisters which released a lithium vapor trail along the upleg to illuminate neutral winds in the upper atmosphere. This daytime vapor trail technology was developed jointly by researchers at JAXA and Clemson University. In the second experiment, the lithium release was clearly visible in cameras with infrared filters operated by US and Japanese researchers in a NASA airplane at 9.6 km altitude. The observed wind profiles reached speeds of 100 m/s with strong shears with respect to altitude and were consistent with an independent derivation of the wind from the ionization gauge sensor suite on the instrumented rocket. The "vapor trail" rockets, which also included a falling sphere, attained apogees of 150 km and 143 km in the 2011 and 2013 experiments, respectively. By measuring the current density, conductivity, DC electric fields, and neutral winds, we solve the dynamo equation as a function of altitude, revealing the different contributions to the lower E-region currents. We find that the DC
Characterization of thunderstorm induced Maxwell current densities in the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baginski, Michael Edward
1989-01-01
Middle atmospheric transient Maxwell current densities generated by lightning induced charge perturbations are investigated via a simulation of Maxwell's equations. A time domain finite element analysis is employed for the simulations. The atmosphere is modeled as a region contained within a right circular cylinder with a height of 110 km and radius of 80 km. A composite conductivity profile based on measured data is used when charge perturbations are centered about the vertical axis at altitudes of 6 and 10 km. The simulations indicate that the temporal structure of the Maxwell current density is relatively insensitive to altitude variation within the region considered. It is also shown that the electric field and Maxwell current density are not generally aligned.
Effect of anodization current density on pore geometry in macroporous silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peckham, J.; Andrews, G. T.
2013-10-01
Macroporous silicon films were fabricated by electrochemical etching of p--type silicon with a resistivity range of 9.0-13.0 Ω cm for 10 min in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid, water, and acetonitrile. Samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The onset of macropore formation was observed to occur at a current density of ˜3.6 mA cm-2. At larger current densities, cross-sectional micrographs revealed macropores of approximately columnar shape. Average pore diameter was estimated from plan view micrographs using an image processing algorithm and found to be consistent with a square root dependence on the etching current density in the range investigated.
Effects of discharge current and voltage on the high density of metastable helium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Xian-Ping; Andruczyk, D.; James, B. W.; Takiyama, K.; Namba, S.; Oda, T.
2003-05-01
Both hollow-cathode and Penning-type discharges were adopted to excite helium atoms to a metastable state. Experimental data indicate that Penning discharge is more suitable for generating high fractions of metastables in a low-density helium beam for laser-induced fluorescence technique in measuring electric fields at the edge of a plasma. The metastable density increases with increasing helium gas pressure in the range of 1.33×10-2-66.7Pa. The highest metastable density of 3.8×1016m-3 is observed at a static gas pressure of 66.7Pa. An approximately linear relationship between the density of metastable helium atoms and the plasma discharge current is observed. Magnetic field plays a very important role in producing a high density of metastable atoms in Penning discharge.
Analysis of current density and related parameters in spinal cord stimulation.
Wesselink, W A; Holsheimer, J; Boom, H B
1998-06-01
A volume conductor model of the spinal cord and surrounding anatomical structures is used to calculate current (and current density) charge per pulse, and maximum charge density per pulse at the contact surface of the electrode in the dorsal epidural space, in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and in the dorsal roots. The effects of various contact configurations (mono-, bi-, and tripole), contact area and spacing, pulsewidth and distance between contacts and spinal cord on these electrical parameters were investigated under conditions similar to those in clinical spinal cord stimulation. At the threshold stimulus of a large dorsal column fiber, current density and charge density per pulse at the contact surface were found to be highest (1.9.10(5) microA/cm2 and 39.1 microC/cm2.p, respectively) when the contact surface was only 0.7 mm2. When stimulating with a pulse of 500 microseconds, highest charge per pulse (0.92 microC/p), and the largest charge density per pulse in the dorsal columns (1.59 microC/cm2. p) occurred. It is concluded that of all stimulation parameters that can be selected freely, only pulsewidth affects the charge and charge density per pulse in the nervous tissue, whereas both pulsewidth and contact area strongly affect these parameters in the nonnervous tissue neighboring the electrode contacts. PMID:9631328
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyzyurov, Yu.
Motions of neutral gas play the important role in creating irregularities of different scales in the ionospheric plasma. In particular, experimental data reveal that mid-latitude sporadic-E layer is formed by a vertical shear in the horizontal east-west wind due to tides or gravity waves. Below the homopause level (100-120 km) turbulent motions of neutral gas exhibit an essential influence on the layer. Neutral turbulence is responsible for the many-cloud structure of spread sporadic-E layers. This report is devoted to small-scale electron-density fluctuations produced by the turbulence in sporadic-E. Length-scales of the fluctuations correspond to the inertial range of turbulence and are small compared with the local scale of mean plasma-density gradient. We discuss an expected shape of the 1D fluctuation spectrum that can be measured during rocket experiments. The discussion is based on an analytical expression for the spectrum. The main steps necessary for obtaining the expression within the framework of macroscopic description are outlined too. Possible parabolic trajectories of two rockets which can be used for measurements of the sporadic-E electron-density fluctuations in the mid-latitude ionosphere (a magnetic dip angle of 45°) are chosen for a comparison. Parameters of the hypothetical flights were the following: (1) an apogee hmax=180 km, a distance between start and final points R=280 km; and (2) hmax=125 km, R=67 km. Mean values of characteristics for the sporadic-E and the neutral turbulence were fixed at around 97 km in this consideration. We have chosen the layer with a thickness of 2 km, a maximum electron density of 2\\cdot1010 m-3, and concentration of Fe^+ ions of 80 % (i.e. the mean ion mass is about 51 AMU). The mean rate of the turbulent energy dissipation was about 0.1 m^2s-3. Under these circumstances, the rms level of relative fluctuations in electron density may be about 10 % in the range of length-scales 10-400 m. The shape of
Laser wavefront analyzer for imploding plasma density and current profile measurements
Qi, N.; Prasad, R.R.; Campbell, K.; Coleman, P.; Krishnan, M.; Weber, B.V.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Mosher, D.
2004-10-01
The laser wavefront analyzer (LWA) consists of a polarized laser beam pulse that traverses an imploding z-pinch, and a microlens array that focuses the laser beam into a large number (10{sup 4}) of very tiny spots. LWA image analysis determines the refractive bending angles (due to density gradients) and Faraday rotation angles (due to the magnetic field-density integral) throughout the plasma cross section. Electron density and current distributions are derived from LWA data in an imploding gas-puff z-pinch plasma.
Thermodynamic performance analysis of a molten carbonate fuel cell at very high current densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramandi, M. Y.; Dincer, I.
2011-10-01
This study is basically composed of two sections. In the first section, a CFD analysis is used to provide a better insight to molten carbonate fuel cell operation and performance characteristics at very high current densities. Therefore, a mathematical model is developed by employing mass and momentum conservation, electrochemical reaction mechanisms and electric charges. The model results are then compared with the available data for an MCFC unit, and a good agreement is observed. In addition, the model is applied to predict the unit cell behaviour at various operating pressures, temperatures, and cathode gas stoichiometric ratios. In the second section, a thermodynamic model is utilized to examine energy efficiency, exergy efficiency and entropy generation of the MCFC. At low current densities, no considerable difference in output voltage and power is observed; however, for greater values of current densities, the difference is not negligible. If the molten carbonate fuel cell is to operate at current densities smaller than 2500 A m-2, there is no point to pressurize the system. If the fuel cell operates at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure, the unit cell cost could be minimized. In addition, various partial pressure ratios at the cathode side demonstrated nearly the same effect on the performance of the fuel cell. With a 60 K change in operating temperature, almost 10% improvement in energy and exergy efficiencies is obtained. Both efficiencies initially increase at lower current densities and then reach their maximum values and ultimately decrease with the increase of current density. By elevating the pressure, both energy and exergy efficiencies of the cell enhance. In addition, higher operating pressure and temperature decrease the unit cell entropy generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Linfeng
It has been proven that twin boundaries in YBa2Cu 3O7-delta (YBCO) are effective flux pinning centers. By increasing the twin density of a YBCO sample, it is possible to achieve a high critical current density (Jc). In this work, twin engineering for high critical current densities and strong flux pinning has been achieved in melt processed YBCO by increasing the annealing temperature up to 680°C. When the isothermal oxygenation temperature increases from 450°C to 680°C, the average twin boundary spacing of the samples decreases significantly, and its critical current density and flux pinning force are greatly increased. The prerequisites for twin boundary engineering for high critical current densities and strong flux pinning are also pointed out. For the first time, temperature dependent twin boundary energies (gammatw's) of melt processed YBCO are measured by the twin spacing method and the twin tip or shape method, and the geometrical factor alpha in the twin spacing method is estimated. As expected, the twin boundary energy of YBCO decreases with increasing temperature. In addition, the correlation between Jc and the concentrations of Y2BaCuO5 (211) and Samarium (Sm) in the melt-textured growth (MTG) YBCO has been studied, as well as the distributions of 211 and Sm in the MTG YBCO pellets. All our results can be applied towards microstructure tailoring for a high Jc and strong flux pinning in YBCO, especially in bulk YBCO samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
L. Braga, F.
2013-10-01
The solution of Grad-Shafranov equation determines the stationary behavior of fusion plasma inside a tokamak. To solve the equation it is necessary to know the toroidal current density profile. Recent works show that it is possible to determine a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium with reversed current density (RCD) profiles that presents magnetic islands. In this work we show analytical MHD equilibrium with a RCD profile and analyze the structure of the vacuum vector potential associated with these equilibria using the virtual casing principle.
High-current density, high-brightness electron beams from large-area lanthanum hexaboride cathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loschialpo, P.; Kapetanakos, C. A.
1987-12-01
Large (approx. 5 cm) diameter lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) cathodes operated at 10 kV have produced 1 to 5 micro electron pulses with current density between 10 and 20 A/sq cm. Normalized beam brightness, has been consistently measured. To obtain this high current density, the LaB6 cathodes have been heated to temperatures between approximately 1600 to 1800 C. Very uniform temperature profiles are obtained by applying a carefully tailored electron bombardment heating power distribution. These measurements have been made between pressure .000001 to .00001 Torr, i.e., under much less demanding vacuum conditions than that required by conventional dispenser type cathodes.
Four-dimensional ultrasound current source density imaging of a dipole field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. H.; Olafsson, R.; Ingram, P.; Li, Q.; Qin, Y.; Witte, R. S.
2011-09-01
Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) potentially transforms conventional electrical mapping of excitable organs, such as the brain and heart. For this study, we demonstrate volume imaging of a time-varying current field by scanning a focused ultrasound beam and detecting the acoustoelectric (AE) interaction signal. A pair of electrodes produced an alternating current distribution in a special imaging chamber filled with a 0.9% NaCl solution. A pulsed 1 MHz ultrasound beam was scanned near the source and sink, while the AE signal was detected on remote recording electrodes, resulting in time-lapsed volume movies of the alternating current distribution.
Gandhi, O P; Kang, G
2001-11-01
This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used. PMID:11720345
Photospheric Vertical Current Density and Overlying Atmospheric Activity in an Emerging Flux Region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Schmieder, B.
2002-05-01
Using high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained by the balloon-borne Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), we construct maps of the vertical current density in the emerging flux region NOAA 8844. The vertical current density has been decomposed into components that are field-aligned and perpendicular to the magnetic field, thus allowing a straightforward identification of force-free areas, as well as of areas where the force-free approximation breaks down. Small-scale chromospheric activity, such as H α Ellerman bombs and Ultraviolet bright points in 1600 Åshow a remarkable correlation with areas of strong current density. Simultaneous data of overlying coronal loops, observed by TRACE in the Extreme Ultraviolet (171 Åand 195 Å), have been carefully co-aligned with the FGE photospheric maps. We find that the footpoints of the TRACE loops always coincide with strong vertical currents and enhancements of the current helicity density. We also investigate whether the force-free approximation is valid on the photosphere during various evolutionary stages of the active region.
Ultralow-current-density and bias-field-free spin-transfer nano-oscillator
Zeng, Zhongming; Finocchio, Giovanni; Zhang, Baoshun; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Katine, Jordan A.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Huai, Yiming; Langer, Juergen; Azzerboni, Bruno; Wang, Kang L.; Jiang, Hongwen
2013-01-01
The spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) offers the possibility of using the transfer of spin angular momentum via spin-polarized currents to generate microwave signals. However, at present STNO microwave emission mainly relies on both large drive currents and external magnetic fields. These issues hinder the implementation of STNOs for practical applications in terms of power dissipation and size. Here, we report microwave measurements on STNOs built with MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions having a planar polarizer and a perpendicular free layer, where microwave emission with large output power, excited at ultralow current densities, and in the absence of any bias magnetic fields is observed. The measured critical current density is over one order of magnitude smaller than previously reported. These results suggest the possibility of improved integration of STNOs with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, and could represent a new route for the development of the next-generation of on-chip oscillators. PMID:23478390
Thermally activated flux creep and critical current densities in high temperature superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushita, Teruo
The effect of flux creep is discussed for projected strongly pinned oxide superconductors. It is determined, that if a superconducting wire with a critical current density higher than 10-billion A/sq m at 77 K and 5 T can be produced, the wire will be able to be applied to equipment at high fields; nonzero critical density will be obtained even at 77 K and high fields. The decay of persistent current is expected to be noticeable even in such strongly pinned superconductors, when those are used at 77 K. Although this will be managed in power equipment by lowering the operating current; variation in the magnetic field due to the variation in the current distribution inside superconducting wires appears to be unavoidable. It is suggested that an effort should be made to reduce the variation by reducing the diameter of the superconducting filaments.
Ates, C.; Moseley, Ch.; Ziegler, K.
2005-06-15
The characteristic oscillations of the density-density correlation function and the resulting structure factor are studied for a hard-core Bose gas in a one-dimensional lattice. Their wavelength diverges as the system undergoes a continuous transition from an incommensurate to a Mott insulating phase. The transition is associated with a unit static structure factor and a vanishing sound velocity. The qualitative picture is unchanged when a weak confining potential is applied to the system.
Effects of aldosterone on transient outward K+ current density in rat ventricular myocytes
Bénitah, Jean-Pierre; Perrier, Emeline; Gómez, Ana María; Vassort, Guy
2001-01-01
Aldosterone, a major ionic homeostasis regulator, might also regulate cardiac ion currents. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated whether aldosterone affects the 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward K+ current (Ito1). Exposure to 100 nm aldosterone for 48 h at 37 °C produced a 1.6-fold decrease in the Ito1 density compared to control myocytes incubated without aldosterone. Neither the time- nor voltage-dependent properties of the current were significantly altered after aldosterone treatment. RU28318 (1 μm), a specific mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, prevented the aldosterone-induced decrease in Ito1 density. When myocytes were incubated for 24 h with aldosterone, concentrations up to 1 μm did not change Ito1 density, whereas L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) density increased. After 48 h, aldosterone caused a further increase in ICa,L. The delay in the Ito1 response to aldosterone might indicate that it occurs secondary to an increase in ICa,L. After 24 h of aldosterone pretreatment, further co-incubation for 24 h either with an ICa,L antagonist (100 nm nifedipine) or with a permeant Ca2+ chelator (10 μm BAPTA-AM) prevented a decrease in Ito1 density. After 48 h of aldosterone treatment, we observed a 2.5-fold increase in the occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks, which was blunted by co-treatment with nifedipine. We conclude that aldosterone decreases Ito1 density. We suggest that this decrease is secondary to the modulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling, which probably arises from the aldosterone-induced increase in ICa,L. These results provide new insights into how cardiac ionic currents are modulated by hormones. PMID:11711569
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nara, Takaaki; Koike, Masanori; Ando, Shigeru; Gotoh, Yuji; Izumi, Masaaki
2016-05-01
In this paper, we propose novel inversion methods to estimate defects or localized current anomalies in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). One method is an imaging approach with L1-norm regularization that is suitable for estimation of focal anomalies compared to Tikhonov regularization. The second is a complex analysis based method in which multiple pointwise current anomalies can be identified directly and algebraically from the measured magnetic flux density.
Small Barriers Trigger Liftoff of Unconfined Dilute Heated Laboratory Density Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fauria, K.; Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.
2015-12-01
Dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are hot, turbulent, particle-laden flows that propagate because they are denser than air. PDCs can traverse tens to hundreds of kilometers and surmount ridges 100s of m tall, yet the effects of complex topography on PDC liftoff and runout distance are uncertain. Here we used scaled laboratory experiments to explore how barriers affect dilute density current dynamics and the occurrence of liftoff. We created dilute density currents by heating and suspending 20 μm diameter talc in air in an 8.5 x 6.1 x 2.6 m tank. We scaled the currents with respect to Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, particle Stokes and Settling numbers such that they were dynamically similar to natural PDCs. While currents were fully turbulent, their Reynolds numbers were not as high as those for natural PDCs. We performed the first set of experiments in a laterally unconfined volume, used laser sheets to illuminate the currents, measured bulk sedimentation rates down the current centerlines, and positioned four to twenty-four cm tall ridge-like barriers in the path of the currents. We found that relatively small barriers (~ half the current height) caused PDC liftoff. By comparison, conservation of kinetic and potential energy predicts that incompressible density currents are able to surmount barriers twice their height. Furthermore, we observed increased sedimentation immediately upstream of barriers and conclude that small barriers initiated buoyancy reversal through a combination of increased air entrainment and sedimentation. We conducted a second set of experiments with the same thermal scaling and mass flux rates but where the currents were laterally confined within a 0.6 m wide channel. We found that small barriers also triggered liftoff of confined currents, but that the body of these currents reattached after liftoff. Those results suggest that lateral confinement inhibits buoyancy reversal by limiting the surface area of the current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, Benjamin J.; Manga, Michael
2012-05-01
Laboratory density currents comprising warm talc powder turbulently suspended in air simulate many aspects of dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) and demonstrate links between bulk current behavior, sedimentation, and turbulent structures. The densimetric and thermal Richardson, Froude, Stokes, and settling numbers match those of natural PDCs as does the ratio of thermal to kinetic energy density. The experimental currents have lower bulk Reynolds numbers than natural PDCs, but the experiments are fully turbulent. Consequently, the experiments are dynamically similar to the dilute portions of some natural currents. In general, currents traverse the floor of the experimental tank, sedimenting particles and turbulently entraining, heating, and thermally expanding air until all particle sediments or the currents become buoyant and lift off to form coignimbrite plumes. When plumes form, currents often undergo local flow reversals. Current runout distance and liftoff position decrease with increasing densimetric Richardson number and thermal energy density. As those parameters increase, total sedimentation decreases such that > 50% of initial current mass commonly fractionates into the plumes, in agreement with some observations of recent volcanic eruptions. Sedimentation profiles are best described by an entraining sedimentation model rather than the exponential fit resulting from non-entraining box models. Time series analysis shows that sedimentation is not a constant rate process in the experiments, but rather occurs as series of sedimentation-erosion couplets that propagate across the tank floor tracking current motion and behavior. During buoyant liftoff, sedimentation beneath the rising plumes often becomes less organized. Auto-correlation analysis of time series of particle concentration is used to characterize the turbulent structures of the currents and indicates that currents quickly partition into a slow-moving upper portion and faster, more
Current densities and total contact currents during forest clearing tasks under 400 kV power lines.
Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Elovaara, Jarmo
2016-09-01
The aim of the study was to analyze all values of electric currents from measured periods while performing tasks in forest clearing. The objective was also to choose and analyze measurement cases, where current measurements successfully lasted the entire work period (about 30 min). Two forestry workers volunteered to perform four forest clearing tasks under 400 kV power lines. The sampling frequency of the current measurements was 1 sample/s. The maximum values of the current densities were 1.0-1.2 mA/m(2) (calculated internal EFs 5.0-12.0 mV/m), and the average values were 0.2-0.4 mA/m(2) . The highest contact current was 167.4 μA. All measured values during forest clearing tasks were lower than basic restrictions (0.1 V/m and 0.8 V/m) of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:423-428, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27192179
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamba, Humberto R.; Bayford, Richard; Holder, David
1999-01-01
Knowledge of the influence of the human skull on the electrical current (d.c.) distribution within the brain tissue could prove useful in measuring impedance changes inside the human head. These changes can be related to physiological functions. The studies presented in this paper examine the current density distribution in a simple phantom consisting of a saline filled tank (to simulate scalp and brain) and a ring made of dental grade plaster of Paris (to simulate the human skull). Images of the distribution of the d.c. density of the phantom with and without the plaster of Paris ring were produced using a magnetic resonance imaging technique. These images indicate that the skull is likely to produce a more uniform d.c. density within the brain.
Low-field critical current density in porous MgB2 powders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agassi, Y. D.
2013-09-01
Porous MgB2 powders are comprised of an ensemble of irregularly shaped constituents. In this work we introduce a model for the critical current density in such powders in the presence of a low external field H (H < 4 T) and in the high-porosity limit, where effects of vortex-lattice elasticity can be neglected and vortex pinning takes place within the powder-constituents. The ensuing critical current-density expression is a product of three decoupled factors: The first sets the scale for the critical current-density magnitude, while the second and third factors contain the field and powder-constituent size-parameters dependencies, respectively. The field dependent factor is of the form H-n and 0.5⩽n⩽1.0, where the limiting exponents n = 0.5 and n = 1.0 correspond to vortex configurations within a powder-constituent of a linear array and a two-dimensional lattice, respectively. For the calculations, we assume for the powder constituent shape a cylinder of arbitrary height and radius, where an external field and a single pinned vortex are aligned in parallel to the cylinder’s axis. The exact fields of this configuration are derived. The size-parameters dependence implies enhanced critical current density for a cigar-like shape powder-constituent aligned with the field, and of radius smaller than about three times the penetration depth. These conclusions are consistent with pertaining data.
Role of fluid density in shaping eruption currents driven by frontal particle blow-out
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, C. S.; Turnbull, B.; Louge, M. Y.
2012-06-01
We study the role of suspension density in eruption currents, a regime of gravity-driven flow that is sustained by massive, localized blow-out of particles acting as a steady source of heavier fluid injected into a uniform flow at high Reynolds number. Inspired by the potential flow solution of Saffman and Yuen ["Finite-amplitude interfacial waves in the presence of a current," J. Fluid Mech. 123, 459-476 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082003152], we show that the relative density difference between the two fluids swells the size of the current's head without changing its shape, while inducing a velocity jump at the interface. We test this inviscid theory against inviscid and large-eddy-simulations. We also conduct experiments in a water flume, where a line source of fluorescent brines of various densities is injected in a cross-stream and visualized with a narrow sheet of light. Simulations and experiments reveal that, with isotropic velocity distribution on a finite source, eruption currents expand further and develop interface oscillations, but the inviscid theory still captures relative swelling induced by density. We compare predictions to the static pressure data of McElwaine and Turnbull ["Air pressure data from the Vallee de la Sionne avalanches of 2004," J. Geophys. Res. 110, F03010, doi:, 10.1029/2004JF000237 (2005)] in powder snow avalanches.
Accurate Relations Between the Neutron Current Densities and the Neutron Fluxes
Ronen, Yigal
2004-02-15
Accurate relations between neutron current densities and neutron flux are obtained using the integral transport equation. Using these relations and Fick's Law, diffusion constants can be calculated. These diffusion constants are better than those usually used for the cases in which {sigma}{sub a}/{sigma}{sub s} is not small.
Impact of biquadratic coupling on critical current density in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aravinthan, D.; Sabareesan, P.; Daniel, M.
2016-05-01
We have studied the effect of biquadratic coupling (BQC) on critical current density in the Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar by solving the magnetization switching dynamics of the free layer which is governed by Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The LLGS equation is analytically solved for the time independent case and value of the critical current density required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated. Its value in the absence of BQC is 0.8576×1012 Am-2 and in the presence of BQC its value increases to 1.0914×1012 Am-2. BQC field is acting along the easy axis which opposes the free layer magnetization moving to the out of plane and hence the value of critical current density is high in the presence of BQC. We can reduce the critical current density by reducing the BQC field which can be achieved by making the nanopillar with minimal or no roughness in the pinned and free layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksan, M. A.; Madre, M. A.; Rasekh, Sh.; Constantinescu, G.; Torres, M. A.; Diez, J. C.; Sotelo, A.; Yakinci, M. E.
2015-09-01
Bi-2212 samples prepared by a solid-state reaction technique have been grown from the melt using the laser floating zone method. After annealing the as-grown bars, the samples showed a good grain alignment and a high transport critical current density. Secondary annealing processes were performed on the annealed samples with the aim of producing Bi-2212 phase controlled decomposition. Hence, the Bi-2201 phase and the secondary phases, which act as effective pinning centers, were obtained with the secondary annealing process. After these thermal treatments, the transport critical current densities of samples significantly increased, when compared to the annealed ones. The maximum critical current density was achieved when the samples were subjected to secondary annealing at 680°C for 168 h with an improvement of ~80%, compared to the annealed ones. Moreover, it was found that magnetization of the secondarily annealed samples was also increased. The magnetic critical current densities in these secondary annealed samples were about 3 times higher than the values obtained for the annealed ones. These results clearly indicate that the secondary annealing processes lead to the formation of effective pinning centers in the bulk material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, A.; Sharma, S. P.
2015-12-01
We describe the implementation of a new fast imaging technique to invert very low frequency (VLF) data measured on profiles into corresponding apparent current density systems over the 2D earth. First, a formulation has been derived to compute the vertical component of the magnetic field for a given 2D current density distribution in the Earth's subsurface. Since the vertical component of the magnetic field is proportional to the real anomaly of VLF electromagnetic measurement, the derived formulation has been used for imaging subsurface structures. The 2D inversion code incorporating the preconditioned conjugate gradient approach was developed for imaging of the subsurface conductors using the real VLF anomaly in terms of apparent current density distribution in the subsurface. The preconditioner determined by the distances between the cells and the observation points greatly improved the quality of the very low frequency imaging. Finally, we tested our method using synthetic and real data and all tests returned favorable results. The presented formulation were also compared with other imaging techniques in terms of apparent current density and resistivity distribution using a standard numerical forward modeling and inversion technique. The presented imaging technique shows improvement with respect to the filtering approaches in depicting subsurface conductors. Further, results obtained using the presented approach is closer to the results of rigorous resistivity inversion.
The Impact of Cathode Material and Shape on Current Density in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yang; Peng, Jianping; Di, Yuezhong; Wang, Yaowu; Li, Baokuan; Feng, Naixiang
2016-02-01
A finite element model was developed to determine the impact of cathode material and shape on current density in an aluminum electrolysis cell. For the cathode material, results show that increased electrical resistivity leads to a higher cathode voltage drop; however, the horizontal current is reduced in the metal. The horizontal current magnitude for six different cathode materials in decreasing order is graphitized, semi-graphitized, full graphitic, 50% anthracite (50% artificial graphite), 70% anthracite (30% artificial graphite), 100% anthracite. The modified cathode shapes with an inclined cathode surface, higher collector bar and cylindrical protrusions are intended to improve horizontal current and flow resistance. Compared to a traditional cathode, modified collector bar sizes of 70 mm × 230 mm and 80 mm × 270 mm can reduce horizontal current density component Jx by 10% and 19%, respectively, due to better conductivity of the steel. The horizontal current in the metal decreases with increase of cathode inclination. The peak value of Jx can be approximately reduced by 20% for a 2° change in inclination. Cylindrical protrusions lead to local horizontal current increase on their tops, but the average current is less affected and the molten metal is effectively slowed down.
Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system for current density measurement on EAST
Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X. Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Wang, Z. X.; Qian, J. P.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Lan, T.; Li, G. S.
2014-11-15
A multichannel far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique is under development for current density and electron density profile measurements in the EAST tokamak. Novel molybdenum retro-reflectors are mounted in the inside wall for the double-pass optical arrangement. A Digital Phase Detector with 250 kHz bandwidth, which will provide real-time Faraday rotation angle and density phase shift output, have been developed for use on the POINT system. Initial calibration indicates the electron line-integrated density resolution is less than 5 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2} (∼2°), and the Faraday rotation angle rms phase noise is <0.1°.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellucci, S.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bragança, E.; Saharian, A. A.
2016-06-01
We evaluate the fermion condensate and the expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field in (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime with a magnetic flux located at the cone apex. The consideration is done for both irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. The expectation values are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from particles and antiparticles. All these contributions are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. Related to the non-invariance of the model under the parity and time-reversal transformations, the fermion condensate and the charge density have indefinite parity with respect to the change of the signs of the magnetic flux and chemical potential. The expectation value of the radial current density vanishes. The azimuthal current density is the same for both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. It is an odd function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. The behavior of the expectation values in various asymptotic regions of the parameters are discussed in detail. In particular, we show that for points near the cone apex the vacuum parts dominate. For a massless field with zero chemical potential the fermion condensate and charge density vanish. Simple expressions are derived for the part in the total charge induced by the planar angle deficit and magnetic flux. Combining the results for separate irreducible representations, we also consider the fermion condensate, charge and current densities in parity and time-reversal symmetric models. Possible applications to graphitic nanocones are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croskey, Charles L.; Mitchell, John D.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Blix, Tom A.; Rapp, Markus; Latteck, Ralph; Friedrich, Martin; Smiley, Byron
2004-10-01
The MaCWAVE/MIDAS program for investigating high-latitude mesospheric dynamics has produced an extensive set of charged particle, plasma and neutral density measurements. We report on the results from one rocket salvo involving a MaCWAVE and two MIDAS payloads launched within a one-hour period. Each payload carried probes for evaluating the plasma and charged particle environment, and additionally, neutral density measurements were obtained by the CONE instrument on the MIDAS payloads. With the combination of particle and electron/ion density measurements, regions with and without charged particles have been clearly identified, and the plasma measurements outside the particle layers have proven useful to characterize the turbulent activity of the neutral gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaise, G.; Pesty, F.; Garoche, P.
2009-02-01
Using a dedicated scanning electron microscope, operating in the spot mode, the charging properties of muscovite mica have been studied in the energy range of 100-8000 eV. The intrinsic yield curve σ0(E), representing the variation of the yield of the uncharged material with the energy E, has been established: the maximum value of the yield is 3.92 at E =300 eV and the two crossovers corresponding to σ0(E)=1 are, respectively, at energies EI<100 eV and EII=4850 eV. At a given energy and under a low current density J ≤100 nA/cm2, the yield varies with the electron fluence from its intrinsic value σ0 up to the value corresponding to the self-regulated regime for which σ =1. This variation is independent of J. The fluence dependence of the yield σ(D ) is due to the internal field produced by the accumulation of charges that blocks the emission when the charging is positive and enhances it when it is negative. At room temperature, the relaxation time of stored charges is estimated to be of the order of 250 s for holes and 150 s for electrons. Three current density effects have been observed when J ≥400 nA/cm2. (i) The variation of σ(D ) with the fluence D depends on J. (ii) Negative charging is obtained at high current density in the energy range (EI, EII) where the material is normally positively charged at low current density. (iii) Electron exoemission (bursts of electrons) is produced at low energy when the net stored charge is positive. The interpretation of the current density effect on σ(D ) is based on the high rate of charging, the effect relative to negative charging is due to the expansion of the electron distribution, while the exoemission effect is due to the collective relaxation process of electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J.; Lee, J. W.; Jung, B. K.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.
2014-11-01
An internal magnetic probe using Hall sensors to measure a current density profile directly with perturbation of less than 10% to the plasma current is successfully operated for the first time in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). An appropriate Hall sensor is chosen to produce sufficient signals for VEST magnetic field while maintaining the small size of 10 mm in outer diameter. Temperature around the Hall sensor in a typical VEST plasma is regulated by blown air of 2 bars. First measurement of 60 kA VEST ohmic discharge shows a reasonable agreement with the total plasma current measured by Rogowski coil in VEST.
Modeling Current Density Maps Using Aliev-Panfilov Electrophysiological Heart Model.
Beheshti, M; Foomany, F H; Magtibay, K; Masse, S; Lai, P; Asta, J; Jaffray, D A; Nanthakumar, K; Krishnan, S; Umapathy, K
2016-09-01
Most existing studies of cardiac arrhythmia rely on surface measurements through optical or electrical mapping techniques. Current density imaging (CDI) is a method which enables us to study current pathways inside the tissue. However, this method entails implementation complexities for beating ex vivo hearts. Hence, this work presents an approach to simulate and study the current distributions in different cardiac electrophysiological states. The results are corroborated by experimental data, and they indicate that different states were distinguishable. The CDI simulations can be used for studying cardiac arrhythmias under simulation conditions which are otherwise impossible or difficult to be implemented experimentally. PMID:27357301
C-axis critical current density of second-generation YBCO tapes.
Jia, Y.; Hua, J.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Welp, U.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Rupich, M.; Fleshler, S.; Materials Science Division; American Superconductor Corp.
2010-10-01
We report on measurements of the temperature and field dependence of the c-axis critical current density (J{sub c}{sup c}) obtained on mesa structures that were patterned into the YBCO layer of second-generation HTS tapes. We find the J{sub c}{sup c}-values of {approx}4 kA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and self-field, corresponding to an unexpectedly high anisotropy in the critical current density J{sub c}{sup ab}/J{sub c}{sup c} of 500-600. C-axis current flow is expected to arise in applications such as the helically wound wires in HTS cables. A simple estimate is given of the fraction of tape width for such a c-axis flow; while in our samples this fraction is approximately 5% for a typical geometry, the fraction will grow linearly with increasing current density anisotropy and could affect the current-carrying ability of the tape.
C-Axis critical current density of second-generation YBCO tapes
Jia, Y.; Hua, J.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W.K.; Welp, U.; Malozemoff, A.P.; Rupich, M.; Fleshler, S.
2010-10-21
We report on measurements of the temperature and field dependence of the c-axis critical current density (J_{c}^{c}) obtained on mesa structures that were patterned into the YBCO layer of second-generation HTS tapes. We find the J_{c}^{c}—values of ~ 4 kA cm^{-2} at 77 K and self-field, corresponding to an unexpectedly high anisotropy in the critical current density J_{c}^{ab}/J_{c}^{c} of 500–600. C-axis current flow is expected to arise in applications such as the helically wound wires in HTS cables. A simple estimate is given of the fraction of tape width for such a c-axis flow; while in our samples this fraction is approximately 5% for a typical geometry, the fraction will grow linearly with increasing current density anisotropy and could affect the current-carrying ability of the tape.
Transport, deposition, and liftoff in laboratory density currents composed of hot particles in air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.
2010-12-01
Understanding the dynamics of transport, deposition, and air entrainment in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is required for accurate predictions of future current behaviors and interpretations of ancient deposits, but directly observing the interiors of natural PDCs is effectively impossible. We model PDCs with scaled, hot, particle-laden density currents generated in a 6 m long, 0.6 m wide, 1.8 m tall air-filled tank. Comparison of relevant scaling between our experiments and natural PDCs indicates that we are accurately capturing much of the dynamics of dilute PDCs: * Reynolds numbers of our experiments are lower than natural currents, 10^3 compared to 10^6, but still fully turbulent; * Densimetric and Thermal Richardson numbers are of O(1) in both natural and modeled currents; * Stokes and settling numbers for particles in the experiments fall within the expected range for natural PDCs. Conditions within the tank are monitored with temperature and humidity probes. Experiments are illuminated with sheet lighting, and recorded with high-definition video cameras. In general, currents have average velocities of 10-20 cm/s, initial thicknesses of 10-20 cm (although thickness greatly increases as currents entrain and expand air), and run out or lift off distances of 3-5 m. Large Kelvin-Helmholtz type eddies usually form along the top of the current immediately behind the head; these vortices are similar in size to the total current thickness. In currents that lift off, the distal current end typically retreats with time. Preliminary results suggest that lift off distance decreases with increasing thermal Richardson number. Analysis of turbulent structures indicates that the current heads are dominated by large coherent structures with length scales, L, comparable to the current thickness. Within 5-10 L of the current fronts, sequences of similar large eddies often occur. At greater distances behind the current fronts, turbulent structures become smaller and less
Lower hybrid current drive at plasma densities required for thermonuclear reactors
Cesario, R.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Amicucci, L.
2011-12-23
Driving current in high-density plasmas is essential for the progress of thermonuclear fusion energy research based on the tokamak concept. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect, is potentially the most suitable tool for driving current at large plasma radii, consistent with the needs of ITER steady state scenario. Unfortunately, experiments at reactor grade high plasma densities with kinetic profiles approaching those required for ITER, have shown problems in penetration of the LH power into the core plasma. These plasmas represent a basic reference for designing possible methods useful for assessing the LHCD concept in ITER. On the basis of the phenomenology observed during LHCD experiments carried out in different machines, and model of the spectral broadening effect due to parametric instability, an interpretation and possible solution of the related important problem is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasr-Azadani, Mohamad; Meiburg, Eckart
2015-11-01
We develop a vorticity-based approach for modeling quasisteady gravity currents propagating into arbitrary density and velocity stratification. The model enforces the conservation of mass, horizontal and vertical momentum, and in contrast to previous approaches it does not rely on empirical, energy-based closure assumptions. Instead, the effective energy loss of the flow can be calculated a posteriori. The present model results in the formulation of a second order, nonlinear ODE that can be solved in a straightforward fashion to determine the gravity current velocity, along with the downstream ambient velocity and density profiles. Comparisons between model predictions and DNS simulations show excellent agreement. They furthermore indicate that for high Reynolds numbers the gravity current height adjusts itself so as to maximize the loss of energy.
Threshold current density of electromigration in eutectic SnPb solder
Yeh, Y.T.; Chou, C.K.; Hsu, Y.C.; Chen Chih; Tu, K.N.
2005-05-16
Electromigration has emerged as an important reliability issue in the microelectronics packaging industry since the dimension of solder joints has continued to shrink. In this letter, we report a technique that enables the precise measurement of the important parameters of solder electromigration, such as activation energy, critical length, threshold current density, effective charge numbers, and electromigration rate. Patterned Cu/Ti films in a Si trench were employed for eutectic SnPb solder to be reflowed on, and thus solder Blech specimens were fabricated. Atomic force microscope was used to measure the depletion volume caused by electromigration on the cathode end. The threshold current density is estimated to be 8.5x10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} at 100 deg. C, which relates directly to the maximum allowable current that a solder joint can carry without electromigration damage. This technique facilitates the scientifically systematic investigation of electromigration in solders.
High temperature and current density induced degradation of multi-layer graphene
Wang, Baoming; Haque, M. A.; Mag-isa, Alexander E.; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo
2015-10-19
We present evidence of moderate current density, when accompanied with high temperature, promoting migration of foreign atoms on the surface of multi-layer graphene. Our in situ transmission electron microscope experiments show migration of silicon atoms at temperatures above 800 °C and current density around 4.2 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. Originating from the micro-machined silicon structures that clamp the freestanding specimen, the atoms are observed to react with the carbon atoms in the multi-layer graphene to produce silicon carbide at temperatures of 900–1000 °C. In the absence of electrical current, there is no migration of silicon and only pyrolysis of polymeric residue is observed.
Imaging of current density distributions with a Nb weak-link scanning nano-SQUID microscope
Shibata, Yusuke; Nomura, Shintaro; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Takayanagi, Hideaki
2015-01-01
Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are accepted as one of the highest magnetic field sensitive probes. There are increasing demands to image local magnetic fields to explore spin properties and current density distributions in a two-dimensional layer of semiconductors or superconductors. Nano-SQUIDs have recently attracting much interest for high spatial resolution measurements in nanometer-scale samples. Whereas weak-link Dayem Josephson junction nano-SQUIDs are suitable to miniaturization, hysteresis in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics that is often observed in Dayem Josephson junction is not desirable for a scanning microscope. Here we report on our development of a weak-link nano-SQUIDs scanning microscope with small hysteresis in I-V curve and on reconstructions of two-dimensional current density vector in two-dimensional electron gas from measured magnetic field. PMID:26459874
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gjerloev, J. W.; Potter, M.; Muhleisen, M.; Friel, M. M.; Martin, P.; Le, G.; Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.
2014-12-01
In this paper, we perform critical test of the well-known curlometer technique. The curlometer technique allows a derivation of the current density using measurements of the magnetic field at spatially separated points. At LEO altitudes this generally three dimensionally problem is simplified to a two dimensions by the fact that the current is almost solely flowing along the magnetic field lines. Strictly speaking the current density is derived from integration around a closed loop but in the curlometer technique this integration is simplified to a summation over just three points. In this paper we present a critical analysis of when and to what extend this approximation is valid. We show some simple theoretical considerations, results from a series of simulations, and finally apply the knowledge to ESA SWARM measurements.
Regularization methods to assess the eddy current density inside conductive non-ferromagnetic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, A. Lopes; Ramos, H. G.; Pasadas, D.; Rocha, T.
2014-02-01
This presentation describes two regularization methods that were applied to preview the current density induced in an aluminum plate. The images that result from the measurement of one magnetic field component by scanning the plate were used to determine the current density. The scanning was performed using a constant field eddy current probe and a rectangular area including the defect was covered. With the constant field probe a sinusoidal excitation was imposed to the plate, being the amplitude and phase invariant under a limited space translation. The obtained data was inverted and two regularization methods were applied, Tikhonov and total variation. The two methods were compared to conclude about their inclusion into nondestructive test and evaluation instrumentation.
Imaging of current density distributions with a Nb weak-link scanning nano-SQUID microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Yusuke; Nomura, Shintaro; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Takayanagi, Hideaki
2015-10-01
Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are accepted as one of the highest magnetic field sensitive probes. There are increasing demands to image local magnetic fields to explore spin properties and current density distributions in a two-dimensional layer of semiconductors or superconductors. Nano-SQUIDs have recently attracting much interest for high spatial resolution measurements in nanometer-scale samples. Whereas weak-link Dayem Josephson junction nano-SQUIDs are suitable to miniaturization, hysteresis in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics that is often observed in Dayem Josephson junction is not desirable for a scanning microscope. Here we report on our development of a weak-link nano-SQUIDs scanning microscope with small hysteresis in I-V curve and on reconstructions of two-dimensional current density vector in two-dimensional electron gas from measured magnetic field.
Reduction of TEM/ETG-scale Density Fluctuations in the Core and Edge of H-mode DIII-D Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, L.
2008-11-01
Improved confinement during H-mode has been linked to ExB shear suppression of large-scale (kθρs<=0.3) turbulence within an edge transport barrier. While larger scale eddies are preferentially suppressed by increased shear flow in this paradigm, the effects on smaller scale (TEM/ETG-scale) turbulence are less certain. Recent results from DIII-D provide the first experimental evidence that intermediate-scale turbulence (1 < kθρs<=3) together with larger-scale electron temperature fluctuations [1] are also reduced promptly at the L-H transition. These reductions are not confined to the edge region. Intermediate-scale density fluctuations obtained via Doppler backscattering, are significantly reduced (30%-50%) over a range of normalized radii (0.5 <=r/a <=0.85) within a few ms of the L-H transition. A larger reduction (>=75%) is observed at the top of the pedestal (r/a ˜0.9) within 0.2 ms. In addition, low-k electron temperature fluctuations (kθρs<=0.3, from correlation ECE) are strongly reduced (>75%) at the L-H mode transition and during QH-mode (r/a ˜0.7). Gyrokinetic simulation results [2] predict that Te fluctuations contribute significantly to L-mode electron heat transport, hence, the observed reduction is likely an important factor in the observed improved H-mode electron heat confinement (χe^QH/χ3^L < 0.25). Doppler backscattering is also utilized to probe time-dependent shear flows (i.e. zonal flows). The results clearly indicate that zonal flow levels are anti-correlated with the amplitude of intermediate-scale density turbulence in L-mode, suggesting that zonal flows play an important role in turbulence/transport regulation. 3pt [1] L. Schmitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035002 (2008).[2] A.E. White et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 056116 (2008).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, E. M.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Marinoni, A.; van Zeeland, M. A.
2015-11-01
A combined phase contrast imaging (PCI) and heterodyne interferometer system has been implemented on DIII-D, extending the physics capabilities of the pre-existing PCI and acting as a prototypical fluctuation diagnostic for next-step devices. The combined PCI-interferometer uses a single 10.6 μ m laser beam, two interference schemes, and two detectors to measure ∫ñe dl over a large spatiotemporal bandwidth (10kHz < f < 2MHzand0 <= k <= 20cm-1) , allowing simultaneous measurement of ion- and electron-scale instabilities. Further, time-correlating our interferometer's measurements with those of DIII-D's pre-existing, toroidally separated (Δζ = 45°) interferometer will allow novel studies of low- n Alfvén eigenmodes. The combined diagnostic's small port requirements and minimal access restrictions make it well-suited to the harsh neutron environments and limited port space expected in next-step devices. Measurements from sound wave calibrations and DIII-D operations will be presented. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-94ER54235, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FC02- 99ER54512 and NNSA SSGF.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gao, L.; Meng, R. L.; Xue, Y. Y.; Hor, P. H.; Chu, C. W.
1991-01-01
Using a recently developed pulsed critical current density (Jc) measuring system, the Jc of the high-Jc melt-textured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (Y123) bulk samples has been determined. I-V curves with a voltage resolution of 0.5 microV were obtained, and transport Jc's along the a-b plane as high as 7.2 x 10 to the 4th A/sq cm were extracted. These results are comparable to the values obtained magnetically. On the other hand, transport Jc along the c axis were found to be two orders of magnitude smaller, even though the magnetic Jc along the c axis is only about five times smaller than Jc along the a-b plane. It is suggested that for the high-temperature superconducting materials which are highly anisotropic, caution should be taken when using the nontransport magnetic methods to determine Jc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Miho
2015-08-01
The basic properties of the near-Earth current sheet from 8 RE to 12 RE were determined based on Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations from 2007 to 2013. Ampere's law was used to estimate the current density when the locations of two spacecraft were suitable for the calculation. A total of 3838 current density observations were obtained to study the vertical profile. For typical solar wind conditions, the current density near (off) the central plane of the current sheet ranged from 1 to 2 nA/m2 (1 to 8 nA/m2). All the high current densities appeared off the central plane of the current sheet, indicating the formation of a bifurcated current sheet structure when the current density increased above 2 nA/m2. The median profile also showed a bifurcated structure, in which the half thickness was about 3 RE. The distance between the peak of the current density and the central plane of the current sheet was 0.5 to 1 RE. High current densities above 4 nA/m2 were observed in some cases that occurred preferentially during substorms, but they also occurred in quiet times. In contrast to the commonly accepted picture, these high current densities can form without a high solar wind dynamic pressure. In addition, these high current densities can appear in two magnetic configurations: tail-like and dipolar structures. At least two mechanisms, magnetic flux depletion and new current system formation during the expansion phase, other than plasma sheet compression are responsible for the formation of the bifurcated current sheets.
Effects of Neutral Density on Energetic Ions Produced Near High-Current Hollow Cathodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kameyama, Ikuya
1997-01-01
Energy distributions of ion current from high-current, xenon hollow cathodes, which are essential information to understand erosion phenomena observed in high-power ion thrusters, were obtained using an electrostatic energy analyzer (ESA). The effects of ambient pressure and external flow rate introduced immediately downstream of hollow cathode on ion currents with energies greater than that associated with the cathode-to-anode potential difference were investigated. The results were analyzed to determine the changes in the magnitudes of ion currents to the ESA at various energies. Either increasing the ambient pressure or adding external flow induces an increase in the distribution of ion currents with moderate energies (epsilon less than 25 to 35 eV) and a decrease in the distribution for high energies (epsilon greater than 25 to 35 eV). The magnitude of the current distribution increase in the moderate energy range is greater for a cathode equipped with a toroidal keeper than for one without a keeper, but the distribution in the high energy range does not seem to be affected by a keeper. An MHD model, which has been proposed to describe energetic-ion production mechanism in hollow cathode at high discharge currents, was developed to describe these effects. The results show, however, that this model involves no mechanism by which a significant increase of ion current could occur at any energy. It was found, on the other hand, that the potential-hill model of energetic ion production, which assumes existence of a local maximum of plasma potential, could explain combined increases in the currents of ions with moderate energies and decreases in high energy ions due to increased neutral atom density using a charge-exchange mechanism. The existing, simplified version of the potential-hill model, however, shows poor quantitative agreement with measured ion-current-energy-distribution changes induced by neutral density changes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loehman, R.; Heinsch, F. A.; Mills, J. N.; Wagoner, K.; Running, S.
2003-12-01
Recent predictive models for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have used remotely sensed spectral reflectance data to characterize risk areas with limited success. We present an alternative method using gross primary production (GPP) from the MODIS sensor to estimate the effects of biomass accumulation on population density of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), the principal reservoir species for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of diagnosed HPS cases in North America are attributed to SNV, which is transmitted to humans through inhalation of excretions and secretions from infected rodents. A logistic model framework is used to evaluate MODIS GPP, temperature, and precipitation as predictors of P. maniculatus density at established trapping sites across the western United States. Rodent populations are estimated using monthly minimum number alive (MNA) data for 2000 through 2002. Both local meteorological data from nearby weather stations and 1.25 degree x 1 degree gridded data from the NASA DAO were used in the regression model to determine the spatial sensitivity of the response. MODIS eight-day GPP data (1-km resolution) were acquired and binned to monthly average and monthly sum GPP for 3km x 3km grids surrounding each rodent trapping site. The use of MODIS GPP to forecast HPS risk may result in a marked improvement over past reflectance-based risk area characterizations. The MODIS GPP product provides a vegetation dynamics estimate that is unique to disease models, and targets the fundamental ecological processes responsible for increased rodent density and amplified disease risk.
Thermal history of pyroclastic density currents and pyroclasts at Tungurahua, Ecuador
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benage, M. C.; Dufek, J.
2014-12-01
The associated hazards and opaqueness of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) make it impossible for in-situ thermal or concentration measurements within the currents that would provide critical information on the dynamics of PDCs. The entrainment of ambient air into these currents significantly impacts their runout distance and thermal history. The most efficient mechanism to cool a PDC is through the entrainment of colder, denser ambient air through Kelvin-Helmholtz and lobe-and-cleft instabilities, which are dependent on density stratification in the current and topographic-current interactions. The combination of high-resolution multiphase numerical models in concert with field measurements of PDC deposits allows us to better understand the evolving concentration gradients, instabilities, entrainment of air, and temperatures of PDCs. We employ a three-dimensional multiphase Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian (EEL) model, high-resolution topography, and field data to understand the PDCs that traveled down the Juive Grande quebrada during the 2006 eruption of Tungurahua volcano. The multiphase model allows us to examine PDC dynamics such as particle concentrations, velocities, thermal heterogeneities, and ambient air entrainment. As the PDC propagates, the entrainment coefficient decreases due to enhanced density stratification. The interaction of the current with rugged topography increases the entrainment coefficient. We also calculate the temperature of deposition and breadcrust bomb rind thickness for individual pyroclasts. The individual pyroclasts are tracked as Lagrangian particles in the multiphase model and we employ the breadcrust bomb model (Benage et al., 2014) to calculate the deposition temperature and the formation of the non-vesicular to low vesicularity rinds. The model results are compared to paleomagnetic data and field measurements of rind thickness, respectively. This allows the deposited pyroclasts to be natural thermometers that help constrain the
Jackson, P Ryan; García, Carlos M; Oberg, Kevin A; Johnson, Kevin K; García, Marcelo H
2008-08-15
Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common. PMID:18499229
Jackson, P.R.; Garcia, C.M.; Oberg, K.A.; Johnson, K.K.; Garcia, M.H.
2008-01-01
Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.
Irreversibility line in superconductor as line of constant shielding current density
Goemoery, F.; Takacs, S.; Holubar, T.
1997-06-01
The irreversibility of magnetic properties of superconductors is due to the existence of macroscopic shielding currents persisting for some period of time. The same currents offer nearly lossless electricity transport. Thus, the extent of magnetic irreversibility is directly proportional to the current-carrying capacity of a superconductor. Because the current-carrying capacity is an intrinsic property of the material, various experimental techniques should give the same irreversibility line corresponding to the same macroscopic shielding current density. Following this approach, the authors compared the irreversibility lines obtained from AC susceptibility measurement with those determined from quasistatic magnetization loops recorded with the help of a SQUID susceptometer. An additional parameter which has to be comparable is the electrical field characterizing the rate of change of the magnetic field. Fulfilling these conditions of equivalency, the authors found that it is possible to explain the irreversibility lines obtained by various techniques and at different conditions by the same physical model. They demonstrate that for the data, taken within two orders of magnitude for the current density and more than seven orders of magnitude for the electrical field, a consistent picture expressing all the observed features by the same model can be found. Measurements are presented from YBCO samples.
Magnetically filtered Faraday probe for measuring the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster
Rovey, Joshua L.; Walker, Mitchell L.R.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Peterson, Peter Y.
2006-01-15
The ability of a magnetically filtered Faraday probe (MFFP) to obtain the ion current density profile of a Hall thruster is investigated. The MFFP is designed to eliminate the collection of low-energy, charge-exchange (CEX) ions by using a variable magnetic field as an ion filter. In this study, a MFFP, Faraday probe with a reduced acceptance angle (BFP), and nude Faraday probe are used to measure the ion current density profile of a 5 kW Hall thruster operating over the range of 300-500 V and 5-10 mg/s. The probes are evaluated on a xenon propellant Hall thruster in the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility at operating pressures within the range of 4.4x10{sup -4} Pa Xe (3.3x10{sup -6} Torr Xe) to 1.1x10{sup -3} Pa Xe (8.4x10{sup -6} Torr Xe) in order to study the ability of the Faraday probe designs to filter out CEX ions. Detailed examination of the results shows that the nude probe measures a greater ion current density profile than both the MFFP and BFP over the range of angular positions investigated for each operating condition. The differences between the current density profiles obtained by each probe are attributed to the ion filtering systems employed. Analysis of the results shows that the MFFP, operating at a +5 A solenoid current, provides the best agreement with flight-test data and across operating pressures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topa, M. E.; De Paola, F.; Giugni, M.; Kombe, W.; Touré, H.
2012-04-01
The dynamic of hydro-climatic processes can fluctuate in a wide range of temporal scales. Such fluctuations are often unpredictable for ecosystems and the adaptation to these represent the great challenge for the survival and the stability of the species. An unsolved issue is how much these fluctuations of climatic variables to different temporal scales can influence the frequency and the intensity of the extreme events, and how much these events can modify the ecosystems life. It is by now widespread that an increment of the frequency and the intensity of the extreme events will represent one of the strongest characteristic of the global climatic change, with the greatest social and biotics implications (Porporato et al 2006). Recent field experiments (Gutshick and BassiriRad, 2003) and numerical analysis (Porporato et al 2004) have shown that the extreme events can generate not negligible consequences on organisms of water-limited ecosystems. Adaptation measures and species and ecosystems answers to the hydro-climatic variations, is therefore srongly interconnected to the probabilistic structure of these fluctuations. Generally the not-linear intermittent dynamic of a state variable z (a rainfall depth or the interarrival time between two storms), at short time scales (for example daily) is described by a probability density function (pdf), p (z|υ), where υ is the parameter of the distribution. If the same parameter υ varies so that the external forcing fluctuates at longer temporal scale, z reaches a new "local" equilibrium. When the temporal scale of the variation of υ is larger than the one of z, the probability distribution of z can be obtained as a overlapping of the temporary equlibria ("Superstatistic" approach), i.e.: p(z) = ∫ p(z|υ)·φ(υ)dυ (1) where p(z|υ) is the conditioned probability of z to υ, while φ(υ) is the pdf of υ (Beck, 2001; Benjamin and Cornell, 1970). The present work, carried out within FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA (CLimate Change