Science.gov

Sample records for current dhhs doe

  1. DHHS human subjects protection: the new regulations revisited.

    PubMed

    Grunder, T M

    1983-01-01

    In January of 1981 DHHS released its revised regulations for the protection of human subjects. These new regulations established five categories of federally funded research--primarily in the educational, social and behavioral sciences--which, at local Institutional Review Board (IRB) US ISSN (0193-7758) 1168 option, could be made exempt from mandated peer review. A survey of the 562 member IRB system was conducted to determine, among other things, what policies individual review boards had established with regard to these optionally exempted categories. 341 (61%) of the IRBs responded to the survey. Results indicate that the IRBs have overwhelmingly opted to maintain review procedures at some level in each of the "exempted" categories and that these procedures, as well as the other DHHS standards, are being applied almost universally to all research regardless of funding source. This article presents data on IRBs and their implications for the educational, social and behavioral sciences. PMID:10263330

  2. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  3. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.5 What criteria will DHHS use to decide...) The extent to which the project will contribute to the advancement of maternal and child health and/or... mortality rate (relative to the latest average infant mortality rate in the United States or in the State...

  4. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.5 What criteria will DHHS use to decide... Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national...

  5. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.5 What criteria will DHHS use to decide... Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national...

  6. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.5 What criteria will DHHS use to decide... Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national...

  7. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    PubMed

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description.

  8. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    PubMed

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description. PMID:26243659

  9. Current Fat Guidelines and Recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current dietary guidelines, including those of the US government [Dietary Guidelines (USDA/DHHS, 2005), Dietary Reference Intakes [reference DRI macronutrient book], National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, 2001)], American Heart Association (AHA, 2206), American Diabetes Association (2006) and...

  10. Current personnel dosimetry practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1981-05-01

    Only three parameters were included in the personnel occupational exposure records by all facilities. These are employee name, social security number, and whole body dose. Approximate percentages of some other parameters included in the record systems are sex (50%), birthdate (90%), occupation (26%), previous employer radiation exposure (74%), etc. Statistical analysis of the data for such parameters as sex versus dose distribution, age versus dose distribution, cumulative lifetime dose, etc. was apparently seldom done. Less than 50% of the facilities reported having formal documentation for either the dosimeter, records system, or reader. Slightly greater than 50% of facilities reported having routine procedures in place. These are considered maximum percentages because some respondents considered computer codes as formal documentation. The repository receives data from DOE facilities regarding the (a) distribution of annual whole body doses, (b) significant internal depositions, and (c) individual doses upon termination. It is expected that numerous differences exist in the dose data submitted by the different facilities. Areas of significant differences would likely include the determination of non-measurable doses, the methods used to determine previous employer radiation dose, the methods of determining cumulative radiation dose, and assessment of internal doses. Undoubtedly, the accuracy of the different dosimetry systems, especially at low doses, is very important to the credibility of data summaries (e.g., man-rem) provided by the repository.

  11. DHHS wisely proposed to remove the "consent" requirement from the HIPAA privacy standards. Department of Health and Human Services.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    The author contends that requiring advance written consent to use and disclose health information interferes with patient care, is unnecessary in view of other rigorous privacy protections, and imposes an unwarranted burden on healthcare providers. Consequently, the author commends DHHS for taking the "practical and apolitical step" of removing this requirement.

  12. Why empowerment does not empower: the bankruptcy of current paradigms.

    PubMed

    Belasco, J A; Gorham, G

    1996-03-01

    As a result of the rapid changes taking place in health care, nurse leaders are more challenged than ever to assume a new and different kind of leadership. Under the current paradigm, leaders are responsible for the performance of their people. Leaders do things TO the organization and the people in it. That paradigm of leader responsibility for other people's performance, given today's circumstances, guarantees organizational failure. A radical transformation in leadership thinking must take place. The leader's job is to get the people to be responsible for their own performance. PMID:8696832

  13. Why empowerment does not empower: the bankruptcy of current paradigms.

    PubMed

    Belasco, J A; Gorham, G

    1996-03-01

    As a result of the rapid changes taking place in health care, nurse leaders are more challenged than ever to assume a new and different kind of leadership. Under the current paradigm, leaders are responsible for the performance of their people. Leaders do things TO the organization and the people in it. That paradigm of leader responsibility for other people's performance, given today's circumstances, guarantees organizational failure. A radical transformation in leadership thinking must take place. The leader's job is to get the people to be responsible for their own performance.

  14. Does the Current Minimum Validate (or Invalidate) Cycle Prediction Methods?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This deep, extended solar minimum and the slow start to Cycle 24 strongly suggest that Cycle 24 will be a small cycle. A wide array of solar cycle prediction techniques have been applied to predicting the amplitude of Cycle 24 with widely different results. Current conditions and new observations indicate that some highly regarded techniques now appear to have doubtful utility. Geomagnetic precursors have been reliable in the past and can be tested with 12 cycles of data. Of the three primary geomagnetic precursors only one (the minimum level of geomagnetic activity) suggests a small cycle. The Sun's polar field strength has also been used to successfully predict the last three cycles. The current weak polar fields are indicative of a small cycle. For the first time, dynamo models have been used to predict the size of a solar cycle but with opposite predictions depending on the model and the data assimilation. However, new measurements of the surface meridional flow indicate that the flow was substantially faster on the approach to Cycle 24 minimum than at Cycle 23 minimum. In both dynamo predictions a faster meridional flow should have given a shorter cycle 23 with stronger polar fields. This suggests that these dynamo models are not yet ready for solar cycle prediction.

  15. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  16. CURRENT PROGRESS AND FUTURE PLANS FOR THE DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; Kurt D Gerdes, K; David Peeler, D; John Harbour, J; Kevin Fox, K

    2007-11-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: (1) Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes--SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; (2) Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses--Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; and (3) Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone--International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations.

  17. Current Progress and Future Plans for the DOE Office of Environmental Management International Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, K.D.; Marra, J. C.; Peeler, D.K.; Harbour, M.J.J.R.; Fox, K.M.; Vienna, J.D.; Aloy, A.S.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Bondarkov, M.D.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: - Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes - SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses - Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations. (authors)

  18. Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews current literature regarding the association of the pharmaceutical preservative thimerosal and other mercury exposures with the risk for autism. The evidence presented here does not support a causal association between autism and mercury exposure from the preservative thimerosal. The risk for autism from other mercury exposures such as from dental amalgam restorations or environmental mercury release into the atmosphere is ambiguous. Since mercury is a known neurotoxin, more research should be done to ensure that mercury exposure from any source does not contribute to autism.

  19. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Current Status and Plans for Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.; Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Michael E.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Lopukh, D. P.; Kim, Chenwoo

    2009-01-15

    The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM’s international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology’s international efforts are aimed at supporting EM’s mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine’s International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL). Additionally, a task was recently completed with the Nuclear Engineering Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea. The objectives of these collaborations were to explore issues relating to high-level waste and to investigate technologies that could be leveraged to support EM site cleanup needs. In FY09, continued collaboration with the current partners is planned. Additionally, new research projects are being planned to expand the International Program. A collaborative project with Russian Electrotechnical University is underway to evaluate CCIM control and monitoring technologies. A Statement of Intent was recently signed between DOE-EM and the U.K. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to work cooperatively on areas of mutual interest. Under this umbrella, discussions were held with NDA representatives to identify potential areas for collaboration. Information and technical exchanges were identified as near-term actions to help meet the objectives of the Statement of Intent. Technical exchanges in identified areas are being pursued in FY09

  20. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos. DHHS Committee to Coordinate Environmental and Related Programs.

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    This report is an assessment of all available literature that pertains to the potential risk of cancer associated with ingestion of asbestos. It was compiled by a working group to assist policy makers in the Department of Health and Human Services determine if adequate information was available for a definitive risk assessment on this potential problem and evaluate if the weight of evidence was sufficient to prioritize this issue for new policy recommendations. The work group considered the basis for concern over this problem, the body of toxicology experiments, the individual epidemiologic studies which have attempted to investigate this issue, and the articles that discuss components of risk assessment pertaining to the ingestion of asbestos. In the report, the work group concluded: that no direct, definitive risk assessment can be conducted at this time; that further epidemiologic investigations will be very costly and only possess sufficient statistical power to detect relatively large excesses in cancers related to asbestos ingestion; and that probably the most pertinent toxicologic experiments relate to resolving the differences in how inhaled asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos is processed. The work group believes that the cancer risk associated with asbestos ingestion should not be perceived as one of the most pressing potential public health hazards facing the nation. However, the work group does not believe that information was sufficient to assess the level of cancer risk associated with the ingestion and therefore, this potential hazard should not be discounted, and ingestion exposure to asbestos should be eliminated whenever possible. PMID:3304998

  1. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of

  2. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  3. 25 CFR 37.120 - How does this part affect current geographic attendance boundaries?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES Day Schools, On-Reservation Boarding Schools, and Peripheral Dorms § 37.120 How does... attendance boundaries of day schools, on-reservation boarding schools, and peripheral dorms remain in...

  4. Does oxygen limit thermal tolerance in arthropods? A critical review of current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Verberk, Wilco C.E.P.; Overgaard, Johannes; Ern, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, numerous studies have investigated the role of oxygen in setting thermal tolerance in aquatic animals, and there has been particular focus on arthropods. Arthropods comprise one of the most species-rich taxonomic groups on Earth, and display great diversity in the modes of ventilation, circulation, blood oxygen transport, with representatives living both in water (mainly crustaceans) and on land (mainly insects). The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis proposes that the temperature dependent performance curve of animals is shaped by the capacity for oxygen delivery in relation to oxygen demand. If correct, oxygen limitation could provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict both current and future impacts of rapidly changing climate. In arthropods, most studies testing the OCLTT hypothesis have considered tolerance to thermal extremes. These studies likely operate from the philosophical viewpoint that if the model can predict these critical thermal limits, then it is more likely to also explain loss of performance at less extreme, non-lethal temperatures, for which much less data is available. Nevertheless, the extent to which lethal temperatures are influenced by limitations in oxygen supply remains unresolved. Here we critically evaluate the support and universal applicability for oxygen limitation being involved in lethal temperatures in crustaceans and insects. The relatively few studies investigating the OCLTT hypothesis at low temperature do not support a universal role for oxygen in setting the lower thermal limits in arthropods. With respect to upper thermal limits, the evidence supporting OCLTT is stronger for species relying on underwater gas exchange, while the support for OCLTT in air-breathers is weak. Overall, strongest support was found for increased anaerobic metabolism close to thermal maxima. In contrast, there was only mixed support for the prediction that aerobic scope

  5. Does oxygen limit thermal tolerance in arthropods? A critical review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Overgaard, Johannes; Ern, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, numerous studies have investigated the role of oxygen in setting thermal tolerance in aquatic animals, and there has been particular focus on arthropods. Arthropods comprise one of the most species-rich taxonomic groups on Earth, and display great diversity in the modes of ventilation, circulation, blood oxygen transport, with representatives living both in water (mainly crustaceans) and on land (mainly insects). The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis proposes that the temperature dependent performance curve of animals is shaped by the capacity for oxygen delivery in relation to oxygen demand. If correct, oxygen limitation could provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict both current and future impacts of rapidly changing climate. In arthropods, most studies testing the OCLTT hypothesis have considered tolerance to thermal extremes. These studies likely operate from the philosophical viewpoint that if the model can predict these critical thermal limits, then it is more likely to also explain loss of performance at less extreme, non-lethal temperatures, for which much less data is available. Nevertheless, the extent to which lethal temperatures are influenced by limitations in oxygen supply remains unresolved. Here we critically evaluate the support and universal applicability for oxygen limitation being involved in lethal temperatures in crustaceans and insects. The relatively few studies investigating the OCLTT hypothesis at low temperature do not support a universal role for oxygen in setting the lower thermal limits in arthropods. With respect to upper thermal limits, the evidence supporting OCLTT is stronger for species relying on underwater gas exchange, while the support for OCLTT in air-breathers is weak. Overall, strongest support was found for increased anaerobic metabolism close to thermal maxima. In contrast, there was only mixed support for the prediction that aerobic scope

  6. Does oxygen limit thermal tolerance in arthropods? A critical review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Overgaard, Johannes; Ern, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, numerous studies have investigated the role of oxygen in setting thermal tolerance in aquatic animals, and there has been particular focus on arthropods. Arthropods comprise one of the most species-rich taxonomic groups on Earth, and display great diversity in the modes of ventilation, circulation, blood oxygen transport, with representatives living both in water (mainly crustaceans) and on land (mainly insects). The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis proposes that the temperature dependent performance curve of animals is shaped by the capacity for oxygen delivery in relation to oxygen demand. If correct, oxygen limitation could provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict both current and future impacts of rapidly changing climate. In arthropods, most studies testing the OCLTT hypothesis have considered tolerance to thermal extremes. These studies likely operate from the philosophical viewpoint that if the model can predict these critical thermal limits, then it is more likely to also explain loss of performance at less extreme, non-lethal temperatures, for which much less data is available. Nevertheless, the extent to which lethal temperatures are influenced by limitations in oxygen supply remains unresolved. Here we critically evaluate the support and universal applicability for oxygen limitation being involved in lethal temperatures in crustaceans and insects. The relatively few studies investigating the OCLTT hypothesis at low temperature do not support a universal role for oxygen in setting the lower thermal limits in arthropods. With respect to upper thermal limits, the evidence supporting OCLTT is stronger for species relying on underwater gas exchange, while the support for OCLTT in air-breathers is weak. Overall, strongest support was found for increased anaerobic metabolism close to thermal maxima. In contrast, there was only mixed support for the prediction that aerobic scope

  7. Ecological assessments at DOE hazardous waste sites: Current procedures and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Krummel, J.R.; Irving, J.S.; Vinikour, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Major actions at US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous waste sites require CERCLA compliance that meets NEPA considerations. Although NEPA compliance includes ecological considerations, neither the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) nor the DOE provide detailed guidance for conducting ecological assessments under NEPA. However, the identification of the form and magnitude of potential ecological impacts associated with a proposed action is directly dependent on the quality of the baseline data available for a particular site. Using the Surplus Facilities Management Program Weldon Spring site as an example, we discuss the collection of baseline ecological data for the site. This site is surrounded by approximately 17,000 acres of wildlife area. Available wildlife data consisted of qualitative, county-level species lists, and vegetation data was in the form of a regional qualitative narrative. Detailed site-specific occurrence data for listed species and high quality natural communities was provided by the Missouri Department of Conservation Heritage data base. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Contact Effects in thin 3D-Topological Insulators: How does the current flow?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Liang, Gengchiau

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different contact configurations (semi-infinite extended-channel, normal metal and ferromagnetic metal) on quantum transport through thin Bi2Se3 three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) slab (channel) has been investigated through Non-Equilibrium Green Function. The issue of contact dependent current flow and distribution across quintuple layers of 3D-TI has been addressed in this work and applied to expound the explanation for recent experimental work on electrical detection of spin-momentum locking on topological surface for long channel device. A theoretical model is propounded to develop a microscopic understanding of transport in 3D-TI in which contact type and magnetization concur with helical surface states of the TI channel to manifest seemingly counter-intuitive current distribution across layers. The quantum transport calculations for short channel devices with magnetic source and drain contacts postulate negative surface current for anti-phase magnetization whose axis is transverse to both current and quintuple layers. For in-phase magnetization at the two terminals, it is shown that observations can change fundamentally to result in anomalous current distribution. Such results are explained to stem from the confinement of 3D-TI between ferromagnetic contacts along the transport direction. A simple mechanism to validate topological insulators via quantum transport experiments has also been suggested. PMID:25820460

  9. Baby doe redux? The Department of Health and Human Services and the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002: a cautionary note on normative neonatal practice.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2005-10-01

    judicial decisions undermine the ethical discretion parents are typically afforded in decision-making before and after delivery in these morally complex situations. The DHHS interpretation of the BAIPA may encourage jurisdictional creep of these kinds of pronouncements as the agency seeks to expand legal protections for born-alive infants. The US Supreme Court has stated that "courts must presume that a legislature says in a statute what it means and means in a statute what it says there"; thus, judges interpret law by analyzing "concrete statutory language, not by reference to abstract notions of generalized legislative intent." The BAIPA indiscriminately defines "born alive" to include an infant "at any stage of development... regardless of whether the expulsion or extraction occurs as a result of natural or induced labor, cesarean section, or induced abortion," and it makes no reference to standards of care or best interests, nor does it specifically protect a parent's decision-making authority. Under the law's strict logic, an 18-week miscarried fetus with a detectable heart beat after delivery is entitled to the full protections of the law as determined by "any Act of Congress, or any ruling, regulation, or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies." Before concluding that the BAIPA would not affect normative neonatal practice, the NRP Steering Committee should have analyzed the act's actual statutory language and avoided relying heavily on imprecise legislative intent. The BAIPA's congressional sponsors did claim that the law "will not mandate medical treatment where none is currently indicated," but such political rhetoric is often not sufficient to render law innocuous years after separation from its legislative history. Besides, nowhere in the House record does the majority explicitly acknowledge that discretion to decide the fate of imperiled newborns invests in parents, in consultation with physicians; indeed, the bill's stated purpose

  10. Baby doe redux? The Department of Health and Human Services and the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002: a cautionary note on normative neonatal practice.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2005-10-01

    judicial decisions undermine the ethical discretion parents are typically afforded in decision-making before and after delivery in these morally complex situations. The DHHS interpretation of the BAIPA may encourage jurisdictional creep of these kinds of pronouncements as the agency seeks to expand legal protections for born-alive infants. The US Supreme Court has stated that "courts must presume that a legislature says in a statute what it means and means in a statute what it says there"; thus, judges interpret law by analyzing "concrete statutory language, not by reference to abstract notions of generalized legislative intent." The BAIPA indiscriminately defines "born alive" to include an infant "at any stage of development... regardless of whether the expulsion or extraction occurs as a result of natural or induced labor, cesarean section, or induced abortion," and it makes no reference to standards of care or best interests, nor does it specifically protect a parent's decision-making authority. Under the law's strict logic, an 18-week miscarried fetus with a detectable heart beat after delivery is entitled to the full protections of the law as determined by "any Act of Congress, or any ruling, regulation, or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies." Before concluding that the BAIPA would not affect normative neonatal practice, the NRP Steering Committee should have analyzed the act's actual statutory language and avoided relying heavily on imprecise legislative intent. The BAIPA's congressional sponsors did claim that the law "will not mandate medical treatment where none is currently indicated," but such political rhetoric is often not sufficient to render law innocuous years after separation from its legislative history. Besides, nowhere in the House record does the majority explicitly acknowledge that discretion to decide the fate of imperiled newborns invests in parents, in consultation with physicians; indeed, the bill's stated purpose

  11. Biologic therapy with or without topical treatment in psoriasis: what does the current evidence say?

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Daniel; Delcambre, Macey Renault; Nguyen, Gloria; Sami, Naveed

    2014-10-01

    Biologic therapy represents a relatively new class of drugs which have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and are used with increasing frequency in order to control this chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. However, it is unclear what role there is for combination therapy of biologics with traditional topical agents. The purpose of this article is to assess the literature on the role of topical agents as adjuvants to biological treatments in the treatment of psoriasis and identify areas for further research. A MEDLINE search was performed in order to identify English-language publications from 1996 to 2014 examining combination biologic therapy with topical medications in the treatment of psoriasis. Data from these clinical studies are summarized and the outcomes are discussed. In general, the addition of adjuvant topical therapy to systemic biologic therapy allowed for a reduction in dosage and side effects of both agents, maintenance of initial response to biologics, treatment of recalcitrant lesions in partial responders, and potential acceleration of response to biologic therapies. The current data, though limited, suggest that using topical therapies as adjunct treatment to biologics is a well tolerated and effective means of controlling psoriasis and improving quality of life for patients. However, the treating physician should remain attentive to signs of adverse events and seek opportunities to reduce the dose or treatment frequency during chronic use.

  12. Does the legacy of historical biogeography shape current invasiveness in pines?

    PubMed

    Gallien, Laure; Saladin, Bianca; Boucher, Florian C; Richardson, David M; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2016-02-01

    Why are some introduced species more successful at establishing and spreading than others? Until now, characteristics of extant species have been intensively investigated to answer this question. We propose to gain new insights on species invasiveness by exploring the long-term biogeographic and evolutionary history of lineages. We exemplify our approach using one of the best-studied invasive plant genera, Pinus. We notably estimated the historical biogeography of pines and the rates of trait evolution in pines. These estimates were analysed with regard to species invasiveness status. The results revealed that currently invasive species belong to lineages that were particularly successful at colonizing new regions in the past. We also showed that highly mobile lineages had faster rates of niche evolution, but that these rates are poor proxies for species adaptive potential in invaded regions (estimated by niche shift among native and invaded regions). In summary, working at the interface of ecology, historical biogeography and evolutionary history offers stimulating perspectives to improve our understanding of the drivers of invasion success.

  13. How does surgery compare with advanced intra-articular therapies in knee osteoarthritis: current thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Wehling, Peter; Moser, Carsten; Maixner, William

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of osteoarthritis (OA) management are to reduce pain and inflammation, slow cartilage degradation, improve function and reduce disability. Current strategies for managing knee OA include nonpharmacological interventions, oral pharmacological treatments, localized intra-articular injections, and surgery. It has become evident that the inflammatory response is a key contributor to the development and progression of knee OA. Signaling pathways involving growth factors and cytokines are being investigated for the development of new therapies that target the underlying biological processes causing the disease. This concept of ‘molecular orthopedics’ enables more patient-centered diagnostic and treatment strategies. In contrast to other conservative therapies, which ultimately only address OA symptoms, intra-articular injections, in particular autologous conditioned serum (ACS), provide benefits that have the potential to outweigh those of established pharmacological treatments and surgery. Surgery has historically been considered the final solution for treatment of knee OA, both by treating physicians and by patients; however, there are increasing concerns regarding the lack of randomized clinical trials providing evidence to support this opinion. Intra-articular injection of ACS has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for knee OA in a number of studies, with a very low rate of adverse events and side effects, compared with surgery. Treatment with ACS utilizes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and regenerative growth factors to support the natural healing processes in the knee, and has the potential to provide a valuable alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:27247634

  14. Does the current regulation of assisted reproductive techniques in the UK safeguard animal welfare?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive medicine is one of the fastest-developing fields of veterinary medicine, Regulation of veterinary assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is currently divided between the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986); the Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966, and the Animal Welfare Act (2006). None of those pieces of legislation was purpose designed to protect the welfare of animals undergoing ARTs, either directly or by determining which veterinary ART procedures may or may not be performed. Consequently, due to the lack of reference to such procedures, the welfare protection aims of the legislation are sometimes ambiguous. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether the aims of the legislation are being fulfilled, but, in the opinion of this author, the legislation is anyway inadequate in scope, most particularly because it fails to provide a reporting function. It is unclear whether all or any veterinary ART procedures being undertaken on post-natal animals are associated with suffering. Some ARTs may cause discomfort, stress or pain: study or review of the welfare effects of these would be valuable. Any future review of the legislation regulating veterinary ARTs, be that an overall review or a review of one of the relevant statutes (for example the VSA), should take into account the interface between research and clinical medicine; the potentially welfare-compromising gaps between the Acts; the need to introduce reporting functions in order to build an evidence base, and the issue of veterinary specialisation and whether specialised techniques should be carried out only by those with specialist post-graduate qualifications. PMID:26973381

  15. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. Results The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. Conclusions The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. PMID:27547428

  16. Research initiatives in ionizing radiation research United States Department of Energy, Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    This outline reports covers the following points: US DOE/US DHHS memo of understanding and the future of major epidemiologic studies; dose reconstruction at DOE sites; RERF: current status; internal emitters studies; development of the CEDR database; Biostatistical studies.

  17. Does transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal cortex affect mood and emotional memory retrieval in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Davis, Nick J; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants' prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account.

  18. DOE ORDER 435.1, IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE DECLARATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND ACROSS THE DOE COMPLEX IN CONTRAST TO CURRENT PUSHBACK EFFORTS FROM THE ''TOP-TO-BOTTOM'' REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    GOLDSTON, WELFORD T.; SMITH, WINCHESTER IV

    2003-02-27

    DOE issued Order 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' on July 9, 1999 for immediate implementation. The requirements for Low Level Mixed, Transuranic, and High Level Waste have been completely rewritten. The entire DOE complex has been struggling with how to implement these new requirements within the one year required timeframe. This paper will chronicle the implementation strategy and actual results of the work to carry out that strategy at the Savannah River Site. DOE-SR and the site contractors worked closely together to implement each of the new requirements across the SRS, crossing many barriers and providing innovative solutions to the many problems that surfaced throughout the year. The results are that SRS declared compliance with all of the requirements of the Order within the prescribed timeframe. The challenge included all waste types in SRS facilities and programs that handle LLW, MLLW, TRU, and HLW. This paper will describe the implementation details for development of Radioactive Waste Management Basis for each facility, Identification of Wastes with No Path to Disposal, Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determinations, Low Level Waste 90-Day Staging and One Year Limits for Storage Programs, to name a few of the requirements that were addressed by the SRS 435.1 Implementation Team. This paper will trace the implementation, problems (both technical and administrative), and the current pushback efforts associated with the DOE ''Top-to-Bottom'' review.

  19. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) susceptibility to currently approved antiviral drugs does not impact on CMV terminase complex polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Pilorgé, Léa; Burrel, Sonia; Aït-Arkoub, Zaïna; Agut, Henri; Boutolleau, David

    2014-11-01

    Currently approved anti-human cytomegalovirus (CMV) drugs, all targeting the viral DNA polymerase, are associated with significant toxicities and emergence of drug resistance. In this context, CMV terminase complex constitutes a promising target for novel antiviral compounds. In this study, we describe the low natural polymorphism (interstrain identity >97.7% at both nucleotide and amino acid levels) of the terminase subunits pUL56 and pUL89, and the portal protein pUL104, among 63 CMV clinical strains, and we show that the CMV resistance profile to current DNA polymerase inhibitors has no impact on the natural polymorphism of CMV terminase complex. These results support the idea that both CMV clinical strains exhibiting either susceptibility or resistance to current CMV DNA polymerase inhibitors are comparably sensitive to novel inhibitors of CMV terminase complex, such as letermovir.

  20. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: does it live up to the promise?

    PubMed

    Banks, Debra Lynn

    2006-02-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) was passed by Congress with two formidable tasks: (1) reform the insurance market; and (2) simplify healthcare administrative processes. From these ambitious beginnings, HIPAA has since taken on major healthcare issues including administrative simplification, security, privacy, and patient confidentiality. In November 1997, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (DHHS) introduced the proposed "standards" for what is referred to as "administrative simplification". But, establishing the standards and guidelines necessary for administrative compliance was not an easy undertaking. DHHS estimated that 400 different formats were used in the US for healthcare claims processing. Three years later (August 2000), the Final Rule for Standards for Electronic Transactions and Code Sets was published by DHHS. The rule provided for national standardization of the most common healthcare transactions and several code sets. The compliance deadline for implementation of the new transactions and code sets was set for October, 2002. In January 2001, Congress enacted The Administrative Simplification Compliance Act to provide the industry with additional time to reach compliance. Yet, recent survey results by Phoenix Health Systems and the Health Information and Management Society (HIMSS) indicate many providers and payers are not fully compliant with the security and privacy regulations mandated by HIPAA. This issue threatens the effectiveness of administrative simplification and the integrity of healthcare information. Overall, HIPAA does offer the promise of a more efficient and effective means of sharing and disseminating vital healthcare information. But, many experts have concerns that the implementation and maintenance of HIPAA standards and policies will become a financial burden for many in the healthcare industry. Although DHHS has established mandates for the healthcare industry, many deadlines have

  1. Does transcranial direct current stimulation enhance cognitive and motor functions in the ageing brain? A systematic review and meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jeffery J; Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive and motor functions has enjoyed a massive increase in popularity. Modifying neuroplasticity via non-invasive cortical stimulation has enormous potential to slow or even reverse declines in functions associated with ageing. The current meta-analysis evaluated the effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor performance in healthy older adults. Of the 81 studies identified, 25 qualified for inclusion. A random effects model meta-analysis revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference equal to 0.53 (SE=0.09; medium heterogeneity: I(2)=57.08%; and high fail-safe: N=448). Five analyses on moderator variables indicated significant tDCS beneficial effects: (a) on both cognitive and motor task performances, (b) across a wide-range of cognitive tasks, (c) on specific brain areas, (d) stimulation offline (before) or online (during) the cognitive and motor tasks. Although the meta-analysis revealed robust support for enhancing both cognitive and motor performance, we outline a number of caveats on the use of tDCS.

  2. What does a diagnostic label of 'polycystic ovary syndrome' really mean in adolescence? A review of current practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Morris, S; Grover, S; Sabin, M A

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder, with many women initially presenting during adolescence. Diagnosis during this period is particularly challenging, yet many emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis given the long-term metabolic and reproductive health consequences associated with the syndrome. The objective of this study was to review the current literature to determine whether the diagnostic label 'PCOS' is necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls presenting with features of the syndrome. A literature search was conducted (PubMed, Medline, Informit Health and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) identifying papers addressing the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. Articles were selected based on date of publication, relevance of material and the quality of evidence presented. A total of 427 papers were screened, with 40 of these selected from the initial search. A subsequent 154 were included from manual review of reference lists from key papers identified in the initial search. Current guidelines recommend treating the individual manifestations of PCOS. In doing so, there is good evidence identifying that this approach adequately targets the underlying metabolic and reproductive changes associated with the syndrome. This suggests that providing a diagnostic label of PCOS is not actually necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls with features of this syndrome.

  3. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents in acute coronary syndromes: what is the current status and what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Huber, Kurt; Bates, Eric R; Valgimigli, Marco; Wallentin, Lars; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Lopez Sendon, Jose Luis; Tubaro, Marco; Granger, Christopher B; Bode, Christoph; Ohman, Erik Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), caused principally by plaque erosion or rupture leading to thrombus formation and myocardial ischemia, have been reduced by a combination of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants) and early revascularization. Aspirin is the foundation antiplatelet agent. New P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) have clear benefits compared with clopidogrel for dual antiplatelet therapy, and cangrelor or vorapaxar, a thrombin receptor inhibitor, may be of value in specific settings. Anticoagulation uses 1 of 4 choices: bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, and fondaparinux. Moreover, some patients (such as those who have chronic atrial fibrillation) require triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, plus an anticoagulant, frequently a vitamin K antagonist. New oral anticoagulants have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation and led to fewer bleeding complications. Finally, the combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, and low-dose rivaroxaban has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (but not the Food and Drug Administration) for secondary prevention after ACS. Several strategies have been developed to balance the potential benefit of antithrombotic therapy against the risk of bleeding complications, for example, radial access in coronary angiography or restricted use of combination therapy, and others are under investigation, such as discontinuation of aspirin. This overview summarizes the current status of antithrombotic therapy in ACS and describes strategies currently explored to optimize its benefit/risk ratio. PMID:25440788

  4. Does high level youth sports participation increase the risk of femoroacetabular impingement? A review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien

    2016-03-11

    Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement.

  5. Does high level youth sports participation increase the risk of femoroacetabular impingement? A review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement. PMID:26968690

  6. DOES THE COMPRESSION OR THE EXPANSION OF A SIMPLE TOPOLOGY POTENTIAL MAGNETIC FIELD LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRENT SHEETS?

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, J. J.; Amari, T.

    2010-02-01

    Janse and Low have most recently addressed the following question. Consider a cylindrical domain containing a simple topology potential magnetic field threading its lower and upper horizontal faces, and a perfectly conducting plasma. Suppose that this domain is made to slowly contract or expand in the vertical direction, so driving the field into a quasi-static evolution through a series of force-free configurations. Then are these configurations smooth, or do they contain current sheets (CSs)? We reexamine here their three-step argument leading to the conclusion that CSs form most generally. We prove analytically that the field has to evolve through 'topologically untwisted' and 'nonpotential' configurations, thus confirming the first two steps. However, we find the third step-leading to the conclusion that a smooth untwisted force-free field is necessarily potential-to be very disputable.

  7. Does prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation influence the oxygen uptake at rest and post-exercise?

    PubMed

    Montenegro, R; Okano, A H; Cunha, F A; Fontes, E B; Farinatti, P

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over prefrontal cortex on the oxygen uptake (V˙ O2) at rest and during post-exercise recovery. The V˙ O2 was assessed in eleven healthy subjects before, during tDCS (sham or anodal tDCS, 2 mA, 20 min), and 30-min following isocaloric aerobic exercise (~200 kcal). During tDCS, no changes were observed on V˙ O2 compared to baseline (P=0.95) and sham condition (P=0.85). The association between isocaloric exercise and anodal tDCS increased the V˙ O2 throughout 30-min recovery compared to sham condition (P<0.001). Therefore, the energy expenditure within the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) period, after anodal tDCS was approximately 19% higher compared to the sham condition (P<0.05). In conclusion, anodal tDCS applied on the prefrontal cortex combined with submaximal aerobic exercise increased the EPOC, enhancing the V˙ O2 and energy expenditure at least for 30-min of recovery.

  8. Current external beam radiation therapy quality assurance guidance: does it meet the challenges of emerging image-guided technologies?

    PubMed

    Palta, Jatinder R; Liu, Chihray; Li, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    The traditional prescriptive quality assurance (QA) programs that attempt to ensure the safety and reliability of traditional external beam radiation therapy are limited in their applicability to such advanced radiation therapy techniques as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, inverse treatment planning, stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy, and image-guided radiation therapy. The conventional QA paradigm, illustrated by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40 (TG-40) report, consists of developing a consensus menu of tests and device performance specifications from a generic process model that is assumed to apply to all clinical applications of the device. The complexity, variation in practice patterns, and level of automation of high-technology radiotherapy renders this "one-size-fits-all" prescriptive QA paradigm ineffective or cost prohibitive if the high-probability error pathways of all possible clinical applications of the device are to be covered. The current approaches to developing comprehensive prescriptive QA protocols can be prohibitively time consuming and cost ineffective and may sometimes fail to adequately safeguard patients. It therefore is important to evaluate more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods of industrial engineering to more optimally focus available QA resources on process components that have a significant likelihood of compromising patient safety or treatment outcomes.

  9. Does current precipitation play a role in the recharge of groundwater in the deserts of northern China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-05-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas account for more than one third of the Chinese landmass and are distributed over elevations ranging from 155 m below sea level to over 5000 m above sea level. The most typical landscapes of this vast and diverse region are sand seas in arid and sandy lands in the semiarid zones. The widely cited value about mean annual evaporation in the deserts of northern China is between ca. 1400 to 3000 mm / year in general and between 3000 and 3800 mm / year in dune fields. Under such a framework modern precipitation would be meaningless to the recharge of groundwater. Our new estimate, based on the weather data from the last four decades, suggests, however, there is a clear overestimate of the evaporation rate in the earlier data. In a sand sea like the Badain Jaran Desert in the western Inner Mongolia, our calculation using a modified Penman equation shows that the mean annual evaporation is ca. 1000 mm from lakes and ca. 100 mm from the land surface. Our estimate is consistent with a new analysis showing that only ca. 10% of chloride in the soluble salts of aeolian sands in western Inner Mongolia comes directly from rainfall while 90% of chloride in these salts is deposited directly by dust accumulation (dry deposition). Limited, short-term experiment with large evaporation ponds supports our new estimate also. Provided that the new estimate tells the truth, we can further conclude that the current precipitation - ca. 100 mm in the southeast of the Badain Jaran Desert - plays a significant role in the recharge of the groundwater that directly feeds a large number of "small" desert lakes in this region. The existence of measurable tritium in the shallow ground water samples from the margins of these desert lakes reconfirms the importance of modern precipitation in the recharge of groundwater as well.

  10. Antigenic analysis of divergent genotypes human Enterovirus 71 viruses by a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yixin; Li, Chuan; He, Delei; Cheng, Tong; Ge, Shengxiang; Shih, James Wai-Kuo; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-01

    In recent year, Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an important public health issue in China. EV71 has been classified into genotypes A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. With such genetic diversity, whether the convalescent or recovery antibody responses can cross-protect infections from other genotypes remains a question. Understanding of the antigenicity of such diverse genetic EV71 isolates is crucial for the EV71 vaccine development. Here, a total of 186 clones anti-EV71 MAbs was generated and characterized with Western blot and cell-based neutralization assay. Forty neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs were further used to analyze the antigenic properties of 18 recent EV71 isolates representing seven genotypes in neutralization assay. We found that most neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs are specific to conformational epitopes. We also classified the 40 neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs into two classes according to their reactivity patterns with 18 EV71 isolates. Class I MAb can neutralize all isolates, suggesting conserved epitopes are present among EV71. Class II MAb includes four subclasses (IIa-IId) and neutralizes only subgroups of EV71 strains. Conversely, 18 EV71 strains were grouped into antigenic types 1 and four antigenic subtypes (2.1-2.4). These results suggest that the current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity which may be important in the selection of EV71 vaccine strains. This panel of neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs may be useful for the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of EV71 and vaccine development.

  11. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  12. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  13. Does a trade-off between current reproductive success and survival affect the honesty of male signalling in species with male parental care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, N B; Alonzo, S H

    2010-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that male advertisement will reliably signal investment in paternal care in species where offspring survival requires paternal care and males allocate resources between advertisement and care. However, the predicted relationship between care and advertisement depended on the marginal gains from investment in current reproductive traits. Life history theory suggests that these fitness gains are also subject to a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Here, we investigate whether male signalling remains a reliable indicator of parental care when males allocate resources between current advertisement, paternal care and survival to future reproduction. We find that advertisement is predicted to remain a reliable signal of male care but that advertisement may cease to reliably indicate male quality because low-quality males are predicted to invest in current reproduction, whereas higher-quality males are able to invest in both current reproduction and survival to future reproduction. PMID:20860698

  14. Does a trade-off between current reproductive success and survival affect the honesty of male signalling in species with male parental care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, N B; Alonzo, S H

    2010-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that male advertisement will reliably signal investment in paternal care in species where offspring survival requires paternal care and males allocate resources between advertisement and care. However, the predicted relationship between care and advertisement depended on the marginal gains from investment in current reproductive traits. Life history theory suggests that these fitness gains are also subject to a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Here, we investigate whether male signalling remains a reliable indicator of parental care when males allocate resources between current advertisement, paternal care and survival to future reproduction. We find that advertisement is predicted to remain a reliable signal of male care but that advertisement may cease to reliably indicate male quality because low-quality males are predicted to invest in current reproduction, whereas higher-quality males are able to invest in both current reproduction and survival to future reproduction.

  15. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  16. Current Data on Risk Factor Estimates Does Not Explain the Difference in Rates of Melanoma between Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Sonia; Miller, Kimberly A.; Cockburn, Myles G.

    2016-01-01

    United States Hispanics have seven times lower melanoma incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (NHW). It is unclear whether this difference can be explained solely by phenotypic risk factors, like darker skin, or whether modifiable risk factors, like sun exposure, also play a role. The purpose of this paper is to summarize what is currently known about melanoma risk factors among Hispanics and NHWs, and whether or not those differences could explain the difference in melanoma incidence. Through literature review, relative risks and prevalence of melanoma risk factors in Hispanics and NHWs were identified and used to calculate the expected rate in Hispanics and rate ratio compared to NHWs. We found that melanoma risk factors either have similar frequency in Hispanics and NHWs (e.g., many large nevi) or are less frequent in Hispanics but do not explain a high proportion of disease variation (e.g., red hair). Considering current knowledge of risk factor prevalence, we found that melanoma incidence rates in the two groups should actually be similar. Sun exposure behavior among Hispanics may contribute to the explanation for the 7-fold difference in melanoma rates. Currently, limited data exist on sun exposure behavior among Hispanics, but possibilities for improving primary prevention by further studying these practices are substantial. PMID:27092276

  17. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... subpart C—Abortions and related medical services in federally assisted programs of the Public Health Service. subpart E—Maximum allowable cost for drugs. 45 CFR part 76—Governmentwide debarment and... regulations apply to awards under this part. These include, but are not limited to: 42 CFR part 50—Policies...

  18. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations apply to awards under this part. These include, but are not limited to: 42 CFR part 50—Policies of... Service. subpart E—Maximum allowable cost for drugs. 45 CFR part 76—Governmentwide debarment and suspension (nonprocurement) and governmentwide requirements for drug-free workplace (grants). 45 CFR part...

  19. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations apply to awards under this part. These include, but are not limited to: 42 CFR part 50—Policies of... Service. subpart E—Maximum allowable cost for drugs. 45 CFR part 76—Governmentwide debarment and suspension (nonprocurement) and governmentwide requirements for drug-free workplace (grants). 45 CFR part...

  20. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations apply to awards under this part. These include, but are not limited to: 42 CFR part 50—Policies of... Service. subpart E—Maximum allowable cost for drugs. 45 CFR part 76—Governmentwide debarment and suspension (nonprocurement) and governmentwide requirements for drug-free workplace (grants). 45 CFR part...

  1. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations apply to awards under this part. These include, but are not limited to: 42 CFR part 50—Policies of... Service. subpart E—Maximum allowable cost for drugs. 45 CFR part 76—Governmentwide debarment and suspension (nonprocurement) and governmentwide requirements for drug-free workplace (grants). 45 CFR part...

  2. Current titles

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  3. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  4. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel W; Fjeldså, Jon; Maruyama, Pietro K; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Sonne, Jesper; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wang, Zhiheng; Sutherland, William J

    2014-10-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism. Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the distribution of species on islands, and this was idiosyncratic to each archipelago. In the West Indies, endemic richness was slightly reduced on islands with historically unstable climates; weak support for the opposite was found in Wallacea. In both archipelagos, large islands with many endemics and situated far from other large islands had high importance for the linkage within modules, indicating that these islands potentially act as speciation pumps and source islands for surrounding smaller islands within the module and, thus, define the biogeographical modules. Large islands situated far from the mainland and/or with a high number of nonendemics acted as links between modules. Additionally, in Wallacea, but not in the West Indies, climatically unstable islands tended to interlink biogeographical modules. The weak and idiosyncratic effect of historical climate on island richness, endemism, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the

  5. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  6. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel W; Fjeldså, Jon; Maruyama, Pietro K; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Sonne, Jesper; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wang, Zhiheng; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism. Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the distribution of species on islands, and this was idiosyncratic to each archipelago. In the West Indies, endemic richness was slightly reduced on islands with historically unstable climates; weak support for the opposite was found in Wallacea. In both archipelagos, large islands with many endemics and situated far from other large islands had high importance for the linkage within modules, indicating that these islands potentially act as speciation pumps and source islands for surrounding smaller islands within the module and, thus, define the biogeographical modules. Large islands situated far from the mainland and/or with a high number of nonendemics acted as links between modules. Additionally, in Wallacea, but not in the West Indies, climatically unstable islands tended to interlink biogeographical modules. The weak and idiosyncratic effect of historical climate on island richness, endemism, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the

  7. Ethanol (EtOH) inhibition of NMDA-activated ion current is not voltage-dependent and EtOH does not interact with other binding sites on the NMDA receptor/ionophore complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lovinger, D.M.; White, G.; Weight, F.F. )

    1990-02-26

    Recent studies indicate that intoxicating concentrations of EtOH inhibit neuronal responses to activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors. The authors have observed that the potency of different alcohols for inhibiting NMDA-activated ion current in hippocampal neurons increases as a function of increasing hydrophobicity, suggesting that EtOH acts at a hydrophobic site. To further characterize the mechanisms of this effect, the authors examined the voltage-dependence of the EtOH inhibition of NMDA-activated ion current as well as potential interactions of EtOH with other effectors of the NMDA receptor/ionophore complex. The amount of inhibition of peak NMDA-activated current by 50 mM EtOH did not differ over a range of membrane potentials from {minus}60 to +60 mV, and EtOH did not alter the reversal potential of NMDA-activated current. The percent inhibition observed in the presence of 10-100 mM EtOH did not differ with NMDA concentrations from 10-100 {mu}M. The percent inhibition by 50 mM EtOH (30-48%) did not differ in the absence or presence of the channel blockers Mg{sup 2+} (50-500 {mu}M), Zn{sup 2+} (5 and 20 {mu}M) or ketamine (2 and 10 {mu}M), or with increasing concentrations of the NMDA receptor cofactor glycine (0.01-1 {mu}M). These data indicate that: (i) EtOH does not change the ion selectivity of the ionophore, and (ii) EtOH does not appear to interact with previously described binding sites on the NMDA receptor/ionophore complex.

  8. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Simmons, M M; Chaplin, M J; Vickery, C M; Simon, S; Davis, L; Denyer, M; Lockey, R; Stack, M J; O'Connor, M J; Bishop, K; Gough, K C; Maddison, B C; Thorne, L; Spiropoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE.

  9. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Simmons, M M; Chaplin, M J; Vickery, C M; Simon, S; Davis, L; Denyer, M; Lockey, R; Stack, M J; O'Connor, M J; Bishop, K; Gough, K C; Maddison, B C; Thorne, L; Spiropoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE. PMID:26041899

  10. Opsin gene sequence variation across phylogenetic and population histories in Mysis (Crustacea: Mysida) does not match current light environments or visual-pigment absorbance spectra.

    PubMed

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Pahlberg, Johan; Viljanen, Martta; Donner, Kristian; Väinölä, Risto

    2012-05-01

    The hypothesis that selection on the opsin gene is efficient in tuning vision to the ambient light environment of an organism was assessed in 49 populations of 12 Mysis crustacean species, inhabiting arctic marine waters, coastal littoral habitats, freshwater lakes ('glacial relicts') and the deep Caspian Sea. Extensive sequence variation was found within and among taxa, but its patterns did not match expectations based on light environments, spectral sensitivity of the visual pigment measured by microspectrophotometry or the history of species and populations. The main split in the opsin gene tree was between lineages I and II, differing in six amino acids. Lineage I was present in marine and Caspian Sea species and in the North American freshwater Mysis diluviana, whereas lineage II was found in the European and circumarctic fresh- and brackish-water Mysis relicta, Mysis salemaai and Mysis segerstralei. Both lineages were present in some populations of M. salemaai and M. segerstralei. Absorbance spectra of the visual pigment in nine populations of the latter three species showed a dichotomy between lake (λ(max) =554-562 nm) and brackish-water (Baltic Sea) populations (λ(max) = 521-535 nm). Judged by the shape of spectra, this difference was not because of different chromophores (A2 vs. A1), but neither did it coincide with the split in the opsin tree (lineages I/II), species identity or current light environments. In all, adaptive evolution of the opsin gene in Mysis could not be demonstrated, but its sequence variation did not conform to a neutral expectation either, suggesting evolutionary constraints and/or unidentified mechanisms of spectral tuning. PMID:22429275

  11. How Does Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Pain Neuromatrix Affect Brain Excitability and Pain Perception? A Randomised, Double-Blind, Sham-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability. The secondary aim was to investigate how M1 and S1 excitability changes affect sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh). Methods Twelve healthy participants received 20 min a-tDCS under five different conditions including a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCS of S1, a-tDCS of DLPFC, sham a-tDCS, and no-tDCS. Excitability of dominant M1 and S1 were measured before, immediately, and 30 minutes after intervention respectively. Moreover, STh and PTh to peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were evaluated. All outcome measures were assessed at three time-points of measurement by a blind rater. Results A-tDCS of M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) significantly increased brain excitability in M1 (p < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following application of a-tDCS over the S1, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs increased immediately after the stimulation (p < 0.05), whilst M1 stimulation decreased it. Compared to baseline values, significant STh and PTh increase was observed after a-tDCS of all three stimulated areas. Except in M1 stimulation, there was significant PTh difference between a-tDCS and sham tDCS. Conclusion a-tDCS of M1 is the best spots to enhance brain excitability than a-tDCS of S1 and DLPFC. Surprisingly, a-tDCS of M1 and S1 has diverse effects on S1 and M1 excitability. A-tDCS of M1, S1, and DLPFC increased STh and PTh levels. Given the placebo effects of a-tDCS of M1 in pain perception, our results should be interpreted with caution

  12. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  13. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  14. DOE`s Phytoremediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation contains an outline of the US DOE`s phytoremediation program. A brief overview of the goals, infrastructure, and results of the program is presented. Environmental contaminants addressed include chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, radionuclides, inorganic wastes, and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. Studies of soil remediation using phytoextraction and water remediation using rhizofiltration are briefly described.

  15. Current titles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    116 abstracts are presented of work done with the electron microscope. NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers (assess is controlled by a steering committee).

  16. The Anderson Current Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1994-01-01

    Four-wire-probe concept applied to electrical-resistance transducers. Anderson current loop is excitation-and-signal-conditioning circuit suitable for use with strain gauges, resistance thermometers, and other electrical-resistance transducers mounted in harsh environments. Used as alternative to Wheatstone bridge. Simplifies signal-conditioning problem, enabling precise measurement of small changes in resistance of transducer. Eliminates some uncertainties in Wheatstone-bridge resistance-change measurements in flight research. Current loop configuration makes effects of lead-wire and contact resistances insignificantly small. Also provides output voltage that varies linearly with change in gauge resistance, and does so at double sensitivity of Wheatstone bridge.

  17. A study of the current knowledge base in treating snake bite amongst doctors in the high-risk countries of India and Pakistan: does snake bite treatment training reflect local requirements?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ian D

    2008-11-01

    The call for greater production of better quality anti-snake venom (ASV) is a major thrust in the effort to reduce snake bite mortality. However, snake bite mortality has many causes and these should also be addressed. A key feature of efficient ASV usage is ensuring that doctors are trained to administer ASV only when it is required and in amounts that are necessary to neutralize venom. The need for better snake bite management training has been referred to, but little attention has been paid to how effectively medical education actually prepares doctors to treat snake bite. The objective of this study is to evaluate the current level of knowledge amongst doctors in India and Pakistan, two countries with the highest snake bite mortality in absolute terms. Results show that the use of current textbooks and medical education do not adequately prepare doctors to treat snake bite, particularly in the areas of use of ASV, dealing with adverse reactions to ASV and specific measures to deal with neurotoxic bites. The central conclusion of the paper is that local protocols and training are required to adequately prepare doctors to improve treatment and reduce mortality.

  18. DOE New Technology: Sharing New Frontiers, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, A.T.; Henline, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of DOE New Technology is to provide information on how to access specific technologies developed through research sponsored by DOE and performed by DOE laboratories or by DOE-contracted researchers. This document describes technologies identified as having potential for commercial applications in addition to a catalog of current patent applications and patents available for licensing from DOE and DOE contractors.

  19. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  20. Current Mode Logic Fan Out

    2011-05-07

    Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.

  1. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bastani, A; Jaberzadeh, S

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The secondary aim is to find a-tDCS optimal parameters for its maximal effects. Electronic databases were searched for studies into the effect of a-tDCS when compared to no stimulation. Studies which met the inclusion criteria were assessed and methodological quality was examined using PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. Data from seven studies revealed increase in corticomotor excitability with a small but significant effect size (0.31 [0.14, 0.48], p=0.0003) in healthy subjects and data from two studies in subjects with stroke indicated significant results with moderate effect size (0.59 [0.24, 0.93], p=0.001) in favor of a-tDCS. Likewise, studies examining motor function demonstrated a small and non-significant effect (0.39 [-0.17, 0.94], p=0.17) in subjects with stroke and a large but non-significant effect (0.92 [-1.02, 2.87], p=0.35) in healthy subjects in favor of improvement in motor function. The results also indicate that efficacy of a-tDCS is dependent on current density and duration of application. A-tDCS increases corticomotor excitability in both healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The results also show a trend in favor of motor function improvement following a-tDCS. A-tDCS is a non-invasive, cheap and easy-to-apply modality which could be used as a stand-alone technique or as an adds-on technique to enhance corticomotor excitability and the efficacy of motor training approaches. However, the small sample size of the included studies reduces the strength of the presented evidences and any conclusion in this regard should be considered cautiously.

  2. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bastani, A; Jaberzadeh, S

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The secondary aim is to find a-tDCS optimal parameters for its maximal effects. Electronic databases were searched for studies into the effect of a-tDCS when compared to no stimulation. Studies which met the inclusion criteria were assessed and methodological quality was examined using PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. Data from seven studies revealed increase in corticomotor excitability with a small but significant effect size (0.31 [0.14, 0.48], p=0.0003) in healthy subjects and data from two studies in subjects with stroke indicated significant results with moderate effect size (0.59 [0.24, 0.93], p=0.001) in favor of a-tDCS. Likewise, studies examining motor function demonstrated a small and non-significant effect (0.39 [-0.17, 0.94], p=0.17) in subjects with stroke and a large but non-significant effect (0.92 [-1.02, 2.87], p=0.35) in healthy subjects in favor of improvement in motor function. The results also indicate that efficacy of a-tDCS is dependent on current density and duration of application. A-tDCS increases corticomotor excitability in both healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The results also show a trend in favor of motor function improvement following a-tDCS. A-tDCS is a non-invasive, cheap and easy-to-apply modality which could be used as a stand-alone technique or as an adds-on technique to enhance corticomotor excitability and the efficacy of motor training approaches. However, the small sample size of the included studies reduces the strength of the presented evidences and any conclusion in this regard should be considered cautiously. PMID:21978654

  3. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  4. Noncontact Measurement Of Critical Current In Superconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Critical current measured indirectly via flux-compression technique. Magnetic flux compressed into gap between superconductive hollow cylinder and superconductive rod when rod inserted in hole in cylinder. Hall-effect probe measures flux density before and after compression. Method does not involve any electrical contact with superconductor. Therefore, does not cause resistive heating and consequent premature loss of superconductivity.

  5. High current induction linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge.

  6. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-12-31

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University.

  7. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  8. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national health objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth originally published in...

  9. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes How Does Fluoride Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Does Fluoride Work? Print A A A Text Size There's fluoride ... even in your water. But how does it work to keep teeth healthy? Let's find out. Fluoride ...

  10. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  11. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  12. Andreev current for low temperature thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Faivre, T. Pekola, J. P.; Golubev, D. S.

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate experimentally that disorder enhanced Andreev current in a tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor provides a method to measure electronic temperature, specifically at temperatures below 200 mK when aluminum is used. This Andreev thermometer has some advantages over conventional quasiparticle thermometers: For instance, it does not conduct heat and its reading does not saturate until at lower temperatures. Another merit is that the responsivity is constant over a wide temperature range.

  13. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the...

  14. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the...

  15. Current Opinions on Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the

  16. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  17. DOE standard: Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  18. CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: “Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health” sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

  19. The current catalog--how current?

    PubMed

    Sargent, C W

    1968-07-01

    NLM's Current Catalog has recently come in for some criticism. To be useful as a tool in acquisition and cataloging, currency in receipt of the Current Catalog is necessary. A survey of 263 titles with 1967 imprints, which were received by the Library of the Medical Sciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, was made to determine the correlation between the receipt of these books in the library and their appearance in the Current Catalog. PMID:5695111

  20. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  1. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  2. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  3. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  4. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  5. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  6. Geologically current plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  7. Bootstrap current close to magnetic axis in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    It is shown that the bootstrap current density close to the magnetic axis in tokamaks does not vanish in simple electron-ion plasmas because the fraction of the trapped particles is finite. The magnitude of the current density could be comparable to that in the outer core region. This may reduce or even eliminate the need of the seed current.

  8. DOE climate partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.

    1995-12-31

    This article briefly describes US DOE partnerships, with electrical utilities and with US EPA and industry, which focus on reduction in greenhouse gasses. They are called `Climate Challenge` and `Climate Wise.`

  9. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  10. 1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.

  11. Congress targets DOE plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Calling the Department of Energy's management of the nation's crippled nuclear weapons production complex “a 35-year secret chemical war waged against people living near DOE's sites,” Representative Thomas Luken (D-OH) opened a congressional hearing on February 23 with an appeal to DOE Secretary-designate James Watkins to release secret health records of workers at the plants. In testimony that followed, Comptroller General Charles Bowsher told a subcommittee of the House Energy and Commerce Committee that President Bush's new budget does not go far enough on the long and costly road of cleaning up and modernizing the contaminated and aging facilities. The renovation is expected to cost up to $155 billion.By next month, 11 of the 17 installations that make up the DOE complex will be on the EPA's Superfund list of the nation's most contaminated waste sites. Some o f the DOE facilities, including the Rocky Flats plant in Denver, Colo., the Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington, and the Savannah River plant in South Carolina, are among the most polluted sites ever identified by EPA. The principal function of the facilities, the production of tritium and plutonium for nuclear weapons, has stopped, creating what DOE has characterized as a looming national security crisis.

  12. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  13. 14 CFR 11.25 - How does FAA issue rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does FAA issue rules? 11.25 Section 11... RULES GENERAL RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Rulemaking Procedures General § 11.25 How does FAA issue rules? (a... new regulation, or to change a current regulation, FAA will issue one or more of the...

  14. DOE`s nuclear energy plant optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.; Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P.

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the United States agreed to the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change that outlines specific greenhouse gas emissions reduction requirements. A key element of this protocol is binding emissions targets and timetables. The Protocol calls for the United States to reach emissions targets 7% below 1990 emissions levels over the 5-yr period from 2008 to 2012. A key element to achieving this goal will be the continued safe and economic operation of the Nation`s 104 nuclear power plants. These plants provide >20% of the Nation`s electricity, and nearly one-half of the 50 states receive >25% of their electricity from nuclear power. DOE`s current Strategic Plan specifies that the United States maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. As a result, DOE proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year (FY) 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program in advanced concepts, and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). NERI was authorized and received initial funding of $19 million for its first year. NEPO was not funded in 1999 but has been reintroduced in the FY 2000 budget request. NEPO will be a jointly funded R and D program with industry through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and will address those issues that could hinder continued safe operation of the Nation`s operating nuclear power plants. The FY 2000 funding request to Congress for NEPO is $5 million.

  15. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  16. A DOE Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kristin

    2004-03-01

    As one of the lead agencies for nanotechnology research and development, the Department of Energy (DOE) is revolutionizing the way we understand and manipulate materials at the nanoscale. As the Federal government's single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and overseeing the Nation's cross-cutting research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and fusion energy sciences, the DOE guides the grand challenges in nanomaterials research that will have an impact on everything from medicine, to energy production, to manufacturing. Within the DOE's Office of Science, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) leads research and development at the nanoscale, which supports the Department's missions of national security, energy, science, and the environment. The cornerstone of the program in nanoscience is the establishment and operation of five new Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), which are under development at six DOE Laboratories. Throughout its history, DOE's Office of Science has designed, constructed and operated many of the nation's most advanced, large-scale research and development user facilities, of importance to all areas of science. These state-of-the art facilities are shared with the science community worldwide and contain technologies and instruments that are available nowhere else. Like all DOE national user facilities, the new NSRCs are designed to make novel state-of-the-art research tools available to the world, and to accelerate a broad scale national effort in basic nanoscience and nanotechnology. The NSRCs will be sited adjacent to or near existing DOE/BES major user facilities, and are designed to enable national user access to world-class capabilities for the synthesis, processing, fabrication, and analysis of materials at the nanoscale, and to transform the nation's approach to nanomaterials.

  17. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  18. Magnetic current sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  19. Spin-current diode with a ferromagnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qing-Feng Xie, X. C.

    2015-05-04

    Diode is a key device in electronics: the charge current can flow through the device under a forward bias, while almost no current flows under a reverse bias. Here, we propose a corresponding device in spintronics: the spin-current diode, in which the forward spin current is large but the reversed one is negligible. We show that the lead/ferromagnetic quantum dot/lead system and the lead/ferromagnetic semiconductor/lead junction can work as spin-current diodes. The spin-current diode, a low dissipation device, may have important applications in spintronics, as the conventional charge-current diode does in electronics.

  20. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  1. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-05-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  2. DOE National Rideshare Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes a three-year plan, as developed for the US DOE National Rideshare Program: a research and technology transfer program with the goal of encouraging more commuters to share their vehicles when traveling to and from work. The Plan is the result of an extensive nationwide review of current ridesharing benefits, barriers and activities, and describes an approach to: educating the nation's upper and middle management to the benefits of company-based carpooling and vanpooling, and to promoting the energy and financial benefits of capital investment in rideshare enhancing facilities. The Plan emphasized the means for collecting the information necessary to a successful rideshare marketing campaign, as well as the lines of communication through which the program's research findings will be disseminated.

  3. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  4. Controlled current inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  5. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  6. Current MINOS Neutrino Oscillation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, Alec; /Minnesota U., Duluth

    2009-07-01

    The MINOS experiment is now making precise measurements of the {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillations seen in atmospheric neutrinos, tests possible disappearance to sterile {nu} by measuring the neutral current flux, and has extended our reach towards the so far unseen {theta}{sub 13} by looking for {nu}{sub e} appearance in the {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. It does so by using the intense, well-understood NuMI neutrino beam created at Fermilab and observing it 735km away at the Soudan Mine in Northeast Minnesota. High-statistics studies of the neutrino interactions themselves and the cosmic rays seen by the MINOS detectors have also been made. Results from MINOS first three years of operations will be presented.

  7. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  8. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  9. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  10. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  11. Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Vazquez, Juan M.; Berru, Robert I.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit measures electrical current via combination of Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling techniques. Known current generated by feedback circuit adjusted until it causes cancellation or near cancellation of magnetic field produced in toroidal ferrite core by current measured. Remaining magnetic field measured by Hall-effect sensor. Circuit puts out analog signal and digital signal proportional to current measured. Accuracy of measurement does not depend on linearity of sensing components.

  12. DOE announces price increase for fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1989-03-01

    The central question for current USEC holders is the extent to which DOE`s prices will increase in the future and whether those prices will be competitive with other sources available at the time of delivery. DOE`s current point of view (as expressed to the US Congress) is that prices will be kept at the ceiling price under the contract. Speculation on the future of DOE`s enrichment enterprise is on the agenda of many utilities this month, as USEC customers must provide notice to DOE on April 1, 1989 if they wish to reduce their contractual commitment in FY 1999 to below 70 percent of their requirements without penalty. The USEC also allows customers to adjust between 70 and 100 percent of their requirements with five years` notice. Based on projected prices for deliveries under the IP2 offer, customers which previously rejected IP2 will probably elect to take only 70 percent of their requirements from DOE in FY 1994. If firm notification is not given for the base SWU requirements, a USEC holder is not rules out as a DOE customer for that year, but DOE cannot guarantee to have the production capacity available. On the other hand, DOE has very aggressively pursued utilities with unfilled requirements in the short term. Given the expected glut of enrichment capacity well into the next decade, the potential for higher DOE prices due to environmental and decommissioning costs at their diffusion plants, and the potential for other suppliers to provide advanced technology, it may prove difficult for DOE to continue to convince its customers that ten-year contracts are in their best interests.

  13. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  14. Does the Eye Spy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Some of the worst collateral damage from a tragedy does not occur till after the smoke clears; namely, the usurping of the name of the location where the event took place, which over time gets repurposed into metaphor and served as a caveat. Vietnam has resonated for decades as a reference to protracted war. Kent State is likewise laden with…

  15. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-03-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.

  16. Does Powerpoint enhance learning?

    PubMed

    Penciner, Rick

    2013-03-01

    The ubiquitous nature of PowerPoint begs the question, does PowerPoint enhance learning? This narrative explores the evidence for the effectiveness of PowerPoint and multimedia presentations in learning and information processing. Practical recommendations are provided for presentations.

  17. DOE JGI Welcome Remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, Jim

    2010-06-03

    Jim Bristow, Deputy Director of Programs at the DOE Joint Genome Institute, discusses the impact of advances in sequencing technologies on large genome centers on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  18. DOE HEPA filter test program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  19. DOE enforcement program roles and responsibilities: DOE handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Price-Anderson Act provides indemnification to DOE contractors who manage and conduct nuclear activities in the DOE complex. The government acts as an insurer for these contractors against any findings of liability from the nuclear activities of the contractor within the scope of its contract. 10 CFR Part 820 establishes the legal framework for implementing DOE`s Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. Integration with other DOE organizations and programs would assure that the enforcement process properly considers the actual or potential safety significance of a violation when determining an appropriate enforcement sanction. Achieving a proactive contractor compliance assurance rather than a heavy enforcement hand, will require a foundation of cooperation and teamwork across DOE organizations. This handbook identifies the areas of interface for the DOE Enforcement Program and provides guidance on roles and responsibilities for the key DOE organizational areas. It complements DOE-HDBK-1087-95 and 1089-95.

  20. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites

  1. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends.

  2. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  3. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends. PMID:26392622

  4. Natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria for DOE sites: DOE Standard DOE-STD-1023-95

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Lu, S.C.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-03-24

    This paper summarizes hazard assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. The DOE has established policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE sites and facilities using a graded approach by DOE Order 5480.28. The graded approach is implemented by five performance categories established for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) at DOE facilities based on criteria provided by DOE-STD-1021-93. In applying the design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-94 for DOE facilities subjected to one of the natural phenomena hazards, the establishment of design basis load levels consistent with the corresponding performance category is required. This standard provides general criteria as well as specific criteria for natural phenomena hazard assessments to ensure that adequate design basis load levels are established for design and/or evaluation of DOE facilities.

  5. Observing the Birkeland currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When the supersonic solar wind hits the Earth's magnetic field, a powerful electrical connection occurs with Earth's field, generating millions of amperes of current that drive the dazzling auroras. These so-called Birkeland currents connect the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and channel solar wind energy to Earth's uppermost atmosphere. Solar storms release torrential blasts of solar wind that cause much stronger currents and can overload power grids and disrupt communications and navigation.

  6. RF current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    techniques for magnetic errors and magnetic-shield excitation for capacitive errors. The magnetic-shield-excitation technique leads naturally to two-stage transformer approaches, described in a small subchapter. Sensitivity of current comparators is discussed in terms of available signal levels for given excitations and current-comparator characteristics. The discussion, however, does not cover more basic limitations, such as inherent noise. A subchapter is devoted to electronically-aided current transformers. Although electronically-aided transformers are not in a strict sense current comparators, many of the design considerations and error sources are the same. Seven different circuits are presented with a brief qualitative discussion. The third chapter, covering design and construction, will be exceptionally valuable for someone needing basic information on how to construct a current comparator quickly. Indeed, all the necessary design, construction, and testing steps are presented in a well-illustrated 15-page chapter. The tests for shielding effectiveness discussed in this chapter and the knowledge of interwinding capacitances calculable from the equations in the previous chapter should enable one also to predict the limits of errors without an exhaustive and complete calibration. Chapter 4 is devoted to current-transformer calibration—the original objective for the current-comparator development work. The principal tool for this is the compensated current comparator, in effect a two-stage transformer operated in the current-comparator mode. The compensated current comparator is not only accurate but is also an extremely versatile device and, hence, deserves the attention that it receives in this book. Considerable space is devoted to the calibration of current comparators themselves using other current comparators in ratio-buildup (bootstrap) techniques. This information is more than most of the users will want since the pre-eminent feature of a current comparator is

  8. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  9. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive transformers; and electrical test components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  10. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  11. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  12. Current experimental activities for solid breeder development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Roux, N.; Watanabe, H.

    1988-01-01

    The current data base for ceramic breeder materials does not exhibit any negative features as regards to thermophysical, mechanical, and irradiation behavior. All candidate materials show excellent stability for irradiation testing to 3% burnup. In-situ tritium recovery tests show very low tritium inventories for all candidates. Theoretical models are being developed to accurately predict real time release rates. Fabrication of kilogram quantities of materials has been achieved and technology is available for further scale-up.

  13. Contribution For Arc Temperature Affected By Current Increment Ratio At Peak Current In Pulsed Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Ryota; Mitubori, Hironori; Iwao, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding is one of the high quality welding. However, parameters of the pulsed arc welding are many and complicated. if the welding parameters are not appropriate, the welding pool shape becomes wide and shallow.the convection of driving force contributes to the welding pool shape. However, in the case of changing current waveform as the pulse high frequency TIG welding, the arc temperature does not follow the change of the current. Other result of the calculation, in particular, the arc temperature at the reaching time of peak current is based on these considerations. Thus, the accurate measurement of the temperature at the time is required. Therefore, the objective of this research is the elucidation of contribution for arc temperature affected by current increment ratio at peak current in pulsed arc. It should obtain a detail knowledge of the welding model in pulsed arc. The temperature in the case of increment of the peak current from the base current is measured by using spectroscopy. As a result, when the arc current increases from 100 A to 150 A at 120 ms, the transient response of the temperature didn't occur during increasing current. Thus, during the current rise, it has been verified by measuring. Therefore, the contribution for arc temperature affected by current increment ratio at peak current in pulsed arc was elucidated in order to obtain more knowledge of welding model of pulsed arc.

  14. Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huan Liu, Hui Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren

    2015-12-15

    The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.

  15. Thermionic current densities from first principles.

    PubMed

    Voss, Johannes; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Chou, Sharon H; Howe, Roger T; Bargatin, Igor; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2013-05-28

    We present a density functional theory-based method for calculating thermionic emission currents from a cathode into vacuum using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. It does not require semi-classical approximations or crude simplifications of the electronic structure used in previous methods and thus provides quantitative predictions of thermionic emission for adsorbate-coated surfaces. The obtained results match well with experimental measurements of temperature-dependent current densities. Our approach can thus enable computational design of composite electrode materials.

  16. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  17. 1979 DOE statistical symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D.A.; Truett T.

    1980-09-01

    The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation.

  18. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  19. Thin film eddy current impulse deicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samuel O.; Zieve, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    Two new styles of electrical impulse deicers has been developed and tested in NASA's Icing Research Tunnel. With the Eddy Current Repulsion Deicing Boot (EDB), a thin and flexible spiral coil is encapsulated between two thicknesses of elastomer. The coil, made by an industrial printed circuit board manufacturer, is bonded to the aluminum aircraft leading edge. A capacitor bank is discharged through the coil. Induced eddy currents repel the coil from the aluminum aircraft structure and shed accumulated ice. A second configuration, the Eddy Current Repulsion Deicing-Strip (EDS) uses an outer metal erosion strip fastened over the coil. Opposite flowing eddy currents repel the strip and create the impulse deicing force. The outer strip serves as a surface for the collection and shedding of ice and does not require any structural properties. The EDS is suitable for composite aircraft structures. Both systems successfully dispelled over 95 percent of the accumulated ice from airfoils over the range of the FAA icing envelope.

  20. MISR Current Project Quality

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-10-01

    ... by older software versions may be of different quality than current products. It is important, therefore, to note that dates on quality ... Links to older quality statements are available from the current Quality Statement pages. For a thorough description of MISR software ...

  1. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  2. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  3. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  4. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  5. Teachers' Perspectives on Incorporating Current Controversial Issues into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Sunal, Cynthia; Haas, Mary; Laughlin, Margaret

    Does a current controversial issue become part of the social studies curriculum in a context where the media focus largely on the issue? A study explored this question through surveys and in-depth interviews that investigated K-12 social studies teachers' perspectives on the incorporation of current controversial issues into the curriculum. A…

  6. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  7. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE`s current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  8. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  11. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  12. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work? Oxygen therapy provides you with ... pass through your nose or mouth like it does with the other delivery systems. A humidifier adds ...

  13. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article ... for in children under the age of two: Does your child have unusually large eyes? Is there ...

  14. Working with Indian Tribal Nations. A guide for DOE employees

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) employees and contractors frequently work with Indian tribes or nations as part of their jobs. The purpose of this guide is to help DOE employees and contractors initiate contact with tribes and build effective relationships. DOE maintains a unique government-to government relationship with tribal nations. This guide presents an overview of the history of the relationship between the tribes and the Federal government, as well as the laws and Executive Orders that define that relationship. The guide discusses the Federal government’s trust responsibility to the tribes, tribal treaty rights, and the Department of Energy’s American Indian policy. The guide also discusses important cultural differences that could lead to communication problems if not understood and provides examples of potential cultural misunderstandings. In particular the guide discusses tribal environmental beliefs that shape tribal responses to DOE actions. The guide also provides pointers on tribal etiquette during meetings and cultural ceremonies and when visiting tribal reservations. Appendix 1 gives examples of the tribal nations with whom DOE currently has Memoranda of Understanding. While this guide provides an introduction and overview of tribal relations for DOE staff and contractors, DOE has also designated Tribal Issues Points of Contacts at each of its facilities. A list of these Points of Contact for all DOE facilities is provided in Appendix 2. DOE staff and contractors should consult with the appropriate tribal representatives at their site before initiating contact with a tribal nation, because many tribes have rules and procedures that must be complied with before DOE staff or contractors may go on tribal lands or conduct interviews with tribal members. Appendix 3 is the complete DOE American Indian Policy. Appendices 4-6 are Executive Orders that govern the relationship of all federal agencies with tribal nations. DOE employees and staff are

  15. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  16. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  17. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.

  18. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A Text ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  19. Current control circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2005-03-15

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  20. Maxwell currents under thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Musser, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Time variations observed in thunderstorm electric fields may be interpreted in terms of a total Maxwell current density, varying slowly with time in the intervals between lightning discharges, which can be used to estimate and map thunderstorms. Using the quasi-static behavior of the Maxwell current density, an expression is derived for the field-dependent current density under a thunderstorm during the field recovery following a lightning discharge. Values of air conductivity under the small storm which range from 2 to 6 x 10 to the -13th mho/m are inferred. Data are presented which indicate that the area-average Maxwell current is not usually affected by lightning, and instead varies slowly throughout the evolution of the storm. In light of this, it is suggested that cloud electrification processes probably do not depend on the cloud electric field as much as on the more slowly varying storm dynamics and meteorological structure.

  1. Current concepts in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tracy, T; Weber, T R

    1992-01-01

    With the fund of knowledge presented here, clinical practice can begin to apply what basic science has discovered. New approaches to immunotherapy and genetic engineering will supplant the current surgical tools for our fight against this tumor.

  2. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  3. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  4. Wave - current interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugan, I.; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2012-04-01

    The problem of wave interaction with current is still a big challenge in physical oceanography. In spite of numerous numbers of papers devoting to the analysis of the phenomenon some very strong effects are still waiting for its clear description. One of the problems here is the Benjamin-Feir instability in the presence of variable current. Modulation instability is one of the most ubiquitous types of instabilities in nature. In modern nonlinear physics, it is considered as a basic process that classifies the qualitative behavior of modulated waves (``envelope waves'') and may initialize the formation of stable entities such as envelope solitons. We theoretically describe the explosion instability of waves on the adverse blocking current and corresponding frequency downshifting. Waves can be blocked only partly and overpass the opposite current barrier at the lower side band resonance frequency. Theoretical results are compared with available experiments.

  5. The DOE photovoltaics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The considered program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has the objective to provide federal support for research and development work related to photovoltaics. According to definitions of policy in 1981, a strong emphasis is to be placed on long-term, high-risk research and development that industry could not reasonably be expected to perform using their own funds. Attention is given to the program structure, the photovoltaics program management organization, the advanced research and development subprogram, the collector research and development subprogram, flat-plate collectors, concentrator collectors, and the systems research and technology subprogram.

  6. Doe v. Alton Telegraph.

    PubMed

    1992-09-30

    The U.S. District Court, Central District of Illinois, determined that the Illinois AIDS Confidentiality Act does not prevent publication or dissemination of information that is available in open and public court files. Therefore, a convicted prostitute has no legitimate claim against two newspapers that had reported the details of her conviction. State law requires AIDS tests for persons convicted of sexual offenses, and the newspapers disclosed the convicted prostitute as "a person about to undergo an AIDS test." Because her conviction and the requirement that she undergo an AIDS test were included within court files that were open to the public, the newspapers had not violated the AIDS Confidentiality Act.

  7. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  8. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  9. Fiber optic current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyntjes, G.; Fox, R.

    1984-02-01

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 research into a new type of Fiber Optic Current probe, suitable for high voltage, high current applications. The probe uses a stabilized two frequency HeNe laser to read the magnitude and sign of magnetic field induced circular birefringence in an optical fiber wound around a conductor. Measurements of both alternating and direct currents were demonstrated with a breadboard system. The system was tested at low voltages with currents of up to 4500 amperes peak and with up to 28 turns of optical fiber around the conductor. The response was found to increase linearly with the number of fiber turns. Experimental determinations of the system's frequency response and dynamic range were not possible due to our inability to generate large, fast current transients. The predicted frequency response is 100 kHz with an ability to read transient amplitudes of 300 times the nominal line current. Several single-mode fibers were used to form transducers, and the optimum fiber for further development was identified. The 2-frequency interrogation technique described worked entirely as predicted, and should be applicable to magnetic field measurements in general (i.e., charged particle beams, Tokamaks, antenna patterns, EMP testing, etc.).

  10. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  11. Nuclear energy information flow from DOE to the public

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.L.; Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this research was to study the DOE's program for educating the public about nuclear power and nuclear waste management. DOE's organizational structuree and the procedures used within this structure to disseminate information were studied and readability tests on nuclear information distributed by DOE were conducted. Initial information was obtained through interviews with 29 local, state, and federal DOE representatives. This was supplemented with additional information as it was released by the DOE. The primary goals of the DOE's information program are to encourage two-way communication between the DOE and the public and to encourage public participation in policy-making decisions. Most of this communication, however, is presented orally. Relative to other energy technologies and conservation, very few nuclear brochures are currently being distributed by the DOE. This is especially true with regard to information about nuclear waste. A recent public survey found that a majority of the public wants to learn more about nuclear power and that, with regard to the nuclear fuel cycle, the public wants most to learn about nuclear waste management. Thus, the DOE appears to be missing an eager audience.

  12. 78 FR 34089 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) invites public comment on a revision of a currently approved collection of information that DOE is developing for submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the revision of the currently approved collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of......

  13. Steady state self-induced current in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Gott, Yu. V.; Yurchenko, E. I.

    2009-11-15

    A model, which may make it possible to self-consistently calculate the self-driven current in tokamaks taking into account asymmetry and bootstrap currents, is presented. It is shown that the described self-driven current can provide steady-state tokamak operation without the seed current produced with the help of additional methods. The total self-consistent, self-driven current does not depend on magnetic field magnitude and is proportional to the square root from plasma pressure. The experimental data obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment are satisfactorily described by this model.

  14. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  15. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  16. Recent Progress in DOE Waste Tank Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, Ch.H.; Cook, J.R.

    2008-07-01

    The US DOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four US DOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews. (authors)

  17. Opioid analgesics: does potency matter?

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Webster, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics with a wide range of potencies are currently used for the treatment of chronic pain. Yet understanding the clinical relevance and therapeutic consequences of opioid potency remains ill defined. Both patients and clinicians alike have misperceptions about opioid potency, expecting that less-potent opioids will be less effective or fearing that more-potent opioids are more dangerous or more likely to be abused. In this review, common myths about the potency of opioid analgesics will be discussed. Clinicians should understand that pharmacologic potency per se does not necessarily imply more effective analgesia or higher abuse liability. Published dose conversion tables may not accurately calculate the dose for effective and safe rotation from one opioid to another in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy because they are based on limited data that may not apply to chronic pain. Differences in pharmacologic potency are largely accounted for by the actual doses prescribed, according to individualized patient need. Factors for achieving effective analgesia and reducing the risks involved with opioid use include careful medication selection based on patient characteristics, appropriate dosing titration and opioid rotation practices, knowledge of product formulation characteristics (eg, extended release, immediate release, and tamper-resistant features), and an awareness of differences in opioid pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Clinicians should remain vigilant in monitoring patients on any opioid medication, regardless of classification along the opioid potency continuum.

  18. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  19. The Agulhas Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, Will P. M.

    2008-03-01

    Many people in the United States know about the Gulf Stream, the impressive boundary current along the eastern U.S. coast that carries large amounts of heat poleward and, after separation from the coast, across the North Atlantic. Its impact on warming the eastern United States and the North Atlantic region including western Europe is also well known to the general public. But who in the United States knows about the Agulhas Current? This warm, western boundary current of the southern Indian Ocean flows southward along the continental slope of the African continent and is about as large as the Gulf Stream. It brings heat and moisture to the coastal regions of southeastern Africa. Variations in its transport lead to significant rainfall anomalies over this region. On a larger scale, its influence may even extend as far as the North Atlantic.

  20. Liver transplantation: current concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, W J

    1988-01-01

    In this decade liver transplantation has been established as the preferred treatment for children and adults with irreversible end-stage liver disease. Biliary atresia in children and nonalcoholic cirrhosis in adults are the most common indications for the procedure. Transplantation currently plays only a minor role in the treatment of hepatic malignant disease. Blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is preferred, but histocompatibility matching (tissue typing) currently has no significant role in the selection of recipients. Approximately 70% of recipients survive for 1 year, and these patients have an excellent prospect of long-term survival. The emerging evidence indicates that the quality of life and rehabilitation of most liver recipients are good. The current success of liver transplantation can be attributed to critical selection of recipients, modern anesthetic and surgical techniques, improved perioperative care, accurate diagnosis of rejection and superior immunosuppression with cyclosporine. PMID:3289710

  1. Southward subsurface flow below the Somali current

    SciTech Connect

    Quadfasel, D.R.; Schott, F.

    1983-07-20

    The existence of a southward-flowing current beneath the northern part of the seasonally reversing Somali Current is documented in a 2 1/2 -year-long time series of currents obtained at moored stations near 5/sup 0/N about 30 km off the somali coast. Its mean annual transport in the layer 150-600 m amounts to about 5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//s. The undercurrent has a pronounced seasonal cycle in phase with the near surface flow, suggesting a close coupling to the monosoonal wind forcing. With the spin-up of the deep-reaching northern Somali gyre after the onset of the southwest monsoon, the undercurrent is temporarily destroyed in the northern Somali Basin during June/July but is re-established in August. The undercurrent does not reach 3/sup 0/N but turns offshore north of that latitude.

  2. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  3. Fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  4. Eddy current damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Rich, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    A high torque capacity eddy current damper used as a rate limiting device for a large solar array deployment mechanism is discussed. The eddy current damper eliminates the problems associated with the outgassing or leaking of damping fluids. It also provides performance advantages such as damping torque rates, which are truly linear with respect to input speed, continuous 360 degree operation in both directions of rotation, wide operating temperature range, and the capability of convenient adjustment of damping rates by the user without disassembly or special tools.

  5. Current signature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  6. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  7. Current ethical issues in IVF.

    PubMed

    Grobstein, C; Flower, M

    1985-12-01

    This article has briefly reviewed the range of public policy issues and ethical questions raised with respect to IVF. It then discussed selected issues that are now under policy debate and decision. Given the wide acceptance of IVF as a medical procedure for married couples, what variants might also be ethically defensible? IVF for unmarried couples appears defensible under specific conditions that are equally applicable to married couples. Involvement of third parties (gamete donation and gestational surrogacy) is more complex and needs case by case examination. Sperm donation appears to generate little that is ethically new when coupled with IVF but requires the same care and concern as AID. Egg or embryo donation, however, does raise new ethical questions that need close attention and continuing analysis. Freezing of human embryos also breaks new ethical ground, particularly in the options it generates beyond a narrowly defined medical domain. Certain of these options are better not undertaken without further public policy decision. Improvement of current procedures and techniques through effective clinical trials can be ethically carried out in terms of scientific and medical perspectives. However, efforts in this direction will be more effective if undertaken within a public policy framework that clearly defines acceptability during a transitional period of confidence-building.

  8. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  9. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE's current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  10. The DOE repository program

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the Congress in the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) to characterize the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site as the initial candidate site for the nation's first geologic repository. Site characterization through ongoing surface-based testing has been under way since the President approved the recommendation of the Yucca Mountain site as one of three candidate sites in May 1986. A more extensive site characterization program, including construction of exploratory shafts and an underground testing facility, has been described in the consultative draft site characterization plan (SCP-CD), which was provided to the state of Nevada and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in January 1988 for review and comment. In addition, technical workshops were held with the state of Nevada, the NRC, and their contractors in February and March to discuss specific technical issues in the SCP-CD.

  11. Does literacy improve finance?

    PubMed

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions.

  12. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  13. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  14. Keeping Science Current.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Points out old-dated information provided in textbooks and recommends using current events to close the knowledge gap between the real world and textbooks. Uses year-long journal writings in which students choose a science article and analyze it. Provides an example of the activity sheet. (YDS)

  15. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Greene, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex condition with a multifactorial etiology characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting. Despite a high prevalence, studies exploring underlying etiology and treatments are limited. We performed a literature review, focusing on articles published over the last 10 years, to examine current perspectives and recent developments in hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:25125986

  16. Current Issues in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Alice, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin is published annually in the interest of children with learning disabilities, language disabilities, or dyslexia. The 22 articles discuss the following topics: current issues in dyslexia, language disorders, subgroups in dyslexia, specificity and parameters in defining dyslexia, strategies for recognition and management of reading…

  17. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  18. [Acromegaly: current view].

    PubMed

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  19. DOE46168 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, Martha R.

    2015-03-15

    The research objectives of this grant were to observe and to quantify nanoscale electrostatic and magnetic fields using the technique of off-axis electron holography. There have been two major areas of activity during the current reporting period, which spans September 2011 through December 2015; i) measurement of the 2D electrostatic potential distributions across complex semiconductor heterojunctions and devices; and ii) investigation of the remanent states and magnetization reversal mechanisms in magnetic thin films and nanostructures.

  20. The NLM Current Catalog*

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Emilie V.

    1969-01-01

    When the National Library of Medicine acquired a computer to augment its publication program, the intent was to present in one medium an index to journal articles and a catalog of books and new serial titles. The computer programs designed for indexing were unsatisfactory for cataloging, however; so two publications were issued, the Index Medicus and the NLM Current Catalog. The Current Catalog features separate name and subject sections, added volumes, and technical reports. The Express Cataloging Service was one of the first attempts to increase the speed and coverage of the Catalog. Shared cataloging with the Library of Congress, the Countway Library at Harvard, and the Upstate Medical Library in Syracuse, New York, have also contributed to the efforts toward improving this library service. An additional shared cataloging program, this time with the National Medical Audiovisual Center, is expected to be implemented shortly. PMID:5782262

  1. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  2. The NLM current catalog.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, E V

    1969-01-01

    When the National Library of Medicine acquired a computer to augment its publication program, the intent was to present in one medium an index to journal articles and a catalog of books and new serial titles. The computer programs designed for indexing were unsatisfactory for cataloging, however; so two publications were issued, the Index Medicus and the NLM Current Catalog. The Current Catalog features separate name and subject sections, added volumes, and technical reports. The Express Cataloging Service was one of the first attempts to increase the speed and coverage of the Catalog. Shared cataloging with the Library of Congress, the Countway Library at Harvard, and the Upstate Medical Library in Syracuse, New York, have also contributed to the efforts toward improving this library service. An additional shared cataloging program, this time with the National Medical Audiovisual Center, is expected to be implemented shortly. PMID:5782262

  3. Current oscillations in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Brittany

    We develop a simple phenomenological model to describe current oscillations in single, conically shaped nanopores. The model utilizes aspects of reaction rate theory, electrochemical oscillators, and nonlinear dynamical systems. Time series of experimental data were analyzed and compared to time series simulated using the model equations. There is good qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation, though the model needs to be improved in order to obtain better quantitative agreement.

  4. [Acromegaly: current view].

    PubMed

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly. PMID:26486485

  5. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  6. Turbulent current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  7. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  8. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  9. The DOE NEPA process

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ooteghem, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    A brief overview indicating the types Of NEPA documents that are produced by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with NEPA is shown in the figure. This figure indicates that the level of NEPA documentation required for any given project is graded and dependent on that project`s size, complexity, and potential consequences to health and the human environment. More complex projects with potentially greater environmental impacts require a much more in-depth analysis to ensure that these potential consequences can be managed and/or mitigated, so that the proposed project can proceed in compliance with NEPA. It is important to keep in mind the following points when conducting any project that involves Federal land, Federal monies, or Federal permits: Under these conditions (involvement of Federal lands, use of Federal monies, or requirement for Federal permits), some level of NEPA analysis and documentation is required. The NEPA process must be completed and a decision favorable to the proposed project must be supported by the NEPA analysis before that proposed project can fully expend Federal funds. Activities that cannot proceed until the NEPA analysis and decision-making process is completed are those that: Result in an adverse environmental impact and/or limit the choice of reasonable alternatives.

  10. DOE Energy Challenge Project

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Murray; Michael Schaepe

    2009-04-24

    Project Objectives: 1. Promote energy efficiency concepts in undergraduate and graduate education. 2. Stimulate and interest in pulp and paper industrial processes, which promote and encourage activities in the area of manufacturing design efficiency. 3. Attract both industrial and media attention. Background and executive Summary: In 1997, the Institute of Paper Science and Technology in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy developed a university design competition with an orientation to the Forest Products Industry. This university design competition is in direct alignment with DOE’s interests in instilling in undergraduate education the concepts of developing energy efficient processes, minimizing waste, and providing environmental benefits and in maintaining and enhancing the economic competitiveness of the U.S. forest products industry in a global environment. The primary focus of the competition is projects, which are aligned with the existing DOE Agenda 2020 program for the industry and the lines of research being established with the colleges comprising the Pulp and Paper Education and Research Alliance (PPERA). The six design competitions were held annually for the period 1999 through 2004.

  11. Does management really work?

    PubMed

    Bloom, Nicholas; Sadun, Raffaella; Van Reenen, John

    2012-11-01

    HBR's 90th anniversary is a sensible time to revisit a basic question: Are organizations more likely to succeed if they adopt good management practices? The answer may seem obvious to most HBR readers, but these three economists cast their net much wider than that. In a decadelong study of thousands of organizations in 20 countries, they and their interview teams assessed how well manufacturers, schools, and hospitals adhere to three management basics: targets, incentives, and monitoring. They found that huge numbers of companies follow none of those fundamentals, that adopting the basics yields big improvements in outcomes such as productivity and longevity, and that good nuts-and-bolts management at individual firms shapes national performance. At 14 textile manufacturers in India, for example, an intervention--involving free, high-quality advice from a consultant who was on-site half-time for five months--cut defects by half, reduced inventory by 20%, and raised output by 10%. A control group saw no such gains. The authors' global data set suggests that implementing good management at schools and hospitals yields change more slowly than at manufacturers--but it does come eventually. And the macroeconomic potential--for incomes, productivity, and delivery of critically needed services--is huge. A call for "better management" may sound prosaic, but given the global payoffs, it's actually quite radical.

  12. Final Report to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail Gultepe

    2012-05-15

    This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.

  13. The DOE photovoltaics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the National Solar Energy program, the US Department of Energy is now engaged in the development of technically feasible, low cost candidate component and system technologies to the point where technical readiness can be demonstrated by 1982. The overall strategy is to pursue parallel options that continue to show promise of meeting the program goals, thus increasing the probability that at least one technology will be successful. Included in technology development are both flat plate solar collectors and concentrator solar collectors, as well as the balance of system components, such as structures, power conditioning, power controls, protection, and storage. Generally, these last items are common to both flat plate and concentrator systems, but otherwise there is considerable disparity in design philosophy, photovoltaic cell requirements, and possible applications between the two systems. Objectives for research activities at NASA Lewis for stand alone applications, and at Sandia Laboratories where intermediate load center applications are addressed, are highlighted as well as college projects directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and international applications managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute. Joint DOD/DOE effects for military applications are also summarized.

  14. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    PubMed

    Lanner, R M; Connor, K F

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senescence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To test a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statistically significant age-related changes in tracheid diameter, or in several other parameters of xylem and phloem related to cambial function. The hypothesis of continuously declining annual shoot growth increments was tested by comparing trees of varying ages in regard to stem unit production and elongation. No statistically significant age-related differences were found. The hypothesis that aging results from an accumulation of deleterious mutations was addressed by comparing pollen viability, seed weight, seed germinability, seedling biomass accumulation, and frequency of putative mutations, in trees of varying ages. None of these parameters had a statistically significant relationship to tree age. Thus, we found no evidence of mutational aging. It appears that the great longevity attained by some Great Basin bristlecone pines is unaccompanied by deterioration of meristem function in embryos, seedlings, or mature trees, an intuitively necessary manifestation of senescence. We conclude that the concept of senescence does not apply to these trees. PMID:11295507

  15. Acid Precipitation: A current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Acid Precipition (APC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information on acid precipation and closely related subjects, including wet and dry deposition, long-range transport, environmental effects, modeling, and socioeconomic factors. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Data Base (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or goverment-to-government agreements.

  16. Inter-Hemispherical Currents for Realistic Model of Ionospheric Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatsky, S.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of modeling of the global 3-D ionosphere-magnetosphere current system including in addition to the R1 and R2 field-aligned currents also inter-hemispherical currents. The inter-hemispherical currents flow between Northern and Southern conjugate ionospheres in case of a North-South asymmetry in ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres. These currents link together the ionospheric currents in two hemispheres, so the currents observed in one hemisphere can provide us with information about currents in the opposite hemisphere, which is especially important when their magnitude can not be obtained from direct observation (e.g., in Antarctica). In this study, we investigate the generation of the inter-hemispherical currents for several distributions of ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres including a simplified model of ionospheric conductivity, which is important for better understanding of the expected distribution and magnitude of these currents, and a more realistic model of ionospheric conductivity, which is observed during magnetospheric substorms, when the geometry of the inter-hemispherical currents is more complicated. Simulation results show that the inter-hemispherical currents during substorms could play a very significant role, and neglecting these currents does not allow obtaining the correct picture of 3-D magnetosphere-ionosphere current system. These currents are an important part of 3-D field-aligned current system, and they are especially strong during summer-winter months, when they are comparable in magnitude with the R2 currents (about ~0.5 MA). Inter-hemispherical currents map. Left panel is related to Northern hemisphere, right panel to Southern. R1 and R2 currents are not shown; their locations are indicated by the red and blue dashed circles, respectively. The inter-hemispherical currents appear inside the auroral zone in the region of conductivity gradient. The currents in both hemispheres are equal in magnitude and

  17. Current concepts in psychodermatology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2014-06-01

    Several diagnoses in the new DSM-5 chapter on 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' directly relate to psychodermatology. The new excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) both manifest as recurrent body-focused repetitive behaviors that have compulsive and dissociative features, the latter being more prevalent in TTM than SPD. The DSM-5 refers to SPD and TTM occurring without full awareness or preceding tension, however does not specifically mention the possible role of dissociation. This has important treatment implications, as patients with high dissociative symptoms are not likely to respond to the standard treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is frequently associated with cutaneous body image (CBI) dissatisfaction, is present in 9%-15% of dermatology patients. Treatment guidelines in dermatology are increasingly considering the psychosocial morbidity related to CBI in their treatment outcome measures. The presence of BDD, if unrecognized, may therefore directly affect the dermatologic treatment regimens offered to the patient. PMID:24740235

  18. Does aging change nutrition requirements?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Warren-Mears, V A

    2001-01-01

    The current adult guidelines for a healthy diet make no distinctions between adults aged 25-50 y and those aged 51 y and over. The question is whether dietary guidelines ought to be stratified by age, in recognition of the dietary and nutrient needs of the growing population of elderly adults. There are limited data on nutrient requirements of older adults. Aging is accompanied by a variety of physiological, psychological, economic and social changes that may adversely affect nutritional status. Older people have a higher prevalence of chronic disease, take multiple medications and supplements, and tend to be sedentary. Higher prevalence of obesity is difficult to reconcile with sharply lowered energy intakes. While basal metabolic rate does decline with age, lack of physical activity among the elderly is the more likely answer. The USDA Food Guide Pyramid is the key tool for communicating dietary advice to consumers. Researchers at Tufts University have produced a 70+ pyramid to reflect the nutrient needs of elderly adults. An additional focus has been on quality of life issues. Increased longevity is not always associated with continued good health. The Healthy People 2010 Objectives now use quality of life as a national health standard. Whereas health related quality of life (HRQOL) measures assess physical and mental health and their determinants, global quality of life measures focus on life satisfaction. Optimal nutrition promotes both functional health status and mental well-being. Dietary diversity and variety promotes enjoyment and satisfaction with the diet. Regular physical activity promotes strength and endurance, helps to maintain appropriate body weight, and contributes to independent physical functioning. Improving health-related quality of life is a key element in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. PMID:11426285

  19. Current Status of Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragile, P. Chris

    2014-09-01

    As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

  20. Saturn's Other Ring Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crary, F. J.

    2014-04-01

    Saturn's main rings orbit the planet within an atmosphere and ionosphere of water, oxygen and hydrogen, produced by meteoritic impacts on and ultraviolet photodesorbtion of the ring particles [Johnson et al., 2006; Luhmann et al., 2006; Tseng et al., 2010]. The neutral atmosphere itself has only been tentatively detected through ultraviolet fluorescents of OH [Hall et al., 1996] while the ionosphere was observed in situ by the Cassini spacecraft shortly after orbital insertion [Coates et al.,2005; Tokar et al. 2005, Waite et al. 2005]. Although the plasma flow velocity of this ionosphere is not well-constrained, but the close association with the rings suggests that its speed would be couppled to the keplarian velocity of the rings themselves. As a result, the motion of the plasma through Saturn's magnetic field would produce an induced voltage, oriented away from the planet outside synchronous orbit and towards the planet inside synchronous orbit. Such a potential could result in currents flowing across the ring plane and closeing along magnetic field lines and through Saturn's ionosphere at latitudes between 36o and 48o. Cassini observations of whistler-mode plasma wave emissions [Xin et al.,2006] centered on synchronous orbit (1.76 Rs, mapping to 41o latitude) have been interpreted as a product of field-aligned electron beams associated with such a current. This presentation will investigate the magnitude of these currents and the resulting Joule heating of the ionosphere. An important constraint is that no auroral ultraviolet emissions have been observed at the relevant latitudes. In contrast, Joule heating could affect infrared emissions from H3+. Variations in H3+ emission associated with Saturn's rings have been reported by O'Donoghue et al., 2013, and interpreted as a result of ring "rain", i.e. precipitating water group species from the rings which alter ionosphereic chemistry and H3+ densities. As noted by O'Donoghue et al., this interpretation may be

  1. Reducing stray ground currents

    SciTech Connect

    Harlow, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    Utility customers of Clark County, Washington reported that electric shocks from stray ground currents were interfering with cattle, businesses, and equipment. The Public Utility District (PUD) investigated each claim and explored several ways to lower shocks below 10 volts. Ground rods were installed as a low-cost option. The rods reduced ground voltages by 33 percent and motor starting peaks by 50 percent. Variations in earth composition, people, and animals require individualized solutions. A major part of the solution is based on cost and line location. (DCK)

  2. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  3. Low Current Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because Goddard Space Flight Center needed a way to cool sensors aboard the AXAF, a low current superconducting magnet was developed under contract by Cryomagnetics, Inc. The magnet, now commercially available, reduced the rate of helium consumption, extending the lifetime of the AXAF's x-ray spectrometer. On Earth, it offers a way to reduce operating costs through smaller, less expensive power supplies and reduced use of coolant. The magnet has particular advantages for MRI systems, as it is safer and has lower maintenance requirements.

  4. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  5. Does Climate Literacy Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.

  6. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  7. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  8. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Shakarchi, Faiz I

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications. PMID:26648690

  9. Misophonia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Seri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders), or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. PMID:26316758

  10. Current Climate Variability & Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  11. Co- and counter-current rotation in Tore Supra lower hybrid current drive plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouli, B.; Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Bourdelle, C.; Decker, J.; Aniel, T.; Artaud, J.-F.; Basiuk, V.; Clairet, F.; Colledani, G.; Dumont, R.; Elbeze, D.; Gil, C.; Lotte, P.; Sarazin, Y.; the Tore Supra Team

    2014-09-01

    Observations of lower hybrid (LH) radio frequency heating effects on toroidal plasma rotation in L-mode Tore Supra plasmas are reported. A database of more than 50 plasma discharges has been analysed. Core rotation is found to increment in co- or counter-current direction depending on the plasma current (Ip). At low plasma current, the induced rotation is up to +15 km s-1 in the co-current direction, the rotation profile being affected over the whole plasma minor radius. At higher plasma current, an opposite trend is observed, the core plasma rotation incrementing up to -15 km s-1 in the counter-current direction, the profile being affected up to r/a < 0.6 only. At the zero crossing point, which is defined when the plasma rotation profile is not affected by LH power injection, Ip ˜ 0.95 MA. In both low and high Ip cases, rotation increments are found to increase with the injected power. Several mechanisms in competition which can induce co- or counter-current rotation in Tore Supra LHCD plasmas are investigated and typical order of magnitude are discussed. How those effects evolve with plasma parameters and how they compete are important issues addressed in this paper. Rotation increment increase with Ip at fixed LH power is consistent with a dominant standard momentum confinement mechanism related to Ip increase. The co-current change in rotation is consistent with a fast electron ripple loss mechanism, while thermal ripple induced neoclassical friction and absorbed LH wave momentum from resonant electrons are expected to influence the rotation in the counter-current direction. Finally, the numerical simulations show that the radial turbulent momentum transport does impact the rotation behaviour inducing increment in co- or counter-current directions, depending on the plasma current amplitude.

  12. Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Segev, Reuven

    2016-04-28

    The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms.

  13. Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Segev, Reuven

    2016-04-28

    The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms. PMID:27002071

  14. Current management of sinusoidal portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Kadiyala V; Eng, Mary; Marvin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Portal hypertension resulting from cirrhosis was one of the biggest challenges faced by general surgeons up until the past two decades. The management of portal hypertensive variceal hemorrhage has undergone dramatic changes during this period. Endoscopic variceal ligation and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts are currently used with great success. The degree of liver dysfunction remains the most important determinant of outcome in these patients. Patients with cirrhosis who have good liver function and recurrent variceal bleed remain candidates for shunt surgery. However, the need for surgical intervention has become a rarity. The success of liver transplantation has ensured that portal hypertension is cured permanently and one does not often see the critically ill and decompensated patient with cirrhosis on the surgical service. A review of the current treatment options in this very ill patient population is the primary focus of this article.

  15. Technology needs for remediation: Hanford and other DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Technologies are being developed under the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program to facilitate remediation of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) buried and stored low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive and hazardous buried wastes. The BWID program is being coordinated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, a DOE site that has large volumes of buried radioactive wastes. The program is currently focusing its efforts on the problems at INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). As specific technologies are successfully demonstrated, they will be available for transfer to applications at other DOE buried waste sites. The purpose of this study is to present buried waste technology needs that have been identified for DOE sites other than INEL.

  16. NAAG/DOE Workgroup Report of Activity and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Michele Gagnon

    2000-09-30

    Through this grant, the National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have established a working group of Assistant Attorneys General and key DOE staff to seek agreement on current regulatory and statutory enforcement and compliance issues at DOE facilities. This workgroup provides an ongoing forum for direct communication that utilizes alternative dispute resolution techniques rather than expensive litigation in hopes of resolving differing views between the Department and the States. This Workgroup facilitates cooperation as the parties work towards their common goals of ensuring the protection of human health and the environment through the clean-up and the proper management of DOE facilities and the wastes they have generated.

  17. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Redd, Matthew; Schey, Ron

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new entity with a significant amount of increased recognition over the last decade. The mainstay treatments of EoE are designed to eliminate the causative allergens or to reduce their effects on the esophageal mucosa. Common treatments include dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, systemic and topical corticosteroids, and endoscopic treatments. As the pathogenesis of EoE is explored, new and novel treatments are being studied that target specific pathways and chemokines identified in as precipitating agents of EoE. This is a rapidly evolving field with significant ongoing research and clinical studies. Our review will therefore focus on current and novel treatment approaches to the disease.

  19. Brain abscess: Current management

    PubMed Central

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  20. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  1. Colloids: current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel L

    2008-05-01

    Colloids are increasingly becoming considered indispensable in the management of critically ill patients. Typical indications for colloid administration include patients with tissue edema, hypovolemia, and low oncotic pressure. Current guidelines for the use of colloids in veterinary patients balance the purported benefits of colloid fluid administration with the potential risks, such as volume overload and coagulation disturbances. This article focuses primarily on hydroxyethyl starches, because they are the most commonly used colloid in veterinary practice, and because recent advances in colloid therapy have been achieved with this colloid. Newer colloids have been modified to limit effects on the coagulation system, and they may be used to modulate the inflammatory response, which could prove to be particularly useful in the management of critically ill patients. A better understanding of how different fluids influence the host response may enable us to explore new applications of fluid replacement therapy beyond simply replenishing volume deficits.

  2. Current Treatment of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, J. David

    1987-01-01

    Psoriasis is a relatively common chronic dermatosis that is genetically determined and environmentally influenced. Because it is ideopathic, therapy is presently supportive, directed at optimal control, patient understanding, and prevention of recurrence. Because this multifactorial condition may involve skin and nails, musculoskeletal system, and psyche in various combinations and degrees, an organized co-operative team approach involving the patient, the family, and appropriately experienced health-care providers is most beneficial. Many topical and systemic medications, as well as physical therapeutic modalities, both established and innovative, are available for use sequentially or in various combinations to suite the individual and his/her particular psoriasis. This brief review will outline the better established dermatologic therapeutic principles and options currently available for this patient group. PMID:21263959

  3. Introducing Current Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Tiffany

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the study was a continuation of the 'technology push' activities that the Technology Transfer Team conducts at this time. It was my responsibility to research current technologies at Langley Research Center and find a commercial market for these technologies in the private industry. After locating a market for the technologies, a mailing package was put together which informed the companies of the benefits of NASA Langley's technologies. The mailing package included articles written about the technology, patent material, abstracts from technical papers, and one-pagers which were used at the Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS) exhibitions. The companies were encouraged to consult key team members for further information on the technologies.

  4. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  5. Currently available antitussives.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2009-04-01

    Cough is among the most common complaints for which patients seek medical attention. Acute cough, usually due to a viral upper respiratory tract infection, generates a huge expenditure on prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations worldwide. Most of these agents, however, have not been shown to be more effective than placebo in adequately performed clinical trials. The goal of management in chronic cough is treatment of its underlying cause. However, certain situations will necessitate cough suppressant therapy for symptomatic relief. Unfortunately, currently available antitussives, such as the opioids, are not consistently effective, or achieve therapeutic effect at the expense of unpleasant or intolerable side effects. Safer and more effective cough suppressants are desperately needed. Potential novel antitussives will need to be evaluated in properly formulated clinical trials, measuring relevant subjective and objective end points in appropriate subject populations. PMID:18771744

  6. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: Current therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which is a rare primary malignancy, originates from the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Usually invading the periductal tissues and the lymph nodes, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is commonly diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease and has a dismal prognosis. Currently, complete hepatectomy is the primary therapy for curing this disease. Perioperative assessment and available surgical procedures can be considered for achieving a negative margin resection, which is associated with long-term survival and better quality of life. For patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, several palliative treatments have been demonstrated to produce a better outcome; and liver transplantation for selected patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is promising and desirable. However, the role of palliative treatments and liver transplantation was controversial and requires more evidence and substantial validity from multiple institutions. In this article, we summarize the data from multiple institutions and discuss the resectability, mortality, morbidity and outcome with different approaches. PMID:25133034

  7. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  8. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ``The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.`` The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  10. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  11. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  12. How Does Moral Judgment Change with Age and Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at identifying the differences in moral Judgment levels among female students according to their giftedness and grade levels. In specific, the study attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Does moral judgment differ due to the differences in giftedness and grade levels? (2) Is it possible to efficiently predict the…

  13. Ecological risks of DOE`s programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  14. [Problems with current hypertension definition in children].

    PubMed

    Peco-Antić, Amira

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force data have added immeasurably to our understanding of the normal distribution of blood pressure in children. However, the manner in which arterial hypertension is defined in children is not without problems. The main problem is that the current definition of hypertension in children is not based on the end-organ damage assessment, but on the blood pressure height-related percentile distribution of healthy reference population. This could be overcome by introducing the relationship of blood pressure values with sensitive markers of hypertensive sequelae (such as carotid intimal-medial thickness, left ventricle mass index, retinal arteriolar narrowing and arteriovenous nicking as well as microalbumin urinary excretion) to define better the specific blood pressure values with outcomes. Furthermore, the current definition of hypertension based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the reference population does not consider the normal evolution of reference population, as well as its ethnic differences. In addition, being based on the single occasion measurement in quite position it does not account for the possibility of transient, stress induced elevations in blood pressure known as white coat hypertension. Therefore, incorporation ambulatory 24 h blood pressure data into the definition of arterial hypertension in children may increase the definition reliability for clinical decision - making, although for such reliability the paediatric normative ambulatory blood pressure data should be improved.

  15. Beyond Learning by Doing: Theoretical Currents in Experiential Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    What is experiential education? What are its theoretical roots? Where does this approach come from? Offering a fresh and distinctive take, this book is about going beyond "learning by doing" through an exploration of its underlying theoretical currents. As an increasingly popular pedagogical approach, experiential education encompasses a variety…

  16. RADLAC II high current electron beam propagation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Turman, B.N.; Crist, C.E.; Welch, D.R.; Struve, K.W.

    1992-08-01

    This resistive hose instability of an electron beam was observed to be convective in recent RADLAC II experiments for higher current shots. The effects of air scattering for these shots were minimal. These experiments and theory suggest low-frequency hose motion which does not appear convective may be due to rapid expansion and subsequent drifting of the beam nose.

  17. DOE Workshop at Tapia Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Valerie

    2015-02-19

    The DE-SC0013568 DOE Grant, in the amount of $11,822.79, was used to support five doctoral students from underrepresented groups to attend the 2015 Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference, held February 18-21 in Boston, MA. Each scholarship was approximately $1200 to cover conference registration, travel, and lodging for the duration of the conference. The remaining $5,822.79 was used to support a DOE Breakfast Workshop during breakfast on Thursday, February 19. The Breakfast supported approximately 140 graduate students from underrepresented groups to learn about the different career opportunities at the different DOE National Laboratories.

  18. Currents of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glantz, Michael H.

    2000-12-01

    Headlines around the world about severe droughts, hurricanes, and floods caused by El Niño and La Niña appear every few years. El Niño is the second most important climate process after the changing seasons; its effects are widely known, but the equally serious impact of La Niña is only now beginning to be appreciated. Fully revised, Currents of Change clearly explains what El Niño and La Niña are and how they can be forecast. Examining for the first time the major El Niño of 1997-1998, Michael Glantz explains what we can learn from past events, how we can better manage climate-sensitive activities, and how to anticipate what future storms and droughts may occur. A century ago, it was of interest only to Peruvian fishermen and farmers. Today, scientists armed with tremendous computer models and satellites realize that El Niño and La Niña affect climatic conditions in seemingly remote parts of the world and are better able to predict which regions will be affected. Including the latest information about El Niño and La Niña, this new edition of Currents of Change will be useful to scientists, policymakers, economists, and interested readers alike. Michael Glantz is a Senior Scientist with the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, a program of NCAR. He is the coordinator of a 16-country El Niño impacts and response strategies study for the United Nations. Glantz is a member of numerous national and international committees and advisory bodies and is a recipient of the 1987 World Hunger Media Award, of UNEP's Global 500 Award, and the 1991 Mitchell Prize for Sustainable Development. He is the author of Climate Variability, Climate Change, and Fisheries (Cambridge, 1992) and Drought Follows the Plow (Cambridge, 1994). He lives in Boulder, Colorado.

  19. Florida Current: seasonal and interannual variability

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, F.; Zantopp, R.

    1985-01-18

    Annual and interannual variations in the Florida Current, Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic are investigated with the use of historical sea level differences and wind field data. Observational and model evidence suggests that the seasonal transport cycle of the Florida Current is locally forced, either upstream in the Caribbean or downstream over topography. Although at seasonal and shorter periods sea level or bottom pressure fluctuations on the left side of the Florida Current contribute almost all of the variance of sea level difference across the Florida Straits and hence transport, this relation does not seem to apply at interannual time scales. Using results from the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Studies, it is estimated from historical sea level data that interannual transport fluctuations of the Florida Current are only of order 1 x 10/sup 6/ cubic meters per second. Interannual fluctuations in the 2- to 3-year period range in the Florida Straits seem to be correlated with sea level differences across the Caribbean and the subtropical Atlantic but not with Sverdrup transport fluctuations in the subtropical Atlantic. 26 references, 2 figures.

  20. [Current management of epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers. PMID:24018740

  1. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  2. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1977-09-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included several ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  3. Circulating current battery heater

    DOEpatents

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  4. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  5. NONDESTRUCTIVE EDDY CURRENT TESTING

    DOEpatents

    Renken, C.J. Jr.

    1961-05-23

    An eddy current testing device is described for measuring metal continuity independent of probe-to-sample spacing. An inductance would test probe is made a leg of a variable impedance bridge and the bridge is balanced with the probe away from the sample. An a-c signal is applied across the input terminals of the bridge circuit. As the probe is brought into proximity with the metal sample, the resulting impedance change in the probe gives an output signal from the bridge whose phase angle is proportional to the sample continuity and amplitude is proportional to the probe-tosample spacing. The output signal from the bridge is applied to a compensating network where, responsive to amplitude changes from the bridge output signal, a constant phased voltage output is maintained when the sample is continuous regardless of probe-to-sample spacing. A phase meter calibrated to read changes in resistivity of the metal sample measures the phase shift between the output of the compensating network and the original a-c signal applied to the bridge.

  6. Integrated Current Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, S.; Alfonso, M. M.; Mirabella, I. B.

    2011-10-01

    The LCL has been extensively used in ESA scientific satellites and since a few years ago is being also the baseline device for earth observation satellites such as CRYOSAT 1 and 2, SENTINAL 1, 2 and 3, EARTWATCH, etc. It seems that the use of this LCL is also being considered as an alternative to fuse approach for commercial telecommunication satellites. Scope of this document is to provide a technical description of the Integrated Current Limiter device (shortly ICL later on) developed inside the domain of ESTECContract22049-09-NL-A Twith STMicroelectronics s.r.l. (ref. Invitation to Tender AO/1-5784/08/NL/A T). The design of the ICL device takes into account both ESA and power electronics designer's experience. This experience is more than 25 years long in Europe. The ICL design has been leaded in order to be fully compliant with the applicable specification issued by ESA and the major European power electronics manufacturers that have participated in its edition.

  7. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  8. [Current management of epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  9. Current ADC Linker Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nareshkumar; Smith, Sean W; Ghone, Sanjeevani; Tomczuk, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The list of ADCs in the clinic continues to grow, bolstered by the success of first two marketed ADCs: ADCETRIS® and Kadcyla®. Currently, there are 40 ADCs in various phases of clinical development. However, only 34 of these have published their structures. Of the 34 disclosed structures, 24 of them use a linkage to the thiol of cysteines on the monoclonal antibody. The remaining 10 candidates utilize chemistry to surface lysines of the antibody. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of conjugation to the multiple lysines or cysteines found in mAbs, significant research efforts are now being directed toward the production of discrete, homogeneous ADC products, via site-specific conjugation. These site-specific conjugations may involve genetic engineering of the mAb to introduce discrete, available cysteines or non-natural amino acids with an orthogonally-reactive functional group handle such as an aldehyde, ketone, azido, or alkynyl tag. These site-specific approaches not only increase the homogeneity of ADCs but also enable novel bio-orthogonal chemistries that utilize reactive moieties other than thiol or amine. This broadens the diversity of linkers that can be utilized which will lead to better linker design in future generations of ADCs.

  10. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ram; Mishra, Vibhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms “prostatitis”, “chronic prostatitis” and “chronic pelvic pain syndrome”. The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option “Related Articles”. Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK). National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration. PMID:19468353

  11. Current regulating circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ph. A.

    1985-03-12

    A battery charger which includes terminals for connection to an electric power source, an electrical charging circuit and an operative arrangement for connecting at least one rechargeable battery cell, in series with the charging circuit across the terminals. The battery charger has a charging circuit which includes a first resistor, a second resistor, a third resistor and a rectifier, constituted by at least one diode, in series. A first transistor, which has a collector-emitter path and a base-emitter path, is operatively connected so that the base-emitter path is connected in parallel with the first resistor. A fourth resistor is provided, the fourth resistor being connected in series with the collector-emitter path of the transistor and the third resistor. A plurality of additional transistors, connected in Darlington configuration, includes a second transistor and a final transistor, each of the additional transistors having its collector connected to a circuit point between the third resistor and an electrode of the diode. The first transistor and the last transistor have their emitters connected via a current-limiting PTC fifth resistor which may act as a fuse. The first transistor and the second transistor have their respective collector and base conductively connected. The connection of the third resistor provides internal feedback. The fifth resistor, when in series with the first resistor in the base-emitter circuit, provides external feedback.

  12. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  13. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that normally lines ...

  14. How Does a Pacemaker Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does a Pacemaker Work? A pacemaker consists of a battery, a computerized ... these recordings to adjust your pacemaker so it works better for you. Your doctor can program the ...

  15. LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575

    SciTech Connect

    MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

    2012-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation between

  16. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  17. DOE performance indicators guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    SEN-29-91 directed that a Department-wide uniform process for trending and analysis of operational data be established for DOE facilities. This Performance Indicator (PI) Program establishes a uniform system for trending and analyzing operational data providing an important tool to help assess and support progress in improving performance and strengthening both DOE and contractor line management control of operations. DOE, similar to the commercial nuclear industry, considers that facilities with good performance, as measured by an overall set of performance indicators, are well-managed facilities. The Performance Indicator Program established by SEN-29-91 is but one of several initiatives undertaken by DOE to instill a new DOE and DOE contractor line management culture committed to achieving a rising standard of acceptable performance. Line management trending and analysis of data depicting the performance of their facilities is an essential element in creating this culture of ``continuous improvement,`` where performance gains achieved are maintained and early identification of deteriorating environmental, safety, and health conditions is accomplished.

  18. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L. ); Koss, T.C. . Office of Environmental Guidance)

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  19. High-accuracy current sensing circuit with current compensation technique for buck-boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuan; Deng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Jun-Kai

    2015-03-01

    A novel on-chip current sensing circuit with current compensation technique suitable for buck-boost converter is presented in this article. The proposed technique can sense the full-range inductor current with high accuracy and high speed. It is mainly based on matched current mirror and does not require a large proportion of aspect ratio between the powerFET and the senseFET, thus it reduces the complexity of circuit design and the layout mismatch issue without decreasing the power efficiency. The circuit is fabricated with TSMC 0.25 µm 2P5M mixed-signal process. Simulation results show that the buck-boost converter can be operated at 200 kHz to 4 MHz switching frequency with an input voltage from 2.8 to 4.7 V. The output voltage is 3.6 V, and the maximum accuracy for both high and low side sensing current reaches 99% within the load current ranging from 200 to 600 mA.

  20. Does tranexamic acid stop haemoptysis?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Christian Arvei; Burrell, Amy; Dunning, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Does tranexamic acid stop haemoptysis’? Altogether 49 papers were found using the reported search strategy, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. This consisted of one systematic review including a meta-analysis of two double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the two RCTs, one cohort study, two case-series and seven case reports. Main outcomes included bleeding time, bleeding volume and occurrence of thromboembolic complications after start of treatment. Based on results from the meta-analysis, no difference in remission of bleeding within 1 week was found between tranexamic acid (TA) and placebo groups (odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI: 0.44–5.46). However, overall bleeding time was significantly shorter for the TA group (weighted mean difference −19.47, 95% CI: −26.90, −12.03 h). In one RCT, TA reduced both the duration and the volume of bleeding compared with patients receiving placebo (both P < 0.0005). However, the other RCT failed to find a difference in bleeding time (P = 0.2). In these studies, no patient suffered from thromboembolic complications. Two case reports, however, describe development of pulmonary embolism during TA treatment. Several case reports on the use of TA for treatment of haemoptysis secondary to cystic fibrosis were found. In general, they suggest that TA may be a useful and well-tolerated medication for the treatment of intractable haemoptysis in this patient group. We conclude that limited research on the use of TA for treatment of haemoptysis exists. As aetiology of haemoptysis as well as length of treatment, dosage and form of TA administration varied between the studies, strong recommendations are difficult to give

  1. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  2. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  3. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  4. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  5. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation. PMID:27536165

  6. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  7. Oscillatory nonhmic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method of the invention maintain a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  8. Oscillatory nonohomic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are described for maintaining a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  9. Galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents caused by galvanic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Armacanquil, M.E. ); Harasyn, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper reports on galvanic coupling and hydrogen permeation experiments performed in a Devanathan-Stachurski cell to measure simultaneously the galvanic currents and the hydrogen permeation currents in an attempt to determine the extent of hydrogen charging into noble metals as a result of galvanic coupling. Large amounts of hydrogen permeated through the more noble element of the couple. The magnitude of the hydrogen permeation flux varied depending on the galvanic coupling conditions. No simple direct relationship between galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents was observed, although large hydrogen permeation currents were usually developed whenever large galvanic currents were established.

  10. Locations, volumes, and characteristics of DOE`s mixed low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Elmore, M.R.; Warner, C.L.; Wachter, L.J.; Carlson, W.L.; Devries, R.L.

    1992-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) has collected and analyzed mixed low-level waste data to assist in developing treatment capability for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) wastes. Initial data on the characteristics of mixed waste was obtained from the Waste Management Information System (WMIS) data base, and has been updated based on visits to DOE sites where most of the wastes are generated and stored. The streams of interest have a current inventory of about 70,000 m{sup 3} and a generation rate of about 7,700 m{sup 3}/yr. The twelve sites with the most significant processing needs are Fernald, Hanford, K-25 (Oak Ridge), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Savannah River Site (SRS), and Y-12 (Oak Ridge). These twelve sites account for about 98% of the mixed waste volumes. The wastes have been assigned to specific waste characterization categories. The largest category in current interim storage is inorganic solids, with sludges, filter cakes, and residues the largest specific subcategory. Aqueous liquids are the largest currently generated stream. The other large categories are solid organics, metals wastes, and heterogeneous wastes. Organic liquids, which have been a major focus, are the smallest of the categories.

  11. DOE/NORA/BNL oil heat research agenda development

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.

    1996-07-01

    The National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has been formed and is currently working to establish a Congressionally approved oilheat check-off program to provide funding for research, education, training, safety, and marketing to benefit the US oilheat industry. NORA will be presenting this program to the Congress for its consideration and approval in the coming year. It will follow the same path as the National Propane Gas Association which is currently working on obtaining Congressional approval of a propane check off program that has already attracted over 120 cosponsors in the House of representatives. An effort to define the basis of a joint US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oilheat industry (marketers) program for future oilheat equipment research and development will be conducted during FY-1996. At the request of NORA representatives BNL will coordinate the development of a research agenda addressing three categories of activities, research appropriate for DOE support only, research appropriate for NORA support only, and research appropriate for co-funding by both organizations. This will also serve to update a prior oil-fueled research plan developed for DOE ten years ago which has been the road map for DOE`s very successful Oil Heat R&D program at BNL.

  12. NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino delivers remarks at DOE's Commemorative Veterans Day Program

    ScienceCinema

    Administrator D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator D'Agostino, a Navy veteran, was part of a November 2009 program at DOE headquarters in Washington, D.C., celebrating Veterans Day and commemorating the 10th anniversary of the DOE Veterans Task Force. Veterans comprise nearly 30 percent of NNSA's workforce, and many NNSA employees are currently on active duty.

  13. NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino delivers remarks at DOE's Commemorative Veterans Day Program

    SciTech Connect

    Administrator D'Agostino

    2009-12-02

    Administrator D'Agostino, a Navy veteran, was part of a November 2009 program at DOE headquarters in Washington, D.C., celebrating Veterans Day and commemorating the 10th anniversary of the DOE Veterans Task Force. Veterans comprise nearly 30 percent of NNSA's workforce, and many NNSA employees are currently on active duty.

  14. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  15. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  16. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  17. Radiation Recordkeeping Practices at DOE Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.J.

    1994-03-15

    In order to evaluate the radiation recordkeeping practices at DOE facilities, a questionnaire was sent to DOE and DOE contractor facilities which requested information concerning the record keeping systems. The questionnaire was sent to the DOE/DOE contractor facilities via DOE/HQ and the respective field offices. The questionnaire stipulated that at multiple contractor sites, only those facilities who kept the records should respond to the questionnaire; however, those responding should indicate the facilities for which they maintained records.

  18. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossart, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  19. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  20. 60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER WAS USED TO SENSE HIGH CURRENT BEING GENERATED ON GENERATOR NUMBER 3 AND REDUCE IT TO A LOWER, EXACT ANALOG VALUE THAT COULD BE SAFELY HANDLED AND MONITORED WITH THE CONTROL CIRCUITRY. THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CONNECTING BUS ABOVE THE TRANSFORMER WAS REMOVED FOR SALVAGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. DOE Order 5480.28 Hanford facilities database

    SciTech Connect

    Hayenga, J.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the development of a database of DOE and/or leased Hanford Site Facilities. The completed database will consist of structure/facility parameters essential to the prioritization of these structures for natural phenomena hazard vulnerability in compliance with DOE Order 5480.28, `Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation`. The prioritization process will be based upon the structure/facility vulnerability to natural phenomena hazards. The ACCESS based database, `Hanford Facilities Site Database`, is generated from current Hanford Site information and databases.

  2. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  3. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  4. Noninvasive intraocular pressure monitoring: current insights

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently its only modifiable risk factor. Peak IOP has for a long time been considered as a major contributor to glaucoma progression, but its effects may depend not only on its magnitude, but also on its time course. The IOP is nowadays considered to be a dynamic parameter with a circadian rhythm and spontaneous changes. The current practice of punctual measuring the IOP during office hours is therefore a suboptimal approach, which does not take into account the natural fluctuation of IOP. Because of its static nature a single IOP measurement in sitting position fails to document the true range of an individual’s IOP, peak IOP, or variation throughout the day. Phasing means monitoring a patient’s IOP during the daytime or over a 24-hour period. This can provide additional information in the management of glaucoma patients. This review focuses on the current insight of non-invasive IOP monitoring as a method of obtaining more complete IOP profiles. Invasive techniques using an implantable sensor are beyond the scope of this review. PMID:26257509

  5. CFD modeling of turbidity current deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Sergio

    2010-03-01

    Simulation of the flow and deposition from a laboratory turbidity current, in which dense mixtures of sediment move down a narrow, sloping channel and flow into a large tank. SSIIM CFD software is used to model 3-D flow and deposition. SSIIM predicts the height of the accumulated mound to within 25% of experimental values, and the volume of the mound to 20%˜50%, depending on the concentration of sediment and slope of the channel. The SSIIM predictions were consistently lower than experimental values. In simulations with initial sediment volumetric concentrations greater than 14%, SSIIM dumped some of the sediment load at the entry gate into the channel, which was not the case with the experimental runs. This is likely due to the fact that the fall velocity of sediment particles in SSIIM does not vary with sediment concentration. Further simulations of deposition from turbidity currents should be attempted when more complete experimental results are available, but it appears for now that SSIIM can be used to give approximate estimates of turbidity current deposition.

  6. Accelerating RCRA corrective action: The principles of the DOE approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Ranek, N.L.; Coalgate, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in the remediation of environmental contamination at many of its facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA`s corrective action provisions were established by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). In response to the HSWA mandate, EPA established a program for the conduct of RCRA corrective action that was similar to that established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). In addition, EPA developed and implemented its ``stabilization`` initiative as a means of quickly addressing immediate risks posed by releases until long term solutions can be applied. To improve the efficiency of environmental restoration at its facilities, DOE is developing guidance and training programs on accelerated environmental restoration under RCRA. A RCRA guidance document, entitled ``Accelerating RCRA Corrective Action at DOE Facilities,`` is currently being developed by DOE`s Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance. The new guidance document will outline a decision-making process for determining if acceleration is appropriate for individual facilities, for identifying, evaluating, and selecting options for program acceleration, and for implementing selected acceleration options. The document will also discuss management and planning strategies that provide a firm foundation for accelerating RCRA corrective action. These strategies include a number of very basic principles that have proven effective at DOE and other federal facilities, as well as some new approaches. The purpose of this paper is to introduce DOE`s new guidance document, discuss the general approach presented in the guidance for accelerating RCRA corrective action, and to emphasize some of the more important principles of effective management and planning.

  7. A Safety Case Approach for Deep Geologic Disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in Bedded Salt - 13350

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Frank D.

    2013-07-01

    DOE HLW and DOE SNF repository using the currently available technical basis for bedded salt. This approach includes a summary of the regulatory environment relevant to disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in a deep geologic repository, the key elements of a safety case, the evolution of the safety case through the successive phases of repository development and licensing, and the existing technical basis that could be used to substantiate the safety of a geologic repository if it were to be sited in the Delaware Basin. We also discuss the potential role of an underground research laboratory (URL). (authors)

  8. Wyoming DOE EPSCoR

    SciTech Connect

    Gern, W.A.

    2004-01-15

    All of the research and human resource development projects were systemic in nature with real potential for becoming self sustaining. They concentrated on building permanent structure, such as faculty expertise, research equipment, the SEM Minority Center, and the School of Environment and Natural Resources. It was the intent of the DOE/EPSCoR project to permanently change the way Wyoming does business in energy-related research, human development for science and engineering careers, and in relationships between Wyoming industry, State Government and UW. While there is still much to be done, the DOE/EPSCoR implementation award has been successful in accomplishing that change and enhancing UW's competitiveness associated with coal utilization, electrical energy efficiency, and environmental remediation.

  9. Kentucky DOE EPSCoR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grulke, Eric; Stencel, John

    2011-09-13

    The KY DOE EPSCoR Program supports two research clusters. The Materials Cluster uses unique equipment and computational methods that involve research expertise at the University of Kentucky and University of Louisville. This team determines the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of nanostructured materials and examines the dominant mechanisms involved in the formation of new self-assembled nanostructures. State-of-the-art parallel computational methods and algorithms are used to overcome current limitations of processing that otherwise are restricted to small system sizes and short times. The team also focuses on developing and applying advanced microtechnology fabrication techniques and the application of microelectrornechanical systems (MEMS) for creating new materials, novel microdevices, and integrated microsensors. The second research cluster concentrates on High Energy and Nuclear Physics. lt connects research and educational activities at the University of Kentucky, Eastern Kentucky University and national DOE research laboratories. Its vision is to establish world-class research status dedicated to experimental and theoretical investigations in strong interaction physics. The research provides a forum, facilities, and support for scientists to interact and collaborate in subatomic physics research. The program enables increased student involvement in fundamental physics research through the establishment of graduate fellowships and collaborative work.

  10. On transport-driven currents

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, S.; Dawson, J.M. )

    1994-08-01

    An empirical electron viscosity is incorporated into Ohm's law to examine the effect of current diffusion on bootstrap currents. It is shown that for sufficiently large viscosity, no seed current is needed for steady state operation of tokamaks. This is expressed by the scaling law [Gamma][ital R][sup 2][sub [ital m

  11. Mathematical Modelling of Turbidity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, G. L.; Fowler, A.; Howell, P.

    2011-12-01

    A turbidity current is a submarine sediment flow which propagates downslope through the ocean into the deep sea. Turbidity currents can occur randomly and without much warning and consequently are hard to observe and measure. The driving force in a turbidity current is the presence of sediment in the current - gravity acts on the sediment in suspension, causing it to move downstream through the ocean water. A phenomenon known as ignition or autosuspension has been observed in turbidity currents in submarine canyons, and it occurs when a current travelling downslope gathers speed as it erodes sediment from the sea floor in a self-reinforcing cycle. Using the turbidity current model of Parker et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1986) we investigate the evolution of a 1-D turbidity current as it moves downstream. To seek a better understanding of the dynamics of flow as the current evolves in space and time, we present analytical results alongside computed numerical solutions, incorporating entrainment of water and erosion and deposition of sediment. We consider varying slope functions and inlet conditions and attempt to predict when the current will become extinct. We examine currents which are in both supercritical and subcritical flow regimes and consider the dynamics of the flow as the current switches regime.

  12. Active inrush-current limiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kichak, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    By stretching turn-on time from approximately 1 to 200 ms, effects of inrush current (and of associated large current spikes) and current rate of rise (dl/dt) are made potentially less severe. Limiter arrangement consists of time-variable impedance connected in series between input dc power source return and power circuit of converter.

  13. Study of eddy current probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Wang, Morgan

    1992-01-01

    The recognition of materials properties still presents a number of problems for nondestructive testing in aerospace systems. This project attempts to utilize current capabilities in eddy current instrumentation, artificial intelligence, and robotics in order to provide insight into defining geometrical aspects of flaws in composite materials which are capable of being evaluated using eddy current inspection techniques.

  14. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-05-14

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.

  15. Current status of the ITER MSE diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuh, Howard; Levinton, F.; La Fleur, H.; Foley, E.; Feder, R.; Zakharov, L.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. is providing ITER with a Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic to provide a measurement to guide reconstructions of the plasma q-profile. The diagnostic design has gone through many iterations, driven primarily by the evolution of the ITER port plug design and the steering of the heating beams. The present two port, three view design viewing both heating beams and the DNB has recently passed a conceptual design review at the IO. The traditional line polarization (MSE-LP) technique employed on many devices around the world faces many challenges in ITER, including strong background light and mirror degradation. To mitigate these effects, a multi-wavelength polarimeter and high resolution spectrometer will be used to subtract polarized background, while retroreflecting polarizers will provide mirror calibration concurrent with MSE-LP measurements. However, without a proven plasma-facing mirror cleaning technique, inherent risks to MSE-LP remain. The high field and high beam energy on ITER offers optimal conditions for a spectroscopic measurement of the electric field using line splitting (MSE-LS), a technique which does not depend on mirror polarization properties. The current design is presented with a roadmap of the R&D needed to address remaining challenges. This work is supported by DOE contracts S009627-R and S012380-F.

  16. Behavioral cardiology: current advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Alan

    2014-07-01

    Growing epidemiological evidence identifies key domains relevant to behavioral cardiology, including health behaviors, emotions, mental mindsets, stress management, social connectedness, and a sense of purpose. Each of these domains exists along a continuum, ranging from positive factors that promote health, to negative factors, which are pathophysiological. To date, there has been relatively little translation of this growing knowledge base into cardiology practice. Four initiatives are proposed to meet this challenge: 1) promulgating greater awareness of the potency of psychosocial risks factors; 2) overcoming a current "artificial divide" between conventional and psychosocial risk factors; 3) developing novel cost-effective interventions using Internet and mobile health applications, group-based counseling, and development of tiered-care behavioral management; and 4) in recognition that "one size does not fit all" with respect to behavioral interventions, developing specialists who can counsel patients in multidisciplinary fashion and use evidence-based approaches for promoting patient motivation and execution of health goals.

  17. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  18. Driven-current tokamak (DCT) scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The present Department of Energy (DOE) plan calls for the construction of an Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) that is to be the last major experimental fusion device prior to the commercialization of fusion power. The plasma driver of the ETR is to be either a long-pulse tokamak or a tandem mirror machine. The possibility of using the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) facility to consolidate the physics and technology database for the tokamak version of the ETR has been considered. This paper addresses two of the options being considered: (1) a superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil-hydrogen plasma alternative, and (2) a superconducting or hybrid TF coil-high Q alternative. Both options assume essentially steady-state operation through the application of rf current drive. The options are evaluated on the basis of performance and cost determined by application of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak System Code.

  19. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2003-04-01

    After an effort of nearly a half century the CTBT was approved by the U.N. on September 10, 1996. Out of 185 member nations (at the time), 158 voted in favor, 3 against, and the remaining either abstained or were diplomatically absent. In spite of such an overwhelming support of the international community, the CTBT may well remain on paper. The reason being that one of the opposing nations, India, is considered a "threshold Nuclear Nation" and must approve the treaty to enter into force according to the rules of Conference of Disarmament (CD). India's U.N. representative said that her country would "never sign this unequal treaty, not now, not later." "Unequal" because it does not provide a time table for elimination of the existing nuclear weapons, testing of weapons, etc., which favor nuclear states. This paper will provide details of the above issues and the current status of the CTBT.

  20. Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Transmission Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Cai, Hong; Gamble, Bruce; Madura, David; MacDonald, Tim; McNamara, Joe; Romanosky, Walther; Snitchler, Greg; Lallouet, Nicolas; Schmidt, Frank; Ahmed, Syed

    Within a collaboration of American Superconductor, Siemens, Nexans and Southern California Edison one electrical phase of a resistive superconducting fault current limiter for the 115 kV transmission voltage level has been designed and manufactured. The active part of the limiter consists of 63 bifilar coils made of 12 mm wide steel-stabilized YBCO conductor and is housed in a cryostat operated at 5 bar and 74 K. The first phase was completely assembled and successfully subjected to power switching tests and high voltage tests. The basic design of the system and the test results are reported. The work was funded in part by US-DOE under Contract Number DE-FC26-07NT43243.

  1. FY 1986 activities and accomplishments of the DOE Center for Computer Security. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, R.B.

    1986-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is responsible for developing, collecting, organizing, and disseminating computer security information to the DOE and DOE contractors. This responsibility involves operations and field support, computer security education and awareness, and research and development. During the current fiscal year, the Center completed the Link ACE II, the DOE/CCS computer laboratory and Wide-Band Security Test Bed, and the computer security products database and its merger with the National Bureau of Standard's database. Also completed was the implementation of the Data Encryption Standard on the Wide-Band Communications Network.

  2. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  3. 10 CFR 1021.210 - DOE decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... coordinate its NEPA review with decision points for certain types of proposals (40 CFR 1505.1(b)). (b) DOE... administrative record (40 CFR 1505.1(c)). (d) If an EIS or EA is prepared for a DOE proposal, DOE shall consider... narrower decision (such as one on a project or other site-specific proposal), DOE may use tiering (40...

  4. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  5. Current-driven atomic waterwheels.

    PubMed

    Dundas, Daniel; McEniry, Eunan J; Todorov, Tchavdar N

    2009-02-01

    A current induces forces on atoms inside the conductor that carries it. It is now possible to compute these forces from scratch, and to perform dynamical simulations of the atomic motion under current. One reason for this interest is that current can be a destructive force--it can cause atoms to migrate, resulting in damage and in the eventual failure of the conductor. But one can also ask, can current be made to do useful work on atoms? In particular, can an atomic-scale motor be driven by electrical current, as it can be by other mechanisms? For this to be possible, the current-induced forces on a suitable rotor must be non-conservative, so that net work can be done per revolution. Here we show that current-induced forces in atomic wires are not conservative and that they can be used, in principle, to drive an atomic-scale waterwheel. PMID:19197311

  6. How long does chlorpromazine last?

    PubMed

    Lacoursiere, R B; Spohn, H E

    1976-10-01

    How long does chlorpromazine last? This question regarding the persistence of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in chronically medicated schizophrenic patients after drug discontinuation led to wide ranging preliminary answers. These varied from a few to several days for blood studies up to many months for urinary and clinical studies. At least two implications of the question need to be considered: a) the pharmacological persistence of active drug and/or metabolites after drug discontinuation; and b) the persistence of the therapeutic effects regardless of whether or not active drug and/or metabolites are pharmacologically present. For example, a patient's behavior may improve while on CPZ and this improvement may persist after the active drug and/or metabolites cease to be present in the patient's body. These two areas of inquiry were examined by looking at blood, urinary, and clinical data. Although blood studies undoubtedly give the most definitive data, they are greatly complicated by the lack of definitive information regarding the active moiety (moieties) and crucial sites of action, the large number of metabolites (up to 150 or so), the minute quantities involved (ng/ml), the wide inter- and intrapatient variations, and the newness and lack of complete comparability of the quantitative methodologies. Within these limitations, there are a number of studies that are fairly consistent in showing a half-life of disappearance from the plasma of CPZ and/or metabolites in the range of a few to several hours. This would usually mean that most of the drug and metabolites are cleared from the plasma in a few days after drug discontinuation. Urinary studies are related less directly than blood studies to desired clinical effects. Under steady-state conditions in various studies, 43 to 63 per cent of a daily therapeutic dose of CPZ can be recovered in the urine in 24 hours. After drug discontinuation, urinary drug and/or metabolites in most studies last from about 3 to 18 days

  7. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Barbara; Calandra, Henri; Crivelli, Silvia; Dongarra, Jack; Hittinger, Jeffrey; Lathrop, Scott A.; Sarkar, Vivek; Stahlberg, Eric; Vetter, Jeffrey S.; Williams, Dean

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  8. Al Capone Does My Shirts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choldenko, Gennifer

    2004-01-01

    She is not sure if it is nature or nurture, but this author does know that, like her dad, she has always loved to write. After graduation, her dad's legacy caught up with her. She remembered how hard he tried to get published and how painful it was to fail. Her aunt still tells stories about how her father wallpapered his bedroom with publisher…

  9. How Does Force Affect Motion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Whether playing soccer at recess, walking to lunch, or sitting at their desk, children encounter forces every moment of their lives. The connection between force and motion is absolutely amazing to children, so anyone working with them better be prepared for the battery of tough questions they ask: "What made the ball move that way? Why does a…

  10. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  11. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  12. Where Does the Drink Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2004-01-01

    In England the National Curriculum does not specifically mention the excretory system at key stages 1 and 2. Research by Reiss and Tunnicliffe (2001, 2002) has shown that children's knowledge of the organs and organ systems in their bodies increases with age but remains incomplete, even at maturity, unless they specialise in studying biology. The…

  13. Penn State DOE GATE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anstrom, Joel

    2012-08-31

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was established in October 1998 pursuant to an award from the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The focus area of the Penn State GATE Program is advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  14. Does Practical Knowledge Trump Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerner, Mari

    2011-01-01

    To the author, the question of "Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?" means "To what degree and in what place does scholarship have in teaching and learning and specifically in teacher education?" Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College thinks not only about the role of scholarship…

  15. Proposed alternatives for a DOE-wide occupational radiation exposure information system

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1984-02-01

    The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the original intent for a central information system, the need for more detailed information has become evident. The alternatives addressed for a radiation exposure information system were no change in current system, clarification of DOE Order for current system, increased summary information from sites, centralized annual individual dose (exposure) system, and annual dose summary and locator files. A majority of the DOE Ad Hoc Committee has concurred to recommend the annual dose summary and locator files (ADSLF). The acceptance of the ADSLF alternative as the DOE-wide radiation exposure system would give DOE added capability and flexibility in responding to requests for information and would reduce the impact on the sites of special survey requests.

  16. Integrated wastewater management planning for DOE`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, J.; Barthel, J.; Wheeler, M.; Conroy, K.

    1996-02-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS), jointly formed by Morrison Knudsen Corporation and BNFL Inc., provides international experience in the nuclear, environmental, waste management, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) , and project management industry. The company is currently the environmental restoration, waste management, and D&D subcontractor for Kaiser-Hill Company at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). RMRS offers unique solutions and state-of-the-art technology to assist in resolving the issues that face industries today. RMRS has been working on methods to improve cost savings recognized at RFETS, through application of unique technologies and process engineering. RMRS prepared and is implementing a strategy that focused on identifying an approach to improve cost savings in current wastewater treatment systems and to define a low-cost, safe and versatile wastewater treatment system for the future. Development of this strategy, was targeted by Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, DOE Rocky Flats Field Office and Kaiser-Hill as a ``Project Breakthrough`` where old concepts were thrown out the door and the project goals and objectives were developed from the groundup. The objectives of the strategy developed in a project break through session with DOE included lower lifecycle costs, shutdown of one of two buildings at RFETS, Building 374 or Building 774, reduced government capital investment, and support of site closure program goals, identified as the site`s Accelerated Site Action Plan (ASAP). The recommended option allows for removal of water treatment functions from Building 374, the existing process wastewater treatment facility. This option affords the lowest capital cost, lowest unit operating cost, lowest technical management risk, greatest support of ASAP phasing and provides the greatest flexibility for design with unforeseen future needs.

  17. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, H.J.

    1998-03-10

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter are disclosed for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time. 9 figs.

  18. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1998-01-01

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time.

  19. Summary of DOE/PERF water program review.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Gasper, J.; Puder, M.; Leath, P.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of water research relating to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In early 2005, the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) submitted a proposal to DOE for funding an upcoming PERF meeting that would feature water research in the petroleum industry. PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus to and a forum for the collection, exchange, and analysis of research information related to the development of technology concerning the petroleum industry, and a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. DOE agreed to provide funding to hold a review of its water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 PERF meeting. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) was asked to coordinate and host the meeting, which was referred to as the DOE/PERF Water Program Review. The program review was held on November 1-4, 2005, in Annapolis, Maryland, at the Historic Inns of Annapolis. The purpose of the program review was to provide a forum for sharing information, reviewing current programs (especially recent unpublished research), and reviewing industry and regulatory needs regarding water use and reuse issues. PERF and DOE/NETL can use this information to plan for future water-related research projects. The water program review provided a unique opportunity in several ways. First, DOE was able to have all of the contractors currently receiving DOE funds for water research present in one room at the same time. Each contractor described his or her research and was able to learn about the research being conducted by the other researchers. Second, this forum allowed representatives of many large oil and gas companies to hear about the DOE research projects and offer their reactions to DOE

  20. Current Challenges in Personal Dosimetry at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A. ); McDonald, Joseph C. ); Traub, Richard J. )

    2002-10-01

    Abstract - This paper presents an overview of the dosimetry system, dose equivalent calculation methodology, and QA/QC practices used at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site. It describes some of the problems encountered in accurately measuring dose equivalent quantities under a broad range of field conditions that do not necessarily correlate with laboratory calibration conditions and the approach taken to solve these problems. Personnel at Hanford are monitored with a combination of Harshaw model 8825 and 8816 thermoluminescent dosimeters and CR-39? track etch dosimeters. Extremities are monitored using the ICN MeasuRing loaded with a Harshaw XD740 chipstrate TLD. All dosimeters employ LiF:Mg,Ti elements that are read onsite with Harshaw model 8800 and 6600 TLD readers. CR-39? dosimeters are electrochemically etched in non-commercial etch chambers and counted with an automated track counting system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Problems with over response of the 8825 with respect to Hp(0.07), under response of the 8825 with respect to Hp(3), and over response of the 8825 with respect to Hp(10) in Hanford's 90Sr/90Y beta radiation fields are discussed. Approaches to measurement of the operational quantities for field conditions and algorithm solutions to the above problems are described. Methods used to calibrate the ring dosimeter for Hanford field conditions together with limitations of the ring dosimeter in measuring Hp(0.07) for extremities, particularly when covered with protective clothing, are also discussed.

  1. Report of technical progress under the current DOE Contract, EY-76-C-02-2232. *OOOB

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.B.; Khuri, N.N.; Pais, A.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical studies of gauge field theories are reported. Dynamical symmetry breaking is emphasized. Phenomenology of vector boson decay and a modified definition of a hadronic jet are also presented. (GHT)

  2. Intranasal live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine: does not challenge current practice.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Influenza vaccination of children is only justified when there is a risk of serious influenza complications. In 2012, a live attenuated vaccine for intranasal administration was authorised in the European Union for influenza prevention in individuals aged from 2 to less than 18 years. This type of vaccine has been available in the United States since 2003. Clinical evaluation of this live vaccine is based on three non-inferiority trials versus an injected inactivated vaccine. There are no specific trials in children at risk of serious influenza complications. Only one of these trials was double-blinded. Two trials involved children with a history of respiratory problems. Symptomatic influenza confirmed by viral culture was less frequent in these three trials after intranasal vaccination than after injection of the conventional vaccine (about 3 to 5% and 6 to 10%, respectively). There was no difference between the vaccines in terms of clinical complications of influenza, especially asthma exacerbations. Adverse effects attributed to the intranasal vaccine mainly consisted of local reactions such as rhinorrhoea and nasal congestion, as well as flu-like syndromes. Wheezing, respiratory tract infections and hospitalisation were more frequent with the intranasal vaccine than with the injected vaccine in children aged less than 1 year and in children with a history of severe respiratory illness. The intranasal vaccine is contraindicated in these children. The intranasal vaccine contains live attenuated virus strains and is therefore contraindicated in immunocompromised patients. US pharmacovigilance data suggest that severe allergic reactions to the intranasal vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transmission of vaccine viruses to contacts are very rare. Intranasal administration seems to be more practical, especially for children. In practice, there is no firm evidence that this live attenuated influenza vaccine has any clinical advantages over injected vaccines, including in children at risk of influenza complications. In addition, this vaccine is unsuitable for the very children who are most in need of protection against influenza. It is better to stick with injected influenza vaccines.

  3. Does Korea's current diagnosis-related group-based reimbursement system appropriately classify appendectomy patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kee-Hwan; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Kuon; Choi, Byung-Jo; Jeong, Wonjun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As several years have passed since the implementation of the Korean diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment system for appendicitis, its early outcomes should be assessed to determine if further improvements are warranted. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from Korean patients who underwent appendectomy, dividing the sample into 2 groups of those who received services before and after implementation of the DRG system. Based on the DRG code classification, patient data were collected including the amount of DRG reimbursement and the total in-patient costs. We subsequently performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify independent factors contributing to higher total in-patient cost. Results Although implementation of the DRG system for appendicitis significantly reduced postoperative length of stay (2.8 ± 1.0 days vs. 3.4 ± 1.9 days, P < 0.001), it did not reduce total in-hospital cost. The independent factors related to total inhospital cost included patient age of 70 years or more (odds ratio [OR], 3.214; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.769–5.840; P < 0.001) and operation time longer than 100 minutes (OR, 3.690; 95% CI, 2.007–6.599, P < 0.001). In addition, older patients (≥70 years) showed a nearly 10 times greater relative risk for having a comorbid condition (95% CI, 5.141–20.214; P < 0.001) and a 3.255 times greater relative risk for having higher total in-hospital cost (95% CI, 1.731–6.119, P < 0.001). Conclusion It appears that older patients (>70 years) have greater comorbidities, which contribute to higher inpatient costs. Thus, our study suggests that patient age be considered as a DRG classification variable. PMID:27478811

  4. Does Titan's Landscape Betray the Late Acquisitions of Its Current Atmosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Nimmo, F.

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The sudden appearance of a thick atmosphere may have changed Titan's global topography. This change in global topography may be expressed in the latitudinal distribution of landform types across its surface.

  5. Current challenges in personal dosimetry at the US DOE Hanford site.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, B A; McDonald, J C; Traub, R J

    2002-01-01

    An overview is presented of the dosimetry system, dose equivalent calculation methodology, and QA/QC practices used at the US Department of Energy Hanford site. It describes some of the problems encountered in accurately measuring dose equivalent quantities under a broad range of field conditions that do not necessarily correlate with laboratory calibration conditions and the approach taken to solve these problems. Personnel at Hanford are monitored with a combination of Harshaw model 8825 and 8816 thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 etched track dosemeters. Extremities are monitored using the ICN MeasuRing loaded with a Harshaw XD740 chipstrate TLD. All dosemeters employ LiF:Mg,Ti elements that are read on-site with Harshaw model 8800 and 6600 TLD readers. CR-39 dosemeters are electrochemically etched in non-commercial etch chambers and counted with an automated track counting system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Problems with over response of the 8825 with respect to Hp(0.07), under-response of the 8825 with respect to Hp(3), and over response of the 8825 with respect to Hp(10) in Hanford's 90Sr/90Y beta radiation fields are discussed. Approaches to measurement of the operational quantities for field conditions and algorithm solutions to the above problems are described. Methods used to calibrate the ring dosemeter for Hanford field conditions together with limitations of the ring dosemeter in measuring Hp(0.07) for extremities, particularly when covered with protective clothing, are also discussed. PMID:12382727

  6. Overview and current status of DOE/UPVG`s TEAM-UP Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, S.

    1995-11-01

    An overview is given of the Utility Photovoltaic Group. The mission is to accelerate the use of small-scale and large scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of the electric utilities and their customers.

  7. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Design Systematic literature review. Data sources 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). Data extraction The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. Results A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. PMID:27084273

  8. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  9. ITER equilibrium with bootstrap currents, lower hybrid current drive and fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.

    1989-03-01

    A current drive system is proposed for the technology phase of ITER which relies on rf power and bootstrap currents. The rf/bootstrap system permits operation at high safety factor, and we consider the axial value to be q/sub a/ approx. = 1.9, which minimizes the need for seed current near the magnetic axis. Lower hybrid power (/approximately/30 MW) provides current density near the surface, ICRF (/approximately/65 MHz, /approximately/30 MW) fast waves generate current near the axis, and high frequency fast waves (/approximately/250 MHz, /approximately/74 MW) supply the remaining current density. The system is not yet optimized but appears to offer great flexibility (ion heating for ignition, current rampup, etc.) with relatively inexpensive and well developed technology. 29 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  11. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  12. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  13. Development and use of consolidated criteria for evaluation of emergency preparedness plans for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, K.; Kier, P.H.; Baldwin, T.E.

    1995-07-01

    Emergency preparedness at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is promoted by development and quality control of response plans. To promote quality control efforts, DOE has developed a review document that consolidates requirements and guidance pertaining to emergency response planning from various DOE and regulatory sources. The Criteria for Evaluation of Operational Emergency Plans (herein referred to as the Criteria document) has been constructed and arranged to maximize ease of use in reviewing DOE response plans. Although developed as a review instrument, the document also serves as a de facto guide for plan development, and could potentially be useful outside the scope of its original intended DOE clientele. As regulatory and DOE requirements are revised and added in the future, the document will be updated to stay current.

  14. Current Collection from Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra (Editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (Editor); Stone, Nobie H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

  15. DEEP WATER ISOTOPIC CURRENT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, W.H.

    1964-04-21

    A deepwater isotopic current analyzer, which employs radioactive isotopes for measurement of ocean currents at various levels beneath the sea, is described. The apparatus, which can determine the direction and velocity of liquid currents, comprises a shaft having a plurality of radiation detectors extending equidistant radially therefrom, means for releasing radioactive isotopes from the shaft, and means for determining the time required for the isotope to reach a particular detector. (AEC)

  16. Research and development for DOE environmental restoration and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Borys, S.S.; Bugielski, D. ); Lien, S.C.T.; Hain, K.E. . Div. of Research and Development)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently consolidated its environmental restoration and waste management activities. Within that new organization, DOE has committed to support Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation (RDDT E) activities with the following objectives: rapidly advance beyond currently available technologies; provide solutions to key technical issues that will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and safety; and enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year compliance and cleanup goals. DOE has already supported a number of R D activities in this area and plans to continue that support in the future. DOE's Office of Technology Development is interested in eliciting broad participation from qualified organizations who can contribute to RDDT E activities. This presentation addresses the on-going and future R D, with an emphasis on the private sector activities. To focus private sector capabilities on the high-priority needs of DOE, a series of competitive solicitations was started in FY 1990. On May 1, 1990, on behalf of DOE's Office of Technology Development, Argonne National Laboratory issued a Request for Proposals that solicited proposals for research and development in the areas of (1) groundwater remediation, (2) soil remediation, (3) characterization of contamination and geological and hydrological features, and (4) containment of contaminated sites. In response to this solicitation, Argonne National Laboratory received 147 proposals. Fifteen of the proposals totaling $5.7 million were funded in FY 1990. The scope of work and evaluation criteria used in the procurement and the workscope of the resultant contracts are reviewed in this paper. The FY 1991 plans for competitive private sector research and development activities will also be presented at the conference. Funding levels, technical workscope, evaluation criteria, and schedule for the FY 1991 Request for Proposals will be detailed. 2 tabs.

  17. The Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. Y.; Kapoor, A. K.

    2003-02-27

    In an attempt to bring forth increased efficiency and effectiveness in assessing transportation risks associated with radioactive materials or wastes, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Transportation Program (NTP) published a resource handbook in 2002. The handbook draws from the broad technical expertise among DOE national laboratories and industry, which reflects the extensive experience gained from DOE's efforts in conducting assessments (i.e., environmental impact assessments) within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the past 20 years. The handbook is intended to serve as a primary source of information regarding the approach and basis for conducting transportation risk assessments under normal or accidental conditions that are associated with shipping radioactive materials or wastes. It is useful as a reference to DOE managers, NEPA assessors, technical analysts, contractors, and also stakeholders. It provides a summary of pertinent U.S. policies and regulations on the shipment of radioactive materials, existing guidance on preparing transportation risk assessments, a review of previous transportation risk assessments by DOE and others, a description of comprehensive and generally accepted transportation risk assessment methodologies, and a compilation of supporting data, parameters, and assumptions. The handbook also provides a discussion paper on an issue that has been identified as being important in the past. The discussion paper focuses on cumulative impacts, illustrating the ongoing evolution of transportation risk assessment. The discussion may be expanded in the future as emerging issues are identified. The handbook will be maintained and periodically updated to provide current and accurate information.

  18. The current-voltage relationship in auroral current sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Gurnett, D. A.; Goertz, C. K.; Menietti, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    The current-voltage relation within narrow auroral current sheets is examined through the use of high-resolution data from the high altitude Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite. The north-south perpendicular electric field and the east-west magnetic field are shown for three cases in which there are large amplitude, oppositely directed paired electric fields and narrow current sheets. These data are shown to indicate that there is a linear Ohm's law relationship between the current density and the parallel potential drop within the narrow current sheets. This linear relationship had previously been verified for large-scale auroral formations greater than 20 km wide at the ionosphere. The evidence shown here extends our knowledge down to the scale size of discrete auroral arcs.

  19. High current, high bandwidth laser diode current driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, David J.; Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A laser diode current driver has been developed for free space laser communications. The driver provides 300 mA peak modulation current and exhibits an optical risetime of less than 400 ps. The current and optical pulses are well behaved and show minimal ringing. The driver is well suited for QPPM modulation at data rates up to 440 Mbit/s. Much previous work has championed current steering circuits; in contrast, the present driver is a single-ended on/off switch. This results in twice the power efficiency as a current steering driver. The driver electrical efficiency for QPPM data is 34 percent. The high speed switch is realized with a Ku-band GaAsFET transistor, with a suitable pre-drive circuit, on a hybrid microcircuit adjacent to the laser diode.

  20. Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    1992-01-01

    Eddy current impedance measuring methods have been applied to study the effect that magnetically treated materials have on service life extension. Eddy current impedance measurements have been performed on Nickel 200 specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening. Experimental results have demonstrated a functional relationship between coil impedance, resistance and reactance, and specimens subjected to various engineering processes. It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in a material's electromagnetic properties and does exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic-field processing effect on machine tool service life.

  1. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  2. Coupled currents in cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, Marc; Peter, Patrick; Martin, Xavier

    2009-05-15

    We examine the structure of a cosmic string endowed with two Abelian neutral currents, associated with two global U(1) symmetries. We first resolve the microstructure and show that it depends on two state parameters, namely, the squares of the phase gradients of the current carriers. We then provide a macroscopic description for such a string and show that it depends on an additional Lorentz-invariant state parameter that relates the two currents. We find that in most of the parameter space, the two-current string is essentially equivalent to the single-current-carrying string; i.e., only one field condenses onto the defect. In the regions where two currents are present, we find that as far as stability is concerned, one can approximate the dynamics with good accuracy using an analytic model based on either a logarithmic (on the electric side, i.e., for timelike currents) or a rational (on the magnetic side, i.e., for spacelike currents) world sheet Lagrangian. We end up by generalizing to the N current case.

  3. Statistical ring current of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Achilleos, N.; Arridge, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    The statistical ring current of Saturn has been determined from the curl of the median magnetic field derived from over 5 years of observations of the Cassini magnetometer. The main issue addressed here is the calculation of the statistical ring current of Saturn by directly computing, for the first time, the symmetrical part of the ring current J from the Maxwell equation ∇ × B = μ0J from assembling the perturbation magnetic field B from 2004 through 2010. This study validates previous studies, based on fewer data and not using ∇ × B, and shows that the ring current flows eastward (in the +ϕ or corotation direction) and extends from ˜3 RS to at least ˜20 RS (1 RS = 60,268 km), which is the vicinity of the dayside magnetopause; that the ring current has a peak strength of ˜75 pA/m2 at ˜9.5 RS; and that the ring current has a half-width of ˜1.5 RS. Two outcomes of this study are that the ring current bends northward, as suggested by the “bowl” model of Saturn's plasma sheet, and that the total ring current is 9.2 ± 1.0 MA. In the context of future endeavors, the statistical ring current presented here can be used for calculations of the magnetic field of Saturn for particle drifts, field line mapping, and J × B force.

  4. Electron Locking in Current Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollam, K. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Orvis, D. J.; Raman, R.; Redd, A. J.; Smith, R. J.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    2000-10-01

    The traveling n=1, m~= q_edge magnetic distortion observed in the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT-II) during coaxial helicity injection (CHI) is responsible for some current profile relaxation. A model for electromotive current drive, called the electron locking model, can account for the results of current drive experiments in both the HIT-II and the original HIT devices. The most relevant of these results involve the the frequencies and directions of the mode itself, the E× B drift, and the electric current drift. In spherical tokamaks with CHI, electrode and coil polarities can be changed to control the relative directions of these drifts. Results from HIT-II experiments with different polarities are shown. These point out the character n=1, m~= q_edge mode, and suggest its role in CHI current drive. The electron locking model is presented, and is also discussed in the context of mean field electrodynamics. This model might also be applied to other types of current drive, such as rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive, oscillating field current drive (OFCD), steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI), or Ohmic current drive in a reversed field pinch (RFP). These examples are discussed.

  5. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  6. RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-02-01

    The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

  7. Effects of wave-current interaction on rip currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Slinn, Donald N.

    2003-03-01

    The time evolution of rip currents in the nearshore is studied by numerical experiments. The generation of rip currents is due to waves propagating and breaking over alongshore variable topography. Our main focus is to examine the significance of wave-current interaction as it affects the subsequent development of the currents, in particular when the currents are weak compared to the wave speed. We describe the dynamics of currents using the shallow water equations with linear bottom friction and wave forcing parameterized utilizing the radiation stress concept. The slow variations of the wave field, in terms of local wave number, frequency, and energy (wave amplitude), are described using the ray theory with the inclusion of energy dissipation due to breaking. The results show that the offshore directed rip currents interact with the incident waves to produce a negative feedback on the wave forcing, hence to reduce the strength and offshore extent of the currents. In particular, this feedback effect supersedes the bottom friction such that the circulation patterns become less sensitive to a change of the bottom friction parameterization. The two physical processes arising from refraction by currents, bending of wave rays and changes of wave energy, are both found to be important. The onset of instabilities of circulations occurs at the nearshore region where rips are "fed," rather than offshore at rip heads as predicted with no wave-current interaction. The unsteady flows are characterized by vortex shedding, pairing, and offshore migration. Instabilities are sensitive to the angle of wave incidence and the spacing of rip channels.

  8. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, M. J.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Flynn, J. V.; Brookshier, P. A.

    2001-04-17

    This report describes the activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2000 (October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2000). Background, current activities, and future plans are presented in the following sections for all components of the Program. Program focus for FY 2000 was on (1) advanced turbine development, (2) basic and applied R&D, (3) environmental mitigation, (4) low head/low power hydropower technology, and (5) technology transfer.

  9. Determination of tunneling charge via current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi, I.; Sukhorukov, E. V.

    2010-09-01

    We consider a tunnel junction between two arbitrary non-linear systems in any dimension, which can be different. We show that the tunneling charge can be detected using three alternative methods based on current measurements. Besides being technically easier compared to noise measurements, these methods present valuable advantages: they do not require the knowledge of the underlying models, and some are accessible in the experimentally convenient low-voltage regime, where heating effects are reduced. The first method is based on the AC conductance, while the two others are based on photo-assisted current (PAC) and can be implemented for any time dependence of the tunneling amplitude. These are promising for edge states in the regime of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE): the Hamiltonian does not have to be specified and can incorporate non-universal interactions between the edges, and it is more convenient to use an AC gate voltage rather than an AC bias. These methods apply for instance to weak barriers in 1-D systems, Superconductor-Insulator-Normal (SIN) or graphene-like structures.

  10. On electric fields produced by steady currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapolsky, Harold S.

    1988-12-01

    It is well known that an electric (as well as a magnetic) field exists in a reference frame moving relative to a dc circuit that appears to be electrically neutral in its own rest frame. The source of this field is customarily treated as a continuous charge density, which appears in the moving frame as a consequence of the fact that charge and current densities are separate components of a four-vector, which become mixed under the operation of a Lorentz transformation. It is possible to analyze this situation in a different way, by considering the superposed Lienard-Wiechert fields of a large number of moving point charges in the limit that their spacing becomes infinitesimal. While this analysis is not as simple as the standard one, it does expose some interesting physics that is masked by the standard treatment. It is also a useful approach in resolving a paradox that appears to occur when charge and current densities are treated as static objects.

  11. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS's) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department's technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  12. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS`s) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department`s technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  13. Dissipation of magnetic energy during disruptive current termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Schmidt, G. L.

    1983-09-01

    The magnetic coupling during a disruption between the plasma and the various coil systems on the PDX Tokamak was modeled. Using measured coil currents, the model indicates that dissipation of magnetic energy in the plasma equal to 75% of the energy stored in the poloidal field of the plasma current does occur and that coupling between the plasma and the coil systems can reduce such dissipation. In the case of PDX ohmic discharges, bolometric measurements of radiation and charge exchange, integrated over a disruption, account for 90% of the calculated energy dissipation.

  14. AMS/DOE Graduate Fellowship

    SciTech Connect

    None None

    2011-06-15

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Fellowship Program was established in 1991. To date, AMS has awarded over 150 Fellowships. This five year DOE award provided for one Fellowship a year for five years. The objective of this program is to provide enough funding to a student so as to allow the student to focus solely on coursework requirements, thus allowing them to begin their research at an earlier date.

  15. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  16. Pumping single-file colloids: Absence of current reversal.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Debasish; Raju, Archishman; Dhar, Abhishek

    2015-05-01

    We consider the single-file motion of colloidal particles interacting via short-range repulsion and placed in a traveling wave potential that varies periodically in time and space. Under suitable driving conditions, a directed time-averaged flow of colloids is generated. We obtain analytic results for the model using a perturbative approach to solve the Fokker-Planck equations. The predictions show good agreement with numerical simulations. We find peaks in the time-averaged directed current as a function of driving frequency, wavelength, and particle density and discuss possible experimental realizations. Surprisingly, unlike a closely related exclusion dynamics on a lattice, the directed current in the present model does not show current reversal with density. A linear response formula relating current response to equilibrium correlations is also proposed.

  17. Pumping single-file colloids: Absence of current reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Debasish; Raju, Archishman; Dhar, Abhishek

    2015-05-01

    We consider the single-file motion of colloidal particles interacting via short-range repulsion and placed in a traveling wave potential that varies periodically in time and space. Under suitable driving conditions, a directed time-averaged flow of colloids is generated. We obtain analytic results for the model using a perturbative approach to solve the Fokker-Planck equations. The predictions show good agreement with numerical simulations. We find peaks in the time-averaged directed current as a function of driving frequency, wavelength, and particle density and discuss possible experimental realizations. Surprisingly, unlike a closely related exclusion dynamics on a lattice, the directed current in the present model does not show current reversal with density. A linear response formula relating current response to equilibrium correlations is also proposed.

  18. Current in wave driven plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Karney, C.F.F.; Fisch, N.J.

    1985-06-01

    A theory for the generation of current in a toroidal plasma by radio-frequency waves is presented. The effect of an opposing electric field is included, allowing the case of time varying currents to be studied. The key quantities that characterize this regime are identified and numerically calculated. Circuit equations suitable for use in ray-tracing and transport codes are given.

  19. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  20. The source of O+ in the storm time ring current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.; Spence, H. E.; Menz, A. M.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Larsen, B. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Gkioulidou, M.; Wygant, J. R.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2016-06-01

    A stretched and compressed geomagnetic field occurred during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm on 1 June 2013. During the storm the Van Allen Probes spacecraft made measurements of the plasma sheet boundary layer and observed large fluxes of O+ ions streaming up the field line from the nightside auroral region. Prior to the storm main phase there was an increase in the hot (>1 keV) and more isotropic O+ ions in the plasma sheet. In the spacecraft inbound pass through the ring current region during the storm main phase, the H+ and O+ ions were significantly enhanced. We show that this enhanced inner magnetosphere ring current population is due to the inward adiabatic convection of the plasma sheet ion population. The energy range of the O+ ion plasma sheet that impacts the ring current most is found to be from ~5 to 60 keV. This is in the energy range of the hot population that increased prior to the start of the storm main phase, and the ion fluxes in this energy range only increase slightly during the extended outflow time interval. Thus, the auroral outflow does not have a significant impact on the ring current during the main phase. The auroral outflow is transported to the inner magnetosphere but does not reach high enough energies to affect the energy density. We conclude that the more energetic O+ that entered the plasma sheet prior to the main phase and that dominates the ring current is likely from the cusp.

  1. DOE research on atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1995-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

  2. Current Drive in Recombining Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2012-05-15

    The Langevin equations describing the average collisional dynamics of suprathermal particles in nonstationary plasma remarkably admit an exact analytical solution in the case of recombining plasma. The current density produced by arbitrary particle fluxes is derived including the effect of charge recombination. Since recombination has the effect of lowering the charge density of the plasma, thus reducing the charged particle collisional frequencies, the evolution of the current density can be modified substantially compared to plasma with fixed charge density. The current drive efficiency is derived and optimized for discrete and continuous pulses of current, leading to the discovery of a nonzero "residual" current density that persists indefinitely under certain conditions, a feature not present in stationary plasmas.

  3. METHOD OF PEAK CURRENT MEASUREMENT

    DOEpatents

    Baker, G.E.

    1959-01-20

    The measurement and recording of peak electrical currents are described, and a method for utilizing the magnetic field of the current to erase a portion of an alternating constant frequency and amplitude signal from a magnetic mediums such as a magnetic tapes is presented. A portion of the flux from the current carrying conductor is concentrated into a magnetic path of defined area on the tape. After the current has been recorded, the tape is played back. The amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape immediately adjacent the defined flux area and the amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape within the area are compared with the amplitude of the signal from an unerased portion of the tape to determine the percentage of signal erasure, and thereby obtain the peak value of currents flowing in the conductor.

  4. [Current role of conservative surgery].

    PubMed

    Barri-Soldevila, Pere N; Vázquez, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    It is not easy to establish the true impact of fibroids on fertility. Fibroidectomy in sterile patients with subserosal fibroids does not offer the best results for patients with in situ fibroids. Women with intramural fibroids appear to present reduced fertility and increased miscarriage rates, compared with women without fibroids. However, fibroidectomy does not always reverse this effect (does not increase the clinical pregnancy or "take-home baby" rates), but the quality of the studies is still poor. Fibroids with a submucosal component significantly decrease implantation and pregnancy rates with regard to sterile controls. Fibroid exeresis clearly improves fertility results. There is a need for better quality studies aimed at assessing the impact of intramural fibroids, with a special focus on factors such as size, number and proximity to the endometrium. The majority of cases can be treated endoscopically. This procedure needs properly trained teams who monitor their results and who are able to offer the same guarantees that laparotomy affords, both in terms of the surgical technique and the patients' obstetric future. Laparoscopic fibroidectomy offers results comparable to laparotomy and minimizes the formation of adhesions, blood loss, hospital stay and the time to return to work. For sterile patients, laparoscopic fibroidectomy may be the first choice therapy.

  5. Current-Produced Magnetic Field Effects on Current Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Stone, N. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Current collection by an infinitely long, conducting cylinder in a magnetized plasma, taking into account the magnetic field of the collected current, is discussed. A region of closed magnetic surfaces disconnects the cylinder from infinity. Due to this, the collected current depends on the ratio between this region and the plasma sheath region and, under some conditions, current reduction arises. The current collection along a realistic "bare wire" space tether is considered. A number of factors are taken into account, including the resistance of the wire and shielding resulting from the current-induced magnetic field produced by current flow in the tether. The plasma density, tether length and radius, the geomagnetic field strength and angle to the orbital velocity vector were all used as parameters in the study. It is shown that magnetic shielding for certain tether system configurations, when combined with particular values of the governing parameters, significantly reduces the collected current. Specifically, it is shown that an electrodynamic tether in the "thruster" mode suffers greater reduction from magnetic shielding than a tether with the same characteristics deployed in the "generator" mode. We find that, for both modes, current-induced magnetic shielding becomes more significant as plasma density and wire radius increase. The same is true for the dependence on the angle of the geomagnetic field to the orbital velocity vector and the motion-induced electric field for the generator mode For the thruster mode, the effect is larger for smaller angles. In both operating modes, the shielding is more important for smaller angles between the tether and magnetic field. In addition to the above dependencies, the effect for the thruster mode essentially depends on the tether length. In general, any parametric change that increases tether current, relative to the strength of the electric field between the tether and the ambient plasma, will increase the shielding

  6. The making of ring currents.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Guglielmo; Zanasi, Riccardo

    2016-04-28

    Benzene, planar cyclooctatetraene, and borazine have been taken into account as archetypal aromatic, anti-aromatic, and non-aromatic systems. Then, the making of the π-electron diatropic ring current of benzene, huge paratropic ring current of planar cyclooctatetraene, and weak diatropic ring current of borazine, has been monitored by means of DFT calculations of current density maps and bond current strengths along a concerted, highly symmetric reaction pathway for the trimerization and tetramerization of acetylene to benzene and planar cyclooctatetraene and the trimerization of the simplest iminoborane (BH2N) to borazine. Besides, a simple model is presented that permits to infer the presence of a ring current only on account of the sum of homotropic local vortices. The model works satisfactorily for borazine and surely as well for benzene with a substantial difference. On the one hand, for borazine, the evolution of the current density along the formation reaction can be recast summing three virtually unchanged diatropic current loops with respect to parent iminoborane molecules. On the other hand, the benzene ring current is an emerging property that can be re-elaborated as the sum of three diatropic current loops of increased diatropicity with respect to parent acetylene molecules, i.e., the radius of the maximum current increases form 0.76 to 0.97 Å and the current strength increases from 3.6 to 6.7 nA T(-1). In these terms, the difference between the aromatic benzene and non-aromatic borazine can be understood as the attitude of the acetylene molecules to form always wider and stronger current loops as they get closer, a behavior not shared by the iminoborane molecules. For planar cyclooctatetraene, the paratropic circulation arising from the HOMO-LUMO transition makes the model inapplicable, since the initial hypothesis of homotropic circulations over the reaction coordinate is violated. In a sense, the fact that the model works only for a bit of the

  7. Eddy current correction in volume-localized MR spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C.; Wendt, R. E. 3rd; Evans, H. J.; Rowe, R. M.; Hedrick, T. D.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy is affected by eddy currents caused by gradient switching. Eddy currents can be reduced with improved gradient systems; however, it has been suggested that the distortion due to eddy currents can be compensated for during postprocessing with a single-frequency reference signal. The authors propose modifying current techniques for acquiring the single-frequency reference signal by using relaxation weighting to reduce interference from components that cannot be eliminated by digital filtering alone. Additional sequences with T1 or T2 weighting for reference signal acquisition are shown to have the same eddy current characteristics as the original signal without relaxation weighting. The authors also studied a new eddy current correction method that does not require a single-frequency reference signal. This method uses two free induction decays (FIDs) collected from the same volume with two sequences with opposite gradients. Phase errors caused by eddy currents are opposite in these two FIDs and can be canceled completely by combining the FIDs. These methods were tested in a phantom. Eddy current distortions were corrected, allowing quantitative measurement of structures such as the -CH = CH- component, which is otherwise undetectable.

  8. MHD Simulation of RF Current Drive in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J. A.; Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.

    2013-10-01

    Auxiliary current drive using the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) may advance the performance of the RFP. In prior computations, a hypothetical edge-localized current is shown to suppress tearing activity that governs transport in the RFP. Ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the current drive. To support MST EBW studies, an integrated modeling scheme incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ~ 104) agree with the previous work but at MST-like S (S ~ 3 × 106) show unexpected results. The effect on the current profile by the rf-driven force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as S increases. Simulations reproduce the experimentally observed periodic current profile relaxation events (sawteeth). With rf drive, reduction of tearing mode amplitudes is seen, but is limited to periods between each sawtooth, which persist with up to 10 MW of rf. Prolonged low tearing amplitudes are predicted with the combination of current drive and reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, these simulations show that the resistivity profile has a strong effect on the optimal current drive profile for mode stabilization. Work supported by US DoE.

  9. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The

  10. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  11. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  12. Inertial currents in isotropic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, M.; Erickson, G. M.; Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetospheric convection electric field contributes to Birkeland currents. The effects of the field are to polarize the plasma by displacing the bounce paths of the ions from those of electrons, to redistribute the pressure so that it is not constant along magnetic field lines, and to enhance the pressure gradient by the gradient of the bulk speed. Changes in the polarization charge during the convection of the plasma are neutralized by electrons in the form of field-aligned currents that close through the ionosphere. The pressure drives field-aligned currents through its gradient in the same manner as in quasi-static plasmas, but with modifications that are important if the bulk speed is of the order of the ion thermal speed; the variations in the pressure along field lines are maintained by a weak parallel potential drop. These effects are described in terms of the field-aligned currents in steady state, isotropic, MHD plasma. Solutions are developed by taking the MHD limit ot two-fluid solutions and illustrated in the special case of Maxwellian plasma for which the temperature is constant along magnetic field lines. The expression for the Birkeland current density is a generalization of Vasyliunas' expression for the field-aligned current density in quasi-static plasma and provides a unifying expression when both pressure gradients and ion inertia operate simultaneously as sources of field-aligned currents. It contains a full account of different aspects of the ion flow (parallel and perpendicular velocity and vorticity) that contribute to the currents. Contributions of ion inertia to field-aligned currents will occur in regions of strong velocity shear, electric field reversal, or large gradients in the parallel velocity or number density, and may be important in the low-latitude boundary layer, plasma sheet boundary layer, and the inner edge region of the plasma sheet.

  13. Kentucky DOE-EPSCoR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.M.; Ochsenbein, M.P.

    2003-04-14

    The KY DOE EPSCoR Program included efforts to impact positively the pipeline of science and engineering students and to establish research, education and business infrastructure, sustainable beyond DOE EPSCoR funding.

  14. DOE Wind Program Update: June 4, 2006;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    The DOE Wind Program Update provides WindPower Conference attendees with information about recent DOE events, including Assistant Secretary Karsner, a wind turbine blade test facility CRADA, and 2005 Wind Energy Award recipients.

  15. How Does Your Child Hear and Talk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Development How Does Your Child Hear and Talk? [ en Español ] The ... not accomplished one skill within an age range does not mean the child has a disorder. However, ...

  16. Note: High resolution alternating current/direct current Harman technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, R.; Becker, A.; Bartel, M.; Kessler, V.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

    2013-10-01

    This note describes the construction and engineering of a high precision Harman set-up for metrology of the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of modules and materials based on steady state AC and DC measurements. The Harman technique presented in this article has a resolution of milli-ZT and it does not employ lock-in amplifiers or AC bridges; rather, the technique is developed to avoid typical complications experienced in AC Harman systems. By one-time reference measurements the best operation point for the system is chosen, minimizing the effects of capacitive loads due to AC signals.

  17. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  18. Neutral current interactions in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Alexandre; /Oxford U.

    2007-07-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) long-baseline experiment has been actively collecting beam data since 2005, having already accumulated 3 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target (POT). The several million neutrinos per year observed at the Near detector may improve the existing body of knowledge of neutrino cross-sections and the Near-Far comparison of the observed energy spectrum neutral current events constrains oscillations into sterile neutrinos. MINOS capabilities of observing neutral current neutrino events are described and the employed methodology for event selection is discussed, along with preliminary results obtained. An outlook on the expected neutral current related contributions from MINOS is also presented.

  19. Currents in monterey submarine canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Flow fields of mean, subtidal, and tidal frequencies between 250 and 3300 m water depths in Monterey Submarine Canyon are examined using current measurements obtained in three yearlong field experiments. Spatial variations in flow fields are mainly controlled by the topography (shape and width) of the canyon. The mean currents flow upcanyon in the offshore reaches (>1000 m) and downcanyon in the shallow reaches (100-m amplitude isotherm oscillations and associated high-speed rectilinear currents. The 15-day spring-neap cycle and a ???3-day??? band are the two prominent frequencies in subtidal flow field. Neither of them seems directly correlated with the spring-neap cycle of the sea level.

  20. High current gain transistor laser.

    PubMed

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-10

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge.

  1. Magneto-optic current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lanagan, Michael T.; Valsko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Fisher, Brandon L.; Welp, Ulrich

    2003-10-07

    An optical current transducer configured to sense current in the conductor is disclosed. The optical current transducer includes a light source and a polarizer that generates linearly polarized light received from a the light source. The light is communicated to a magneto-optic garnet that includes, among other elements, bismuth, iron and oxygen and is coupled to the conductor. The magneto-optic garnet is configured to rotate the polarization of the linearly polarized light received from the polarizer. The optical current transducer also includes an analyzer in optical communication with the magneto-optic garnet. The analyzer detects the rotation of the linearly polarized light caused by the magneto-optic garnet.

  2. Windmill driven eddy current heater

    SciTech Connect

    Birgel, W. J.; Hajec, C. S.

    1983-12-20

    A windmill electric heater converts wind energy to heat energy. A windmill drives a rotor of an eddy current heater. Magnetic fields are provided at an air gap between the rotor and a stator of the eddy current heater. Rotation of the rotor with respect to the stator causes eddy currents, and therefore heat, to be generated in the rotor. The heat generated in the rotor is drawn off for beneficial use such as in heating a house or other building. Excitation of the magnetic fields (and therefore the amount of heat generated) is controlled as a function of sensed parameters such as wind velocity, ambient temperature of the surroundings to be heated and temperature of the eddy current heater.

  3. High current gain transistor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge.

  4. Eddy-Current Reference Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, H. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic properties of metallic reference standards duplicated and stabilized for eddy-current coil measurements over long times. Concept uses precisely machined notched samples of known annealed materials as reference standards.

  5. Geomagnetically Induced Currents From Reconnection

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animations shows a coronal mass ejections collide with Earth's magnetic fields and the fields change shape and strength. Reconnection in the magnetotail causes currents to follow the field lin...

  6. High current gain transistor laser

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466

  7. Acoustoelectric current for composite fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergli, J.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2001-07-01

    The acoustoelectric current for composite fermions in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) close to the half-filled Landau level is calculated in the random phase approximation. The Boltzmann equation is used to find the nonequilibrium distribution of composite fermions to second order in the acoustic field. It is shown that the oscillating Chern-Simons field created by the induced density fluctuations in the 2DEG is important for the acoustoelectric current. This leads to a violation of the Weinreich relation between the acoustoelectric current and acoustic intensity. The deviations from the Weinreich relation can be detected by measuring the angle between the longitudinal and the Hall components of the acoustoelectric current. This departure from the Weinreich relation gives additional information on the properties of the composite fermion fluid.

  8. Sq Currents and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between ionospheric dynamo currents and neutral winds is examined using the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). The simulation is run for May and June 2009 with variable neutral winds but with constant solar and magnetospheric energy inputs, which ensures that day-to-day changes in the solar quiet (Sq) current system arise only from lower atmospheric forcing. The intensity and focus position of the simulated Sq current system exhibit large day-to-day variability, as is also seen in ground magnetometer data. We show how the day-to-day variation of the Sq current system relate to variable winds at various altitudes, latitudes, and longitudes.

  9. Optimal Current Transfer in Dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of synaptic currents across an extensive dendritic tree is a prerequisite for computation in the brain. Dendritic tapering away from the soma has been suggested to both equalise contributions from synapses at different locations and maximise the current transfer to the soma. To find out how this is achieved precisely, an analytical solution for the current transfer in dendrites with arbitrary taper is required. We derive here an asymptotic approximation that accurately matches results from numerical simulations. From this we then determine the diameter profile that maximises the current transfer to the soma. We find a simple quadratic form that matches diameters obtained experimentally, indicating a fundamental architectural principle of the brain that links dendritic diameters to signal transmission. PMID:27145441

  10. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  11. 10 CFR 205.84 - DOE evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE evaluation. 205.84 Section 205.84 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Interpretation § 205.84 DOE evaluation. (a) Processing. (1) The DOE may initiate an investigation of any statement in a request and utilize in its...

  12. 10 CFR 1021.200 - DOE planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... time and funding for proper NEPA review and for preparation of anticipated NEPA documents. (b) DOE... proposal, DOE shall review any relevant planning and decisionmaking documents, whether prepared by DOE or... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES...

  13. 29 CFR 457.16 - Chief, DOE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chief, DOE. 457.16 Section 457.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.16 Chief, DOE. Chief, DOE means the Chief of the...

  14. electromagnetics, eddy current, computer codes

    2002-03-12

    TORO Version 4 is designed for finite element analysis of steady, transient and time-harmonic, multi-dimensional, quasi-static problems in electromagnetics. The code allows simulation of electrostatic fields, steady current flows, magnetostatics and eddy current problems in plane or axisymmetric, two-dimensional geometries. TORO is easily coupled to heat conduction and solid mechanics codes to allow multi-physics simulations to be performed.

  15. User's guide to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy's research laboratories represent valuable, often unique, resources for university and industrial scientists. It is DOE policy to make these laboratories and facilities available to qualified scientists. The answers to such questions as who are eligible, what and where are the facilities, what is the cost, when can they be used, are given. Data sheets are presented for each facility to provide information such as location, user contact, description of research, etc. A subject index refers to areas of research and equipment available.

  16. DOE's way-out reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1986-03-21

    The SP-100 reactor, envisioned long before Star Wars, was to power civilian structures such as the space station and orbiting commercial labs. According to the SDI Organization, it will be the cornerstone for SDI, used as a no-maintenance, general source of energy for the military's infrastructure - weapons scale power will come later. DOE wants to spend $72 in FY 1977 to design and build these reactors. Funding problems with Congress, as well as some of the technology and timetables are discussed here.

  17. Reverse Current in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. W., III

    1978-01-01

    An idealized steady state model of a stream of energetic electrons neutralized by a reverse current in the pre-flare solar plasma was developed. These calculations indicate that, in some cases, a significant fraction of the beam energy may be dissipated by the reverse current. Joule heating by the reverse current is a more effective mechanism for heating the plasma than collisional losses from the energetic electrons because the Ohmic losses are caused by thermal electrons in the reverse current which have much shorter mean free paths than the energetic electrons. The heating due to reverse currents is calculated for two injected energetic electron fluxes. For the smaller injected flux, the temperature of the coronal plasma is raised by about a factor of two. The larger flux causes the reverse current drift velocity to exceed the critical velocity for the onset of ion cyclotron turbulence, producing anomalous resistivity and an order of magnitude increase in the temperature. The heating is so rapid that the lack of ionization equilibrium may produce a soft X-ray and EUV pulse from the corona.

  18. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W

    2002-01-31

    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, {tau}{sub REC}, which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI{sub TOR}{sup 2}/dt {approx} I{sup 2}/{tau}{sub REC} - I{sub TOR}{sup 2}/{tau}{sub closed} where I is the gun current, I{sub TOR} is the spheromak toroidal current and {tau}{sub CLOSED} is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I{sub TOR} >> I, requires {tau}{sub REC} <<{tau}{sub CLOSED}. For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that {tau}{sub REC} actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B {proportional_to} I, or I{sub TOR} {approx} I. Program implications are discussed.

  19. On Net Currents in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatakrishnan, Parameswaran

    2012-07-01

    Vector magnetic fields of sunspots, as measured in the photosphere, show structures on a variety of special scales. Simple inversions of stokes profiles yield average values of the vector fields at a single height. Vertical component of the current density obtained from such magnetograms is also distributed on sub-arc second scales. However, the net current, obtained by spatial integration of the current density must vanish on account of the confined nature of the sunspot fields. Various measurements of the net current show different results. In this talk, I will discuss all such results, including the evolution of net current in the case of NOAA AR 10930 during the period 10 December 2006 to 15 December 2006. The implications of such an evolution for initiating eruptions in the solar corona are also discussed. Finally, the advantage of measuring currents at different layers of the solar atmosphere will be pointed out. This will be a major science goal of the upcoming Multi Application Solar Telescope (MAST) of the Udaipur Solar Observatory.

  20. Does the size matter?: Prostate weight does not predict PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Darrell D; Koch, Michael O; Lin, Haiqun; Jones, Timothy D; Biermann, Katharina; Cheng, Liang

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that low prostate weight is a significant negative prognostic factor for prostate cancer. In the current study, the data for 431 men who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between 1990 and 1998 were analyzed for association between prostate weight and various clinical and pathologic parameters. These included age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA recurrence, pathologic stage, Gleason grade, extraprostatic extension, positive surgical margins, tumor volume, associated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Potential associations were probed by using Cox regression model analysis. A significant positive correlation was found between prostate weight and increasing patient age or increasing preoperative PSA level. There was no significant independent association between prostate weight and any of the other variables examined. No association was found between prostate weight and PSA recurrence. Although increasing prostate weight correlates with increased patient age and higher preoperative PSA level, it does not independently predict postoperative cancer recurrence.

  1. Structure and variability of the Western Maine Coastal Current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, J.H.; Pettigrew, N.R.; Signell, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of CTD and moored current meter data from 1998 and 2000 reveal a number of mechanisms influencing the flow along the western coast of Maine. On occasions, the Eastern Maine Coastal Current extends into the western Gulf of Maine where it takes the form of a deep (order 100 m deep) and broad (order 20 km wide) southwestward flow with geostrophic velocities exceeding 20 cm s -1. This is not a coastally trapped flow, however. In fields of geostrophic velocity, computed from shipboard-CTD data, the core of this current is roughly centered at the 100 m isobath and its onshore edge is no closer than 10 km from the coast. Geostrophic velocity fields also reveal a relatively shallow (order 10 m deep) baroclinic flow adjacent to the coast. This flow is also directed to the southwest and appears to be principally comprised of local river discharge. Analyses of moored current meter data reveal wind-driven modulations of the coastal flow that are consistent with expectations from simple theoretical models. However, a large fraction of the near-shore current variance does not appear to be directly related to wind forcing. Sea-surface temperature imagery, combined with analysis of the moored current meter data, suggests that eddies and meanders within the coastal flow may at times dominate the near-shore current variance. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soladigm DOE Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    Soladigm's research has produced a fundamental improvement in the technology for dynamic windows by successfully transitioning a low-cost, high-performance dynamic glass fabrication process from a simple 2" research prototype into a full-scale manufacturing environment capable of producing commercial dynamic insulated glass units (IGUs), and developing and optimizing the production process to meet all specifications for mass commercial production. The technology developed under this project is a revolutionary process for fabricating electrochromic glass that today exceeds DOE's 2020 performance and reliability targets at a compelling consumer price point. Before this project, we had demonstrated 2" prototypes using our deposition process that met these performance targets. The goal of this project was to prove that we could transition this lab-scale process to a scalable, "inline" manufacturing process, leveraging existing manufacturing tools capable of achieving a commercially attractive pricepoint in the near-term. Under this project we demonstrated the technical effectiveness of our manufacturing process by achieving or exceeding all of our technical and performance targets for inline fabrication of electrochromic IGUs. These performance specifications exceed DOE's 2020 performance and reliability targets. We also demonstrated the economic feasibility of our manufacturing process by reaching an initial production process that will achieve our target costs, which are compatible with mass adoption.

  3. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  4. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  5. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  6. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  7. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  8. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  10. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  11. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  12. 41 CFR 102-3.180 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.180 Section 102-3.180 Public Contracts and Property Management... What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides guidance to agencies...

  13. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  14. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  15. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T. . Office of Technology Development); Snipes, R.L. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref.

  16. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  17. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  18. Computer security in DOE distributed computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The modernization of DOE facilities amid limited funding is creating pressure on DOE facilities to find innovative approaches to their daily activities. Distributed computing systems are becoming cost-effective solutions to improved productivity. This paper defines and describes typical distributed computing systems in the DOE. The special computer security problems present in distributed computing systems are identified and compared with traditional computer systems. The existing DOE computer security policy supports only basic networks and traditional computer systems and does not address distributed computing systems. A review of the existing policy requirements is followed by an analysis of the policy as it applies to distributed computing systems. Suggested changes in the DOE computer security policy are identified and discussed. The long lead time in updating DOE policy will require guidelines for applying the existing policy to distributed systems. Some possible interim approaches are identified and discussed. 2 refs.

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  1. Direct Current Contamination of Kilohertz Frequency Alternating Current Waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Manfred; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Kilohertz Frequency Alternating Current (KHFAC) waveforms are being evaluated in a variety of physiological settings because of their potential to modulate neural activity uniquely when compared to frequencies in the sub-kilohertz range. However, the use of waveforms in this frequency range presents some unique challenges regarding the generator output. In this study we explored the possibility of undesirable contamination of the KHFAC waveforms by direct current (DC). We evaluated current- and voltage-controlled KHFAC waveform generators in configurations that included a capacitive coupling between generator and electrode, a resistive coupling and combinations of capacitive with inductive coupling. Our results demonstrate that both voltage- and current-controlled signal generators can unintentionally add DC-contamination to a KHFAC signal, and that capacitive coupling is not always sufficient to eliminate this contamination. We furthermore demonstrated that high value inductors, placed in parallel with the electrode, can be effective in eliminating DC-contamination irrespective of the type of stimulator, reducing the DC contamination to less than 1 μA. This study highlights the importance of carefully designing the electronic setup used in KHFAC studies and suggests specific testing that should be performed and reported in all studies that assess the neural response to KHFAC waveforms. PMID:24820914

  2. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  3. Predictability of the California Current System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Arthur J.; Chereskin, T.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Niiler, P. P.; Moisan, J. R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The physical and biological oceanography of the Southern California Bight (SCB), a highly productive subregion of the California Current System (CCS) that extends from Point Conception, California, south to Ensenada, Mexico, continues to be extensively studied. For example, the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has sampled this region for over 50 years, providing an unparalleled time series of physical and biological data. However, our understanding of what physical processes control the large-scale and mesoscale variations in these properties is incomplete. In particular, the non-synoptic and relatively coarse spatial sampling (70km) of the hydrographic grid does not completely resolve the mesoscale eddy field (Figure 1a). Moreover, these unresolved physical variations exert a dominant influence on the evolution of the ecosystem. In recent years, additional datasets that partially sample the SCB have become available. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, which now sample upper-ocean velocity between stations, and sea level observations along TOPEX tracks give a more complete picture of the mesoscale variability. However, both TOPEX and ADCP are well-sampled only along the cruise or orbit tracks and coarsely sampled in time and between tracks. Surface Lagrangian drifters also sample the region, although irregularly in time and space. SeaWiFS provides estimates of upper-ocean chlorophyll-a (chl-alpha), usually giving nearly complete coverage for week-long intervals, depending on cloud coverage. Historical ocean color data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) has been used extensively to determine phytoplankton patterns and variability, characterize the primary production across the SCB coastal fronts, and describe the seasonal and interannual variability in pigment concentrations. As in CalCOFI, these studies described much of the observed structures and their variability over relatively large space and

  4. Improved water does not mean safe water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  5. Does the dopamine hypothesis explain schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Lau, Chi-Ieong; Wang, Han-Cheng; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Liu, Mu-En

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine hypothesis has been the cornerstone in the research and clinical practice of schizophrenia. With the initial emphasis on the role of excessive dopamine, the hypothesis has evolved to a concept of combining prefrontal hypodopaminergia and striatal hyperdopaminergia, and subsequently to the present aberrant salience hypothesis. This article provides a brief overview of the development and evidence of the dopamine hypothesis. It will argue that the current model of aberrant salience explains psychosis in schizophrenia and provides a plausible linkage between the pharmacological and cognitive aspects of the disease. Despite the privileged role of dopamine hypothesis in psychosis, its pathophysiological rather than etiological basis, its limitations in defining symptoms other than psychosis, as well as the evidence of other neurotransmitters such as glutamate and adenosine, prompt us to a wider perspective of the disease. Finally, dopamine does explain the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, but not necessarily the cause per se. Rather, dopamine acts as the common final pathway of a wide variety of predisposing factors, either environmental, genetic, or both, that lead to the disease. Other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and adenosine, may also collaborate with dopamine to give rise to the entire picture of schizophrenia. PMID:23843581

  6. Cell migration does not produce membrane flow

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We have previously reported that rearward migration of surface particles on slowly moving cells is not driven by membrane flow (Sheetz, M. P., S. Turney, H. Qian, and E. L. Elson. 1989. Nature (Lond.). 340:284-288) and recent photobleaching measurements have ruled out any rapid rearward lipid flow (Lee, J., M. Gustafsson, D. E. Magnussen, and K. Jacobson. 1990. Science (Wash. DC.) 247:1229-1233). It was not possible, however, to conclude from those studies that a slower or tank-tread membrane lipid flow does not occur. Therefore, we have used the technology of single particle tracking to examine the movements of diffusing particles on rapidly locomoting fish keratocytes where the membrane current is likely to be greatest. The keratocytes had a smooth lamellipodial surface on which bound Con A-coated gold particles were observed either to track toward the nuclear region (velocity of 0.35 +/- 0.15 micron/s) or to diffuse randomly (apparent diffusion coefficient of [3.5 +/- 2.0] x 10(-10) cm2/s). We detected no systematic drift relative to the cell edge of particles undergoing random diffusion even after the cell had moved many micrometers. The average net particle displacement was 0.01 +/- 2.7% of the cell displacement. These results strongly suggest that neither the motions of membrane proteins driven by the cytoskeleton nor other possible factors produce a bulk flow of membrane lipid. PMID:2211827

  7. Does Memory Modification Threaten Our Authenticity?

    PubMed

    Erler, Alexandre

    2011-11-01

    One objection to enhancement technologies is that they might lead us to live inauthentic lives. Memory modification technologies (MMTs) raise this worry in a particularly acute manner. In this paper I describe four scenarios where the use of MMTs might be said to lead to an inauthentic life. I then undertake to justify that judgment. I review the main existing accounts of authenticity, and present my own version of what I call a "true self" account (intended as a complement, rather than a substitute, to existing accounts). I briefly describe current and prospective MMTs, distinguishing between memory enhancement and memory editing. Moving then to an assessment of the initial scenarios in the light of the accounts previously described, I argue that memory enhancement does not, by its very nature, raise serious concerns about authenticity. The main threat to authenticity posed by MMTs comes, I suggest, from memory editing. Rejecting as inadequate the worries about identity raised by the President's Council on Bioethics in Beyond Therapy, I argue instead that memory editing can cause us to live an inauthentic life in two main ways: first, by threatening its truthfulness, and secondly, by interfering with our disposition to respond in certain ways to some past events, when we have reasons to respond in such ways. This consideration allows us to justify the charge of inauthenticity in cases where existing accounts fail. It also gives us a significant moral reason not to use MMTs in ways that would lead to such an outcome.

  8. Magnetoelectric control of spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ˜140 Oe cm kV-1. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.

  9. Electric currents in cosmic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that dualism is essential for the physics of cosmic plasmas, that is, that some phenomena should be described by a magnetic field formalism, and others by an electric current formalism. While in earlier work the magnetic field aspect has dominated, at present there is a systematic exploration of the particle (or current) aspect. A number of phenomena which can be understood only from the particle aspect are surveyed. Topics include the formation of electric double layers, the origin of 'explosive' events like magnetic substorms and solar flares, and the transfer of energy from one region to another. A method for exploring many of these phenomena is to draw the electric circuit in which the current flows and then study its properties. A number of simple circuits are analyzed in this way.

  10. Ion currents in embryo development.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Boni, Raffaele; Gallo, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    Ion channels are proteins expressed in the plasma membrane of electrogenic cells. In the zygote and blastomeres of the developing embryo, electrical modifications result from ion currents that flow through these channels. This phenomenon implies that ion current activity exerts a specific developmental function, and plays a crucial role in signal transduction and the control of embryogenesis, from the early cleavage stages and during growth and development of the embryo. This review describes the involvement of ion currents in early embryo development, from marine invertebrates to human, focusing on the occurrence, modulation, and dynamic role of ion fluxes taking place on the zygote and blastomere plasma membrane, and at the intercellular communication between embryo cell stages.

  11. Cesium vapor thermionic current generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, H.H.; Israel, A.D.

    1981-11-03

    An electron current generator is disclosed which includes a nonelectrical heat source, a heat pipe having its first end in thermal relationship with the heat source, and a second end projecting upwardly therefrom and constituting a thermionic emitter enclosed within a chamber containing an alkali metal vapor at a substantially reduced atmospheric pressure. A substantial portion of the chamber wall constitutes a thermionic collector which is cooled by an appropriate cooling means to enhance current generation. A body of liquid metal is disposed between the heat source and heat pipe as a thermal stabilizing agent while a solid state diode is arranged in a forward bias situation in the electrical output of the generator to stabilize the voltage thereby forming a constant voltage current generator.

  12. Eddy current scanning at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.; Foley, M.; Brinkmann, A.; Ozelis, J.; /Jefferson Lab

    2005-07-01

    In the framework of SRF cavity development, Fermilab is creating the infrastructure needed for the characterization of the material used in the cavity fabrication. An important step in the characterization of ''as received'' niobium sheets is the eddy current scanning. Eddy current scanning is a non-destructive technique first adopted and further developed by DESY with the purpose of checking the cavity material for sub-surface defects and inclusions. Fermilab has received and further upgraded a commercial eddy current scanner previously used for the SNS project. The upgrading process included developing new filtering software. This scanner is now used daily to scan the niobium sheets for the Fermilab third harmonic and transverse deflecting cavities. This paper gives a status report on the scanning results obtained so far, including a discussion of the typology of signals being detected. We also report on the efforts to calibrate this scanner, a work conducted in collaboration with DESY.

  13. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  14. Current drive at plasma densities required for thermonuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Cesario, R; Amicucci, L; Cardinali, A; Castaldo, C; Marinucci, M; Panaccione, L; Santini, F; Tudisco, O; Apicella, M L; Calabrò, G; Cianfarani, C; Frigione, D; Galli, A; Mazzitelli, G; Mazzotta, C; Pericoli, V; Schettini, G; Tuccillo, A A

    2010-08-10

    Progress in thermonuclear fusion energy research based on deuterium plasmas magnetically confined in toroidal tokamak devices requires the development of efficient current drive methods. Previous experiments have shown that plasma current can be driven effectively by externally launched radio frequency power coupled to lower hybrid plasma waves. However, at the high plasma densities required for fusion power plants, the coupled radio frequency power does not penetrate into the plasma core, possibly because of strong wave interactions with the plasma edge. Here we show experiments performed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) based on theoretical predictions that nonlinear interactions diminish when the peripheral plasma electron temperature is high, allowing significant wave penetration at high density. The results show that the coupled radio frequency power can penetrate into high-density plasmas due to weaker plasma edge effects, thus extending the effective range of lower hybrid current drive towards the domain relevant for fusion reactors.

  15. The low current domain of the aluminum/sulfur battery

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Hwang, J.; Light, T.S.; Dillon, R.

    1997-03-01

    A variety of factors including solution-phase modification, aluminum composition, temperature, and anolyte volume, modify anodic behavior in the approach to the low current density domain of the aluminum/sulfur battery. A relatively low level [0.4% Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} by weight in the anolyte] of mercury provides an amalgam film on the aluminum anode which minimizes the parasitic chemical consumption of aluminum anode which aluminum, providing anodic faradaic efficiencies in excess of 80%. Anodic overpotential losses are high for aluminum immersed in mercury-containing electrolytes. However, at lower current densities, their absolute magnitude is several hundred millivolts or smaller and does not substantially impair the cell potential. Aluminum/sulfur battery discharge times up to several hundred hours are demonstrated for 0.2 mA/cm{sup 2} current density cells.

  16. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  17. Current issues with research support

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  18. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    PubMed

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed. PMID:19819318

  19. Tevatron Resistive Wall Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    Resistive Wall Current Monitors (RWCM) were designed and built for the Fermilab Tevatron (Tev) project. These devices measure longitudinal beam current from 3 KHz to 6 GHz with 1.34 ohm gap impedance. There are two RWCM's installed a few feet apart in the Tevatron, upstream RWCM is used for general purpose use, downstream RWCM is dedicated for longitudinal parameters of coalesced beam bunches and bunch intensities. The design provides a calibration or test port for injecting test signals. Microwave absorber material is used to reduce interference from spurious electromagnetic waves traveling inside the beam pipe. This paper will do an overview how the RWCM was designed and its test results.

  20. Nondestructive synchronous beam current monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-12-15

    A fast current transformer is mounted after the deflectors of the Berkeley 88-Inch Cyclotron. The measured signal is amplified and connected to the input of a lock-in amplifier. The lock-in amplifier performs a synchronous detection of the signal at the cyclotron second harmonic frequency. The magnitude of the signal detected is calibrated against a Faraday cup and corresponds to the beam intensity. It has exceptional resolution, long term stability, and can measure the beam current leaving the cyclotron as low as 1 nA.

  1. Dental ceramics: a current review.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2014-03-01

    Ceramics are used for many dental applications and are characterized in various ways, including by their hardness, brittleness, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. The ceramics most commonly used in dentistry are oxides, particularly silicon dioxide (SiO2), or silica; aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or alumina; and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), or zirconia. This article reviews the microstructure of current dental ceramic materials and how it relates to their mechanical properties, clinical techniques, and optical properties. Typical ceramics currently in use are described, and their clinically relevant properties such as strength, fracture, polishability, and wear are compared. Cementation methods are also discussed.

  2. Transungual drug delivery: current status.

    PubMed

    Elkeeb, Rania; AliKhan, Ali; Elkeeb, Laila; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-01-15

    Topical therapy is highly desirable in treating nail disorders due to its localized effects, which results in minimal adverse systemic events and possibly improved adherence. However, the effectiveness of topical therapies is limited by minimal drug permeability through the nail plate. Current research on nail permeation that focuses on altering the nail plate barrier by means of chemical treatments, penetration enhancers as well as physical and mechanical methods is reviewed. A new method of nail sampling is examined. Finally limitations of current ungual drug permeability studies are briefly discussed.

  3. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  4. Current density distribution in PEFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixiang; Mao, Zongqiang; Wu, Bing; Wang, Lisheng; Schmidt, Volkmar M.

    The determination of the current distribution in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is of great practical importance to optimize the process parameter such as the flow field design, the humidification of reaction gases and the utilization of the fuel gas. In this paper, subcells approach is used to measure current density distribution in PEFC with an active electrode area of 30 cm 2. Fuel cell performances determined under different operation conditions clearly indicate that the water balance influences the cell performance most significantly. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that under certain condition both membrane drying and electrode flooding are shown simultaneously inducing performance decaying.

  5. Force As A Momentum Current

    SciTech Connect

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-07-28

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  6. Force As A Momentum Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múnera, Héctor A.

    2010-07-01

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  7. Current diagnosis of temporomandibular pathologies.

    PubMed

    Learreta, Jorge A; Matos, Jane L F; Matos, Marcelo Freire; Durst, Andreas C

    2009-04-01

    The current scientific knowledge of TMJ pathologies points to the importance of etiological research and the need for differential diagnosis using the most modem technological resources. Those include MRI, computed tomography, serologic studies, genetic mapping, and bioelectronic instruments which allow clinicians to study, understand, and measure respectively, the structural changes of soft and hard tissues, infections, genetic susceptibility for autoimmune diseases, and stomatognathic function. The purpose of this article is an overview of the current knowledge and related tools for the diagnosis of TMJ pathologies.

  8. Lactic Acidosis: Current Treatments and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-09-01

    Mortality rates associated with severe lactic acidosis (blood pH<7.2) due to sepsis or low-flow states are high. Eliminating the triggering conditions remains the most effective therapy. Although recommended by some, administration of sodium bicarbonate does not improve cardiovascular function or reduce mortality. This failure has been attributed to both reduction in serum calcium concentration and generation of excess carbon dioxide with intracellular acidification. In animal studies, hyperventilation and infusion of calcium during sodium bicarbonate administration improves cardiovascular function, suggesting that this approach could allow expression of the positive aspects of sodium bicarbonate. Other buffers, such as THAM or Carbicarb, or dialysis might also provide base with fewer untoward effects. Examination of these therapies in humans is warranted. The cellular injury associated with lactic acidosis is partly due to activation of NHE1, a cell-membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. In animal studies, selective NHE1 inhibitors improve cardiovascular function, ameliorate lactic acidosis, and reduce mortality, supporting future research into their possible use in humans. Two main mechanisms contribute to lactic acid accumulation in sepsis and low-flow states: tissue hypoxia and epinephrine-induced stimulation of aerobic glycolysis. Targeting these mechanisms could allow for more specific therapy. This Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case presents a patient with acute lactic acidosis and describes current and future approaches to treatment. PMID:27291485

  9. Current Surgical Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rönn, Karolin; Reischl, Nikolaus; Gautier, Emanuel; Jacobi, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Osteoathritis (OA) of the knee is common, and the chances of suffering from OA increase with age. Its treatment should be initially nonoperative—and requires both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment modalities. If conservative therapy fails, surgery should be considered. Surgical treatments for knee OA include arthroscopy, cartilage repair, osteotomy, and knee arthroplasty. Determining which of these procedures is most appropriate depends on several factors, including the location, stage of OA, comorbidities on the one side and patients suffering on the other side. Arthroscopic lavage and débridement is often carried out, but does not alter disease progression. If OA is limited to one compartment, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty or unloading osteotomy can be considered. They are recommended in young and active patients in regard to the risks and limited durability of total knee replacement. Total arthroplasty of the knee is a common and safe method in the elderly patients with advanced knee OA. This paper summarizes current surgical treatment strategies for knee OA, with a focus on the latest developments, indications and level of evidence. PMID:22046517

  10. What Does a Dean Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Clarence G.

    1997-01-01

    The dean of a divinity school reflects that the dean's role is to move the center of a school to its heart, safeguarding, promoting, and capitalizing on the school's collective intellectual intelligence and reconciling it with the school's collective emotional intelligence. Creating a climate for growth in the current environment of contraction is…

  11. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  12. Why Does Media Literacy Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargant, Naomi

    2004-01-01

    Media literacy is taking its place in the array of literacies increasingly recognised as necessary for participating actively in democracy or, indeed, in day-to-day life. Financial literacy is another current example. "Literacy" is a term now widely used in relation to adults. The Oxford English Dictionary describes it as a "condition in respect…

  13. Serrano: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John

    1975-01-01

    The Serrano decision provides an opportunity to create an equitable school finance system that guarantees every child in California a quality education. No major financial reform is likely unless the current system is declared unlawful. Published by California School Boards Association, 800 9th Street, Suite 201, Sacramento, California 95814.…

  14. Does Higher Education Need Deschooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butson, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to overcome the contemporary obsession with "learning" and proposes that current practices in higher education are aligned too closely with the educational theories and practices developed within pre-university compulsory education. The author takes the position that higher education is substantially different from…

  15. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  16. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  17. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    PubMed

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  18. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  19. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  20. Opportunities for Funding at DOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Harriet

    2009-03-01

    Dr. Harriet Kung will give an overview of the fundamental materials research activities at DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). BES supports basic research in materials sciences, chemistry, geosciences, and biosciences, as well as the construction and operation of major scientific user facilities, including the nation's large synchrotron radiation-light sources, neutron-scattering facilities, electron beam microscopy centers, and nanoscale science research centers. The objective of the materials research program at BES is to support fundamental experimental and theoretical research that provides the knowledge base for the discovery and design of new materials with novel structure, functions, and properties. The main research elements of the program are: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, Scattering and Instrumentation Sciences, and Materials Design, Discovery, and Synthesis. Each of the three program areas has a set of central program scope and goals, while there is close coupling and connection between the three elements. For example, in the condensed matter and materials physics—including activities in experimental condensed matter physics, theoretical condensed matter physics, materials behavior and radiation effects, and physical behavior of materials—research is supported to understand, design, and control materials properties and function. The activity emphasizes correlation effects, which can lead to the formation of new particles, new phases of matter, and unexpected phenomena. The theoretical efforts focus on the development of advanced theories and computational tools to treat large or complex systems. Information about the funding opportunities will be discussed in the presentation.After the presentation, there will be an informational session for BES program managers to meet with researchers interested in research opportunities in BES. Specific information about proposal submission and proposal evaluation will be provided. For additional