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Sample records for current dhhs doe

  1. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  2. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  3. How does relativity affect magnetically induced currents?

    PubMed

    Berger, R J F; Repisky, M; Komorovsky, S

    2015-09-21

    Magnetically induced probability currents in molecules are studied in relativistic theory. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the curvature and gives rise to a previously unobserved current cusp in AuH or small bulge-like distortions in HgH2 at the proton positions. The origin of this curvature is magnetically induced spin-density arising from SOC in the relativistic description.

  4. Current personnel dosimetry practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.

    1981-05-01

    Only three parameters were included in the personnel occupational exposure records by all facilities. These are employee name, social security number, and whole body dose. Approximate percentages of some other parameters included in the record systems are sex (50%), birthdate (90%), occupation (26%), previous employer radiation exposure (74%), etc. Statistical analysis of the data for such parameters as sex versus dose distribution, age versus dose distribution, cumulative lifetime dose, etc. was apparently seldom done. Less than 50% of the facilities reported having formal documentation for either the dosimeter, records system, or reader. Slightly greater than 50% of facilities reported having routine procedures in place. These are considered maximum percentages because some respondents considered computer codes as formal documentation. The repository receives data from DOE facilities regarding the (a) distribution of annual whole body doses, (b) significant internal depositions, and (c) individual doses upon termination. It is expected that numerous differences exist in the dose data submitted by the different facilities. Areas of significant differences would likely include the determination of non-measurable doses, the methods used to determine previous employer radiation dose, the methods of determining cumulative radiation dose, and assessment of internal doses. Undoubtedly, the accuracy of the different dosimetry systems, especially at low doses, is very important to the credibility of data summaries (e.g., man-rem) provided by the repository.

  5. Current Fat Guidelines and Recommendations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current dietary guidelines, including those of the US government [Dietary Guidelines (USDA/DHHS, 2005), Dietary Reference Intakes [reference DRI macronutrient book], National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, 2001)], American Heart Association (AHA, 2206), American Diabetes Association (2006) and...

  6. Nuclear Fuel Cycle: a current awareness bulletin. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-01-15

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of the fuel and radioactive wastes. The summaries refer to current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, conference papers, and monographs from all sources on radioactive wastes. All citations announced in NFC exist as separate records in the DOE Energy Data Base.

  7. Does the Current Minimum Validate (or Invalidate) Cycle Prediction Methods?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This deep, extended solar minimum and the slow start to Cycle 24 strongly suggest that Cycle 24 will be a small cycle. A wide array of solar cycle prediction techniques have been applied to predicting the amplitude of Cycle 24 with widely different results. Current conditions and new observations indicate that some highly regarded techniques now appear to have doubtful utility. Geomagnetic precursors have been reliable in the past and can be tested with 12 cycles of data. Of the three primary geomagnetic precursors only one (the minimum level of geomagnetic activity) suggests a small cycle. The Sun's polar field strength has also been used to successfully predict the last three cycles. The current weak polar fields are indicative of a small cycle. For the first time, dynamo models have been used to predict the size of a solar cycle but with opposite predictions depending on the model and the data assimilation. However, new measurements of the surface meridional flow indicate that the flow was substantially faster on the approach to Cycle 24 minimum than at Cycle 23 minimum. In both dynamo predictions a faster meridional flow should have given a shorter cycle 23 with stronger polar fields. This suggests that these dynamo models are not yet ready for solar cycle prediction.

  8. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  9. Current Progress and Future Plans for the DOE Office of Environmental Management International Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, K.D.; Marra, J. C.; Peeler, D.K.; Harbour, M.J.J.R.; Fox, K.M.; Vienna, J.D.; Aloy, A.S.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Bondarkov, M.D.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: - Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes - SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses - Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; - Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations. (authors)

  10. CURRENT PROGRESS AND FUTURE PLANS FOR THE DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; Kurt D Gerdes, K; David Peeler, D; John Harbour, J; Kevin Fox, K

    2007-11-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with various international institutes for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine's International Radioecology Laboratory to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support DOE-EM site cleanup needs. Specific initiatives include: (1) Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes--SIA Radon and Savannah River National Laboratory; (2) Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford Waste Glasses--Khlopin Radium Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory; and (3) Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone--International Radioecology Laboratory and Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the status of the current International Program task activities. The paper will also provide insight into the future direction for the program. Specific ties to the current DOE-EM technology development multi-year planning effort will be highlighted as well as opportunities for future international collaborations.

  11. Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews current literature regarding the association of the pharmaceutical preservative thimerosal and other mercury exposures with the risk for autism. The evidence presented here does not support a causal association between autism and mercury exposure from the preservative thimerosal. The risk for autism from other mercury exposures such as from dental amalgam restorations or environmental mercury release into the atmosphere is ambiguous. Since mercury is a known neurotoxin, more research should be done to ensure that mercury exposure from any source does not contribute to autism.

  12. Mouse SGLT3a generates proton-activated currents but does not transport sugar.

    PubMed

    Barcelona, Stephanie; Menegaz, Danusa; Díez-Sampedro, Ana

    2012-04-15

    Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are secondary active transporters belonging to the SLC5 gene family. SGLT1, a well-characterized member of this family, electrogenically transports glucose and galactose. Human SGLT3 (hSGLT3), despite sharing a high amino acid identity with human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), does not transport sugar, although functions as a sugar sensor. In contrast to humans, two different genes in mice and rats code for two different SGLT3 proteins, SGLT3a and SGLT3b. We previously cloned and characterized mouse SGLT3b (mSGLT3b) and showed that, while it does transport sugar like SGLT1, it likely functions as a physiological sugar sensor like hSGLT3. In this study, we cloned mouse SGLT3a (mSGLT3a) and characterized it by expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and performing electrophysiology and sugar transport assays. mSGLT3a did not transport sugar, and sugars did not induce currents at pH 7.4, though acidic pH induced inward currents that increased in the presence of sugar. Moreover, mutation of residue 457 from glutamate to glutamine resulted in a Na(+)-dependent transport of sugar that was inhibited by phlorizin. To corroborate our results in oocytes, we expressed and characterized mSGLT3a in mammalian cells and confirmed our findings. In addition, we cloned, expressed, and characterized rat SGLT3a in oocytes and found characteristics similar to mSGLT3a. In summary, acidic pH induces currents in mSGLT3a, and sugar-induced currents are increased at acidic pH, but wild-type SGLT3a does not transport sugar.

  13. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Current Status and Plans for Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.; Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Michael E.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Lopukh, D. P.; Kim, Chenwoo

    2009-01-15

    The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM’s international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology’s international efforts are aimed at supporting EM’s mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. Currently, DOE-EM is performing collaborative work with researchers at the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and the SIA Radon Institute in Russia and the Ukraine’s International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL). Additionally, a task was recently completed with the Nuclear Engineering Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea. The objectives of these collaborations were to explore issues relating to high-level waste and to investigate technologies that could be leveraged to support EM site cleanup needs. In FY09, continued collaboration with the current partners is planned. Additionally, new research projects are being planned to expand the International Program. A collaborative project with Russian Electrotechnical University is underway to evaluate CCIM control and monitoring technologies. A Statement of Intent was recently signed between DOE-EM and the U.K. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to work cooperatively on areas of mutual interest. Under this umbrella, discussions were held with NDA representatives to identify potential areas for collaboration. Information and technical exchanges were identified as near-term actions to help meet the objectives of the Statement of Intent. Technical exchanges in identified areas are being pursued in FY09

  14. The Manual Wargaming Process: Does Our Current Methodology Give Us the Optimum Solution?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-22

    Infantry jl C ,-A Er1, 818B1S IfT CLA¥1S VIC T011• School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth...REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE ANU OATES COVERED t ITLE1. AND SUSTIIlE 21/1= RP S. FUNDOING NUMIERS THE MANUAL WARGAMING PROCESS: DOES OUR CURRENT METODOLOGY ...tandstfc FormY 298 (ReV. 2-89) NSPI ;540-0 -260-55-00 ANSI Sid. 130-16 SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES M3NOGRAPH APPROVAL M11jr Walter E. Kretchikl

  15. Effects of buffer concentration on voltage-gated H+ currents: does diffusion limit the conductance?

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Cherny, V V

    1996-01-01

    The single-channel proton conductance of the voltage-gated H(+)-selective channel, like that of the F0 component of the H(+)-ATPase, is nearly constant over a wide range of pH encompassing the physiological range. To examine the possible contributions of buffer diffusion and buffer-channel proton transfer reactions to this phenomenon, the effects of buffer concentration on voltage-activated H+ currents were explored in voltage-clamped rat alveolar epithelial cells. Changes in the external buffer concentration ([B]o), evaluated using the whole-cell configuration, had only small effects on H+ currents (IH). Lowering [B]o from 100 to 1 mM did not alter the voltage-activation curve or reversal potential (Vrev) but reduced IH, typically by 10-30%. Changes in internal buffer concentration ([B]i), examined in inside-out patches, usually altered IH more distinctly and subtly changed the kinetics. Overall, the effects of changing buffer concentration were small and subtle. The maximum attenuation of the single-channel H+ current at 1 mM buffer was estimated to be approximately 20% at either mouth of the H+ channel. Therefore, the rate-determining step in H+ permeation is neither deprotonation of buffer at the inner mouth of the channel nor protonation of buffer at the external surface. Evidently the rate of H+ permeation through the channel is itself small enough that diffusion of buffer in bulk solution does not directly limit the conductance significantly. PMID:8804602

  16. Efficacy of antiviral chemotherapy for retrovirus-infected cats: What does the current literature tell us?

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-11-01

    The two feline retroviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), are global and widespread, but differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV, a lentivirus that shares many properties with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can cause an acquired immune deficiency syndrome, which predisposes cats to other infections, stomatitis, neurological disorders and tumours. Although secondary infections are common, specific opportunistic infections or acquired immunodeficiency virus-defining infections, such as those that occur with HIV, are not commonly reported in FIV-infected cats. In most naturally infected cats, FIV does not cause a severe clinical syndrome; with appropriate care, FIV-infected cats can live many years before succumbing to conditions unrelated to their FIV infection. Thus, overall survival time is not necessarily shorter than in uninfected cats, and quality of life is usually high over many years or lifelong. FeLV, an oncornavirus, is more pathogenic than FIV. Historically, it was considered to account for more disease-related deaths and clinical syndromes in cats than any other infectious agent. Recently, the prevalence and importance of FeLV have been decreasing, mainly because of testing and eradication programmes and the use of FeLV vaccines. Progressive FeLV infection can cause tumours, bone marrow suppression and immunosuppression, as well as neurological and other disorders, and leads to a decrease in life expectancy. However, with appropriate care, many FeLV-infected cats can also live several years with a good quality of life. A decision regarding treatment or euthanasia should never be based solely on the presence or absence of a retrovirus infection. Antiviral chemotherapy is of increasing interest in veterinary medicine, but is still not used commonly. This article reviews the current literature on antiviral chemotherapy in retrovirus-infected cats, focusing on drugs that are currently available on the

  17. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos. DHHS Committee to Coordinate Environmental and Related Programs.

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    This report is an assessment of all available literature that pertains to the potential risk of cancer associated with ingestion of asbestos. It was compiled by a working group to assist policy makers in the Department of Health and Human Services determine if adequate information was available for a definitive risk assessment on this potential problem and evaluate if the weight of evidence was sufficient to prioritize this issue for new policy recommendations. The work group considered the basis for concern over this problem, the body of toxicology experiments, the individual epidemiologic studies which have attempted to investigate this issue, and the articles that discuss components of risk assessment pertaining to the ingestion of asbestos. In the report, the work group concluded: that no direct, definitive risk assessment can be conducted at this time; that further epidemiologic investigations will be very costly and only possess sufficient statistical power to detect relatively large excesses in cancers related to asbestos ingestion; and that probably the most pertinent toxicologic experiments relate to resolving the differences in how inhaled asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos is processed. The work group believes that the cancer risk associated with asbestos ingestion should not be perceived as one of the most pressing potential public health hazards facing the nation. However, the work group does not believe that information was sufficient to assess the level of cancer risk associated with the ingestion and therefore, this potential hazard should not be discounted, and ingestion exposure to asbestos should be eliminated whenever possible. PMID:3304998

  18. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos. DHHS Committee to Coordinate Environmental and Related Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report is an assessment of all available literature that pertains to the potential risk of cancer associated with ingestion of asbestos. It was compiled by a working group to assist policy makers in the Department of Health and Human Services determine if adequate information was available for a definitive risk assessment on this potential problem and evaluate if the weight of evidence was sufficient to prioritize this issue for new policy recommendations. The work group considered the basis for concern over this problem, the body of toxicology experiments, the individual epidemiologic studies which have attempted to investigate this issue, and the articles that discuss components of risk assessment pertaining to the ingestion of asbestos. In the report, the work group concluded: that no direct, definitive risk assessment can be conducted at this time; that further epidemiologic investigations will be very costly and only possess sufficient statistical power to detect relatively large excesses in cancers related to asbestos ingestion; and that probably the most pertinent toxicologic experiments relate to resolving the differences in how inhaled asbestos, which is eventually swallowed, is biologically processed by humans, compared to how ingested asbestos is processed. The work group believes that the cancer risk associated with asbestos ingestion should not be perceived as one of the most pressing potential public health hazards facing the nation. However, the work group does not believe that information was sufficient to assess the level of cancer risk associated with the ingestion and therefore, this potential hazard should not be discounted, and ingestion exposure to asbestos should be eliminated whenever possible. 70 references.

  19. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  20. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of

  1. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of

  2. Current organisation of follow-up does not meet cancer patients' needs.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Cecilie; Sandager, Mette; Jensen, Henry; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann

    2014-06-01

    For cancer patients, traditional follow-up care is considered unsuitable and unsustainable. The patient perspective seems often to be absent in the ongoing debate about alternative strategies for follow-up care. Based on a national survey from 2012, the objective of this study was to examine cancer patients' support needs regarding physiological and emotional problems during follow-up and to identify factors associated with their needs and any unmet needs. Patients diagnosed with cancer in the period from April to September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 4,401 patients responded (response rate = 64%). The risks in terms of prevalence rate ratios of having needs and unmet needs for both physiological and emotional problems were estimated using the Poisson regression. The study showed that 60% of the patients had needs for support regarding physiological and emotional problems, and half of the patients reported unmet needs. Younger patients and patients with co-morbidity were more likely to report needs and unmet needs for physiological and emotional support. Treatment complexity and setting of follow-up were not associated with unmet needs. The study underlines that the current organisation of follow-up does not meet cancer patients' needs. Several factors are associated with both needs and unmet needs. Hence, a more sustainable approach for follow-up care may consist in stratification tailored to the patients' different needs. In such an approach, more focus should be on age-specific needs and the impact of co-morbidity. The study is funded by the Danish Cancer Society. The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (J. no. 2010-41-4694). According to the Danish Act on Research Ethics Review of Health Research Projects (S. 8(3) of Act No. 402 of 28 May 2003), no ethical approval was needed.

  3. Does oxygen limit thermal tolerance in arthropods? A critical review of current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Verberk, Wilco C.E.P.; Overgaard, Johannes; Ern, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, numerous studies have investigated the role of oxygen in setting thermal tolerance in aquatic animals, and there has been particular focus on arthropods. Arthropods comprise one of the most species-rich taxonomic groups on Earth, and display great diversity in the modes of ventilation, circulation, blood oxygen transport, with representatives living both in water (mainly crustaceans) and on land (mainly insects). The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis proposes that the temperature dependent performance curve of animals is shaped by the capacity for oxygen delivery in relation to oxygen demand. If correct, oxygen limitation could provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict both current and future impacts of rapidly changing climate. In arthropods, most studies testing the OCLTT hypothesis have considered tolerance to thermal extremes. These studies likely operate from the philosophical viewpoint that if the model can predict these critical thermal limits, then it is more likely to also explain loss of performance at less extreme, non-lethal temperatures, for which much less data is available. Nevertheless, the extent to which lethal temperatures are influenced by limitations in oxygen supply remains unresolved. Here we critically evaluate the support and universal applicability for oxygen limitation being involved in lethal temperatures in crustaceans and insects. The relatively few studies investigating the OCLTT hypothesis at low temperature do not support a universal role for oxygen in setting the lower thermal limits in arthropods. With respect to upper thermal limits, the evidence supporting OCLTT is stronger for species relying on underwater gas exchange, while the support for OCLTT in air-breathers is weak. Overall, strongest support was found for increased anaerobic metabolism close to thermal maxima. In contrast, there was only mixed support for the prediction that aerobic scope

  4. Does oxygen limit thermal tolerance in arthropods? A critical review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Overgaard, Johannes; Ern, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, numerous studies have investigated the role of oxygen in setting thermal tolerance in aquatic animals, and there has been particular focus on arthropods. Arthropods comprise one of the most species-rich taxonomic groups on Earth, and display great diversity in the modes of ventilation, circulation, blood oxygen transport, with representatives living both in water (mainly crustaceans) and on land (mainly insects). The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis proposes that the temperature dependent performance curve of animals is shaped by the capacity for oxygen delivery in relation to oxygen demand. If correct, oxygen limitation could provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict both current and future impacts of rapidly changing climate. In arthropods, most studies testing the OCLTT hypothesis have considered tolerance to thermal extremes. These studies likely operate from the philosophical viewpoint that if the model can predict these critical thermal limits, then it is more likely to also explain loss of performance at less extreme, non-lethal temperatures, for which much less data is available. Nevertheless, the extent to which lethal temperatures are influenced by limitations in oxygen supply remains unresolved. Here we critically evaluate the support and universal applicability for oxygen limitation being involved in lethal temperatures in crustaceans and insects. The relatively few studies investigating the OCLTT hypothesis at low temperature do not support a universal role for oxygen in setting the lower thermal limits in arthropods. With respect to upper thermal limits, the evidence supporting OCLTT is stronger for species relying on underwater gas exchange, while the support for OCLTT in air-breathers is weak. Overall, strongest support was found for increased anaerobic metabolism close to thermal maxima. In contrast, there was only mixed support for the prediction that aerobic scope

  5. DOE's Current Geothermal Reservoir Programs and Comments on International Cooperation in Hydrothermal Research

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, Ronald S.H.

    1983-12-15

    DOE's geothermal program continues to emphasize a range of reservoir-related programs in reservoir definition, brine injection, stimulation, hot dry rock, geopressured resources and, now, magma resources. These programs are described briefly. Programs in international cooperation between the U.S. and 23 other countries on hydrothermal research have produced important gains in knowledge over the past ten years. Although the activity has diminished, a resurgence is anticipated.

  6. Ecological assessments at DOE hazardous waste sites: Current procedures and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Krummel, J.R.; Irving, J.S.; Vinikour, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Major actions at US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous waste sites require CERCLA compliance that meets NEPA considerations. Although NEPA compliance includes ecological considerations, neither the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) nor the DOE provide detailed guidance for conducting ecological assessments under NEPA. However, the identification of the form and magnitude of potential ecological impacts associated with a proposed action is directly dependent on the quality of the baseline data available for a particular site. Using the Surplus Facilities Management Program Weldon Spring site as an example, we discuss the collection of baseline ecological data for the site. This site is surrounded by approximately 17,000 acres of wildlife area. Available wildlife data consisted of qualitative, county-level species lists, and vegetation data was in the form of a regional qualitative narrative. Detailed site-specific occurrence data for listed species and high quality natural communities was provided by the Missouri Department of Conservation Heritage data base. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. COIN Goes "GLOCAL": Traditional COIN With a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-17

    COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles

  8. Contact Effects in thin 3D-Topological Insulators: How does the current flow?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Liang, Gengchiau

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different contact configurations (semi-infinite extended-channel, normal metal and ferromagnetic metal) on quantum transport through thin Bi2Se3 three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) slab (channel) has been investigated through Non-Equilibrium Green Function. The issue of contact dependent current flow and distribution across quintuple layers of 3D-TI has been addressed in this work and applied to expound the explanation for recent experimental work on electrical detection of spin-momentum locking on topological surface for long channel device. A theoretical model is propounded to develop a microscopic understanding of transport in 3D-TI in which contact type and magnetization concur with helical surface states of the TI channel to manifest seemingly counter-intuitive current distribution across layers. The quantum transport calculations for short channel devices with magnetic source and drain contacts postulate negative surface current for anti-phase magnetization whose axis is transverse to both current and quintuple layers. For in-phase magnetization at the two terminals, it is shown that observations can change fundamentally to result in anomalous current distribution. Such results are explained to stem from the confinement of 3D-TI between ferromagnetic contacts along the transport direction. A simple mechanism to validate topological insulators via quantum transport experiments has also been suggested. PMID:25820460

  9. Evaluation of Current Computer Models Applied in the DOE Complex for SAR Analysis of Radiological Dispersion & Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kula, K. R.; East, J. M.; Weber, A. H.; Savino, A. V.; Mazzola, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/ radiological dose analysis codes included fifteen models identified in authorization basis safety analysis at DOE facilities, or from regulatory and research agencies where past or current work warranted inclusion of a computer model. All computer codes examined were reviewed using general and specific evaluation criteria developed by the Working Group. The criteria were based on DOE Orders and other regulatory standards and guidance for performing bounding and conservative dose calculations. Included were three categories of criteria: (1) Software Quality/User Interface; (2) Technical Model Adequacy; and (3) Application/Source Term Environment. A consensus-based limited quantitative ranking process was used to base an order of model preference as both an overall conclusion, and under specific conditions.

  10. Does a Unique Neuropsychiatric Profile Currently Exist for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Faith M; McGrew, Christopher A; Mayer, Andrew R

    There is evidence that repetitive mild traumatic brain injury leads to specific patterns of neuropathological findings, labeled chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, questions remain about whether these neuropathological changes produce changes in behavior, cognition, and emotional status that are associated with a unique neuropsychiatric profile that can be assessed using currently available clinical tools. Our review of the literature indicates that insufficient evidence currently exists to suggest a distinct neuropsychiatric profile for CTE. Major limitations to the field presently include the relatively nascent nature of the topic, reliance on retrospective next-of-kin reporting, the lack of prospective studies, and similarities in neuropsychiatric symptoms between CTE, other neurodegenerative disorders and forms of psychopathology. Clinicians and researchers alike have a responsibility to adopt a cautious and balanced approach for antemortem assessments to minimize the potential unintended negative consequences of both overdiagnosing and underdiagnosing a clinical entity that has yet to be clearly established.

  11. Selection of unrelated bone marrow donors: does the current procedure warrant complete MHC class II identity?

    PubMed

    Eiermann, T H; Ballas, M; Fakler, J; Müller, C; Wölpl, A; Goldmann, S F

    1992-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation from unrelated donors is being used increasingly for the treatment of patients with leukemia and several other hematologic disorders. Selection of unrelated bone marrow donors currently relies on serological HLA identity and negative mixed lymphocyte reactions between donor/recipient pairs. As serological HLA-DP typing is not feasible, we used the HLA-DPB1 oligonucleotide typing method to investigate whether the current selection procedure can guarantee complete MHC class II identity. In 40 consecutive patients, one third (62/193) serologically HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and -DQ identical donors were found to be MLC-negative with a relative response below 5%. HLA-DPB1 oligonucleotide typing of these MLC-negative donors revealed that again only one third (20/62) was also identical for DP with their presumptive recipients. In the majority of pairs a disparity in graft-versus-host direction or in host-versus-graft direction of at least one allele was seen. These data indicate that, in spite of the strict MLC criteria used, the current procedure did not warrant complete MHC class II identity. This implies that oligotyping for DPB1 can improve matching and should be introduced for typing of volunteers.

  12. Chromium does not belong in the diabetes treatment arsenal: Current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Landman, Gijs Wd; Bilo, Henk Jg; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2014-04-15

    Chromium is considered to have positive effects on insulin sensitivity and is marketed as an adjunctive therapy for inducing glucose tolerance in cases of insulin resistance ("the glucose tolerance factor"). Case reports on patients who received prolonged parenteral nutrition indeed showed that the absence of trivalent chromium caused insulin resistance and diabetes. However, whether patients with type 2 diabetes can develop a clinically relevant chromium deficiency is unclear. This review summarizes the available evidence regarding the potential effectiveness of chromium supplementation on glycemic control (Hemoglobin A1c levels) in patients with type 2 diabetes. No studies investigating the long-term safety of chromium in humans were found. All clinical trials that have been performed had a relative short follow-up period. None of the trials investigated whether the patients had risk factors for chromium deficiency. The evidence from randomized trials in patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrated that chromium supplementation does not effectively improve glycemic control. The meta-analyses showed that chromium supplementation did not improve fasting plasma glucose levels. Moreover, there were no clinically relevant chromium effects on body weight in individuals with or without diabetes. Future studies should focus on reliable methods to estimate chromium status to identify patients at risk for pathological alterations in their metabolism associated with chromium deficiency. Given the present data, there is no evidence that supports advising patients with type 2 diabetes to take chromium supplements.

  13. Does Titan have an ocean? A review of current understanding of Titan's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1993-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a balanced perspective regarding the knowledge of Titan's surface and how well current models address the various sets of data. Topics discussed include the Voyager data that led to the notion of a massive, global-scale hydrocarbon ocean; recent data sets including radar, radiometry, and NIR photometry that bear on the nature of the surface. Attention is also given to models of the surface that attempt to fit all of the constraints; and the Cassini investigations of Titan's surface. The surface and regolith of Titan are considered to be most likely a repository of liquid methane, other hydrocarbons, and dissolved nitrogen.

  14. Does Titan have an ocean? A review of current understanding of Titan's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1993-05-01

    An attempt is made to provide a balanced perspective regarding the knowledge of Titan's surface and how well current models address the various sets of data. Topics discussed include the Voyager data that led to the notion of a massive, global-scale hydrocarbon ocean; recent data sets including radar, radiometry, and NIR photometry that bear on the nature of the surface. Attention is also given to models of the surface that attempt to fit all of the constraints; and the Cassini investigations of Titan's surface. The surface and regolith of Titan are considered to be most likely a repository of liquid methane, other hydrocarbons, and dissolved nitrogen.

  15. Does Ketamine Have Anti-Suicidal Properties? Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rebecca B.; Mathew, Sanjay J.

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine, a widely used anesthetic agent, is currently being investigated as a novel therapeutic for depression and suicidality. Ketamine has garnered substantial attention from researchers, clinicians, media outlets, and patients alike, but numerous questions remain. One of the compelling features of ketamine is the rapidity of its antidepressant effects, which peak just 24 hours after infusion, setting it apart from other existing treatments. Ketamine’s rapid time course has inspired research efforts to explore its potential as a life-saving therapy for patients at imminent risk of suicide. In this article, we review current evidence supporting ketamine’s rapid effects on suicidal ideation in the context of unipolar and bipolar depression. We then discuss several future directions that are necessary before ketamine can be considered as a viable treatment option for suicidality in clinical settings. These include: testing for a specific anti-suicidal effect—separate from overall antidepressant effects—to ascertain whether ketamine might hold promise for a broader class of suicidal patients; ensuring that acute benefits of ketamine can be prolonged over a clinically meaningful timeframe; and developing a better understanding of the mechanisms by which ketamine might reduce suicide risk. Such efforts will enable the field to more accurately assess ketamine’s potential, as well as its limitations, allowing for appropriate placement within the context of comprehensive clinical care for suicide prevention. PMID:25715884

  16. Baby doe redux? The Department of Health and Human Services and the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002: a cautionary note on normative neonatal practice.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2005-10-01

    judicial decisions undermine the ethical discretion parents are typically afforded in decision-making before and after delivery in these morally complex situations. The DHHS interpretation of the BAIPA may encourage jurisdictional creep of these kinds of pronouncements as the agency seeks to expand legal protections for born-alive infants. The US Supreme Court has stated that "courts must presume that a legislature says in a statute what it means and means in a statute what it says there"; thus, judges interpret law by analyzing "concrete statutory language, not by reference to abstract notions of generalized legislative intent." The BAIPA indiscriminately defines "born alive" to include an infant "at any stage of development... regardless of whether the expulsion or extraction occurs as a result of natural or induced labor, cesarean section, or induced abortion," and it makes no reference to standards of care or best interests, nor does it specifically protect a parent's decision-making authority. Under the law's strict logic, an 18-week miscarried fetus with a detectable heart beat after delivery is entitled to the full protections of the law as determined by "any Act of Congress, or any ruling, regulation, or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies." Before concluding that the BAIPA would not affect normative neonatal practice, the NRP Steering Committee should have analyzed the act's actual statutory language and avoided relying heavily on imprecise legislative intent. The BAIPA's congressional sponsors did claim that the law "will not mandate medical treatment where none is currently indicated," but such political rhetoric is often not sufficient to render law innocuous years after separation from its legislative history. Besides, nowhere in the House record does the majority explicitly acknowledge that discretion to decide the fate of imperiled newborns invests in parents, in consultation with physicians; indeed, the bill's stated purpose

  17. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulate sensory perception and pain? A meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2014-09-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy individuals and pain levels (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for a-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was examined using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) increases both STh (P<0.005, with the effect size of 22.19%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 19.28%). In addition, STh was increased by a-tDCS of the primary sensory cortex (S1) (P<0.05 with an effect size of 4.34). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of a-tDCS to both the M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The average decrease in visual analogue score was 14.9% and 19.3% after applying a-tDCS on the M1 and DLPFC. Moreover, meta-analysis showed that in all subgroups (except a-tDCS of S1) active a-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences. This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of a-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy group and decreasing PL in patients. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted cautiously. Given the level of blinding did not considered in inclusion criteria, the result of current study should be interpreted with caution. Site of stimulation should have a differential effect over pain relief. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the current regulation of assisted reproductive techniques in the UK safeguard animal welfare?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive medicine is one of the fastest-developing fields of veterinary medicine, Regulation of veterinary assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is currently divided between the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986); the Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966, and the Animal Welfare Act (2006). None of those pieces of legislation was purpose designed to protect the welfare of animals undergoing ARTs, either directly or by determining which veterinary ART procedures may or may not be performed. Consequently, due to the lack of reference to such procedures, the welfare protection aims of the legislation are sometimes ambiguous. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether the aims of the legislation are being fulfilled, but, in the opinion of this author, the legislation is anyway inadequate in scope, most particularly because it fails to provide a reporting function. It is unclear whether all or any veterinary ART procedures being undertaken on post-natal animals are associated with suffering. Some ARTs may cause discomfort, stress or pain: study or review of the welfare effects of these would be valuable. Any future review of the legislation regulating veterinary ARTs, be that an overall review or a review of one of the relevant statutes (for example the VSA), should take into account the interface between research and clinical medicine; the potentially welfare-compromising gaps between the Acts; the need to introduce reporting functions in order to build an evidence base, and the issue of veterinary specialisation and whether specialised techniques should be carried out only by those with specialist post-graduate qualifications.

  19. Biologic therapy with or without topical treatment in psoriasis: what does the current evidence say?

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Daniel; Delcambre, Macey Renault; Nguyen, Gloria; Sami, Naveed

    2014-10-01

    Biologic therapy represents a relatively new class of drugs which have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and are used with increasing frequency in order to control this chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. However, it is unclear what role there is for combination therapy of biologics with traditional topical agents. The purpose of this article is to assess the literature on the role of topical agents as adjuvants to biological treatments in the treatment of psoriasis and identify areas for further research. A MEDLINE search was performed in order to identify English-language publications from 1996 to 2014 examining combination biologic therapy with topical medications in the treatment of psoriasis. Data from these clinical studies are summarized and the outcomes are discussed. In general, the addition of adjuvant topical therapy to systemic biologic therapy allowed for a reduction in dosage and side effects of both agents, maintenance of initial response to biologics, treatment of recalcitrant lesions in partial responders, and potential acceleration of response to biologic therapies. The current data, though limited, suggest that using topical therapies as adjunct treatment to biologics is a well tolerated and effective means of controlling psoriasis and improving quality of life for patients. However, the treating physician should remain attentive to signs of adverse events and seek opportunities to reduce the dose or treatment frequency during chronic use.

  20. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].

    PubMed

    Johansen, Rolf

    2008-03-13

    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  1. How does surgery compare with advanced intra-articular therapies in knee osteoarthritis: current thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Wehling, Peter; Moser, Carsten; Maixner, William

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of osteoarthritis (OA) management are to reduce pain and inflammation, slow cartilage degradation, improve function and reduce disability. Current strategies for managing knee OA include nonpharmacological interventions, oral pharmacological treatments, localized intra-articular injections, and surgery. It has become evident that the inflammatory response is a key contributor to the development and progression of knee OA. Signaling pathways involving growth factors and cytokines are being investigated for the development of new therapies that target the underlying biological processes causing the disease. This concept of ‘molecular orthopedics’ enables more patient-centered diagnostic and treatment strategies. In contrast to other conservative therapies, which ultimately only address OA symptoms, intra-articular injections, in particular autologous conditioned serum (ACS), provide benefits that have the potential to outweigh those of established pharmacological treatments and surgery. Surgery has historically been considered the final solution for treatment of knee OA, both by treating physicians and by patients; however, there are increasing concerns regarding the lack of randomized clinical trials providing evidence to support this opinion. Intra-articular injection of ACS has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for knee OA in a number of studies, with a very low rate of adverse events and side effects, compared with surgery. Treatment with ACS utilizes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and regenerative growth factors to support the natural healing processes in the knee, and has the potential to provide a valuable alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:27247634

  2. Does the legacy of historical biogeography shape current invasiveness in pines?

    PubMed

    Gallien, Laure; Saladin, Bianca; Boucher, Florian C; Richardson, David M; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2016-02-01

    Why are some introduced species more successful at establishing and spreading than others? Until now, characteristics of extant species have been intensively investigated to answer this question. We propose to gain new insights on species invasiveness by exploring the long-term biogeographic and evolutionary history of lineages. We exemplify our approach using one of the best-studied invasive plant genera, Pinus. We notably estimated the historical biogeography of pines and the rates of trait evolution in pines. These estimates were analysed with regard to species invasiveness status. The results revealed that currently invasive species belong to lineages that were particularly successful at colonizing new regions in the past. We also showed that highly mobile lineages had faster rates of niche evolution, but that these rates are poor proxies for species adaptive potential in invaded regions (estimated by niche shift among native and invaded regions). In summary, working at the interface of ecology, historical biogeography and evolutionary history offers stimulating perspectives to improve our understanding of the drivers of invasion success.

  3. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders. PMID:28197085

  4. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders.

  5. Current hydration guidelines are erroneous: dehydration does not impair exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Wall, Bradley A; Watson, Greig; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Siegel, Rodney; Laursen, Paul B

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory studies that support the hydration guidelines of leading governing bodies have shown that dehydration to only -2% of body mass can lead to increase in body temperature and heart rate during exercise, and decrease in performance. These studies, however, have been conducted in relatively windless environments (ie, wind speed <12.9 km/h), without participants being blinded to their hydration status. To investigate the effect of blinded hydration status on cycling time-trial performance in the heat with ecologically valid facing wind speed conditions. During three experimental trials, 10 cyclists were dehydrated to -3% body mass by performing 2 h of submaximal exercise (walking and cycling) in the heat, before being reinfused with saline to replace 100%, 33% or 0% of fluid losses, leaving them 0%, -2% or -3% hypohydrated, respectively. Participants then completed a 25 km time trial in the heat (33°C, 40% relative humidity; wind speed 32 km/h) during which their starting hydration status was maintained by infusing saline at a rate equal to their sweat rate. The treatment was participant-blinded and the order was randomised. Completion time, power output, heart rate, rectal temperature and perceptual variables were measured. While rectal temperature was higher beyond 17 km of the time trial in the -3% vs 0% conditions (38.9±0.3°C vs 38.6±0.3°C; p<0.05), no other differences between trials were shown. When well-trained cyclists performed a 25 km cycling time trial under ecologically valid conditions and were blinded to their hydration status, performance, physiological and perceptual variables were not different between trials. These data do not support the residing basis behind many of the current hydration guidelines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Current Total Knee Designs: Does Baseplate Roughness or Locking Mechanism Design Affect Polyethylene Backside Wear?

    PubMed

    Sisko, Zachary W; Teeter, Matthew G; Lanting, Brent A; Howard, James L; McCalden, Richard W; Naudie, Douglas D; MacDonald, Steven J; Vasarhelyi, Edward M

    2017-09-13

    .67-8.99 versus median, 0.75; range, 0-1.5; 95% CI, 0.20-1.47; p = 0.016)). Dimpling was a unique wear mode to the nonpolished baseplates with the peripheral-rim capture and antirotational island (median, 5.5; range, 2.0-9.0; 95% CI, 2.96-8.38) and the peripheral-rim capture alone (median, 9.0; range, 6.0-10.0; 95% CI, 7.29-10.38). Overall, the linear wear rate for polished designs was lower than for nonpolished designs (0.0102 ± 0.0044 mm/year versus 0.0224 ± 0.0119 mm/year; p < 0.001). Two of the polished baseplate designs, the partial peripheral capture with anterior constraint (median, 0.083 mm/year; range, 0.0037-0.0111 mm/year; 95% CI, 0.0050-0.0107 mm versus median, 0.0245 mm/year; range, 0.014-0.046 mm/year; 95% CI, 0.0130-0.0414 mm; p = 0.008) and the tongue-in-groove locking mechanism (median, 0.0085 mm/year; range, 0.005-0.015 mm/year; 95% CI, 0.0045-0.0138 mm; p = 0.032) showed lower polyethylene linear wear rates compared with the nonpolished baseplate design with only a peripheral-rim capture. Total damage scores and linear wear rates were highest involving the nonpolished design with only a peripheral rim capture. There were no differences among the other TKA designs regarding damage and wear, but this finding should be considered in the setting of a relatively small sample size. Our study showed that in the complex interplay between baseplate surface finish and locking mechanism design, a polished baseplate with a robust locking mechanism had the lowest backside damage and linear wear. However, improvements in locking mechanism design in nonpolished baseplates potentially may offset some advantages of a polished baseplate. Further retrieval analyses need to be done to confirm such findings, especially analyzing current crosslinked polyethylene. Additionally, we need mid- and long-term studies comparing TKA revisions attributable to wear and osteolysis among implants before understanding if such design differences are clinically relevant.

  7. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines.

  8. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. Results The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. Conclusions The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. PMID:27547428

  9. Research initiatives in ionizing radiation research United States Department of Energy, Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    This outline reports covers the following points: US DOE/US DHHS memo of understanding and the future of major epidemiologic studies; dose reconstruction at DOE sites; RERF: current status; internal emitters studies; development of the CEDR database; Biostatistical studies.

  10. Evidence from prospective cohort studies does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2016-10-03

    National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the US and UK governments to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. Our 2016 systematic review examined the epidemiological evidence available to the dietary committees at the time; we found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of epidemiological evidence currently available relating to dietary fat guidelines. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, were undertaken. Across 7 studies, involving 89 801 participants (94% male), there were 2024 deaths from CHD during the mean follow-up of 11.9±5.6 years. The death rate from CHD was 2.25%. Eight data sets were suitable for inclusion in meta-analysis; all excluded participants with previous heart disease. Risk ratios (RRs) from meta-analysis were not statistically significant for CHD deaths and total or saturated fat consumption. The RR from meta-analysis for total fat intake and CHD deaths was 1.04 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.10). The RR from meta-analysis for saturated fat intake and CHD deaths was 1.08 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.25). Epidemiological evidence to date found no significant difference in CHD mortality and total fat or saturated fat intake and thus does not support the present dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Patients with left bundle branch block pattern and high cardiac risk myocardial SPECT: does the current management suffice?

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, T J F; Kelder, J C; Plokker, H W M; Verzijlbergen, J F; van Hemel, N M

    2013-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) is frequently used for cardiovascular risk stratification. The significance of MPS in patients with abnormal electrical ventricular activation is often questionable. This review assesses the value of MPS for risk stratification of patients with intrinsic left bundle branch block or that due to right ventricular apical pacing. We reviewed the literature by a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1980 to September 2010). The terms prognosis or prognostic value were combined with SPECT and LBBB or pacing or pacemakers. MPS was categorised as low and high risk according to the original definitions. We identified 11 studies suitable for review. A low-risk MPS is associated with a low risk of cardiac events whereas high-risk MPS carries a 4.8-fold increased risk, 95% CI [3.2 - 7.2] (p < 0.0001). Despite secondary prevention and an improved medical and interventional care, these figures have hardly changed over time. A low-risk MPS permits a policy of watchful waiting whereas a high-risk MPS requires further analysis and treatment. The persistent high cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction rate after a high-risk MPS suggest that the current management of these patients does not suffice and needs reconsideration.

  12. DOE ORDER 435.1, IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE DECLARATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND ACROSS THE DOE COMPLEX IN CONTRAST TO CURRENT PUSHBACK EFFORTS FROM THE ''TOP-TO-BOTTOM'' REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    GOLDSTON, WELFORD T.; SMITH, WINCHESTER IV

    2003-02-27

    DOE issued Order 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' on July 9, 1999 for immediate implementation. The requirements for Low Level Mixed, Transuranic, and High Level Waste have been completely rewritten. The entire DOE complex has been struggling with how to implement these new requirements within the one year required timeframe. This paper will chronicle the implementation strategy and actual results of the work to carry out that strategy at the Savannah River Site. DOE-SR and the site contractors worked closely together to implement each of the new requirements across the SRS, crossing many barriers and providing innovative solutions to the many problems that surfaced throughout the year. The results are that SRS declared compliance with all of the requirements of the Order within the prescribed timeframe. The challenge included all waste types in SRS facilities and programs that handle LLW, MLLW, TRU, and HLW. This paper will describe the implementation details for development of Radioactive Waste Management Basis for each facility, Identification of Wastes with No Path to Disposal, Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determinations, Low Level Waste 90-Day Staging and One Year Limits for Storage Programs, to name a few of the requirements that were addressed by the SRS 435.1 Implementation Team. This paper will trace the implementation, problems (both technical and administrative), and the current pushback efforts associated with the DOE ''Top-to-Bottom'' review.

  13. Does current versus former smoking play a role in the relationship between anxiety and mood disorders and nicotine dependence?

    PubMed

    Grover, Kristin W; Goodwin, Renee D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Research suggests an association between nicotine dependence and anxiety/mood disorders. Yet, less is known about the role of current versus former smoking in the association between nicotine dependence and these psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between anxiety/mood disorders and 1) nicotine dependence and 2) current versus former smoking. Data were drawn from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of over 43,000 adults in the United States. Analyses examined whether dependent versus non-dependent smoking and current versus former smoking were associated with anxiety/mood disorders. Current dependent, but not non-dependent, smoking was associated with significantly increased odds of anxiety/mood disorders. There was no association between anxiety/mood disorders and former dependent smoking, compared with never smoking. However, compared with never smoking, former non-dependent smoking was associated with significantly decreased odds of current anxiety/mood disorders. Current dependent smoking was positively associated with current anxiety/mood disorders, and former non-dependent smoking was negatively associated with current anxiety/mood disorders. The present research is important for understanding the relation between nicotine dependence and anxiety/mood disorders, and why it may be difficult for people with these disorders to quit smoking. The results from this study indicate that greater clinical attention could be directed toward the role of anxiety/mood disorders in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comment on “Management for mountain pine beetle outbreak suppression: Does relevant science support current policy?"

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Kenneth E. Gibson; A. Steven Munson; Jose F. Negrón

    2014-01-01

    There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests...

  15. Does lightning destroy rocks?: Results from a laboratory lightning experiment using an impulse high-current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasa, Sachi A.; Nishimura, Seisuke; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2012-08-01

    To understand the destruction of rocks and changes to landforms by lightning strikes, laboratory experiments of lightning strikes were performed using three kinds of rock samples as targets. Artificial lightning with known electric current was simulated by an impulse high-current generator in the laboratory. The artificial lightning is different to natural lightning. The high-current generator can generate up to 20 kA of electric current equal to 50% of the value of natural lightning, but up to 50 kV of electric voltage which is a tenth to hundredth that of natural lightning. Experimental results showed that the rock samples with low mechanical resistance, tuff and rhyolite, were destroyed, while the rock sample with high mechanical resistance, i.e., granite, was not broken by lightning strikes. These results indicate that natural lightning causes rocks and bedrock to break. These imply that lightning might change landforms, for example gnammas and fractures on tors and mountain peaks where lightning tends to strike.

  16. The antihistamine fexofenadine does not affect IKr currents in a case report of drug-induced cardiac arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Constanze R; Lerche, Christian; Decher, Niels; Dennis, Adrienne T; Maier, Patrick; Ficker, Eckhard; Busch, Andreas E; Wollnik, Bernd; Steinmeyer, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The human HERG gene encodes the cardiac repolarizing K+ current IKr and is genetically inactivated in inherited long QT syndrome 2 (LQTS2). The antihistamine terfenadine blocks HERG channels, and can cause QT prolongation and torsades de pointes, whereas its carboxylate fexofenadine lacks HERG blocking activity. In the present study the ability of fexofenadine to block the K897T HERG channel variant was investigated. The underlying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A2960C was identified in a patient reported to develop fexofenadine-associated LQTS. K897T HERG channels produced wild-type-like currents in Xenopus oocytes. Even at a concentration of 100 μM, fexofenadine did not inhibit wild-type or K897T HERG channels. Coexpression of wild-type and K897T HERG with the ß-subunit MiRP1, slightly changed current kinetics but did not change sensitivity to terfenadine and fexofenadine. Western blot analysis and immunostaining of transiently transfected COS-7 cells demonstrated that overall expression level, glycosylation pattern and subcellular localization of K897T HERG is indistinguishable from wild-type HERG protein, and not altered in the presence of 1 μM fexofenadine. We provide the first functional characterization of the K897T HERG variant. We demonstrated that K897T HERG is similar to wild-type HERG, and is insensitive to fexofenadine. Although the polymorphism changes PKA and PKC phosphorylation sites, regulation of K897T HERG by these kinases is not altered. Our results strongly indicate that QT lengthening and cardiac arrhythmia in the reported case of drug-induced LQT are not due to the K897T exchange or to an inhibitory effect of fexofenadine on cardiac IKr currents. PMID:12411421

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): does it have merit in stroke rehabilitation? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jodie; van Vliet, Paulette; McElduff, Patrick; Lagopoulos, Jim; Parsons, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation has been gaining increasing interest as a potential therapeutic treatment in stroke recovery. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to collate the available evidence in adults with residual motor impairments as a result of stroke. The primary outcome was change in motor function or impairment as a result of transcranial direct current stimulation, using any reported electrode montage, with or without adjunct physical therapy. The search yielded 15 relevant studies comprising 315 subjects. Compared with sham, cortical stimulation did not produce statistically significant improvements in motor performance when measured immediately after the intervention (anodal stimulation: facilitation of the affected cortex: standardized mean difference = 0.05, P = 0.71; cathodal stimulation: inhibition of the nonaffected cortex: standardized mean difference = 0.39, P = 0.08; bihemispheric stimulation: standardized mean difference = 0.24, P = 0.39). When the data were analyzed according to stroke characteristics, statistically significant improvements were evident for those with chronic stroke (standardized mean difference = 0.45, P = 0.01) and subjects with mild-to-moderate stroke impairments (standardized mean difference = 0.37, P = 0.02). Transcranial direct current stimulation is likely to be effective in enhancing motor performance in the short term when applied selectively to patients with stroke. Given the range of stimulation variables and heterogeneous nature of stroke, this modality is still experimental and further research is required to determine its clinical merit in stroke rehabilitation.

  18. SU-F-I-34: How Does Longitudinal Dose Profile Change with Tube Current Distribution in CT?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Yang, K; Liu, B

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate how longitudinal dose profile D{sub L}(z) in 30 cm-diameter water cylinder change with tube current (mA) distribution and scan length. Methods: A constant and four variable mA distributions from two previous papers [Dixon et al., Med. Phys. 40, 111920 (14pp.) (2013); Zhang et al., Med. Phys. 41, 091911 (9pp.) (2014)] were adopted in three scan lengths of 10, 28.6, and 50 cm, and all mA distributions had the same average mA over scan ranges. Using the symmetry based dose calculation algorithms and the previously published CT dose equilibration data [Li et al., Med. Phys. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013); 41, 111910 (5pp.) (2014)], the authors calculated DL(z) on the phantom central and peripheral axes. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was used to compare the lineshapes of two arbitrary distributions. Results: In constant mA scans, D{sub L}(z) was “bell-shaped”. In variable mA scans, D{sub L}(z) approximately followed the mA lineshape, and the K-S distance generally changed with mA distribution. The distance decreased with scan length, and was larger on the central axis than on the peripheral axis. However, the opposite trends were found in the K-S distance between the D{sub L}(z) distributions of constant and variable mA distributions. Conclusion: Radiation dose from TCM scan is best evaluated using the specific tube current distribution. A constant mA based evaluation may lead to inconsistent longitudinal dose profile with that of TCM scan. Their difference in lineshape is larger on the phantom peripheral axis than on the central axis and increases with scan length. This work confirms that radiation dose in CT depends on not only local mA but also the overall mA distribution and scan length. On the other hand, the concept of regional tube current may be useful when scan length is large, tube current peaks near scan range edge, or the target site is superficial.

  19. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents in acute coronary syndromes: what is the current status and what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Huber, Kurt; Bates, Eric R; Valgimigli, Marco; Wallentin, Lars; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Lopez Sendon, Jose Luis; Tubaro, Marco; Granger, Christopher B; Bode, Christoph; Ohman, Erik Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), caused principally by plaque erosion or rupture leading to thrombus formation and myocardial ischemia, have been reduced by a combination of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants) and early revascularization. Aspirin is the foundation antiplatelet agent. New P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) have clear benefits compared with clopidogrel for dual antiplatelet therapy, and cangrelor or vorapaxar, a thrombin receptor inhibitor, may be of value in specific settings. Anticoagulation uses 1 of 4 choices: bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, and fondaparinux. Moreover, some patients (such as those who have chronic atrial fibrillation) require triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, plus an anticoagulant, frequently a vitamin K antagonist. New oral anticoagulants have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation and led to fewer bleeding complications. Finally, the combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, and low-dose rivaroxaban has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (but not the Food and Drug Administration) for secondary prevention after ACS. Several strategies have been developed to balance the potential benefit of antithrombotic therapy against the risk of bleeding complications, for example, radial access in coronary angiography or restricted use of combination therapy, and others are under investigation, such as discontinuation of aspirin. This overview summarizes the current status of antithrombotic therapy in ACS and describes strategies currently explored to optimize its benefit/risk ratio.

  20. Does transcranial direct current stimulation enhance cognitive and motor functions in the ageing brain? A systematic review and meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jeffery J; Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive and motor functions has enjoyed a massive increase in popularity. Modifying neuroplasticity via non-invasive cortical stimulation has enormous potential to slow or even reverse declines in functions associated with ageing. The current meta-analysis evaluated the effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor performance in healthy older adults. Of the 81 studies identified, 25 qualified for inclusion. A random effects model meta-analysis revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference equal to 0.53 (SE=0.09; medium heterogeneity: I(2)=57.08%; and high fail-safe: N=448). Five analyses on moderator variables indicated significant tDCS beneficial effects: (a) on both cognitive and motor task performances, (b) across a wide-range of cognitive tasks, (c) on specific brain areas, (d) stimulation offline (before) or online (during) the cognitive and motor tasks. Although the meta-analysis revealed robust support for enhancing both cognitive and motor performance, we outline a number of caveats on the use of tDCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP activates proton conductance but does not block store-operated Ca(2+) current in liver cells.

    PubMed

    To, Minh-Son; Aromataris, Edoardo C; Castro, Joel; Roberts, Michael L; Barritt, Greg J; Rychkov, Grigori Y

    2010-03-15

    Uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, including carbonilcyanide p-triflouromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and carbonilcyanide m-cholorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), are widely used in experimental research to investigate the role of mitochondria in cellular function. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to interpret the results obtained in intact cells using FCCP and CCCP, as these agents not only inhibit mitochondrial potential, but may also affect membrane potential and cell volume. Here we show by whole-cell patch clamping that in primary rat hepatocytes and H4IIE liver cells, FCCP induced large proton currents across the plasma membrane, but did not activate any other observable conductance. In intact hepatocytes FCCP inhibits thapsigargin-activated store-operated Ca(2+) entry, but in patch clamping under the conditions of strong Ca(2+) buffering it has no effect on store-operated Ca(2+) current (I(SOC)). These results indicate that there is no direct connection between mitochondria and activation of I(SOC) in liver cells and support the notion of indirect regulation of I(SOC) by mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering.

  2. What does a diagnostic label of 'polycystic ovary syndrome' really mean in adolescence? A review of current practice recommendations.

    PubMed

    Morris, S; Grover, S; Sabin, M A

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder, with many women initially presenting during adolescence. Diagnosis during this period is particularly challenging, yet many emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis given the long-term metabolic and reproductive health consequences associated with the syndrome. The objective of this study was to review the current literature to determine whether the diagnostic label 'PCOS' is necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls presenting with features of the syndrome. A literature search was conducted (PubMed, Medline, Informit Health and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) identifying papers addressing the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. Articles were selected based on date of publication, relevance of material and the quality of evidence presented. A total of 427 papers were screened, with 40 of these selected from the initial search. A subsequent 154 were included from manual review of reference lists from key papers identified in the initial search. Current guidelines recommend treating the individual manifestations of PCOS. In doing so, there is good evidence identifying that this approach adequately targets the underlying metabolic and reproductive changes associated with the syndrome. This suggests that providing a diagnostic label of PCOS is not actually necessary to effectively manage adolescent girls with features of this syndrome.

  3. Does von Willebrand factor improve the predictive ability of current risk stratification scores in patients with atrial fibrillation?

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Amaya; Roldán, Vanessa; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Marín, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated its role on prognosis in anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and determined whether its addition to clinical risk stratification schemes improved event-risk prediction. Consecutive outpatients with non-valvular AF were recruited and rates of thrombotic/cardiovascular events, major bleeding and mortality were recorded. The effect of vWF on prognosis was calculated using a Cox regression model. Improvements in predictive accuracy over current scores were determined by calculating the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), net reclassification improvement (NRI), comparison of receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA). 1215 patients (49% males, age 76 (71–81) years) were included. Follow-up was almost 7 years. Significant associations were found between vWF and cardiovascular events, stroke, mortality and bleeding. Based on IDI and NRI, addition of vWF to CHA2DS2-VASc statistically improved its predictive value, but c-indexes were not significantly different. For major bleeding, the addition of vWF to HAS-BLED improved the c-index but not IDI or NRI. DCA showed minimal net benefit. vWF acts as a simple prognostic biomarker in AF and, whilst its addition to current scores statistically improves prediction for some endpoints, absolute changes and impact on clinical decision-making are marginal. PMID:28134282

  4. Does high level youth sports participation increase the risk of femoroacetabular impingement? A review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien

    2016-03-11

    Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement.

  5. Insomnia and suicidal ideation and behaviors in former and current U.S. service members: Does depression mediate the relations?

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Conner, Kenneth R; Pigeon, Wilfred R; Gros, Daniel F; Salami, Temilola K; Stecker, Tracy

    2017-06-01

    Insomnia is a risk factor for Suicidal Ideation (SI) and Behavior (SB), yet the nature of the relations is unclear, including the potential mediating role of cognitive and affective/somatic symptoms of depression. It was hypothesized that the impact of insomnia on SI would be mediated through depressive symptoms and that insomnia would directly impact SB. Current and former military service members (N =405; M age =31.6 years, SD =7.3; 90.4% male, 76.5% White) who endorsed recent suicidal ideation and/or a history of suicide attempt completed measures of insomnia, depression, SI, and SB at baseline and at month 12 follow-up. Mediation models were conducted using structural equation modeling. Significant mediation from insomnia to baseline SI and month 12 SI was found through cognitive/affective depression. Insomnia was directly related to SB occurring between baseline and month 12 follow-up. These findings suggest that cognitive/affective depression mediates the association with SI but not SB. Results build on research showing the importance of depressive symptoms in SI in particular. The direct and indirect pathways from insomnia to SI/SB suggest that clinicians should be aware of these relations when treating patients reporting insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Looks can deceive: molecular phylogeny of a family of flatworm ectoparasites (Monogenea: Capsalidae) does not reflect current morphological classification.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Elizabeth M; Donnellan, Steve C; Bertozzi, Terry; Chisholm, Leslie A; Whittington, Ian D

    2009-09-01

    The morphological based taxonomy of highly derived parasite groups is likely to poorly reflect their evolutionary relationships. The taxonomy of the monogenean family Capsalidae, which comprises approximately 180 species of flatworm parasites that predominantly attach to external surfaces of chondrichthyan and teleost fishes, is based mainly on six morphological characters. The phylogenetic history of the family is largely unknown. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of 47 species in 20 genera from eight of the nine subfamilies, from nucleotide sequences of three unlinked nuclear genes, 28S ribosomal RNA, Histone 3 and Elongation Factor 1 alpha. Our phylogeny was well corroborated, with 75% of branches receiving strong support from both Bayesian posterior probabilities and maximum likelihood bootstrap proportions and all nodes showed positive partitioned likelihood support for each of the three genes. We found that the family was monophyletic, with the Gyrodactylidae and Udonellidae forming the sister group. The Capsalinae was monophyletic, however, our data do not support monophyly for the Benedeniinae, Entobdellinae and Trochopodinae. Monophyly was supported for Capsala, Entobdella, Listrocephalos, Neobenedenia and Tristoma, but Benedenia and Neoentobdella were polyphyletic. Comparisons of the distribution of character states for the small number of morphological characters on the molecular phylogeny show a high frequency of apparent homoplasy. Consequently the current morphological classification shows little correspondence with the phylogenetic relationships within the family.

  7. Does Dynamic Supine Magnetic Resonance Imaging Improve the Diagnostic Accuracy of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy? A Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nanfang; Wang, Shaobo; Yuan, Huishu; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Zhongjun

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to critically analyze the current evidence regarding the role of dynamic supine magnetic resonance imaging (dsMRI) in the evaluation of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Thirteen studies were identified through a comprehensive literature search performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI databases as fulfilling the inclusion criteria and were reviewed for subject characteristics, radiographic parameters, and salient findings. Studies herein reviewed suggested that dsMRI was able to detect new appearance or increased grade of medullary compression in ≥20% of patients and to demonstrate an average narrowing of the cervical canal by 20% (in comparison with the neutral position). Several additional parameters were investigated, but their clinical significance remained unconfirmed. Two studies examined how surgical decision-making could be affected by the additional findings of dsMRI. dsMRI represents an available modification of conventional static magnetic resonance imaging and is potentially able to demonstrate pathologies that might be previously missed. Evidence suggests that dsMRI can elucidate spinal cord compression with higher sensitivity, resulting in improved diagnostic accuracy of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, which may impact surgical planning for these patients. However, more high-quality studies are required to further establish its indications to avoid overdiagnosis with this powerful imaging technique and to justify its cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How does climate change affect regeneration of Mediterranean high-mountain plants? An integration and synthesis of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Benavides, L; Escudero, A; García-Camacho, R; García-Fernández, A; Iriondo, J M; Lara-Romero, C; Morente-López, J

    2017-10-06

    Mediterranean mountains are extraordinarily diverse and hold a high proportion of endemic plants but they are particularly vulnerable to climate change and most species distribution models project drastic changes in community composition. Retrospective studies and long-term monitoring also highlight that Mediterranean high-mountain plants are suffering severe range contractions. The aim of this work is to review the current knowledge of climate change impacts on the process of plant regeneration by seed in Mediterranean high-mountain plants, by combining available information from observational and experimental studies. We also discuss some processes that may provide resilience against changing environmental conditions and suggest some research priorities for the future. With some exceptions, there is still little evidence of the direct effects of climate change on pollination and reproductive success of Mediterranean high-mountain plants, and most works are observational and/or centered only in the post-dispersal stages (germination and establishment). The great majority of studies agree that the characteristic summer drought and the extreme heatwaves that are projected to be more intense in the future, are the most limiting factors for the regeneration process. However, there is an urgent need of studies combining elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations of temperature and drought to confirm the magnitude and variability of species' responses. There is also limited knowledge about the ability of Mediterranean high-mountain plants to cope with climate change through phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation processes. This could be achieved by performing common garden and reciprocal translocation experiments with species differing in life history traits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatigue failure of concentrator III-V solar cells - Does forward bias current injection really kill III-V CPV cells?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Kenji; Nagai, Hirokazu; Tamura, Kazuyuki

    2012-10-01

    CPV cells are successively exposed by cycles of concentrated sunlight and huge cycling current flows out of contacts. The purpose of this research is to identify if the fatigue will be one of the life-end and wearing modes of CPV cells and how long the life-time will be. One of the best ways of giving cycling stress on cells and contacts is cycling forward bias injection. First, it is important to investigate if forward bias itself damages concentrator III-V cells. To confirm the forward bias current itself does not damage the CPV solar cells but cycling does, we applied 4 times of Isc continuously in 500 hours, equivalently total injection of 90,000 cycles, but no damage or degradation was observed. What's more, we applied the cycling test after the stress of 500 hour continuous forward bias injection. We did not identify any changes between groups of with stress of continuous forward bias and without them. On-Off tests giving forward bias current as high as 4 times of Isc are conducted. The failure was analyzed by the Weible function. About 2,000 cells in total were examined. A small number of initial failure, that of failure number of cycles lied along exponential distribution and distinct portion of wear mode failure that of failure number of cycles lied along Gaussian distribution were identified. The EL measurement indicated that all the damaged cells in wear mode were local shunt under the top contacts suggesting stress under the top contacts would be possibly responsible to the fatigue failure. Advanced contact design that leads to reduce the stress on the top contact is expected to prolong the lifetime of the III-V concentrator cells.

  10. A detailed anatomical assessment of the lateral tongue extrinsic musculature, and proximity to the tongue mucosal surface. Does this confirm the current TNM T4a muscular subclassification?

    PubMed

    Boland, Paul W; Pataridis, Kostas; Eley, Karen A; Golding, Stephen J; Watt-Smith, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    The current T4a subclassification of the TNM staging system for oral malignancies has been criticised as based almost exclusively on anatomical data. The aim of this study was to provide anatomical confirmation of the muscular constraints of T4a classification of oral tongue tumours. A detailed anatomical study describing and measuring the adjacency of the named extrinsic tongue muscles to the lateral tongue surface was completed on the Visible Human Female (VHF). The distance of styloglossus and hyoglossus to the over lying mucosa were determined. The appearance, position, orientation and anatomical relationships of the lateral tongue extrinsic muscles, with comparison to their classical descriptions are described. The right VHF styloglossus was 1.3 mm (0.33-1.48) and left 2.91 mm (0.66-7.68) from the mucosal surface in the axial plane. The right VHF hyoglossus was 2.93 mm (1.48-4.96) and left 4.33 (1.68-8.71) from the mucosal surface in the axial line. In the lateral tongue, styloglossus and hyoglossus are very superficial. The inclusion criteria of hyoglossus and styloglossus in the T4a staging does not appear justified based upon their anatomical position.

  11. Antigenic analysis of divergent genotypes human Enterovirus 71 viruses by a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yixin; Li, Chuan; He, Delei; Cheng, Tong; Ge, Shengxiang; Shih, James Wai-Kuo; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-02

    In recent year, Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an important public health issue in China. EV71 has been classified into genotypes A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. With such genetic diversity, whether the convalescent or recovery antibody responses can cross-protect infections from other genotypes remains a question. Understanding of the antigenicity of such diverse genetic EV71 isolates is crucial for the EV71 vaccine development. Here, a total of 186 clones anti-EV71 MAbs was generated and characterized with Western blot and cell-based neutralization assay. Forty neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs were further used to analyze the antigenic properties of 18 recent EV71 isolates representing seven genotypes in neutralization assay. We found that most neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs are specific to conformational epitopes. We also classified the 40 neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs into two classes according to their reactivity patterns with 18 EV71 isolates. Class I MAb can neutralize all isolates, suggesting conserved epitopes are present among EV71. Class II MAb includes four subclasses (IIa-IId) and neutralizes only subgroups of EV71 strains. Conversely, 18 EV71 strains were grouped into antigenic types 1 and four antigenic subtypes (2.1-2.4). These results suggest that the current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity which may be important in the selection of EV71 vaccine strains. This panel of neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs may be useful for the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of EV71 and vaccine development.

  12. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  13. 25 CFR 900.10 - How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a list of all Federal property currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a... activities that benefit the Indian tribe or tribal organization to assist in negotiating a contract? 900.10..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION...

  14. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  15. All for One, and One for All: If Texts Hold Power, to What Extent Does Current Primary and Early Years Documentation Empower Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which the needs and aspirations of teachers are taken into account in three examples of current Primary and Early Years documentation--the National Curriculum, the Early Years Foundation Stage and the Primary Framework. This analysis is done through three methods: a critical discourse analysis of the aims and…

  16. Does the initiation of urate-lowering treatment during an acute gout attack prolong the current episode and precipitate recurrent attacks: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Eminaga, Fatma; La-Crette, Jonathan; Jones, Adrian; Abhishek, A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on effect of initiating urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute attack of gout on duration of index attack and persistence on ULT. OVID (Medline), EMBASE and AMED were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ULT initiation during acute gout attack published in English language. Two reviewers appraised the study quality and extracted data independently. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) were used to pool continuous and categorical data. Meta-analysis was carried out using STATA version 14. A total of 537 studies were selected. A total of 487 titles and abstracts were reviewed after removing duplicates. Three RCTs were identified. There was evidence from two high-quality studies that early initiation of allopurinol did not increase pain severity at days 10-15 [SMDpooled (95 % CI) 0.18 (-0.58, 0.93)]. Data from three studies suggested that initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout did not associate with dropouts [RRpooled (95 % CI) 1.16 (0.58, 2.31)]. There is moderate-quality evidence that the initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout does not increase pain severity and risk of ULT discontinuation. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings so that patients with acute gout can be initiated on ULT with confidence.

  17. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel W; Fjeldså, Jon; Maruyama, Pietro K; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Sonne, Jesper; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wang, Zhiheng; Sutherland, William J

    2014-10-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism. Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the distribution of species on islands, and this was idiosyncratic to each archipelago. In the West Indies, endemic richness was slightly reduced on islands with historically unstable climates; weak support for the opposite was found in Wallacea. In both archipelagos, large islands with many endemics and situated far from other large islands had high importance for the linkage within modules, indicating that these islands potentially act as speciation pumps and source islands for surrounding smaller islands within the module and, thus, define the biogeographical modules. Large islands situated far from the mainland and/or with a high number of nonendemics acted as links between modules. Additionally, in Wallacea, but not in the West Indies, climatically unstable islands tended to interlink biogeographical modules. The weak and idiosyncratic effect of historical climate on island richness, endemism, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the

  18. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel W; Fjeldså, Jon; Maruyama, Pietro K; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Sonne, Jesper; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wang, Zhiheng; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism. Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the distribution of species on islands, and this was idiosyncratic to each archipelago. In the West Indies, endemic richness was slightly reduced on islands with historically unstable climates; weak support for the opposite was found in Wallacea. In both archipelagos, large islands with many endemics and situated far from other large islands had high importance for the linkage within modules, indicating that these islands potentially act as speciation pumps and source islands for surrounding smaller islands within the module and, thus, define the biogeographical modules. Large islands situated far from the mainland and/or with a high number of nonendemics acted as links between modules. Additionally, in Wallacea, but not in the West Indies, climatically unstable islands tended to interlink biogeographical modules. The weak and idiosyncratic effect of historical climate on island richness, endemism, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the

  19. The role of education for current, former and never-smoking among non-western immigrants in Norway. Does the pattern fit the model of the cigarette epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Vedøy, Tord Finne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was (1) to investigate the association between education and smoking status (current, former and never-smoking) among non-western immigrants in Norway and (2) examine if these associations fit the pattern predicted by the model of the cigarette epidemic. Design. Data came from the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health study (2000–2002). The first included all Oslo citizens from seven selected birth cohorts. The second included all Oslo citizens born in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. 14,768 respondents answered questions on smoking, education and relevant background variables (over-all response rate 43.3%). Two gender specific multinomial logistic regression models with smoking status [current, former or never-smoker (reference)] as dependent variable were computed and predicted probabilities of smoking status among groups with different levels of education were calculated. Results. Smoking prevalence among men ranged from 19% among Sri Lankans to 56% among Turks. Compared to the smoking prevalence among Norwegian men (27%), smoking was widespread among Iranians (42%) and Vietnamese (36%). Higher education was associated with lower probability of current smoking among all male immigrant groups except Sri Lankans. Never having smoked was positively associated with education among Pakistani and Norwegian men. Among women, < 5% smoked among Pakistanis, Vietnamese and Sri Lankans. Smoking prevalence among Turkish (28%) and Iranian (23%) women were comparable to Norwegian women (30%). The probability of smoking among Turkish and Iranian women with secondary education was higher than for other levels of education. The probability of being a never-smoker was high among Turkish and Iranian women with primary education. Conclusions. High smoking prevalence among Turkish and Iranian men highlights the importance of addressing smoking behaviour in subgroups of the general population. Smoking was almost non-existent among

  20. Bioethics Symposium: The ethical food movement: What does it mean for the role of science and scientists in current debates about animal agriculture?

    PubMed

    Croney, C C; Apley, M; Capper, J L; Mench, J A; Priest, S

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary animal agriculture is increasingly criticized on ethical grounds. Consequently, current policy and legislative discussions have become highly controversial as decision makers attempt to reconcile concerns about the impacts of animal production on animal welfare, the environment, and on the efficacy of antibiotics required to ensure human health with demands for abundant, affordable, safe food. Clearly, the broad implications for US animal agriculture of what appears to be a burgeoning movement relative to ethical food production must be understood by animal agriculture stakeholders. The potential effects of such developments on animal agricultural practices, corporate marketing strategies, and public perceptions of the ethics of animal production must also be clarified. To that end, it is essential to acknowledge that people's beliefs about which food production practices are appropriate are tied to diverse, latent value systems. Thus, relying solely on scientific information as a means to resolve current debates about animal agriculture is unlikely to be effective. The problem is compounded when scientific information is used inappropriately or strategically to advance a political agenda. Examples of the interface between science and ethics in regards to addressing currently contentious aspects of food animal production (animal welfare, antimicrobial use, and impacts of animal production practices on the environment) are reviewed. The roles of scientists and science in public debates about animal agricultural practices are also examined. It is suggested that scientists have a duty to contribute to the development of sound policy by providing clear and objectively presented information, by clarifying misinterpretations of science, and by recognizing the differences between presenting data vs. promoting their own value judgments in regard to how and which data should be used to establish policy. Finally, the role of the media in shaping public opinions

  1. Does knowledge of teen driving risks and awareness of current law translate into support for stronger GDL provisions? Lessons learned from one state.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brendan T; Chaudhary, Neil K; Saleheen, Hassan; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry

    2009-08-01

    Many states are considering strengthening their graduated driving licensing (GDL) systems for teenage drivers but most do not know the level of public support for proposed upgrades. This study provides a method for states to identify specific demographic groups that may differ with regard to their awareness of teen driving risks, knowledge of current GDL law, and support for GDL upgrades. A 28-item questionnaire was administered to Connecticut adults by phone survey during January 2008. We collected demographic information and whether respondents understood driving risks, were aware of the current GDL system, and whether they would support GDL upgrades. The state's motor vehicle crash file (1999-2006) was used to calculate motor vehicle crash rate among 16- and 17-year-old drivers by town and correlate that with support for GDL upgrades. Eight hundred seven people were interviewed. More women than men (92% vs. 86%, p < .05) and more parents than other adults (96% vs. 84%, p < .01) were aware of the current learner's permit law. Female respondents (55% vs. 43%, p < .01) and adults who were not parents (54% vs. 45%, p < .05) were more likely to support increasing the minimum driving age. Parents were more aware than other adults (91% vs. 73%, p < .01) of the supervised driving provision. Women were more supportive of a supervised driving upgrade (83% vs. 69, p < .01). There was more support for a night restriction upgrade among other adults than parents (59% vs. 51%, p < .05), and the lowest support was in affluent towns (38%). Two thirds supported a passenger restriction upgrade with no differences based upon sex or geographic location. There was less support for an increased penalties in Fairfield County when compared to all other counties (55% vs. 63%, p < .05) and more support in Hartford County versus all other counties (70% vs. 58%, p < .05). Parents of Connecticut teens were more knowledgeable of current law but less supportive of GDL upgrades compared to

  2. Two components of delayed rectifier current in canine atrium and ventricle. Does IKs play a role in the reverse rate dependence of class III agents?

    PubMed

    Gintant, G A

    1996-01-01

    Because the number and characteristics of delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) components vary between species, the role of each component in the action potential and modulation by class III agents is uncertain. To address these issues, IK was assessed in adult isolated canine ventricular and and atrial myocytes by using whole-cell and perforated-patch techniques. IK components were characterized by using two complementary approaches: a kinetic approach (based on biexponential fits to deactivating tail currents) and a pharmacological approach approach (using the methanesulfonanilide compound E-4031). In ventricular myocytes, two exponential tail current components were distinguished; these components differed in the voltage and time dependence of activation and the effect of lower (K+). Both kinetic components contributed equally to peak tail current amplitude (measured at -35 mV) after a single 300-ms pulse to 5 mV, simulating an action potential. By use of E-4031, rapidly and slowly activating components described kinetically were identified. The activation kinetics and rectification properties of canine IKr and IKs are qualitatively similar to those described previously for guinea pigs. In contrast, canine IKr and IKs deactivation kinetics differed markedly from those found in guinea pigs, with canine IKr deactivating slowly (time constant tau, 2 to 3 s near -35 mV) and IKs deactivating rapidly (tau, 150 ms near -35 mV and decreasing to 30 ms near -85 mV). E-4031 elicited reverse rate-dependent effects (greater drug-induced prolongation of the action potential at slower stimulation rates); this effect is inconsistent with the hypothesis attributing reverse rate dependence to incomplete IKs deactivation during rapid stimulation (due to rapid deactivation of canine IKs). Two IK components with characteristics comparable to those found in ventricular myocytes were also observed in atrial myocytes. In conclusion, (1) IKr- and IKs-like components of IK are present in

  3. Does comorbid substance use disorder exacerbate borderline personality features? A comparison of borderline personality disorder individuals with vs. without current substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Joo; Bagge, Courtney L; Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F

    2010-10-01

    There is compelling evidence that comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) negatively impact the clinical courses and outcomes of substance use disorders (SUD). Conversely, there is little evidence that concurrent SUD exacerbates the clinical characteristics of BPD. Thus, this study sought to examine whether the presence of current substance dependence among BPD patients would be associated with stronger BPD-relevant personality traits and behavioral characteristics. Female BPD patients without (BOR; n = 37) or with current substance dependence (BSUD; n = 19), and female non-BPD/SUD controls (CON; n = 48) were compared with respect to impulsivity, affective lability, affective intensity, externalizing behaviors, and self-harming/suicidal tendencies, taking into consideration their comorbid mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and antisocial personality disorder. Results indicated that both BOR and BSUD groups scored higher than CON in most of the measures, but BOR and BSUD failed to reveal significant group differences especially when the influence of comorbid psychopathology was removed. The overall pattern of findings remained identical even when comparing BPD patients with versus without the diagnosis of lifetime substance dependence. Our results do not support the notion that BPD individuals with SUD display more severe BPD features than individuals with BPD alone.

  4. Muscarinic M1 receptors activate phosphoinositide turnover and Ca2+ mobilisation in rat sympathetic neurones, but this signalling pathway does not mediate M-current inhibition

    PubMed Central

    del Río, Elena; Bevilacqua, Jorge A; Marsh, Stephen J; Halley, Pamela; Caulfield, Malcolm P

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between muscarinic receptor activation, phosphoinositide turnover, calcium mobilisation and M-current inhibition has been studied in rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurones in primary culture. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation was measured by the accumulation of [3H]-cytidine monophosphate phosphatidate (CMP-PA) after incubation with [3H]-cytidine in the presence of Li+. The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine methiodide (oxo-M) stimulated PLC in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of approximately 3.5 μm. The concentration-response curve for oxo-M was shifted to the right by a factor of about 10 by pirenzepine (100 nm), suggesting a pKB (—log of the apparent dissociation constant) of 7.9 ± 0.4, while himbacine (1 μm) shifted the curve by a factor of about 13 (pKB∼7.1 ± 0.6). This indicates involvement of the M1 muscarinic receptor in this response. The accumulation of CMP-PA was localised by in situ autoradiography to SCG principal neurones, with no detectable signal in glial cells present in the primary cultures. The ability of oxo-M to release Ca2+ from inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive stores was determined by fura-2 microfluorimetry of SCG neurones voltage clamped in perforated patch mode. Oxo-M failed to evoke intracellular Ca2+ (Cai2+) mobilisation in SCG neurones voltage clamped at −60 mV, but produced a significant Cai2+ rise (67 ± 15 nm, n = 9) in cells voltage clamped at −25 mV. Thapsigargin (0.5–1 μm) caused a 70% inhibition of the oxo-M-induced Cai2+ increase, indicating its intracellular origin, while oxo-M-induced inhibition of M-current in the same cells was unaffected by thapsigargin. Our results do not support the involvement of InsP3-sensitive calcium mobilisation in M-current inhibition. PMID:10517804

  5. How does the size and shape of local populations in China compare to general anthropometric surveys currently used for product design?

    PubMed

    Daniell, Nathan; Fraysse, François; Paul, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Anthropometry has long been used for a range of ergonomic applications & product design. Although products are often designed for specific cohorts, anthropometric data are typically sourced from large scale surveys representative of the general population. Additionally, few data are available for emerging markets like China and India. This study measured 80 Chinese males that were representative of a specific cohort targeted for the design of a new product. Thirteen anthropometric measurements were recorded and compared to two large databases that represented a general population, a Chinese database and a Western database. Substantial differences were identified between the Chinese males measured in this study and both databases. The subjects were substantially taller, heavier and broader than subjects in the older Chinese database. However, they were still substantially smaller, lighter and thinner than Western males. Data from current Western anthropometric surveys are unlikely to accurately represent the target population for product designers and manufacturers in emerging markets like China.

  6. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, M. J.; Vickery, C. M.; Simon, S.; Davis, L.; Denyer, M.; Lockey, R.; Stack, M. J.; O'Connor, M. J.; Bishop, K.; Gough, K. C.; Maddison, B. C.; Thorne, L.; Spiropoulos, J.

    2015-01-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE. PMID:26041899

  7. Does the Presence of Scrapie Affect the Ability of Current Statutory Discriminatory Tests To Detect the Presence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Simmons, M M; Chaplin, M J; Vickery, C M; Simon, S; Davis, L; Denyer, M; Lockey, R; Stack, M J; O'Connor, M J; Bishop, K; Gough, K C; Maddison, B C; Thorne, L; Spiropoulos, J

    2015-08-01

    Current European Commission (EC) surveillance regulations require discriminatory testing of all transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-positive small ruminant (SR) samples in order to classify them as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or non-BSE. This requires a range of tests, including characterization by bioassay in mouse models. Since 2005, naturally occurring BSE has been identified in two goats. It has also been demonstrated that more than one distinct TSE strain can coinfect a single animal in natural field situations. This study assesses the ability of the statutory methods as listed in the regulation to identify BSE in a blinded series of brain samples, in which ovine BSE and distinct isolates of scrapie are mixed at various ratios ranging from 99% to 1%. Additionally, these current statutory tests were compared with a new in vitro discriminatory method, which uses serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting consistently detected 50% BSE within a mixture, but at higher dilutions it had variable success. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method consistently detected BSE only when it was present as 99% of the mixture, with variable success at higher dilutions. Bioassay and sPMCA reported BSE in all samples where it was present, down to 1%. sPMCA also consistently detected the presence of BSE in mixtures at 0.1%. While bioassay is the only validated method that allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of an unknown TSE isolate, the sPMCA assay appears to offer a fast and cost-effective alternative for the screening of unknown isolates when the purpose of the investigation was solely to determine the presence or absence of BSE. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Does Prostate Size Predict the Development of Incident Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men with Mild to No Current Symptoms? Results from the REDUCE Trial.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Roehrborn, Claus; Vidal, Adriana C; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    It has been shown that increased prostate size is a risk factor for lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) progression in men who currently have LUTS presumed due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To determine if prostate size is a risk factor for incident LUTS in men with mild to no symptoms. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the REDUCE study, which contained a substantial number of men (n=3090) with mild to no LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] <8). Our primary outcome was determination of the effect of prostate size on incident LUTS presumed due to BPH defined as two consecutive IPSS values >14, or receiving any medical (α-blockers) or surgical treatment for BPH throughout the study course. To determine the risk of developing incident LUTS, we used univariable and multivariable Cox models, as well as Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Among men treated with placebo during the REDUCE study, those with a prostate size of 40.1-80ml had a 67% higher risk (hazard risk 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.26, p=0.001) of developing incident LUTS compared to men with a prostate size 40.0ml or smaller. There was no association between prostate size and risk of incident LUTS in men treated with 0.5mg of dutasteride. The post hoc nature of our study design is a potential limitation. Men with mild to no LUTS but increased prostate size are at higher risk of incident LUTS presumed due to BPH. This association was negated by dutasteride treatment. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common problem among older men, which often manifests as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and can lead to potentially serious side effects. In our study we determined that men with mild to no current LUTS but increased prostate size are much more likely to develop LUTS presumed due to BPH in the future. This association was not seen in men treated with dutasteride, a drug approved for treatment of BPH. Our study reveals that men with a prostate size of 40

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the opercular somatosensory region does not influence experimentally induced pain: a triple blind, sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Soichiro; Nakagawa, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the opercular somatosensory region (OP), which includes the secondary somatosensory cortex and the insular cortex, suppresses pain sensation. However, whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the OP has a similar effect on pain sensation remains unknown. We examined whether pain sensation would be suppressed by tDCS over the OP. Our experiment with a triple-blind, sham-controlled, crossover design involved 12 healthy participants. Participants were asked to rate their subjective pain intensity during and after three types of bihemispheric tDCS: right anodal/left cathodal OP tDCS, left anodal/right cathodal OP tDCS (2 mA, 12 min), and sham tDCS (15 s). Pain stimuli were alternately applied to the dorsum of each index finger using intraepidermal electrical stimulation. We observed no significant effect of tDCS over the OP on the perception of experimentally induced pain. Subjective pain intensity did not differ significantly between the three tDCS conditions. The present null results have crucial implications for the selection of optimal stimulation regions and parameters for clinical pain treatment. PMID:27984542

  10. Current strategies in antiplatelet therapy--does identification of risk and adjustment of therapy contribute to more effective, personalized medicine in cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Steinhubl, Steven R; Bhatt, Deepak L; Storey, Robert F; Flather, Marcus

    2010-08-01

    There is a wide consensus that intensified antiplatelet therapy contributes to the reduction of major atherothrombotic complications in cardiovascular (CV) disease. In the setting of PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) and acute coronary syndromes, dual antiplatelet therapy at optimal dosing and timing has significantly lowered the risk of thrombotic complications. There is a growing body of evidence that there is variability in response to antiplatelet treatments and this represents a potentially important clinical problem. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon is important in improving patient care, but due to the diversity of factors involved, a clear predictive model for responsiveness to antiplatelet therapy is still missing. Attempts have been made to characterize the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy using platelet function testing but based on current information, its routine use is not recommended particularly as costs and cost effectiveness have not been established and agreement between laboratory methods is lacking. Hence, it is necessary to identify risk factors for decreased efficacy of standard antiplatelet drug treatment. It may be useful to adjust antiplatelet therapy based on individual risk assessment, especially as new platelet inhibitors are being introduced or are in development including prasugrel as well as the non-thienopyridines, ticagrelor, elinogrel, the ATP analog cangrelor, and thrombin receptor antagonists. This article focuses on antiplatelet therapy in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events and discusses the options for individual risk assessment and strategies to personalize therapy in the light of the large number of recent developments.

  11. Characteristics of current tasks that contribute to mentalizing judgments: does the engagement of the participants in the social interaction matter? Comment on Achim et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Moreau, Noémie

    2013-12-01

    In a recent article, Achim et al. (2013) discussed the different sources of information that contribute to mentalizing judgments in current theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks. The authors rightly emphasized the dynamic aspect of real-life social interaction, suggesting that taking account of the ongoing changes occurring during social interaction would make ToM tasks more ecological. They proposed a framework (i.e., the Eight Sources of Information Framework) that specifies the 8 sources of information we get from the environment and/or from our memories to attribute mental states to others. Nevertheless, we believe that a central aspect of ToM is missing in this framework: the engagement (or not) of the participant in the social interaction during ToM assessment. Indeed, this framework fails to consider how the participant who takes part in the ToM task manages this information, depending on the fact that he or she is involved in the interaction or not and how the information concerning the agent may impact the participant attribution of mental states. We reviewed several arguments and results from the ToM literature suggesting that merely observing a social interaction is not equivalent to participating in an interaction in terms of cognitive processes involved in the attribution of mental states to others.

  12. Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Young, Jessica; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-01

    The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults. Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face. Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex. Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.

  13. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Affect Lower Extremity Muscle Strength Training in Healthy Individuals: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm on extension and from 78.0 to 85.6 Nm on flexion in the sham tDCS group. In both groups, peak torques of knee extension and flexion significantly increased after the intervention, with no significant difference between the anodal tDCS and sham tDCS groups. In conclusion, although the administration of eccentric training increased knee extensor and flexor peak torques, anodal tDCS did not enhance the effects of lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals. The present null results have crucial implications for selecting optimal stimulation parameters for clinical trials.

  14. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor cortex does not enhance the learning benefits of self-controlled feedback schedules.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Carlsen, Anthony N; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-02-27

    A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules. Here, we investigated whether applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex (M1) would enhance the typically found benefits of learning a novel motor skill with a self-controlled KR schedule. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal task in one of four groups using a factorial combination of KR schedule (self-controlled vs. yoked) and tDCS (anodal vs. sham). Testing occurred on two consecutive days with spatial and temporal accuracy measured on both days and learning was assessed using 24-h retention and transfer tests without KR. All groups improved their performance in practice and a significant effect for practicing with a self-controlled KR schedule compared to a yoked schedule was found for temporal accuracy in transfer, but a similar advantage was not evident in retention. There were no significant differences as a function of KR schedule or tDCS for spatial accuracy in retention or transfer. The lack of a significant tDCS effect suggests that M1 may not strongly contribute to self-controlled KR learning advantages; however, caution is advised with this interpretation as typical self-controlled learning benefits were not strongly replicated in the present experiment.

  15. Obtaining consumer perspectives using a citizens' jury: does the current country of origin labelling in Australia allow for informed food choices?

    PubMed

    Withall, Elizabeth; Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Clark, Jacinta; McCullum, Dean; Ankeny, Rachel; Ward, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Contemporary food systems are vast and complex, creating greater distance between consumers and their food. Consequently, consumers are required to put faith in a system of which they have limited knowledge or control. Country of origin labelling (CoOL) is one mechanism that theoretically enables consumer knowledge of provenance of food products. However, this labelling system has recently come under Australian Government review and recommendations for improvements have been proposed. Consumer engagement in this process has been limited. Therefore this study sought to obtain further consumer opinion on the issue of CoOL and to identify the extent to which Australian consumers agree with Australian Government recommendations for improvements. A citizens' jury was conducted with a sample of 14 South Australian consumers to explore their perceptions on whether the CoOL system allows them to make informed food choices, as well as what changes (if any) need to be made to enable informed food choices (recommendations). Overall, jurors' perception of usefulness of CoOL, including its ability to enable consumers to make informed food choices, fluctuated throughout the Citizens' Jury. Initially, the majority of the jurors indicated that the labels allowed informed food choice, however by the end of the session the majority disagreed with this statement. Inconsistencies within jurors' opinions were observed, particularly following delivery of information from expert witnesses and jury deliberation. Jurors provided recommendations for changes to be made to CoOL, which were similar to those provided in the Australian Government inquiry. Consumers in this study engaged with the topical issue of CoOL and provided their opinions. Overall, consumers do not think that the current CoOL system in Australia enables consumers to make informed choices. Recommendations for changes, including increasing the size of the label and the label's font, and standardising its position, were made.

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Affect Lower Extremity Muscle Strength Training in Healthy Individuals: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm on extension and from 78.0 to 85.6 Nm on flexion in the sham tDCS group. In both groups, peak torques of knee extension and flexion significantly increased after the intervention, with no significant difference between the anodal tDCS and sham tDCS groups. In conclusion, although the administration of eccentric training increased knee extensor and flexor peak torques, anodal tDCS did not enhance the effects of lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals. The present null results have crucial implications for selecting optimal stimulation parameters for clinical trials. PMID:28420959

  17. The inward rectifier current inhibitor PA‐6 terminates atrial fibrillation and does not cause ventricular arrhythmias in goat and dog models

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuan; Varkevisser, Rosanne; Opacic, Dragan; Bossu, Alexandre; Kuiper, Marion; Beekman, Jet D M; Yang, Sihyung; Khan, Azinwi Phina; Dobrev, Dobromir; Voigt, Niels; Wang, Michael Zhuo; Verheule, Sander; Vos, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose The density of the inward rectifier current (IK1) increases in atrial fibrillation (AF), shortening effective refractory period and thus promoting atrial re‐entry. The synthetic compound pentamidine analogue 6 (PA‐6) is a selective and potent IK1 inhibitor. We tested PA‐6 for anti‐AF efficacy and potential proarrhythmia, using established models in large animals. Experimental Approach PA‐6 was applied i.v. in anaesthetized goats with rapid pacing‐induced AF and anaesthetized dogs with chronic atrio‐ventricular (AV) block. Electrophysiological and pharmacological parameters were determined. Key Results PA‐6 (2.5 mg·kg−1·10 min−1) induced cardioversion to sinus rhythm (SR) in 5/6 goats and prolonged AF cycle length. AF complexity decreased significantly before cardioversion. PA‐6 accumulated in cardiac tissue with ratios between skeletal muscle : atrial muscle : ventricular muscle of approximately 1:8:21. In SR dogs, PA‐6 peak plasma levels 10 min post infusion were 5.5 ± 0.9 μM, PA‐6 did not induce significant prolongation of QTc and did not affect heart rate, PQ or QRS duration. In dogs with chronic AV block, PA‐6 did not affect QRS but lengthened QTc during the experiment, but not chronically. PA‐6 did not induce TdP arrhythmias in nine animals (0/9) in contrast to dofetilide (5/9). PA‐6 (200 nM) inhibited IK1, but not IK,ACh, in human isolated atrial cardiomyocytes. Conclusion and Implications PA‐6 restored SR in goats with persistent AF and, in dogs with chronic AV block, prolonged QT intervals, without inducing TdP arrhythmias. Our results demonstrate cardiac safety and good anti‐AF properties for PA‐6. PMID:28542844

  18. Among Patients Undergoing Ablative Treatment for Oral Cancer, Does the Provision of Oral Rehabilitation Improve the Quality of Life? A Review of the Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Vahe; Ball, Dimity; Harrison, Rebecca; Ameerally, Phillip

    2016-05-01

    The impact of oral cancer and its treatment is well documented; therefore, oral rehabilitation (OH; eg, with prosthetics, osseointegrated implants, etc) can be indicated to restore some level of form, function, and well-being. The purpose of this study was to review the current literature and evaluate the impact of OH on quality of life (QoL) after ablative surgery. A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. The study population was composed of all articles published from 2000 to 2015. To be included, studies had to use validated, specific head and neck QoL measurements (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Head and Neck Module or University of Washington QoL Questionnaire). Only 8 articles met these inclusion criteria. In this review, OH was the primary predictor variable and QoL was the primary outcome variable. The 8 articles reviewed used a range of designs, including 1 randomized controlled trial, 3 prospective cohort studies, 3 case series, and 1 single-measurement cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample sizes were small (n = 26 to 102), and there was limited randomization and control of intervention and comparator groups. The overall level of evidence was weak. All studies showed a link between OH and QoL, but the results varied in significance (P < .01 to P = .95). Overall, there appears to be improvement in QoL to varying degrees after OH. However, a more systematic use of QoL measurements is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. General and procurement by negotiation--DHHS. Proposed rule.

    PubMed

    1983-08-17

    The Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, is proposing to amend 41 CFR 3-1.453, Establishment of cost rates, to identify officials delegated authority to approve indirect cost rates and special rates for commercial organizations. Part 3-3, Procurement by negotiation, is proposed to be amended by adding a new Subpart 3-3.7. Negotiated overhead rates, which sets forth policies and procedures concerning the approval of indirect cost rates and special rates for use in the pricing and administration of contracts.

  20. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... subpart C—Abortions and related medical services in federally assisted programs of the Public Health...—Effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part 81—Practice and procedure for...

  1. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... subpart C—Abortions and related medical services in federally assisted programs of the Public Health...—Effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part 81—Practice and procedure for...

  2. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... subpart C—Abortions and related medical services in federally assisted programs of the Public Health...—Effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part 81—Practice and procedure for...

  3. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... subpart C—Abortions and related medical services in federally assisted programs of the Public Health...—Effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part 81—Practice and procedure for...

  4. 42 CFR 51a.7 - What other DHHS regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... subpart C—Abortions and related medical services in federally assisted programs of the Public Health...—Effectuation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 45 CFR part 81—Practice and procedure for...

  5. How Does Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Pain Neuromatrix Affect Brain Excitability and Pain Perception? A Randomised, Double-Blind, Sham-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability. The secondary aim was to investigate how M1 and S1 excitability changes affect sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh). Methods Twelve healthy participants received 20 min a-tDCS under five different conditions including a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCS of S1, a-tDCS of DLPFC, sham a-tDCS, and no-tDCS. Excitability of dominant M1 and S1 were measured before, immediately, and 30 minutes after intervention respectively. Moreover, STh and PTh to peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were evaluated. All outcome measures were assessed at three time-points of measurement by a blind rater. Results A-tDCS of M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) significantly increased brain excitability in M1 (p < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following application of a-tDCS over the S1, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs increased immediately after the stimulation (p < 0.05), whilst M1 stimulation decreased it. Compared to baseline values, significant STh and PTh increase was observed after a-tDCS of all three stimulated areas. Except in M1 stimulation, there was significant PTh difference between a-tDCS and sham tDCS. Conclusion a-tDCS of M1 is the best spots to enhance brain excitability than a-tDCS of S1 and DLPFC. Surprisingly, a-tDCS of M1 and S1 has diverse effects on S1 and M1 excitability. A-tDCS of M1, S1, and DLPFC increased STh and PTh levels. Given the placebo effects of a-tDCS of M1 in pain perception, our results should be interpreted with caution

  6. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  7. Current titles

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  8. DOE`s Phytoremediation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation contains an outline of the US DOE`s phytoremediation program. A brief overview of the goals, infrastructure, and results of the program is presented. Environmental contaminants addressed include chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, radionuclides, inorganic wastes, and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes. Studies of soil remediation using phytoextraction and water remediation using rhizofiltration are briefly described.

  9. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  10. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  11. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  12. Current titles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    116 abstracts are presented of work done with the electron microscope. NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers (assess is controlled by a steering committee).

  13. Does Horace Mann Still Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on a new book entitled Horace Mann's Vision of the Public Schools: Is It Still Relevant? According to him, the book does succinctly summarize current controversies in education including technology, school finance, and No Child Left Behind, and the writing is informed. However, aside from the first twenty-seven…

  14. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  15. DOE New Technology: Sharing New Frontiers, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, A.T.; Henline, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of DOE New Technology is to provide information on how to access specific technologies developed through research sponsored by DOE and performed by DOE laboratories or by DOE-contracted researchers. This document describes technologies identified as having potential for commercial applications in addition to a catalog of current patent applications and patents available for licensing from DOE and DOE contractors.

  16. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-12-31

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University.

  17. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  18. Human Nav1.6 Channels Generate Larger Resurgent Currents than Human Nav1.1 Channels, but the Navβ4 Peptide Does Not Protect Either Isoform from Use-Dependent Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Reesha R.; Barbosa, Cindy; Xiao, Yucheng; Cummins, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the initiation and propagation of action potentials (APs). Two brain isoforms, Nav1.1 and Nav1.6, have very distinct cellular and subcellular expression. Specifically, Nav1.1 is predominantly expressed in the soma and proximal axon initial segment of fast-spiking GABAergic neurons, while Nav1.6 is found at the distal axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier of both fast-spiking GABAergic and excitatory neurons. Interestingly, an auxiliary voltage-gated sodium channel subunit, Navβ4, is also enriched in the axon initial segment of fast-spiking GABAergic neurons. The C-terminal tail of Navβ4 is thought to mediate resurgent sodium current, an atypical current that occurs immediately following the action potential and is predicted to enhance excitability. To better understand the contribution of Nav1.1, Nav1.6 and Navβ4 to high frequency firing, we compared the properties of these two channel isoforms in the presence and absence of a peptide corresponding to part of the C-terminal tail of Navβ4. We used whole-cell patch clamp recordings to examine the biophysical properties of these two channel isoforms in HEK293T cells and found several differences between human Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 currents. Nav1.1 channels exhibited slower closed-state inactivation but faster open-state inactivation than Nav1.6 channels. We also observed a greater propensity of Nav1.6 to generate resurgent currents, most likely due to its slower kinetics of open-state inactivation, compared to Nav1.1. These two isoforms also showed differential responses to slow and fast AP waveforms, which were altered by the Navβ4 peptide. Although the Navβ4 peptide substantially increased the rate of recovery from apparent inactivation, Navβ4 peptide did not protect either channel isoform from undergoing use-dependent reduction with 10 Hz step-pulse stimulation or trains of slow or fast AP waveforms. Overall, these two channels have distinct biophysical

  19. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  20. Oscillating square wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) delivered during slow wave sleep does not improve declarative memory more than sham: A randomized sham controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Sahlem, Gregory L.; Badran, Bashar W.; Halford, Jonathan J.; Williams, Nolan R.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L.; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L.; Uhde, Thomas W.; Borckardt, Jeffery J.; George, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current wave form (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Objective/Hypothesis Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Methods Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517mA/CM2, and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with one-minute inter-block intervals (25 minutes total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. Results There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1±3.0SD more associations) (sham = 3.8±3.1S.D more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6±2.7 S.D. correctly typed sequences) compared to

  1. Oscillating Square Wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Delivered During Slow Wave Sleep Does Not Improve Declarative Memory More Than Sham: A Randomized Sham Controlled Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Badran, Bashar W; Halford, Jonathan J; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L; Uhde, Thomas W; Borckardt, Jeffery J; George, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current waveform (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517 mA/cm(2), and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75 Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with 1-min inter-block intervals (25 min total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1 ± 3.0 SD more associations) (sham = 3.8 ± 3.1 SD more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6 ± 2.7 SD correctly typed sequences) compared to sham stimulation (2.3 ± 2.2 SD correctly typed

  2. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bastani, A; Jaberzadeh, S

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The secondary aim is to find a-tDCS optimal parameters for its maximal effects. Electronic databases were searched for studies into the effect of a-tDCS when compared to no stimulation. Studies which met the inclusion criteria were assessed and methodological quality was examined using PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. Data from seven studies revealed increase in corticomotor excitability with a small but significant effect size (0.31 [0.14, 0.48], p=0.0003) in healthy subjects and data from two studies in subjects with stroke indicated significant results with moderate effect size (0.59 [0.24, 0.93], p=0.001) in favor of a-tDCS. Likewise, studies examining motor function demonstrated a small and non-significant effect (0.39 [-0.17, 0.94], p=0.17) in subjects with stroke and a large but non-significant effect (0.92 [-1.02, 2.87], p=0.35) in healthy subjects in favor of improvement in motor function. The results also indicate that efficacy of a-tDCS is dependent on current density and duration of application. A-tDCS increases corticomotor excitability in both healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The results also show a trend in favor of motor function improvement following a-tDCS. A-tDCS is a non-invasive, cheap and easy-to-apply modality which could be used as a stand-alone technique or as an adds-on technique to enhance corticomotor excitability and the efficacy of motor training approaches. However, the small sample size of the included studies reduces the strength of the presented evidences and any conclusion in this regard should be considered cautiously.

  3. Training to Provide Psychiatric Genetic Counseling: How Does It Impact Recent Graduates' and Current Students' Readiness to Provide Genetic Counseling for Individuals with Psychiatric Illness and Attitudes towards this Population?

    PubMed

    Low, Ashley; Dixon, Shannan; Higgs, Amanda; Joines, Jessica; Hippman, Catriona

    2017-09-12

    Mental illness is extremely common and genetic counselors frequently see patients with mental illness. Genetic counselors report discomfort in providing psychiatric genetic counseling (GC), suggesting the need to look critically at training for psychiatric GC. This study aimed to investigate psychiatric GC training and its impact on perceived preparedness to provide psychiatric GC (preparedness). Current students and recent graduates were invited to complete an anonymous survey evaluating psychiatric GC training and outcomes. Bivariate correlations (p<.10) identified variables for inclusion in a logistic regression model to predict preparedness. Data were checked for assumptions underlying logistic regression. The logistic regression model for the 286 respondents [χ(2)(8)=84.87, p<.001] explained between 37.1% (Cox & Snell R(2)=.371) and 49.7% (Nagelkerke R(2)=.497) of the variance in preparedness scores. More frequent psychiatric GC instruction (OR=5.13), more active methods for practicing risk assessment (OR=4.43), and education on providing resources for mental illness (OR=4.99) made uniquely significant contributions to the model (p<.001). Responses to open-ended questions revealed interest in further psychiatric GC training, particularly enabling "hands on" experience. This exploratory study suggests that enriching GC training through more frequent psychiatric GC instruction and more active opportunities to practice psychiatric GC skills will support students in feeling more prepared to provide psychiatric GC after graduation.

  4. Potential CERCLA reauthorization issues relevant to US DOE`s Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.; Jaksch, J.A.; Dailey, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is currently scheduled to be reauthorized in 1994. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant stake in CERCLA reauthorization. CERCLA, along with its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), is the principal legal authority governing DOE`s environmental restoration program. The manner in which CERCLA-related issues are identified, evaluated, and dispatched may have a substantial impact on DOE`s ability to conduct its environmental restoration program. A number of issues that impact DOE`s environmental restoration program could be addressed through CERCLA reauthorization. These issues include the need to (1) address how the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) should be integrated into DOE CERCLA actions, (2) facilitate the streamlining of the Superfund process at DOE sites, (3) address the conflicts between the requirements of CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that are especially relevant to DOE, (4) examine the criteria for waiving applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) at DOE sites, and (5) delineate the appropriate use of institutional controls at DOE sites.

  5. Blood Pressure Reduction in the Acute Phase of an Ischemic Stroke Does Not Improve Short- or Long-Term Dependency or Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Shuo; Peng, Jia-Li; Tao, Xiao-Xiao; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qi-Ting; Yao, Qian; Shen, Xiao-Lei; Li, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Su, Jing-Jing; Shu, Liang; Zhang, Min; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of current literature to determine whether lowering blood pressure (BP) during the acute phase of an ischemic stroke improves short- and long-term outcomes. PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase were searched until September 5, 2014 using combinations of the search terms: blood pressure reduction, reduced blood pressure, lowering blood pressure, ischemic stroke, acute stroke, and intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trial and patients with acute stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) treated with an antihypertensive agent or placebo. Outcome measures were change in systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP) after treatment, and short- and long-term dependency and mortality rates. A total of 459 studies were identified, and ultimately 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The total number of participants in the treatment groups was 5672 (range, 6-2308), and in the control groups was 5416 (range, 6-2033). In most studies, more than 50% of the participants were males and the mean age was more than 60 years. The mean follow-up time ranged from 5 days to 12 months. As expected, treatment groups had a greater decrease in BP than control groups, and this effect was seen with different classes of antihypertensive drugs. Short-term and long-term dependency rates were similar between treatment and control groups (short-term dependency: pooled odds ratio [OR] = 1.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.936-1.159, P = 0.457; long-term dependency: pooled OR = 1.013, 95% CI: 0.915-1.120, P = 0.806). Short-term or long-term mortality was similar between the treatment and control groups (short-term mortality: pooled OR = 1.020, 95% CI: 0.749-1.388, P = .902; long-term mortality: pooled OR = 1.039, 95% CI: 0.883-1.222, P = 0.644). Antihypertensive agents effectively reduce BP during the acute phase of an ischemic stroke, but provide no benefit with respect to short- and

  6. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  7. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  8. Where does the US experience of managed care currently stand?

    PubMed

    Simonet, D

    2005-01-01

    After an historical review of the advent of managed care in the USA, this article presents cost-control mechanisms, changes in the medical practice and consequences on patient health. The article also explains the development of the HMO using the transaction costs theory and the subsequent orientations of the US health care system.

  9. Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; High, Leslie; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Dyslexia is a disorder of the language-processing systems in the brain. It is a specific learning disability in reading that often affects spelling as well. This article describes: (1) Common characteristics experienced by people with dyslexia or reading disabilities; (2) Common misconceptions about dyslexia; (3) What brain research tell us about…

  10. DOE`s decommissioning policy and framework

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Buller, J.; Gross, T.

    1996-03-01

    After decades of weapons production and testing at U.S. Department of Energy facilities across the nation, the DOE has hundreds of unneeded and unwanted buildings still in the complex, many of them contaminated with radioactive and hazardous substances. The DOE`s environmental restoration program mission includes ensuring that risks posed by these surplus facilities are either eliminated or reduced to safe levels through decommissioning. More than 100 buildings in the former weapons complex have been decommissioned since the environmental restoration program began in late 1989. Another 800-plus structures have been declared surplus to the department`s needs and placed in surveillance and maintenance (S&M) programs awaiting final decommissioning activities. Several thousand more facilities are expected to be declared surplus, then deactivated, and placed in S&M programs for eventual decommissioning by the Environmental Restoration program. The Baseline Environmental Management Report that the DOE prepared for Congress in March 1995 estimates that $46.5 billion will be needed over the next 75 years to decommission the department`s contaminated surplus facilities.

  11. Fault current limiters using superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, W. T.; Power, A.

    Fault current limiters on power systems are to reduce damage by heating and electromechanical forces, to alleviate duty on switchgear used to clear the fault, and to mitigate disturbance to unfaulted parts of the system. A basic scheme involves a super-resistor which is a superconductor being driven to high resistance when fault current flows either when current is high during a cycle of a.c. or, if the temperature of the superconductive material rises, for the full cycle. Current may be commuted from superconductor to an impedance in parallel, thus reducing the energy dispersed at low temperature and saving refrigeration. In a super-shorted transformer the ambient temperature primary carries the power system current; the superconductive secondary goes to a resistive condition when excessive currents flow in the primary. A super-transformer has the advantage of not needing current leads from high temperature to low temperature; it behaves as a parallel super-resistor and inductor. The supertransductor with a superconductive d.c. bias winding is large and has small effect on the rate of fall of current at current zero; it does little to alleviate duty on switchgear but does reduce heating and electromechanical forces. It is fully active after a fault has been cleared. Other schemes depend on rapid recooling of the superconductor to achieve this.

  12. DOE standard: Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  13. Preserving DOE's Research Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parr, Patricia D.

    1998-01-01

    Seven sites are designated as Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Parks and serve as irreplaceable outdoor laboratories for scientific research and education. The DOE has recommended the disposal of nearly one- quarter of the research park land holdings. Offers suggestions for developing a plan for protecting the…

  14. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  15. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  16. Birkeland current boundary flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, W. E.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Jackel, B.; Donovan, E.; Connors, M.; Juusola, L.

    2017-04-01

    Intense zonal ion velocity jets in the northern nightside auroral zone are measured during quiet geomagnetic conditions by the Swarm satellites around 500 km altitude. These velocity jets, exceeding 1 km/s in over 50% of orbits measured, range from 20 to 100 km in meridional thickness and reach a maximum at the boundary between upward and downward field-aligned current. On average they represent a potential difference of approximately 3 kV between the R1/R2 currents. This boundary also separates different regions of electron temperature and meridional flow and is associated with ion upflows and anisotropic heating. Both dawnward and duskward velocity jets are observed, including some oppositely directed pairs bounding regions of upward field-aligned current. Coincident ground-based observations place ion velocity jets adjacent to auroral arcs, embedded in the auroral electrojets. Previous literature has focused on fast flows occurring in regions of relative low conductivity surrounding auroral arcs, typically during geomagnetically active conditions, and does not address the occurrence frequency of these events. We show ion velocity jets to be a persistent and ubiquitous property of the electrodynamics of quiet time R1/R2 current closure near midnight in the winter hemisphere.

  17. Bacterial vaginosis: identifying research gaps proceedings of a workshop sponsored by DHHS/NIH/NIAID.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Martin, David H; Watts, D Heather; Schulte, Joann; Sobel, Jack D; Hillier, Sharon L; Deal, Carolyn; Fredricks, David N

    2010-12-01

    The microbiota of the human vagina can affect the health of women, their fetuses, and newborns. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent form of vaginal infection in women of reproductive age, affecting 8% to 23%, and is the most common etiology of vaginal symptoms prompting women to seek medical care. While traditional cultivation has identified numerous BV-associated bacteria involved in these processes, recent advances in molecular biology have facilitated the detection and identification of bacteria without cultivation, some of which have not previously been described or well characterized. A more complete understanding of vaginal microbial populations resulting from the adoption of molecular tools may lead to better strategies to maintain healthy vaginal microbial communities-thus enhancing women's health-and will create opportunities to explore the role of novel bacteria in reproductive tract diseases. On November 19-20, 2008, the NIH convened a workshop of experts in the field of research and clinical practice related to BV in order to discuss how these new advances should be interpreted and applied to research in progress and collaborations between relevant disciplines. This paper summarizes the presentations of this workshop and outlines general recommendations arising from the related discussions. Future studies of BV and its associated adverse outcomes should determine if specific combinations of organisms are more pathogenic than others, and causally associated with different adverse events. Moreover, determination of causality will depend not only on more precise categorization of the vaginal microbiota, but also on variations in the host environment that may be associated with changes in bacterial communities over time. In this report, we offer suggestions and recommendations that we hope will facilitate conduct of consistent approaches to collaborative efforts towards advancing our understanding of the vaginal microbiota and its impact on human health.

  18. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Stock No. 017-001-00474-0 or Healthy People 2000 (Summary Report; Stock No. 017-001-00473-1) through the... reasonable, considering the anticipated results; (4) The extent to which the project personnel are well... home visiting; (2) Projects to increase the participation of obstetricians and pediatricians in title...

  19. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... achievement of Healthy Children 2000 objectives, 1 taking, the following factors into account: 1 Healthy... objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth originally published in Healthy People 2000 in September 1990. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2000 (Full Report...

  20. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... achievement of Healthy Children 2000 objectives, 1 taking, the following factors into account: 1 Healthy... objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth originally published in Healthy People 2000 in September 1990. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2000 (Full Report...

  1. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... achievement of Healthy Children 2000 objectives, 1 taking, the following factors into account: 1 Healthy... objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth originally published in Healthy People 2000 in September 1990. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2000 (Full Report...

  2. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national health objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth originally published in...

  3. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work? A A A There's fluoride in your toothpaste and even in your water. But how does ... enamel from plaque and sugars. By using fluoride toothpaste, for instance, everyone can enjoy some cavity protection. ...

  4. DOE climate partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.

    1995-12-31

    This article briefly describes US DOE partnerships, with electrical utilities and with US EPA and industry, which focus on reduction in greenhouse gasses. They are called `Climate Challenge` and `Climate Wise.`

  5. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  6. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  7. DOE and the United States enrichment market

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, E.E.

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have exerted a predominant influence in the uranium enrichment services industry since 1969, when it began to sell its services to private industry under a Requirement-Type Contract (RTC). After almost 25 years of providing these services to utilities throughout the world, DOE is now preparing to hand over responsibility to the emerging US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), which was created by the 1992 Energy Bill and will begin its tenure on July 1, 1993. DOE has had some notable successes, including revenue generation of about $25 billion from its domestic and foreign sales since 1969. Annual revenues from civilian dollars over the next several years. However, most of the sales attributed to these revenues took place in 1986-more than six years ago. Presently, US utility commitments are decreasing significantly; to date, US utilities have committed less than two percent of their total FY2002 enrichment requirements to DOE. In spite of the fact that DOE has enjoyed some success, its past actions, or sometimes inactions, have often been steeped in controversy that resulted in customer alienation and dissatisfaction. It is the legacy of past DOE contracting practices, increased competition, and massive contractual terminations, that USEC will inherit from DOE. Therefore, it is relevant to consider the major issues that have fashioned the current US market and resulted in USEC's initial position in the marketplace.

  8. Waste container fabrication from recycled DOE metal

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1994-02-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Much of this material cannot be surface decontaminated. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to {open_quotes}beneficially reuse{close_quotes} this material in applications where small amounts of radioactivity are not a detriment. One example is where RSM is currently being beneficially used to fabricate shield blocks for use in DOE medium energy physics programs. This paper describes other initiatives now underway within DOE to utilize RSM to fabricate other products, such as radioactive waste shipping, storage and disposal containers.

  9. Congress targets DOE plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Calling the Department of Energy's management of the nation's crippled nuclear weapons production complex “a 35-year secret chemical war waged against people living near DOE's sites,” Representative Thomas Luken (D-OH) opened a congressional hearing on February 23 with an appeal to DOE Secretary-designate James Watkins to release secret health records of workers at the plants. In testimony that followed, Comptroller General Charles Bowsher told a subcommittee of the House Energy and Commerce Committee that President Bush's new budget does not go far enough on the long and costly road of cleaning up and modernizing the contaminated and aging facilities. The renovation is expected to cost up to $155 billion.By next month, 11 of the 17 installations that make up the DOE complex will be on the EPA's Superfund list of the nation's most contaminated waste sites. Some o f the DOE facilities, including the Rocky Flats plant in Denver, Colo., the Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington, and the Savannah River plant in South Carolina, are among the most polluted sites ever identified by EPA. The principal function of the facilities, the production of tritium and plutonium for nuclear weapons, has stopped, creating what DOE has characterized as a looming national security crisis.

  10. Using Geometry To Sense Current.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Adam N; Abebe, Nathnael S; Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-12-14

    We describe a superconducting three-terminal device that uses a simple geometric effect known as current crowding to sense the flow of current and actuate a readout signal. The device consists of a "Y"-shaped current combiner, with two currents (sense and bias) entering separately through the top arms of the "Y", intersecting, and then exiting together through the bottom leg of the "Y". When current is added to or removed from one of the arms (e.g., the sense arm), the superconducting critical current in the other arm (i.e., the bias arm) is modulated. The current in the sense arm can thus be determined by measuring the critical current of the bias arm, or inversely, the sense current can be used to modulate the state of the bias arm. The dependence of the bias critical current on the sense current occurs due to the geometric current crowding effect, which causes the sense current to interact locally with the bias arm. Measurement of the critical current in the bias arm does not break the superconducting state of the sense arm or of the bottom leg, and thus, quantized currents trapped in a superconducting loop were able to be repeatedly measured without changing the state of the loop. Current crowding is a universal effect in nanoscale superconductors, and so this device has potential for applicability across a broad range of superconducting technologies and materials. More generally, any technology in which geometrically induced flow crowding exists in the presence of a strong nonlinearity might make use of this type of device.

  11. Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.

  12. 1996 DOE technical standards program workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The workshop theme is `The Strategic Standardization Initiative - A Technology Exchange and Global Competitiveness Challenge for DOE.` The workshop goal is to inform the DOE technical standards community of strategic standardization activities taking place in the Department, other Government agencies, standards developing organizations, and industry. Individuals working on technical standards will be challenged to improve cooperation and communications with the involved organizations in response to the initiative. Workshop sessions include presentations by representatives from various Government agencies that focus on coordination among and participation of Government personnel in the voluntary standards process; reports by standards organizations, industry, and DOE representatives on current technology exchange programs; and how the road ahead appears for `information superhighway` standardization. Another session highlights successful standardization case studies selected from several sites across the DOE complex. The workshop concludes with a panel discussion on the goals and objectives of the DOE Technical Standards Program as envisioned by senior DOE management. The annual workshop on technical standards has proven to be an effective medium for communicating information related to standards throughout the DOE community. Technical standards are used to transfer technology and standardize work processes to produce consistent, acceptable results. They provide a practical solution to the Department`s challenge to protect the environment and the health and safety of the public and workers during all facility operations. Through standards, the technologies of industries and governments worldwide are available to DOE. The DOE Technical Standards Program, a Department-wide effort that crosscuts all organizations and disciplines, links the Department to those technologies.

  13. DOE`s nuclear energy plant optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.; Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P.

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the United States agreed to the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change that outlines specific greenhouse gas emissions reduction requirements. A key element of this protocol is binding emissions targets and timetables. The Protocol calls for the United States to reach emissions targets 7% below 1990 emissions levels over the 5-yr period from 2008 to 2012. A key element to achieving this goal will be the continued safe and economic operation of the Nation`s 104 nuclear power plants. These plants provide >20% of the Nation`s electricity, and nearly one-half of the 50 states receive >25% of their electricity from nuclear power. DOE`s current Strategic Plan specifies that the United States maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. As a result, DOE proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year (FY) 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program in advanced concepts, and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). NERI was authorized and received initial funding of $19 million for its first year. NEPO was not funded in 1999 but has been reintroduced in the FY 2000 budget request. NEPO will be a jointly funded R and D program with industry through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and will address those issues that could hinder continued safe operation of the Nation`s operating nuclear power plants. The FY 2000 funding request to Congress for NEPO is $5 million.

  14. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  15. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  16. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  17. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-05-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  18. DOE JGI Welcome Remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, Jim

    2010-06-03

    Jim Bristow, Deputy Director of Programs at the DOE Joint Genome Institute, discusses the impact of advances in sequencing technologies on large genome centers on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  19. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-03-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.

  20. Does the Eye Spy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Some of the worst collateral damage from a tragedy does not occur till after the smoke clears; namely, the usurping of the name of the location where the event took place, which over time gets repurposed into metaphor and served as a caveat. Vietnam has resonated for decades as a reference to protracted war. Kent State is likewise laden with…

  1. Does the Eye Spy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Some of the worst collateral damage from a tragedy does not occur till after the smoke clears; namely, the usurping of the name of the location where the event took place, which over time gets repurposed into metaphor and served as a caveat. Vietnam has resonated for decades as a reference to protracted war. Kent State is likewise laden with…

  2. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  3. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  4. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  5. DOE HEPA filter test program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  6. Natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria for DOE sites: DOE Standard DOE-STD-1023-95

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Lu, S.C.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-03-24

    This paper summarizes hazard assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. The DOE has established policy and requirements for NPH mitigation for DOE sites and facilities using a graded approach by DOE Order 5480.28. The graded approach is implemented by five performance categories established for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) at DOE facilities based on criteria provided by DOE-STD-1021-93. In applying the design/evaluation criteria of DOE-STD-1020-94 for DOE facilities subjected to one of the natural phenomena hazards, the establishment of design basis load levels consistent with the corresponding performance category is required. This standard provides general criteria as well as specific criteria for natural phenomena hazard assessments to ensure that adequate design basis load levels are established for design and/or evaluation of DOE facilities.

  7. Andreev current for low temperature thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Faivre, T. Pekola, J. P.; Golubev, D. S.

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate experimentally that disorder enhanced Andreev current in a tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor provides a method to measure electronic temperature, specifically at temperatures below 200 mK when aluminum is used. This Andreev thermometer has some advantages over conventional quasiparticle thermometers: For instance, it does not conduct heat and its reading does not saturate until at lower temperatures. Another merit is that the responsivity is constant over a wide temperature range.

  8. DOE announces price increase for fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1989-03-01

    The central question for current USEC holders is the extent to which DOE`s prices will increase in the future and whether those prices will be competitive with other sources available at the time of delivery. DOE`s current point of view (as expressed to the US Congress) is that prices will be kept at the ceiling price under the contract. Speculation on the future of DOE`s enrichment enterprise is on the agenda of many utilities this month, as USEC customers must provide notice to DOE on April 1, 1989 if they wish to reduce their contractual commitment in FY 1999 to below 70 percent of their requirements without penalty. The USEC also allows customers to adjust between 70 and 100 percent of their requirements with five years` notice. Based on projected prices for deliveries under the IP2 offer, customers which previously rejected IP2 will probably elect to take only 70 percent of their requirements from DOE in FY 1994. If firm notification is not given for the base SWU requirements, a USEC holder is not rules out as a DOE customer for that year, but DOE cannot guarantee to have the production capacity available. On the other hand, DOE has very aggressively pursued utilities with unfilled requirements in the short term. Given the expected glut of enrichment capacity well into the next decade, the potential for higher DOE prices due to environmental and decommissioning costs at their diffusion plants, and the potential for other suppliers to provide advanced technology, it may prove difficult for DOE to continue to convince its customers that ten-year contracts are in their best interests.

  9. Developing a model lifeline protection program for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lowing, A.N.

    1996-11-01

    A National Lifeline Standard Development Program is currently being conducted by FEMA and NIST. The Department of Energy is following these developments and supplementing them to meet Life-Safety and mission requirements for all DOE facilities as part of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Plan. The task will be overseen by a DOE management team with technical guidance provided by a Steering Group of management and operating contractor representatives. The DOE will participate in the federal program by conducting a workshop on lifeline protection issues, developing an overall plan, organizing a Steering Group, and conducting a pilot study at a DOE facility.

  10. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  11. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites

  12. 1979 DOE statistical symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D.A.; Truett T.

    1980-09-01

    The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation.

  13. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  14. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the regular...

  15. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the regular...

  16. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the regular...

  17. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the regular...

  18. 20 CFR 216.15 - Special current connection test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Special current connection test. 216.15... ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Current Connection With the Railroad Industry § 216.15 Special current connection test. (a) For survivor annuities. An employee who does not have a current connection under the regular...

  19. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  20. Does Concrete Self-Decontaminate VX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    DOES CONCRETE SELF-DECONTAMINATE VX? George W. Wagner, Richard J. O’Connor, and Lawrence R. Procell U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical ...this method avoids the problem of tenuous extraction procedures. In a recently published paper, Groenewold et al.2 examined the fate of dilute VX...concrete employed by Groenewold et al.,2 the current study examines VX droplets on the order of several µL to determine the behavior of VX on concrete in

  1. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  2. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  3. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  4. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  5. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  6. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  7. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive transformers; and electrical test components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment.

  8. MHD stability of advanced tokamak scenarios with reversed central current: an explanation of the "current hole".

    PubMed

    Huysmans, G T; Hender, T C; Hawkes, N C; Litaudon, X

    2001-12-10

    A region of zero current density in the plasma center has been observed in the advanced tokamak scenarios with off-axis lower-hybrid current drive in the JET and JT-60U tokamak experiments. Significantly, the central current density does not become negative, although this is expected based on conventional current diffusion. In this paper, it is shown that the zero central current density and the absence of negative central current can be explained by the influence of a resistive kink magnetohydrodynamic instability.

  9. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A en ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  10. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  11. CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: “Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health” sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

  12. CHAPEL HILL BISPHENOL A EXPERT PANEL CONSENSUS STATEMENT:INTEGRATION OF MECHANISMS, EFFECTS IN ANIMALS AND POTENTIAL TO IMPACT HUMAN HEALTH AT CURRENT LEVELS OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: “Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health” sponsored by the NIEHS and NIDCR, NIH/DHHS on the estrogenic environmenta...

  13. A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

  14. Current Opinions on Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kaux, Jean-François; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Goff, Caroline Le; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon and impaired performance sometimes associated with swelling of the tendon. Its diagnosis is usually clinical but ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging can refine the diagnosis. Tendinopathy is highly prevalent and is one of the most frequently self reported musculoskeletal diseases in physical workers and sports people. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to carry out general epidemiologic studies on tendinopathy because of the varying sports cultures and sports habits in different countries. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be multi-factorial, involving intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The role of inflammation is still debated but the absence of inflammatory cells does not mean that inflammatory mediators are not implicated. Different theories have been advanced to explain pain and chronicity mechanisms, but these mechanisms remain largely unknown. “Conventional ”treatments are generally employed empirically to fight pain and inflammation but they do not modify the histological structure of the tendon. However, these treatments are not completely satisfactory and the recurrence of symptoms is common. Currently, eccentric training remains the treatment of choice for tendinopathy, even though some studies are contradictory. Moreover, many interesting new treatments are now being developed to treat tendinopathy, but there is little evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Key points The word “tendinopathy ”is the correct term for the clinical diagnosis of pain accompanied by impaired performance, and sometimes swelling in the tendon. The aetiology of tendinopathy seems to be a multi-factorial process, involving promoting factors that are intrinsic or extrinsic, working either alone or in combination. US (with color Doppler) and MRI are usually prescribed when tendinopathy is unresponsive to treatment and entails lingering symptoms. Eccentric training is currently considered to be the

  15. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  16. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  17. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  18. Working with Indian Tribal Nations. A guide for DOE employees

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) employees and contractors frequently work with Indian tribes or nations as part of their jobs. The purpose of this guide is to help DOE employees and contractors initiate contact with tribes and build effective relationships. DOE maintains a unique government-to government relationship with tribal nations. This guide presents an overview of the history of the relationship between the tribes and the Federal government, as well as the laws and Executive Orders that define that relationship. The guide discusses the Federal government’s trust responsibility to the tribes, tribal treaty rights, and the Department of Energy’s American Indian policy. The guide also discusses important cultural differences that could lead to communication problems if not understood and provides examples of potential cultural misunderstandings. In particular the guide discusses tribal environmental beliefs that shape tribal responses to DOE actions. The guide also provides pointers on tribal etiquette during meetings and cultural ceremonies and when visiting tribal reservations. Appendix 1 gives examples of the tribal nations with whom DOE currently has Memoranda of Understanding. While this guide provides an introduction and overview of tribal relations for DOE staff and contractors, DOE has also designated Tribal Issues Points of Contacts at each of its facilities. A list of these Points of Contact for all DOE facilities is provided in Appendix 2. DOE staff and contractors should consult with the appropriate tribal representatives at their site before initiating contact with a tribal nation, because many tribes have rules and procedures that must be complied with before DOE staff or contractors may go on tribal lands or conduct interviews with tribal members. Appendix 3 is the complete DOE American Indian Policy. Appendices 4-6 are Executive Orders that govern the relationship of all federal agencies with tribal nations. DOE employees and staff are

  19. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE`s current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  20. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.

  1. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  2. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  3. Is Maxwell's Displacement Current a Current?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses in detail the claim that certain well-known physics experiments demonstrate the magnetic field produced by Maxwell's displacement current. Addresses the question of whether the displacement current acts as a source of magnetic field in the same way as a current in a wire would. (Contains 12 references.) (WRM)

  4. DOE LLW classification rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-09-16

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems.

  5. DOE LLW classification rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-09-16

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems.

  6. Does literacy improve finance?

    PubMed

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Does Dark Matter Exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.; Kosowsky, A.

    The success of the ΛCDM model on large scales does not extend down to galaxy scales. We list a dozen problems of the dark matter hypothesis, some of which arise in specific models for the formation of structure in the universe, while others are generic and require fine tuning in any dark matter theory. Modifications to the theory, such as adding properties to the DM particles beyond gravitational interactions, or simply a better understanding of the physics of galaxy formation, may resolve some problems, but a number of conspiracies and correlations are unlikely to yield to this approach. The alternative is that mass discrepancies result from of a non-Newtonian law of gravity, a hypothesis which avoids many of the more intractable problems of dark matter. A modified law of gravity is not without formidable difficulties of its own, but it is no longer obvious that they are any more daunting than those facing DM.

  8. Nuclear energy information flow from DOE to the public

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.L.; Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this research was to study the DOE's program for educating the public about nuclear power and nuclear waste management. DOE's organizational structuree and the procedures used within this structure to disseminate information were studied and readability tests on nuclear information distributed by DOE were conducted. Initial information was obtained through interviews with 29 local, state, and federal DOE representatives. This was supplemented with additional information as it was released by the DOE. The primary goals of the DOE's information program are to encourage two-way communication between the DOE and the public and to encourage public participation in policy-making decisions. Most of this communication, however, is presented orally. Relative to other energy technologies and conservation, very few nuclear brochures are currently being distributed by the DOE. This is especially true with regard to information about nuclear waste. A recent public survey found that a majority of the public wants to learn more about nuclear power and that, with regard to the nuclear fuel cycle, the public wants most to learn about nuclear waste management. Thus, the DOE appears to be missing an eager audience.

  9. Gauge invariance, current conservation, and GIAO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, S. T.

    1972-01-01

    The well known relationship between gauge invariance and current conservation is exhibited within the usual quantum mechanical formalism. It is then shown that the use of gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) does not necessarily lead to the expected current conservation. The reason is found to lie in the constrained nature of the gauge invariance which is provided by the use of GIAO's. It is concluded that this invariance is, of itself, no argument in favor of their use.

  10. How does interstitial cystitis begin?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis (IC) does not start as an endstage disease, it has a beginning when symptoms are milder, intermittent and the disease is misdiagnosed. To determine how IC develops patients were interviewed on when their symptoms began, what they were and are now as well as the various diagnoses that they received before they were determined to have IC. Methods One hundred female IC patients were screened. They filled out a questionnaire asking about the age their disease presented, their initial and current symptoms, what their original diagnoses were, effect of the menstrual cycle and sexual activity on their symptoms and about any relatives with bladder symptoms or a current diagnosis of IC. Results By age 30, 81% of patients had bladder symptoms, 21% before age 10. The first symptom was frequency in 81%, pain present in 59% and the symptoms were intermittent in 64%. Most common early misdiagnosis was UTI in 74% with 93% reporting negative urine cultures. Sex was painful and causes symptom flares in 82%, symptoms flared the week before the menses in 75%. Most common gynecologic diagnosis was yeast vaginitis, 42%. Urge incontinence was present in 33%. There were 51% that reported bladder symptoms in a first degree female relative. Conclusions IC begins primarily with frequency and is intermittent in most patients with symptom flares associated with sexual activity. Pain and urgency incontinence tend to be a later symptoms. When IC flares the most common misdiagnosis is UTI. Symptoms begin before age 30 in most but an IC diagnosis is often not made until age 40. Genetics appear to play a significant role. It is important to consider these facts when evaluating women with “early IC” because correct diagnosis will result in proper therapy and reduced health care costs. PMID:26816860

  11. Opioid analgesics: does potency matter?

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Webster, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics with a wide range of potencies are currently used for the treatment of chronic pain. Yet understanding the clinical relevance and therapeutic consequences of opioid potency remains ill defined. Both patients and clinicians alike have misperceptions about opioid potency, expecting that less-potent opioids will be less effective or fearing that more-potent opioids are more dangerous or more likely to be abused. In this review, common myths about the potency of opioid analgesics will be discussed. Clinicians should understand that pharmacologic potency per se does not necessarily imply more effective analgesia or higher abuse liability. Published dose conversion tables may not accurately calculate the dose for effective and safe rotation from one opioid to another in patients receiving long-term opioid therapy because they are based on limited data that may not apply to chronic pain. Differences in pharmacologic potency are largely accounted for by the actual doses prescribed, according to individualized patient need. Factors for achieving effective analgesia and reducing the risks involved with opioid use include careful medication selection based on patient characteristics, appropriate dosing titration and opioid rotation practices, knowledge of product formulation characteristics (eg, extended release, immediate release, and tamper-resistant features), and an awareness of differences in opioid pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Clinicians should remain vigilant in monitoring patients on any opioid medication, regardless of classification along the opioid potency continuum.

  12. Hobetron current regulating switch tube

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.B.; Hansen, R.J.; Deb, D.N.; Good, G.R.; Reass, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a novel high power electron tube that can hold off voltages up to hundreds of kilovolts, and switch hundreds of amps of current. They call the divide the Hobertron since it utilizes a hollow electron beam. Unlike magnetron injection gun (MIG) switch tubes, it does not require a magnet. Further, it uses nonintercepting control laments, and a dispenser cathode for long life and reliability. Finally, it features a double walled Faraday cage collector for high power dissipation capability. Current is very tightly controlled against changes in voltage across the switch (it is an almost perfect pentode), thus this tube is ideally suited for direct series switching applications. In the paper, various Hobertron designs, and the computer codes and methods used to create them, will be described.

  13. Current status of viroid taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, F; Flores, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Li, S-F; Pallás, V; Randles, J W; Sano, T; Vidalakis, G; Owens, R A

    2014-12-01

    Viroids are the smallest autonomous infectious nucleic acids known so far. With a small circular RNA genome of about 250-400 nt, which apparently does not code for any protein, viroids replicate and move systemically in host plants. Since the discovery of the first viroid almost forty-five years ago, many different viroids have been isolated, characterized and, frequently, identified as the causal agents of plant diseases. The first viroid classification scheme was proposed in the early 1990s and adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) a few years later. Here, the current viroid taxonomy scheme and the criteria for viroid species demarcation are discussed, highlighting the main taxonomic questions currently under consideration by the ICTV Viroid Study Group. The impact of correct taxonomic annotation of viroid sequence variants is also addressed, taking into consideration the increasing application of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics for known and previously unrecognized viroids.

  14. Current concepts of severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anuradha; Raundhal, Mahesh; Oriss, Timothy B; Ray, Prabir; Wenzel, Sally E

    2016-07-01

    The term asthma encompasses a disease spectrum with mild to very severe disease phenotypes whose traditional common characteristic is reversible airflow limitation. Unlike milder disease, severe asthma is poorly controlled by the current standard of care. Ongoing studies using advanced molecular and immunological tools along with improved clinical classification show that severe asthma does not identify a specific patient phenotype, but rather includes patients with constant medical needs, whose pathobiologic and clinical characteristics vary widely. Accordingly, in recent clinical trials, therapies guided by specific patient characteristics have had better outcomes than previous therapies directed to any subject with a diagnosis of severe asthma. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the full scope of this disease that hinder the development of effective treatments for all severe asthmatics. In this Review, we discuss our current state of knowledge regarding severe asthma, highlighting different molecular and immunological pathways that can be targeted for future therapeutic development.

  15. American Academy of Pediatrics v. Heckler.

    PubMed

    1983-04-14

    The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia invalidated a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) regulation issued on 7 March 1983 concerning life-sustaining medical treatment to preserve the lives of severely mentally or physically disabled newborns. The "Baby Doe" regulation was found to be a capricious and arbitrary agency action because its provisions for a 24-hour toll-free hotline and for intervention by a DHHS investigation squad could have disruptive effects and would not necessarily serve the best interests of newborn infants. DHHS was also criticized for failing to review constitutional considerations and for violating the Administrative Procedure Act.

  16. Money Does Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1996-01-01

    Schools have been criticized perennially for their profligate waste of taxpayer money. Currently, there are two separate myths about schools and money: the United States spends more than any other country; and money doesn't matter. U.S. schools have many nonteaching school employees because they provide services that other nations do not. (MLH)

  17. The law relating to air currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    In the subdivided wing section profile, the diagram of the current is entirely changed and the harmful formation of eddies is avoided through premature deflection. Pressure equalization does not occur between the upper and under sides. This report presents a discussion of the various laws relating to wing design with the conclusion being that lift increases with more acute angles of attack.

  18. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines.

  19. Recent Progress in DOE Waste Tank Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, Ch.H.; Cook, J.R.

    2008-07-01

    The US DOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four US DOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews. (authors)

  20. The Current Catalog—How Current?

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Charles W.

    1968-01-01

    NLM's Current Catalog has recently come in for some criticism. To be useful as a tool in acquisition and cataloging, currency in receipt of the Current Catalog is necessary. A survey of 263 titles with 1967 imprints, which were received by the Library of the Medical Sciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, was made to determine the correlation between the receipt of these books in the library and their appearance in the Current Catalog. PMID:5695111

  1. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sommers, Garold Leon

    2001-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2000 (October 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000). The Hydropower Program is organized under the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Power Technologies, and Office of Biopower and Hydropower. Background, current activities, and future plans are presented in the sections for all components of the Program.

  2. DOE46168 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, Martha R.

    2015-03-15

    The research objectives of this grant were to observe and to quantify nanoscale electrostatic and magnetic fields using the technique of off-axis electron holography. There have been two major areas of activity during the current reporting period, which spans September 2011 through December 2015; i) measurement of the 2D electrostatic potential distributions across complex semiconductor heterojunctions and devices; and ii) investigation of the remanent states and magnetization reversal mechanisms in magnetic thin films and nanostructures.

  3. Does Emdogain work?

    PubMed

    Kenny, David J

    2009-01-01

    Emdogain has been available commercially for just over a decade. It is used currently in clinical practice of periodontics and has been investigated in four clinical outcome studies of replanted teeth. This review covers the origin and concepts behind the use of this amelogenin derivative, the unique conditions associated with an avulsed tooth, and the laboratory and clinical characteristics of this material. Emdogain continues to be an experimental material for replantation applications.

  4. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  5. Environmental assessment of DOE transportation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, III, M. J.; Singh, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    At the first DOE Environmental Control Symposium the process of environmental planning, assessment, research and control for the projects of the DOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar's (ASCS) Office of Transportation Programs (OTP) was presented. In the months since that symposium the process has been in continual use with a large measure of success. To illustrate how well it has worked, the treatment of electric vehicle battery off-gassing is presented here. Further, since most of the environmental activity has been directed toward producing Environmental Assessments (EA), the results of these EAs are also presented. This presentation begins with a short status report. It then illustrates the process by following EV battery off-gassing from its identification as a concern in an early EDP to research centering upon its resolution. The last portion of the paper focuses on the findings of the current EAs.

  6. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  7. Final Report to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail Gultepe

    2012-05-15

    This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.

  8. The DOE photovoltaics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the National Solar Energy program, the US Department of Energy is now engaged in the development of technically feasible, low cost candidate component and system technologies to the point where technical readiness can be demonstrated by 1982. The overall strategy is to pursue parallel options that continue to show promise of meeting the program goals, thus increasing the probability that at least one technology will be successful. Included in technology development are both flat plate solar collectors and concentrator solar collectors, as well as the balance of system components, such as structures, power conditioning, power controls, protection, and storage. Generally, these last items are common to both flat plate and concentrator systems, but otherwise there is considerable disparity in design philosophy, photovoltaic cell requirements, and possible applications between the two systems. Objectives for research activities at NASA Lewis for stand alone applications, and at Sandia Laboratories where intermediate load center applications are addressed, are highlighted as well as college projects directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and international applications managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute. Joint DOD/DOE effects for military applications are also summarized.

  9. Does salt increase thirst?

    PubMed

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does management really work?

    PubMed

    Bloom, Nicholas; Sadun, Raffaella; Van Reenen, John

    2012-11-01

    HBR's 90th anniversary is a sensible time to revisit a basic question: Are organizations more likely to succeed if they adopt good management practices? The answer may seem obvious to most HBR readers, but these three economists cast their net much wider than that. In a decadelong study of thousands of organizations in 20 countries, they and their interview teams assessed how well manufacturers, schools, and hospitals adhere to three management basics: targets, incentives, and monitoring. They found that huge numbers of companies follow none of those fundamentals, that adopting the basics yields big improvements in outcomes such as productivity and longevity, and that good nuts-and-bolts management at individual firms shapes national performance. At 14 textile manufacturers in India, for example, an intervention--involving free, high-quality advice from a consultant who was on-site half-time for five months--cut defects by half, reduced inventory by 20%, and raised output by 10%. A control group saw no such gains. The authors' global data set suggests that implementing good management at schools and hospitals yields change more slowly than at manufacturers--but it does come eventually. And the macroeconomic potential--for incomes, productivity, and delivery of critically needed services--is huge. A call for "better management" may sound prosaic, but given the global payoffs, it's actually quite radical.

  11. DOE Energy Challenge Project

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Murray; Michael Schaepe

    2009-04-24

    Project Objectives: 1. Promote energy efficiency concepts in undergraduate and graduate education. 2. Stimulate and interest in pulp and paper industrial processes, which promote and encourage activities in the area of manufacturing design efficiency. 3. Attract both industrial and media attention. Background and executive Summary: In 1997, the Institute of Paper Science and Technology in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy developed a university design competition with an orientation to the Forest Products Industry. This university design competition is in direct alignment with DOE’s interests in instilling in undergraduate education the concepts of developing energy efficient processes, minimizing waste, and providing environmental benefits and in maintaining and enhancing the economic competitiveness of the U.S. forest products industry in a global environment. The primary focus of the competition is projects, which are aligned with the existing DOE Agenda 2020 program for the industry and the lines of research being established with the colleges comprising the Pulp and Paper Education and Research Alliance (PPERA). The six design competitions were held annually for the period 1999 through 2004.

  12. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE-industry thermal distribution conference

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    The subject of the conference was thermal distribution in small buildings. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment in which the heat or cooling is produced to the building spaces in which it is used. The small buildings category is defined to include single-family residential and multifamily and commercial buildings with less than 10,000 ft{sup 2} floor area. The 1992 DOE-Industry Thermal Distribution Conference was conceived as the beginning of a process of information transfer between the DOE and the industries having a stake in thermal distribution systems, whereby the DOE can make the industry aware of its thinking and planned directions early enough for changes to be made, and whereby the industries represented can provide this input to the DOE on a timely and informed basis. In accordance with this, the objectives of the Conference were: To present--to a representative group of researchers and industry representative--the current industry thinking and DOE's current directions for research in small-building thermal distribution. To obtain from industry and the research community a critique of the DOE priorities and additional ideas concerning how DOE can best assist the industry in promoting energy conservation in thermal distribution systems.

  13. Physical origin of pickup currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliūnas, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    So-called pickup electric currents, associated with the ionization of neutral particles in the presence of a flowing plasma, are conventionally described as produced directly by differential displacement of ions and electrons as the result of acceleration and gyromotion under the action of the electric field E = -V × B/c. This is not the appropriate physical description for the case when the electron inertial length of the background plasma is small in comparison with the spatial scale of the system. The pickup process in this case does not directly produce a current, except for a small transient on the electron-gyroperiod timescale, which then decays exponentially at the ionization (momentum-loading) rate, as can be shown by an explicit solution of the equations. Rather, the plasma is first slowed down by the momentum loading; the spatially inhomogeneous velocity change then leads to a perturbation of the magnetic field, and the curl of the perturbed field is the current. The timescale for the development of the pickup current is not the ion gyroperiod (as the conventional description might suggest) but rather the Alfvén wave travel time over the spatial scale of the inhomogeneity.

  14. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  15. Current measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  16. Does Climate Literacy Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.

  17. Current measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  18. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print A A A en español ¿ ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  19. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does Hair Turn Gray? A A A en español ¿Por ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  20. Does aging change nutrition requirements?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Warren-Mears, V A

    2001-01-01

    The current adult guidelines for a healthy diet make no distinctions between adults aged 25-50 y and those aged 51 y and over. The question is whether dietary guidelines ought to be stratified by age, in recognition of the dietary and nutrient needs of the growing population of elderly adults. There are limited data on nutrient requirements of older adults. Aging is accompanied by a variety of physiological, psychological, economic and social changes that may adversely affect nutritional status. Older people have a higher prevalence of chronic disease, take multiple medications and supplements, and tend to be sedentary. Higher prevalence of obesity is difficult to reconcile with sharply lowered energy intakes. While basal metabolic rate does decline with age, lack of physical activity among the elderly is the more likely answer. The USDA Food Guide Pyramid is the key tool for communicating dietary advice to consumers. Researchers at Tufts University have produced a 70+ pyramid to reflect the nutrient needs of elderly adults. An additional focus has been on quality of life issues. Increased longevity is not always associated with continued good health. The Healthy People 2010 Objectives now use quality of life as a national health standard. Whereas health related quality of life (HRQOL) measures assess physical and mental health and their determinants, global quality of life measures focus on life satisfaction. Optimal nutrition promotes both functional health status and mental well-being. Dietary diversity and variety promotes enjoyment and satisfaction with the diet. Regular physical activity promotes strength and endurance, helps to maintain appropriate body weight, and contributes to independent physical functioning. Improving health-related quality of life is a key element in promoting the health and well-being of older adults.

  1. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunhua, Wang; Qiujing, Zhang; Haiguang, Liu

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  2. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  3. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  4. Ecological risks of DOE`s programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  5. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  6. Spin-current diode with a ferromagnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qing-Feng Xie, X. C.

    2015-05-04

    Diode is a key device in electronics: the charge current can flow through the device under a forward bias, while almost no current flows under a reverse bias. Here, we propose a corresponding device in spintronics: the spin-current diode, in which the forward spin current is large but the reversed one is negligible. We show that the lead/ferromagnetic quantum dot/lead system and the lead/ferromagnetic semiconductor/lead junction can work as spin-current diodes. The spin-current diode, a low dissipation device, may have important applications in spintronics, as the conventional charge-current diode does in electronics.

  7. DOE Workshop at Tapia Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Valerie

    2015-02-19

    The DE-SC0013568 DOE Grant, in the amount of $11,822.79, was used to support five doctoral students from underrepresented groups to attend the 2015 Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference, held February 18-21 in Boston, MA. Each scholarship was approximately $1200 to cover conference registration, travel, and lodging for the duration of the conference. The remaining $5,822.79 was used to support a DOE Breakfast Workshop during breakfast on Thursday, February 19. The Breakfast supported approximately 140 graduate students from underrepresented groups to learn about the different career opportunities at the different DOE National Laboratories.

  8. Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Vazquez, Juan M.; Berru, Robert I.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit measures electrical current via combination of Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling techniques. Known current generated by feedback circuit adjusted until it causes cancellation or near cancellation of magnetic field produced in toroidal ferrite core by current measured. Remaining magnetic field measured by Hall-effect sensor. Circuit puts out analog signal and digital signal proportional to current measured. Accuracy of measurement does not depend on linearity of sensing components.

  9. Current Legislative Initiatives and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S. G.

    2002-05-01

    Geophysical research will be most effective in the fight against terrorism if it is done in cooperation with the expectations of local, state and federal policy makers. New tools to prevent, prepare for, and respond to acts of terrorism are coming from all fields, including geoscience. Globally, monitoring the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space for unusual and suspicious activities can help prevent terrorist acts. Closer to home, geoscience research is used to plan emergency transportation routes and identify infrastructure vulnerabilities. As important as it is for Congress and other policy makers to appreciate the promises and limitations of geophysical research, scientists need to be aware of legislative priorities and expectations. What does Congress expect from the geoscience community in the fight against terrorism and how well does reality meet these expectations? What tools do the 44 different federal agencies with stated Homeland Security missions need from geoscientists? I will address these questions with an overview of current legislative antiterrorism initiatives and policies that relate to the geoscience community.

  10. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  11. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  12. LANSCE beam current limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Floyd R.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  13. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  14. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. 76 FR 28042 - Announcement of Notice; Proposed Establishment of a Federally Funded Research and Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... expert advice and guidance in the areas of program and project management focused on increasing the... including technical architecture direction. Procurement assistance, review/recommendations for current... an integrated DHHS approach to systems solutions and structured and unstructured data architecture...

  16. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed in ... or intestines. This tissue can irritate structures that it touches, causing pain and adhesions (scar tissue) on ...

  17. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  18. 10 CFR 1021.200 - DOE planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE planning. 1021.200 Section 1021.200 Energy DEPARTMENT... Decisionmaking § 1021.200 DOE planning. (a) DOE shall provide for adequate and timely NEPA review of DOE... accordance with 40 CFR 1501.2 and this section. In its planning for each proposal, DOE shall include...

  19. Eleventh DOE workshop on personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Since its formation, the Office of Health (EH-40) has stressed the importance of the exchange of information related to and improvements in neutron dosimetry. This Workshop was the eleventh in the series sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). It provided a forum for operational personnel at DOE facilities to discuss current issues related to neutron dosimetry and for leading investigators in the field to discuss promising approaches for future research. A total of 26 papers were presented including the keynote address by Dr. Warren K. Sinclair, who spoke on, ``The 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP and their Biological Background.`` The first several papers discussed difficulties in measuring neutrons of different energies and ways of compensating or deriving correction factors at individual facilities. Presentations were also given by the US Navy and Air Force. Current research in neutron dosimeter development was the subject of the largest number of papers. These included a number on the development of neutron spectrometers. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. DOE acceptance of commercial mixed waste -- Studies are under way

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    The topic of the Department of Energy acceptance of commercial mixed waste at DOE facilities has been proposed by host States and compact regions that are developing low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. States support the idea of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste because (a) very little commercial mixed waste is generated compared to generation by DOE facilities (Department of Energy--26,300 cubic meters annually vs. commercial--3400 cubic meters annually); (b) estimated costs for commercial disposal are estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubic foot; (c) once treatment capability becomes available, 70% of the current levels of commercial mixed waste will be eliminated, (d) some State laws prohibit the development of mixed waste disposal facilities in their States; (e) DOE is developing a nationwide strategy that will include treatment and disposal capacity for its own mixed waste and the incremental burden on the DOE facilities would be minuscule, and (6) no States are developing mixed waste disposal facilities. DOE senior management has repeatedly expressed willingness to consider investigating the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste. In January 1991, Leo Duffy of the Department of energy met with members of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum, which led to an agreement to explore such an arrangement. He stated that this seems like a cost-effective way to solve commercial mixed waste management problems.

  1. Beneficial reuse of US DOE Radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.

    1995-01-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Since much of this metal cannot be decontaminated easily, past practice has been to either retain this material in inventory or ship it to DOE disposal sites for burial. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to ``beneficially reuse`` this material. Under the beneficial reuse concept, RSM that cannot be decontaminated and free released is used in applications where the inherent contamination is not a detriment to its end use. This paper describes initiatives currently in progress in the United States that support the DOE beneficial reuse concept.

  2. Technology needs for remediation: Hanford and other DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Technologies are being developed under the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program to facilitate remediation of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) buried and stored low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive and hazardous buried wastes. The BWID program is being coordinated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, a DOE site that has large volumes of buried radioactive wastes. The program is currently focusing its efforts on the problems at INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). As specific technologies are successfully demonstrated, they will be available for transfer to applications at other DOE buried waste sites. The purpose of this study is to present buried waste technology needs that have been identified for DOE sites other than INEL.

  3. NAAG/DOE Workgroup Report of Activity and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Michele Gagnon

    2000-09-30

    Through this grant, the National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have established a working group of Assistant Attorneys General and key DOE staff to seek agreement on current regulatory and statutory enforcement and compliance issues at DOE facilities. This workgroup provides an ongoing forum for direct communication that utilizes alternative dispute resolution techniques rather than expensive litigation in hopes of resolving differing views between the Department and the States. This Workgroup facilitates cooperation as the parties work towards their common goals of ensuring the protection of human health and the environment through the clean-up and the proper management of DOE facilities and the wastes they have generated.

  4. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  5. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  6. FY 1986 current fiscal year work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office/RI during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. System models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions.

  7. Magnetic current sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  8. Controlled current inductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  9. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  10. Current IT Issues, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Donald Z.; Deblois, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    This article features the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. Administered by the EDUCAUSE Current Issues Committee, whose members review and recommend the set of issues to be presented each year, the survey identifies the issues that leaders in higher education information technology see as their most critical IT challenges. The Top-Ten current IT…

  11. Differential Current Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, John F.

    1992-01-01

    Circuit acts as voltage-controlled current source having high-impedance floating differential output. Maintains commanded current in load, regardless of changes in load impedance and regardless of any common-mode voltages on load. Provides constant excitation current to germanium resistance thermometer or other transducer, output voltage of which sensed by differential voltage amplifier.

  12. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  13. Community Support of Ethanol Plants: Does Local Ownership Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Carmen; Prokos, Anastasia; Liu, Hexuan

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on data from six communities in Kansas and Iowa, we explore the factors that are related to community members' current levels of overall support for local ethanol plants. What are residents' opinions about the benefits and drawbacks of local ownership of ethanol plants? How does that awareness lead to overall support of plants? Our…

  14. Current status of iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamihara, Yoichi

    2012-03-01

    Current status of iron-based superconductors is summarized. Although short range magnetic ordering and magnetic phase separation of Fe are controversial, (long range) magnetic and electronic phase diagrams of iron based superconductors can be classified into two-type. Antiferromagnetic ordering of itinerant Fe does not coexist with superconducting phase of SmFeAsO1 - xFx. The very large H c2 of iron-based superconductors attract us to attempts at applications.

  15. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines. PMID:24770530

  16. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    will permit comparison to other population norms (e.g., Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, SF36 (Ware 1993, 1994); SF36V (Kazis et al...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT

  17. Current experimental activities for solid breeder development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Roux, N.; Watanabe, H.

    1988-01-01

    The current data base for ceramic breeder materials does not exhibit any negative features as regards to thermophysical, mechanical, and irradiation behavior. All candidate materials show excellent stability for irradiation testing to 3% burnup. In-situ tritium recovery tests show very low tritium inventories for all candidates. Theoretical models are being developed to accurately predict real time release rates. Fabrication of kilogram quantities of materials has been achieved and technology is available for further scale-up.

  18. Radiation Hormesis: Historical and Current Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jonathan; Grantham, Vesper

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a better understanding of radiation hormesis, the investigational research that supports or does not support the theory, and the relationship between the theory and current radiation safety guidelines and practices. The concept of radiation hormesis is known to nuclear medicine technologists, but understanding its complexities and the historical development of the theory may bring about a better understanding of radiation safety and regulations.

  19. Equilibria and Stability of JET Current Hole Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, B. C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Breslau, J.; Reyes-Cortes, S.; Jardin, S.; Park, W.; Zakharov, L.

    2002-11-01

    Injection of Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive (LHCD) into the current ramp-up phase of JET discharges has produced extremely reversed q-profiles characterized by a core region of near zero current density (within Motional Stark Effect diagnostic measurement errors). Non-inductive, off-axis co-current drive induces a back electromotive force inside the non-inductive current radius that drives a negative current in the plasma core. The core current density does not go negative, although current diffusion calculations indicate that there is sufficient LHCD to cause this. A possible explanation of the observed core current density clamping near zero is that MHD instabilities redistribute the core current soon after it goes negative. This is seen in nonlinear resistive MHD simulations in toroidal geometry which predict that these discharges undergo n=0 reconnection events which clamp the core current near zero.

  20. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  1. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  2. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  3. Status of the DOE`s foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program

    SciTech Connect

    Chacey, K.; Saris, E.C.

    1997-12-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the U.S. Department of State (DOS), adopted a policy to accept and manage in the United States {approximately}20 tonnes of spent nuclear fuel from research reactors in up to 41 countries. This spent fuel is being accepted under the nuclear weapons non-proliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Only spent fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States is covered under this policy. Implementing this policy is a top priority of the DOE. The purpose of this paper is to provide the current status of the foreign research reactor acceptance program, including achievements to date and future challenges.

  4. Teachers' Perspectives on Incorporating Current Controversial Issues into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Sunal, Cynthia; Haas, Mary; Laughlin, Margaret

    Does a current controversial issue become part of the social studies curriculum in a context where the media focus largely on the issue? A study explored this question through surveys and in-depth interviews that investigated K-12 social studies teachers' perspectives on the incorporation of current controversial issues into the curriculum. A…

  5. Quantized Chiral Magnetic Current from Reconnections of Magnetic Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, Yuji; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yin, Yi

    2016-10-20

    We introduce a new mechanism for the chiral magnetic e ect that does not require an initial chirality imbalance. The chiral magnetic current is generated by reconnections of magnetic ux that change the magnetic helicity of the system. The resulting current is entirely determined by the change of magnetic helicity, and it is quantized.

  6. Entraining gravity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Chris; Hogg, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Large-scale gravity currents, such as those formed when industrial effluent is discharged at sea, are greatly affected by the entrainment and mixing of ambient fluid into the current, which both dilutes the flow and causes an effective drag between the current and ambient. We study these currents theoretically by combining a shallow-water model for gravity currents flowing under a deep ambient with an empirical model for entrainment, and seek long-time similarity solutions of this model. We find that the dependence of entrainment on the bulk Richardson number plays a crucial role in the current dynamics, and results in entrainment occurring mainly in a region close to the flow front, reminiscent of the entraining current `head' observed in natural flows. The long-time solution of an entraining lock-release current is a similarity solution of the second kind, in which the current grows as a power of time that is dependent on the form of the entrainment model, approximately as t 0 . 44. The structure of a current driven by a constant buoyancy flux is quite different, with the current length growing as t 4 / 5. Scaling arguments suggest that these solutions are reached only at very long times, and so may be attained in large natural flows, but not in small-scale experiments.

  7. LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575

    SciTech Connect

    MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

    2012-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation between

  8. Radiation Recordkeeping Practices at DOE Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.J.

    1994-03-15

    In order to evaluate the radiation recordkeeping practices at DOE facilities, a questionnaire was sent to DOE and DOE contractor facilities which requested information concerning the record keeping systems. The questionnaire was sent to the DOE/DOE contractor facilities via DOE/HQ and the respective field offices. The questionnaire stipulated that at multiple contractor sites, only those facilities who kept the records should respond to the questionnaire; however, those responding should indicate the facilities for which they maintained records.

  9. Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huan; Liu, Hui; Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren

    2015-12-01

    The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.

  10. Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huan Liu, Hui Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren

    2015-12-15

    The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.

  11. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  12. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  13. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  14. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  15. Contribution For Arc Temperature Affected By Current Increment Ratio At Peak Current In Pulsed Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Ryota; Mitubori, Hironori; Iwao, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding is one of the high quality welding. However, parameters of the pulsed arc welding are many and complicated. if the welding parameters are not appropriate, the welding pool shape becomes wide and shallow.the convection of driving force contributes to the welding pool shape. However, in the case of changing current waveform as the pulse high frequency TIG welding, the arc temperature does not follow the change of the current. Other result of the calculation, in particular, the arc temperature at the reaching time of peak current is based on these considerations. Thus, the accurate measurement of the temperature at the time is required. Therefore, the objective of this research is the elucidation of contribution for arc temperature affected by current increment ratio at peak current in pulsed arc. It should obtain a detail knowledge of the welding model in pulsed arc. The temperature in the case of increment of the peak current from the base current is measured by using spectroscopy. As a result, when the arc current increases from 100 A to 150 A at 120 ms, the transient response of the temperature didn't occur during increasing current. Thus, during the current rise, it has been verified by measuring. Therefore, the contribution for arc temperature affected by current increment ratio at peak current in pulsed arc was elucidated in order to obtain more knowledge of welding model of pulsed arc.

  16. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  17. Report of technical progress under the current DOE contract, DOE/EY/2232B. [Rockefeller Univ. , New York

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M. A.B.; Khuri, N. N.; Pais, A.

    1981-01-01

    Research for the year beginning February 1, 1980 is reviewed. Areas of intrest include mathematical physics and formal results in quantum field theory, gauge theories, and the possibility of observing CP violation in decays of systems other than K mesons. Only brief comments are made; refereces to completed work are given. (RWR)

  18. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    techniques for magnetic errors and magnetic-shield excitation for capacitive errors. The magnetic-shield-excitation technique leads naturally to two-stage transformer approaches, described in a small subchapter. Sensitivity of current comparators is discussed in terms of available signal levels for given excitations and current-comparator characteristics. The discussion, however, does not cover more basic limitations, such as inherent noise. A subchapter is devoted to electronically-aided current transformers. Although electronically-aided transformers are not in a strict sense current comparators, many of the design considerations and error sources are the same. Seven different circuits are presented with a brief qualitative discussion. The third chapter, covering design and construction, will be exceptionally valuable for someone needing basic information on how to construct a current comparator quickly. Indeed, all the necessary design, construction, and testing steps are presented in a well-illustrated 15-page chapter. The tests for shielding effectiveness discussed in this chapter and the knowledge of interwinding capacitances calculable from the equations in the previous chapter should enable one also to predict the limits of errors without an exhaustive and complete calibration. Chapter 4 is devoted to current-transformer calibration—the original objective for the current-comparator development work. The principal tool for this is the compensated current comparator, in effect a two-stage transformer operated in the current-comparator mode. The compensated current comparator is not only accurate but is also an extremely versatile device and, hence, deserves the attention that it receives in this book. Considerable space is devoted to the calibration of current comparators themselves using other current comparators in ratio-buildup (bootstrap) techniques. This information is more than most of the users will want since the pre-eminent feature of a current comparator is

  19. Wyoming DOE EPSCoR

    SciTech Connect

    Gern, W.A.

    2004-01-15

    All of the research and human resource development projects were systemic in nature with real potential for becoming self sustaining. They concentrated on building permanent structure, such as faculty expertise, research equipment, the SEM Minority Center, and the School of Environment and Natural Resources. It was the intent of the DOE/EPSCoR project to permanently change the way Wyoming does business in energy-related research, human development for science and engineering careers, and in relationships between Wyoming industry, State Government and UW. While there is still much to be done, the DOE/EPSCoR implementation award has been successful in accomplishing that change and enhancing UW's competitiveness associated with coal utilization, electrical energy efficiency, and environmental remediation.

  20. Tsunami currents in ports.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C; Lynett, Patrick J; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-10-28

    Tsunami-induced currents present an obvious hazard to maritime activities and ports in particular. The historical record is replete with accounts from ship captains and harbour masters describing their fateful encounters with currents and surges caused by these destructive waves. Despite the well-known hazard, only since the trans-oceanic tsunamis of the early twenty-first century (2004, 2010 and 2011) have coastal and port engineering practitioners begun to develop port-specific warning and response products that accurately assess the effects of tsunami-induced currents in addition to overland flooding and inundation. The hazard from strong currents induced by far-field tsunami remains an underappreciated risk in the port and maritime community. In this paper, we will discuss the history of tsunami current observations in ports, look into the current state of the art in port tsunami hazard assessment and discuss future research trends.

  1. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  2. Electric current solves mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-07-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question: how can the electric current choose the right way and avoid dead ends?

  3. Temperature compensated current source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, D. R. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A current source was designed which is substantially independent of variations of temperature. The current source may be made either to have a linear dependence upon changes of temperature or, by the simple addition of a resistor, may be made substantially independent of temperature variations. Since the current source consists only of transistors of one conductivity type and resistors, it is ideally suited for manufacture in the form of a monolithic integrated circuit.

  4. DOE/NORA/BNL oil heat research agenda development

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.

    1996-07-01

    The National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has been formed and is currently working to establish a Congressionally approved oilheat check-off program to provide funding for research, education, training, safety, and marketing to benefit the US oilheat industry. NORA will be presenting this program to the Congress for its consideration and approval in the coming year. It will follow the same path as the National Propane Gas Association which is currently working on obtaining Congressional approval of a propane check off program that has already attracted over 120 cosponsors in the House of representatives. An effort to define the basis of a joint US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oilheat industry (marketers) program for future oilheat equipment research and development will be conducted during FY-1996. At the request of NORA representatives BNL will coordinate the development of a research agenda addressing three categories of activities, research appropriate for DOE support only, research appropriate for NORA support only, and research appropriate for co-funding by both organizations. This will also serve to update a prior oil-fueled research plan developed for DOE ten years ago which has been the road map for DOE`s very successful Oil Heat R&D program at BNL.

  5. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Koss, T.C.

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  6. Energy Policy: DOE’s Policy, Programs and Issues Related to Electricity Conservation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    administration requested a budget for DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of about $1.02 billion, which represents a 27-percent increase...whether DOE’s current energy efficiency and renewable energy programs are the most cost effective means for addressing environmental damages....component of the administration’s overall sustainable energy strategy, DOE integrates electricity efficiency into its energy efficiency and renewable

  7. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L. ); Koss, T.C. . Office of Environmental Guidance)

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  8. Quantization of interface currents

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Motoko; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  9. RF current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  10. Current conserving theory at the operator level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiangtao; Wang, Yin; Wang, Jian

    The basic assumption of quantum transport in mesoscopic systems is that the total charge inside the scattering region is zero. This means that the potential deep inside reservoirs is effectively screened and therefore the electric field at interface of scattering region is zero. Thus the current conservation condition can be satisfied automatically which is an important condition in mesoscopic transport. So far the current conserving ac theory is well developed by considering the displacement current which is due to Coulomb interaction if we just focus on the average current. However, the frequency dependent shot noise does not satisfy the conservation condition since we do not consider the current conservation at the operator level. In this work, we formulate a generalized current conserving theory at the operator level using non-equilibrium Green's function theory which could be applied to both average current and frequency dependent shot noise. A displacement operator is derived for the first time so that the frequency dependent correlation of displacement currents could be investigated. Moreover, the equilibrium shot noise is investigated and a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relationship is presented.

  11. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossart, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  12. What Does Melanoma Look Like?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  13. Direct current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  14. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  15. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  16. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  17. NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino delivers remarks at DOE's Commemorative Veterans Day Program

    ScienceCinema

    Administrator D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator D'Agostino, a Navy veteran, was part of a November 2009 program at DOE headquarters in Washington, D.C., celebrating Veterans Day and commemorating the 10th anniversary of the DOE Veterans Task Force. Veterans comprise nearly 30 percent of NNSA's workforce, and many NNSA employees are currently on active duty.

  18. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  19. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  20. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its...

  1. DOE Order 5480.28 Hanford facilities database

    SciTech Connect

    Hayenga, J.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the development of a database of DOE and/or leased Hanford Site Facilities. The completed database will consist of structure/facility parameters essential to the prioritization of these structures for natural phenomena hazard vulnerability in compliance with DOE Order 5480.28, `Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation`. The prioritization process will be based upon the structure/facility vulnerability to natural phenomena hazards. The ACCESS based database, `Hanford Facilities Site Database`, is generated from current Hanford Site information and databases.

  2. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  3. Overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Briscoe, G.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the adequacy of the present system, identify any necessary short-term improvements and propose feasible alternatives for an improved system. The study includes topical reports as follows: current Personnel Dosimetry Practices at DOE Facilities; overview of DOE Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS); and alternatives to Provide Upgraded Occupational Exposure Record System. This study constitutes the second report and was a joint effort between Battelle Northwest and EG and G, Idaho Falls. EG and G has been responsible for the respository since the fall of 1978.

  4. The Haida Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Emery, William J.

    1986-01-01

    We present evidence for a narrow, poleward flowing surface current over the continental slope of northwestern British Columbia and southwestern Alaska. Named for a prominent native Indian tribe of the region, the Haida Current occurs predominantly between October and April. Maximal flow takes place in midwinter from November through February. Characteristic features of the current include a minimal extent of 200-300 km, a width of 20-30 km, a depth scale of 500 m, and near-surface temperature signatures of up to +1°C within the core of the current, as well as large-amplitude O(10 km) mesoscale waves and eddies along its flank. The wind stress and alongshore sea surface slope are shown to be the primary driving mechanisms for the current.

  5. Reconfigurable Drive Current System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A reconfigurable drive current system includes drive stages, each of which includes a high-side transistor and a low-side transistor in a totem pole configuration. A current monitor is coupled to an output of each drive stage. Input channels are provided to receive input signals. A processor is coupled to the input channels and to each current monitor for generating at least one drive signal using at least one of the input signals and current measured by at least one of the current monitors. A pulse width modulation generator is coupled to the processor and each drive stage for varying the drive signals as a function of time prior to being supplied to at least one of the drive stages.

  6. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  7. Kentucky DOE EPSCoR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grulke, Eric; Stencel, John

    2011-09-13

    The KY DOE EPSCoR Program supports two research clusters. The Materials Cluster uses unique equipment and computational methods that involve research expertise at the University of Kentucky and University of Louisville. This team determines the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of nanostructured materials and examines the dominant mechanisms involved in the formation of new self-assembled nanostructures. State-of-the-art parallel computational methods and algorithms are used to overcome current limitations of processing that otherwise are restricted to small system sizes and short times. The team also focuses on developing and applying advanced microtechnology fabrication techniques and the application of microelectrornechanical systems (MEMS) for creating new materials, novel microdevices, and integrated microsensors. The second research cluster concentrates on High Energy and Nuclear Physics. lt connects research and educational activities at the University of Kentucky, Eastern Kentucky University and national DOE research laboratories. Its vision is to establish world-class research status dedicated to experimental and theoretical investigations in strong interaction physics. The research provides a forum, facilities, and support for scientists to interact and collaborate in subatomic physics research. The program enables increased student involvement in fundamental physics research through the establishment of graduate fellowships and collaborative work.

  8. Pyrochemical processing of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or {open_quotes}pyroprocessing,{close_quotes} provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (>99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess, are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory.

  9. Al Capone Does My Shirts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choldenko, Gennifer

    2004-01-01

    She is not sure if it is nature or nurture, but this author does know that, like her dad, she has always loved to write. After graduation, her dad's legacy caught up with her. She remembered how hard he tried to get published and how painful it was to fail. Her aunt still tells stories about how her father wallpapered his bedroom with publisher…

  10. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  11. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_012017.pdf Addiction ... Español English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz ...

  12. Penn State DOE GATE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anstrom, Joel

    2012-08-31

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was established in October 1998 pursuant to an award from the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The focus area of the Penn State GATE Program is advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  13. How Does Force Affect Motion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Whether playing soccer at recess, walking to lunch, or sitting at their desk, children encounter forces every moment of their lives. The connection between force and motion is absolutely amazing to children, so anyone working with them better be prepared for the battery of tough questions they ask: "What made the ball move that way? Why does a…

  14. Accident analysis and DOE criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.M.; Elder, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    In analyzing the radiological consequences of major accidents at DOE facilities one finds that many facilities fall so far below the limits of DOE Order 6430 that compliance is easily demonstrated by simple analysis. For those cases where the amount of radioactive material and the dispersive energy available are enough for accident consequences to approach the limits, the models and assumptions used become critical. In some cases the models themselves are the difference between meeting the criteria or not meeting them. Further, in one case, we found that not only did the selection of models determine compliance but the selection of applicable criteria from different chapters of Order 6430 also made the difference. DOE has recognized the problem of different criteria in different chapters applying to one facility, and has proceeded to make changes for the sake of consistency. We have proposed to outline the specific steps needed in an accident analysis and suggest appropriate models, parameters, and assumptions. As a result we feed DOE siting and design criteria will be more fairly and consistently applied.

  15. Where Does the Drink Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2004-01-01

    In England the National Curriculum does not specifically mention the excretory system at key stages 1 and 2. Research by Reiss and Tunnicliffe (2001, 2002) has shown that children's knowledge of the organs and organ systems in their bodies increases with age but remains incomplete, even at maturity, unless they specialise in studying biology. The…

  16. Where Does the Drink Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2004-01-01

    In England the National Curriculum does not specifically mention the excretory system at key stages 1 and 2. Research by Reiss and Tunnicliffe (2001, 2002) has shown that children's knowledge of the organs and organ systems in their bodies increases with age but remains incomplete, even at maturity, unless they specialise in studying biology. The…

  17. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    Waste To Energy Example Los Alamitos Joint Forces Training Base (JFTB) Urban Compost 25 ton/day Gasifier & Cleanup... indoor Hydrogen dispensing F i l l s / W e e k 5000 Industry vs Government H2 Fills Begin DOE ARRA Deployments Begin DLA Demo Begin 2nd DLA Demo

  18. How Does Force Affect Motion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Whether playing soccer at recess, walking to lunch, or sitting at their desk, children encounter forces every moment of their lives. The connection between force and motion is absolutely amazing to children, so anyone working with them better be prepared for the battery of tough questions they ask: "What made the ball move that way? Why does a…

  19. Does Practical Knowledge Trump Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerner, Mari

    2011-01-01

    To the author, the question of "Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?" means "To what degree and in what place does scholarship have in teaching and learning and specifically in teacher education?" Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College thinks not only about the role of scholarship…

  20. Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.

  1. What Does Conceptual Understanding Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Florence S.; Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2006-01-01

    All advocates of curriculum reform talk about an increased emphasis on conceptual understanding in mathematics. In this article, the authors use many examples to address the following issues: What does conceptual understanding mean, especially in introductory courses such as college algebra, precalculus, or calculus? How do we recognize its…

  2. Does Practical Knowledge Trump Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerner, Mari

    2011-01-01

    To the author, the question of "Whither scholarship in the work of enhancing the quality of teaching and learning?" means "To what degree and in what place does scholarship have in teaching and learning and specifically in teacher education?" Arizona State University's Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College thinks not only about the role of scholarship…

  3. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Stegner, Alexander; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Salinas, Carolina; Aguiar-González, Borja; Henríquez-Pastene, Cristian; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying special attention to the recirculation of the BC at the northeastern tip and northern slopes of the SSI. We observed that when the northeastward-flowing BC reaches the northeastern tip of the SSI, it recirculates around an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy that has not previously been reported in this region. Part of this recirculating water then proceeds southwest along the northern SSI shelf break as a narrow baroclinic jet and another part join the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Consequently, the cross-slope gradients of properties strengthen, and the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current becomes a nearly submesoscale ( 10 km) front. Second, we compare the observations with buoyant gravity current laboratory experiments in an open basin setup where the SSI topographic barrier is represented by a central wall. The resulting circulation of the buoyant gravity current around the wall mirrors our in situ observations. First, a narrow buoyant gravity current flows northeastward along the southern boundary of the wall. Once the head of the buoyant gravity current reaches the tip of the wall, a recirculating anticyclonic vortex is generated, and the buoyant gravity current then proceeds westward along the north side of the wall. This circulation of the BC around the SSI as a buoyant gravity current may contribute to the fertilization of the waters around the SSI, as suggested by previously reported distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton.

  4. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-05-14

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.

  5. Steady state self-induced current in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Gott, Yu. V.; Yurchenko, E. I.

    2009-11-15

    A model, which may make it possible to self-consistently calculate the self-driven current in tokamaks taking into account asymmetry and bootstrap currents, is presented. It is shown that the described self-driven current can provide steady-state tokamak operation without the seed current produced with the help of additional methods. The total self-consistent, self-driven current does not depend on magnetic field magnitude and is proportional to the square root from plasma pressure. The experimental data obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment are satisfactorily described by this model.

  6. Reclamation policy and the West: Changing currents/current changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Timothy Charles

    Since 1902, reclamation policy has transformed the western United States through development of hundreds of dams and other water-supply, irrigation, and hydroelectric power facilities. Recent observers have noted that large-scale water development is over and that reclamation policy itself has fundamentally changed. This dissertation asks: Is a shift in reclamation policy real? If so, what caused it to change? What does this suggest for the future? Reclamation history divides into four phases: policy enactment and early implementation; reclamation coalition dominance; transition to policy competition; and competitive coalitions. The dissertation applies complementary policy change models, especially works by Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith, and Baumgartner and Jones, to explain the evolution and current structure of reclamation policy. From weak beginnings, reclamation developed a substantial monopoly over policy from the 1930s to 1950s. Proposed reclamation projects then triggered conflicts with conservationists, which launched a competitive policy domain. The "Environmental Protection Coalition" was joined by an "Economic Efficiency Coalition" critical of subsidies and economic irrationality in the reclamation program. The combined assault undermined the favorable policy image reclamation formerly enjoyed. The current policy environment is characterized by vigorous, sustained competition, especially between environmental and reclamation coalitions. Evidence of transitions to a competitive policy environment emerges from studies of California's Central Valley Project and the Central Utah Project. Major economic and environmental reforms of both projects in 1992 illustrate that policy outputs strikingly different from the past may result in a highly competitive policy-making climate. Environmental mitigation and restoration, more efficient water use, and water price increases are among the policy changes exemplified by the two case studies. Stability of the modern

  7. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-03-23

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies.

  8. Current physics information.

    PubMed

    Koch, H W

    1971-11-26

    A new concept in science communication will be given its first test in calendar year 1972. Primary and secondary contents of a selected subset of the world's journal literature in physics will be provided in a variety of output formats. Among them are a monthly microfilm containing the full texts of all articles in the set of journals (Current Physics Microform); an advance abstracts journal describing the articles (Current Physics Advance Abstracts); a printed, classified index of the titles of the articles (Current Physics Titles); and a computer tape index to the articles (Searchable Physics Information Notices).

  9. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  10. WFC3/IR Dark Current Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, B.; Petro, L.

    2012-06-01

    Examination of the dark current behavior of the WFC3/IR channel over a span of almost 1000 days shows that the mean dark current has remained unchanged since launch. Image-to-image variation in mean dark current is 16% of the total mean dark rate. This variation appears to occur in a spatially-dependent but consistent manner, with the bottom and right edges displaying dark rates which increase more quickly than those elsewhere on the detector. Pixel-to-pixel variations in the dark current across the dataset imply that the 1σ uncertainty associated with the standard pipeline dark current subtraction is roughtly 20%-33% of the mean dark current rate. We have also identified a population of ~2500 pixels (0.25% of the science pixels) which are inconsistently hot over time. In a separate search, we find 2000-4000 pixels (0.2% - 0.4%) in most SPARS200 ramps which have dark rates more than 3σ from their nominal mean level. We find no correlation of mean dark rate with bias level, but an anti-correlation of the number of hot pixels with bias level. The measured dark current also does not appear to be correlated with instrument temperatures or voltages, or sun angle relative to HST.

  11. Eddy-current testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasley, R. L.; Birdwell, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Eddy-current inspection is discussed as a method for locating subsurface flaws in electrically conductive materials. The physical principles and electrical circuitry are described along with the test equipment.

  12. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  13. Prognosis - Cancer Currents Blog

    Cancer.gov

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prognosis. Includes posts on factors that influence prognosis, prognostic biomarkers, and doctor-patient communications about prognosis.

  14. Lightning Current Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Lightning Current Detector (LCD) was developed to monitor the magnitude of lightning strikes. Information it supplies is useful in evaluating lightning protection designs for such systems as telephone cables, radio broadcast towers, power transmission equipment and oil well towers.

  15. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  16. Current control circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S [Richland, WA

    2005-03-15

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  17. AUTO FIB Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, I.; Sharples, R. M.

    The current status of the automated fibre positioner, Autofib, is reviewed including the positioning performance and the set-up speed. Future plans to build another Autofib for the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope are also briefly discussed.

  18. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  19. Southward subsurface flow below the Somali current

    SciTech Connect

    Quadfasel, D.R.; Schott, F.

    1983-07-20

    The existence of a southward-flowing current beneath the northern part of the seasonally reversing Somali Current is documented in a 2 1/2 -year-long time series of currents obtained at moored stations near 5/sup 0/N about 30 km off the somali coast. Its mean annual transport in the layer 150-600 m amounts to about 5 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3//s. The undercurrent has a pronounced seasonal cycle in phase with the near surface flow, suggesting a close coupling to the monosoonal wind forcing. With the spin-up of the deep-reaching northern Somali gyre after the onset of the southwest monsoon, the undercurrent is temporarily destroyed in the northern Somali Basin during June/July but is re-established in August. The undercurrent does not reach 3/sup 0/N but turns offshore north of that latitude.

  20. Simply pyroclastic currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Danilo M.

    2017-07-01

    Gravity-driven, ground-hugging gas-pyroclast mixtures produced during explosive volcanic eruptions define a full spectrum of particle concentration, flow regime and particle support mechanisms. To describe these phenomena, the term "pyroclastic density current" (PDC) has become increasingly popular in the last few tens of years. Here, I question the general application of the term PDC to the whole flow spectrum and, instead, I propose the simpler term "pyroclastic current".

  1. RCEX: Rip Current Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Bate [ 1987 ] found surfzone diatom blooms were correlated with larger breaking waves and rip current events, and the largest concentrations of surfzone...and Schmidt, W., (2007). Observing surfzone dispersion with drifters. J. Phys. Ocean., 37 (12). 2920- 2939 . Swenson, M.S., and P. P. Niiler, (1996...Statistical analysis of the surface circulation of the California Current. J. of Geophy. Res. 101, 2263122645. Talbot, M. M., and G. C. Bate, ( 1987

  2. DOE Advanced Scientific Advisory Committee (ASCAC): Workforce Subcommittee Letter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Barbara; Calandra, Henri; Crivelli, Silvia; Dongarra, Jack; Hittinger, Jeffrey; Lathrop, Scott A.; Sarkar, Vivek; Stahlberg, Eric; Vetter, Jeffrey S.; Williams, Dean

    2014-07-23

    Simulation and computing are essential to much of the research conducted at the DOE national laboratories. Experts in the ASCR ¬relevant Computing Sciences, which encompass a range of disciplines including Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Statistics and domain Computational Sciences, are an essential element of the workforce in nearly all of the DOE national laboratories. This report seeks to identify the gaps and challenges facing DOE with respect to this workforce. This letter is ASCAC’s response to the charge of February 19, 2014 to identify disciplines in which significantly greater emphasis in workforce training at the graduate or postdoctoral levels is necessary to address workforce gaps in current and future Office of Science mission needs.

  3. Substorm Current Wedge Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepko, L.; McPherron, R. L.; Amm, O.; Apatenkov, S.; Baumjohann, W.; Birn, J.; Lester, M.; Nakamura, R.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Sergeev, V.

    2015-07-01

    Almost 40 years ago the concept of the substorm current wedge was developed to explain the magnetic signatures observed on the ground and in geosynchronous orbit during substorm expansion. In the ensuing decades new observations, including radar and low-altitude spacecraft, MHD simulations, and theoretical considerations have tremendously advanced our understanding of this system. The AMPTE/IRM, THEMIS and Cluster missions have added considerable observational knowledge, especially on the important role of fast flows in producing the stresses that generate the substorm current wedge. Recent detailed, multi-spacecraft, multi-instrument observations both in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere have brought a wealth of new information about the details of the temporal evolution and structure of the current system. While the large-scale picture remains valid, the new details call for revision and an update of the original view. In this paper we briefly review the historical development of the substorm current wedge, review recent in situ and ground-based observations and theoretical work, and discuss the current active research areas. We conclude with a revised, time-dependent picture of the substorm current wedge that follows its evolution from the initial substorm flows through substorm expansion and recovery.

  4. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  5. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  6. Superconducting current transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  8. Current topics in therapeutic plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Naoki; Kuragano, Takahiro; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Hasuike, Yukiko

    2014-02-01

    Therapeutic plasmapheresis has been used for intractable diseases that cannot be cured by conventional drug therapy. Currently, the use of therapeutic plasmapheresis has been approved for 27 diseases by Japan's National Health Insurance system and is mainly categorized into three modalities: plasma exchange (PE), double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), and plasma adsorption (PA). Plasma separators and/or fractionators are essential for the therapy. PE is performed for two purposes: removal of pathogenic antigens or substances in the plasma fraction and supplementation of essential factors, such as albumin and coagulation factors. PE can be used for thrombotic microangiopathy and acute hepatic failure. DFPP can be performed for selective removal of macromolecules while avoiding the use of substitution fluid (i.e., albumin or fresh frozen plasma). DFPP has now been used for conditions involving relatively larger plasma molecules, including hyperviscosity syndrome and ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. PA can specifically remove pathogenic agents, such as low-density lipoprotein or autoantibodies, in the IgG fractions by the adsorption column and does not require substitution fluids. PA has now been used for a wide variety of neurological diseases, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This review describes the characteristics of each modality, seeking to improve the efficacy and specificity of removal of the target substance.

  9. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  10. Summary of DOE/PERF water program review.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Gasper, J.; Puder, M.; Leath, P.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of water research relating to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In early 2005, the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) submitted a proposal to DOE for funding an upcoming PERF meeting that would feature water research in the petroleum industry. PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus to and a forum for the collection, exchange, and analysis of research information related to the development of technology concerning the petroleum industry, and a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. DOE agreed to provide funding to hold a review of its water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 PERF meeting. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) was asked to coordinate and host the meeting, which was referred to as the DOE/PERF Water Program Review. The program review was held on November 1-4, 2005, in Annapolis, Maryland, at the Historic Inns of Annapolis. The purpose of the program review was to provide a forum for sharing information, reviewing current programs (especially recent unpublished research), and reviewing industry and regulatory needs regarding water use and reuse issues. PERF and DOE/NETL can use this information to plan for future water-related research projects. The water program review provided a unique opportunity in several ways. First, DOE was able to have all of the contractors currently receiving DOE funds for water research present in one room at the same time. Each contractor described his or her research and was able to learn about the research being conducted by the other researchers. Second, this forum allowed representatives of many large oil and gas companies to hear about the DOE research projects and offer their reactions to DOE

  11. AMS/DOE Graduate Fellowship

    SciTech Connect

    None None

    2011-06-15

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Fellowship Program was established in 1991. To date, AMS has awarded over 150 Fellowships. This five year DOE award provided for one Fellowship a year for five years. The objective of this program is to provide enough funding to a student so as to allow the student to focus solely on coursework requirements, thus allowing them to begin their research at an earlier date.

  12. DOE research on atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1995-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

  13. DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters. Initially this project was centered upon research activities. However, since these tools provide traffic managers and key personnel involved in preshipment planning with a unique resource for ensuring that the movement of radioactive materials can be properly accomplished, additional interest and support is coming from the operational side of DOE. The major accomplishments include the development of two routing models (one for rail shipments and the other for highway shipments), an emergency response assistance program, and two data bases containing pertinent legislative and regulatory information. This paper discusses the mose recent advances in, and additions to, these computerized techniques and provides examples of how they are used.

  14. DOE/EPA Site Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This test plan is one of three sections of the Demonstration Plan that covers the startup, shakedown, and DOE portion of the Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF-6) demonstration being conducted at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana. The CDIF is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Demonstration Plan covers a projected maximum of 420 hours of testing. This includes a shakedown campaign consisting of three series of tests: furnace operational tests (Series 1), supplementary fuel tests (Series 2), and preliminary DOE tests (Series 3). The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) test campaign and the sludge campaign are the main DOE tests. The RWMC campaign will process a feed material that simulates the nonradioactive buried waste components in Idaho; the sludge campaign will process a feed material that simulates typical water treatment plant sludge. The major objective of the RWMC Campaign is to determine the applicability of the (PCF-6) toward destruction of typical Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) wastes. In the sludge campaign, the PCF-6 will be fed a slurry of metal hydroxides, which is intended to represent a sludge from an industrial water treatment plant. The furnace will also be fed a soil that will be used to encapsulate the metals in the sludge. The objectives of the test are to determine if the furnace will produce a slag that is nonleachable by EP Toxicity methods. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Proposed alternatives for a DOE-wide occupational radiation exposure information system

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1984-02-01

    The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the original intent for a central information system, the need for more detailed information has become evident. The alternatives addressed for a radiation exposure information system were no change in current system, clarification of DOE Order for current system, increased summary information from sites, centralized annual individual dose (exposure) system, and annual dose summary and locator files. A majority of the DOE Ad Hoc Committee has concurred to recommend the annual dose summary and locator files (ADSLF). The acceptance of the ADSLF alternative as the DOE-wide radiation exposure system would give DOE added capability and flexibility in responding to requests for information and would reduce the impact on the sites of special survey requests.

  16. The Chukchi slope current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlett, W. Bryce; Pickart, Robert S.

    2017-04-01

    Using a collection of 46 shipboard hydrographic/velocity transects occupied across the shelfbreak and slope of the Chukchi Sea between 2002 and 2014, we have quantified the existence of a current transporting Pacific-origin water westward over the upper continental slope. It has been named the Chukchi slope current, which is believed to emanate from Barrow Canyon. The current is surface-intensified, order 50 km wide, and advects both summer and winter waters. It is not trapped to a particular isobath, but instead is reminiscent of a free jet. There is no significant variation in Pacific water transport with distance from Barrow Canyon. A potential vorticity analysis suggests that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with the notion that it meanders. The current is present during all synoptic wind conditions, but increases in strength from summer to fall presumably due to the seasonal enhancement of the easterly winds in the region. Its transport increased over the 12-year period of data coverage, also likely in response to wind forcing. In the mean, the slope current transports 0.50 ± 0.07 Sv of Pacific water. This estimate allows us to construct a balanced mass budget of the Chukchi shelf inflows and outflows. Our study also confirms the existence of an eastward-flowing Chukchi shelfbreak jet transporting 0.10 ± 0.03 Sv of Pacific water towards Barrow Canyon.

  17. Charges and currents in quantum spin chains: late-time dynamics and spontaneous currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagotti, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    We review the structure of the conservation laws in noninteracting spin chains and unveil a formal expression for the corresponding currents. We briefly discuss how interactions affect the picture. In the second part, we explore the effects of a localized defect. We show that the emergence of spontaneous currents near the defect undermines any description of the late-time dynamics by means of a stationary state in a finite chain. In particular, the diagonal ensemble does not work. Finally, we provide numerical evidence that simple generic localized defects are not sufficient to induce thermalization.

  18. The Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. Y.; Kapoor, A. K.

    2003-02-27

    In an attempt to bring forth increased efficiency and effectiveness in assessing transportation risks associated with radioactive materials or wastes, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Transportation Program (NTP) published a resource handbook in 2002. The handbook draws from the broad technical expertise among DOE national laboratories and industry, which reflects the extensive experience gained from DOE's efforts in conducting assessments (i.e., environmental impact assessments) within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the past 20 years. The handbook is intended to serve as a primary source of information regarding the approach and basis for conducting transportation risk assessments under normal or accidental conditions that are associated with shipping radioactive materials or wastes. It is useful as a reference to DOE managers, NEPA assessors, technical analysts, contractors, and also stakeholders. It provides a summary of pertinent U.S. policies and regulations on the shipment of radioactive materials, existing guidance on preparing transportation risk assessments, a review of previous transportation risk assessments by DOE and others, a description of comprehensive and generally accepted transportation risk assessment methodologies, and a compilation of supporting data, parameters, and assumptions. The handbook also provides a discussion paper on an issue that has been identified as being important in the past. The discussion paper focuses on cumulative impacts, illustrating the ongoing evolution of transportation risk assessment. The discussion may be expanded in the future as emerging issues are identified. The handbook will be maintained and periodically updated to provide current and accurate information.

  19. Current Density Reduction Ahead of Dipolarization Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S.; Artemyev, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Q.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    During their earthward propagation, dipolarization fronts (DFs) interact with the ambient plasma sheet on kinetic scales. The interaction region is important to the front's structure, propagation, and regional closure of the current system. However, the physics in this region, especially of its current system, is poorly understood. We present Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations of the interaction region between DFs and the ambient plasma sheet at x - 12 RE downtail; these observations show that the current density ahead of the DFs is significantly reduced near the neutral plane. We use a two-dimensional particle-in-cell model to simulate the current density reduction ahead of DFs and investigate the physical mechanism that causes it: Ion reflection and acceleration at the front cause positive charge density to build up. The resultant electrostatic field, Ez, is directed away from the neutral plane. The positive cross-tail Ez × Bx drift of electrons (which remain magnetized) does not affect demagnetized ions. This electron-ion decoupling results in a dawnward cross-field current carried by electrons that reduces the cross-tail current ahead of the approaching front.

  20. RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-02-01

    The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

  1. DOE/NE robotics for advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    ORNL is continuing to transfer technology under the NE Robotics for Advanced Reactors Program to other programs and institutions. The HELIX computer architecture developed under the NE robotics program are currently being transferred to the University of Florida for control of their Articulated Transporter Manipulator (ATMS or snake) robot prototype. The Modular Integrated Control architecture (MICA), also developed under the NE Robotics Program is currently being utilized by the DOE ER WM Robotics Program to control a long-reach manipulator for use in cleanup of underground storage tanks at Hanford. HELIX and MICA were developed at ORNL in response to the need to integrate software and hardware developed on different computer systems by the university participants. The University of Texas is constructing and assembling the actuator module. Several parts have been re-machined. The Tennessee group has performed a series of experiments to verify the performance of their system for object localization, identification, and manipulation using 3D Geometric models (SOLIDGEM). The Michigan group has completed experiments on the radiation resistance of ultrasonic range sensors (URSs). The Florida team continues to model key features of the ALMR. Drawings have been received from GE providing much greater detail on many structures. These details are being incorporated into the IGRIP model of the ALMR. A conceptual design for the Articulated Transporter/Manipulator System (ATMS) has been finalized.

  2. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-07-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm’s law, and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviationsmore » from neoclassical predictions.« less

  3. Surface matching via currents.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Marc; Glaunès, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method for computing an optimal deformation between two arbitrary surfaces embedded in Euclidean 3-dimensional space. Our main contribution is in building a norm on the space of surfaces via representation by currents of geometric measure theory. Currents are an appropriate choice for representations because they inherit natural transformation properties from differential forms. We impose a Hilbert space structure on currents, whose norm gives a convenient and practical way to define a matching functional. Using this Hilbert space norm, we also derive and implement a surface matching algorithm under the large deformation framework, guaranteeing that the optimal solution is a one-to-one regular map of the entire ambient space. We detail an implementation of this algorithm for triangular meshes and present results on 3D face and medical image data.

  4. Models of current sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angst, Sebastian; Engelke, Lukas; Winterer, Markus; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-06-01

    Densification of (semi-)conducting particle agglomerates with the help of an electrical current is much faster and more energy efficient than traditional thermal sintering or powder compression. Therefore, this method becomes more and more common among experimentalists, engineers, and in industry. The mechanisms at work at the particle scale are highly complex because of the mutual feedback between current and pore structure. This paper extends previous modelling approaches in order to study mixtures of particles of two different materials. In addition to the delivery of Joule heat throughout the sample, especially in current bottlenecks, thermoelectric effects must be taken into account. They lead to segregation or spatial correlations in the particle arrangement. Various model extensions are possible and will be discussed.

  5. Current induced interlayer coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Peter M.; Heide, Carsten; Zhang, Shufeng; Fert, Albert

    2001-03-01

    It has recently been shown that a perpendicular current in a magnetically multilayered structures induces an unusual bilinear coupling between the magnetizations of the layers [1]. While this was demonstrated in the ballistic regime, transport is likely to be diffusive in the structures where this may be relevant to the role of currents in switching the magnetization of the layers. We have derived the current induced coupling by using the Boltzmann equation in terms of the parameters used to describe the giant magnetoresistance of magnetically layered structures, and thereby estimate the strength of this coupling. Work supported in part by DARPA and ONR. [1] C.Heide and R.J.Elliott, Europhys. Lett. 50, 271 (2000).

  6. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  7. Does it work? Why does it work? Reconciling difficult questions.

    PubMed

    Hayhow, Rosemarie

    2011-01-01

    Within medicine there is an agreed hierarchy of levels of research evidence with randomized controlled trials at the top and expert opinion at the bottom. When randomized controlled trials are the final stage in testing a treatment for which there is a sound theoretical basis both the 'Does it work?' and 'How does it work?' questions may be answered. However, when the theoretical basis is underdeveloped or contentious, then randomized controlled trials will provide only partial answers and other methods or methodologies may be needed to understand more about the mechanisms involved in the treatments. This paper aims to contribute to the debate about the nature of the evidence that is required in order to feel confident that people with communication difficulties will benefit from the treatments offered. The aim is not to discuss the relative merits of one methodology over another, but rather, by referring to one particular treatment, to show how knowledge gained from a range of research studies, using different methodologies, can be synthesized to increase one's understanding. The initial discussion focuses on two frameworks that have been developed specifically for the evaluation of healthcare interventions. This is followed by discussion of the research evidence for the Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention to illustrate some issues relevant to treatment development and evaluation in the field of communication difficulty. The evidence from randomized controlled trails is related to clinicians' needs. Finally, the potential value of an iterative approach is illustrated with reference to verbal contingencies, which are an essential component of the Lidcombe Program. This paper considers different sorts of evidence and their contribution to one's knowledge and practice. The content provides a practical example of how knowledge and understanding of a treatment approach can develop through a synthesis of knowledge from a programme of systematic research

  8. Current concepts in psychodermatology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2014-06-01

    Several diagnoses in the new DSM-5 chapter on 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' directly relate to psychodermatology. The new excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) both manifest as recurrent body-focused repetitive behaviors that have compulsive and dissociative features, the latter being more prevalent in TTM than SPD. The DSM-5 refers to SPD and TTM occurring without full awareness or preceding tension, however does not specifically mention the possible role of dissociation. This has important treatment implications, as patients with high dissociative symptoms are not likely to respond to the standard treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is frequently associated with cutaneous body image (CBI) dissatisfaction, is present in 9%-15% of dermatology patients. Treatment guidelines in dermatology are increasingly considering the psychosocial morbidity related to CBI in their treatment outcome measures. The presence of BDD, if unrecognized, may therefore directly affect the dermatologic treatment regimens offered to the patient.

  9. Current signature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  10. Current Signature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Mario (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  11. Fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  12. Development and use of consolidated criteria for evaluation of emergency preparedness plans for DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, K.; Kier, P.H.; Baldwin, T.E.

    1995-07-01

    Emergency preparedness at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is promoted by development and quality control of response plans. To promote quality control efforts, DOE has developed a review document that consolidates requirements and guidance pertaining to emergency response planning from various DOE and regulatory sources. The Criteria for Evaluation of Operational Emergency Plans (herein referred to as the Criteria document) has been constructed and arranged to maximize ease of use in reviewing DOE response plans. Although developed as a review instrument, the document also serves as a de facto guide for plan development, and could potentially be useful outside the scope of its original intended DOE clientele. As regulatory and DOE requirements are revised and added in the future, the document will be updated to stay current.

  13. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, M. J.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Flynn, J. V.; Brookshier, P. A.

    2001-04-17

    This report describes the activities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2000 (October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2000). Background, current activities, and future plans are presented in the following sections for all components of the Program. Program focus for FY 2000 was on (1) advanced turbine development, (2) basic and applied R&D, (3) environmental mitigation, (4) low head/low power hydropower technology, and (5) technology transfer.

  14. Nuclear Fuel Cycle: A current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of fuels and the management of radioactive wastes. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Data Base (EDB) during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obatained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements.

  15. Kentucky DOE-EPSCoR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stencel, J.M.; Ochsenbein, M.P.

    2003-04-14

    The KY DOE EPSCoR Program included efforts to impact positively the pipeline of science and engineering students and to establish research, education and business infrastructure, sustainable beyond DOE EPSCoR funding.

  16. Ejection Fraction: What Does It Measure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... does the term "ejection fraction" mean? What does it measure? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M.D. Ejection fraction ... percentage of blood leaving your heart each time it contracts. During each heartbeat pumping cycle, the heart ...

  17. DOE Wind Program Update: June 4, 2006;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    The DOE Wind Program Update provides WindPower Conference attendees with information about recent DOE events, including Assistant Secretary Karsner, a wind turbine blade test facility CRADA, and 2005 Wind Energy Award recipients.

  18. Why Does My Dentist Prescribe Medication?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your desktop! more... Why Does My Dentist Prescribe Medication? Article Chapters Why Does My Dentist Prescribe Medication? ... dentist or pharmacist. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Medication Epilepsy, Seizure Meds Have Oral Health Implications How ...

  19. High Current Power Controller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AFWAL-TR-81- 2016 U iui.N HIGH CURRENT Ŕ POWER CONTROLLER P. E. McCOLLUM Audwo ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL AUTONETICS STRATEGIC SYSTEMS DIVISION 3370...personnel. During norm3l operation, HCP \\.s pose no hazard, bLt unde- certain operating conditions potential noaza-ds do exist. They are: (1) During

  20. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  1. Current Issues in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Alice, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin is published annually in the interest of children with learning disabilities, language disabilities, or dyslexia. The 22 articles discuss the following topics: current issues in dyslexia, language disorders, subgroups in dyslexia, specificity and parameters in defining dyslexia, strategies for recognition and management of reading…

  2. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  3. Reading Current Events Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    People who live in a democracy should be well informed of local, state, national, and international happenings. Students should become curious about news items and relate current happenings to the personal self. They must possess skills in word recognition and in diverse kinds of comprehension since reading is an important way to glean current…

  4. Selected Current Data Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBrock, Larry M.

    1987-01-01

    Lists 55 free or inexpensive periodicals which may be used to provide current data for undergraduate economics courses. The list is divided into standard sources, federal reserve publications, selected bank newsletters, selected government newsletters, selected not-for-profit institutions, and miscellaneous. (JDH)

  5. [Acromegaly: current view].

    PubMed

    Kršek, Michal

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by autonomous oversecretion of growth hormone mostly by pituitary adenoma. Untreated acromegaly leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential for improvement of patients prognosis and management of acromegaly should be concentrated in specialized centres. Present article summarizes current view on diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.

  6. Unattended Dual Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Parker, Robert F.; Jones, David C.

    2016-08-11

    The Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM) is an ideal solution for current measurement needs such as ion chamber gamma measurements. The UDCM has two independent inputs and each input detects currents in two user selectable ranges, -0.2nA to -20nA or -20nA to -2uA. Measurement results can be retrieved via an Ethernet connection or by monitoring the TTL output pulses with a simple counter. Measurement data is also stored on a user accessible micro-SD card and automatically downloaded to a USB flash drive. A programmable negative High Voltage (HV) power supply provides detector bias voltages from 0 to -1,000V. The UDCM is fully compatible with the IAEA Multi Instrument Collect (MIC) software and responds to the existing MiniGRAND commands. The Ethernet port provides an IAEA RAINSTORM compliant data transfer and data security interface. The UDCM produces TTL pulses at a rate proportional to the input current, 100cps/nA. The UDCM can simplify instrumentation needs by enabling the use of a simple pulse counter for both neutron and gamma measurements. The UDCM is a simple instrument, inexpensive to manufacturer and designed for reliability.

  7. Current topics in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, T.J. ); Meakin, J.D. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on current research in photovoltaics. Areas include: outdoor spectral odor radiation variations and their relationship to photovoltaic device performance, numerical modeling for analysis and design of solar cells, radiation damage mechanisms in GaAs and Si solar cells, and health and safety issues in the manufacturing of photovoltaic cells.

  8. Keeping Science Current.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Points out old-dated information provided in textbooks and recommends using current events to close the knowledge gap between the real world and textbooks. Uses year-long journal writings in which students choose a science article and analyze it. Provides an example of the activity sheet. (YDS)

  9. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS's) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department's technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  10. Status of conversion of DOE standards to non-Government standards

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, H.L.

    1992-07-01

    One major goal of the DOE Technical Standards Program is to convert existing DOE standards into non-Government standards (NGS`s) where possible. This means that a DOE standard may form the basis for a standards-writing committee to produce a standard in the same subject area using the non-Government standards consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of DOE standards to NGSs, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in a DOE standard will not be incorporated into the published non-Government standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by private industry. If requirements in a DOE standard are not incorporated in a non-Government standard and the requirements are considered necessary for DOE program applications, the DOE standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the non-Government standard. The DOE standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the non-Government standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of DOE standards may not always be realized, the Department`s technical standards policy as stated in Order 1300.2A has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the non-Government standard.

  11. Global Ocean Currents Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Sun, L.

    2016-02-01

    The NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information has released an ocean currents database portal that aims 1) to integrate global ocean currents observations from a variety of instruments with different resolution, accuracy and response to spatial and temporal variability into a uniform network common data form (NetCDF) format and 2) to provide a dedicated online data discovery, access to NCEI-hosted and distributed data sources for ocean currents data. The portal provides a tailored web application that allows users to search for ocean currents data by platform types and spatial/temporal ranges of their interest. The dedicated web application is available at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/gocd/index.html. The NetCDF format supports widely-used data access protocols and catalog services such as OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), which the GOCD users can use data files with their favorite analysis and visualization client software without downloading to their local machine. The potential users of the ocean currents database include, but are not limited to, 1) ocean modelers for their model skills assessments, 2) scientists and researchers for studying the impact of ocean circulations on the climate variability, 3) ocean shipping industry for safety navigation and finding optimal routes for ship fuel efficiency, 4) ocean resources managers while planning for the optimal sites for wastes and sewages dumping and for renewable hydro-kinematic energy, and 5) state and federal governments to provide historical (analyzed) ocean circulations as an aid for search and rescue

  12. Arcless opening of direct current circuits in technical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustynnikov, S. V.; Novikov, S. A.; Zhidov, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Operation of the proposed DC circuit breaker consists in the fact that the closing of the thyristor in the DC power circuit with an inductive load results from opening the auxiliary circuit with a current value several fold less than the load current. The power and auxiliary circuits are connected by means of a current transformer having counter switch windings. After switching, the load is shunted by a diode and does not affect the transition process. Simulations and experimental tests of the DC circuit breaker model showed its performance capability, and the breaker can be used for switching in existing DC high current circuits with inductive loads.

  13. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The

  14. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  15. Does R&D pay?

    PubMed

    Cavalla, David; Minhas, Raman

    2010-03-01

    Pharmaceutical R&D is notoriously risky, lengthy and costly; moreover, it does not always produce products of blockbuster status. The conventional route of fully discovering, developing and marketing a new chemical entity is followed by the large pharmaceutical companies, whereas other organizations in the pharmaceutical sector--such as generic or specialty companies and biotechnology companies--only operate over portions of the full R&D process. Here, we compare the ten-year financial performance of these three subsectors through their price/earnings ratios and their return on capital metrics to understand which of these strategic alternatives offered the best return to investors.

  16. User's guide to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy's research laboratories represent valuable, often unique, resources for university and industrial scientists. It is DOE policy to make these laboratories and facilities available to qualified scientists. The answers to such questions as who are eligible, what and where are the facilities, what is the cost, when can they be used, are given. Data sheets are presented for each facility to provide information such as location, user contact, description of research, etc. A subject index refers to areas of research and equipment available.

  17. 10 CFR 1021.210 - DOE decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE decisionmaking. 1021.210 Section 1021.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE...)). (e) When DOE uses a broad decision (such as one on a policy or program) as a basis for a...

  18. 10 CFR 1021.210 - DOE decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false DOE decisionmaking. 1021.210 Section 1021.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE...)). (e) When DOE uses a broad decision (such as one on a policy or program) as a basis for a subsequent...

  19. 10 CFR 1021.210 - DOE decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false DOE decisionmaking. 1021.210 Section 1021.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE...)). (e) When DOE uses a broad decision (such as one on a policy or program) as a basis for a subsequent...

  20. 10 CFR 1021.210 - DOE decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false DOE decisionmaking. 1021.210 Section 1021.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE...)). (e) When DOE uses a broad decision (such as one on a policy or program) as a basis for a subsequent...

  1. 10 CFR 1021.210 - DOE decisionmaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE decisionmaking. 1021.210 Section 1021.210 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE...)). (e) When DOE uses a broad decision (such as one on a policy or program) as a basis for a subsequent...

  2. FY 1987 current fiscal year work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents a detailed description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office during FY87. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance, task monitoring, information gathering and task reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of program status reports for DOE. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. This work plan includes: system analyses, requirements analyses, interim and procedure development, legislative and regulatory analyses, dispatch and traffic analyses, and data bases.

  3. Inter-Hemispherical Currents for Realistic Model of Ionospheric Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatsky, S.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of modeling of the global 3-D ionosphere-magnetosphere current system including in addition to the R1 and R2 field-aligned currents also inter-hemispherical currents. The inter-hemispherical currents flow between Northern and Southern conjugate ionospheres in case of a North-South asymmetry in ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres. These currents link together the ionospheric currents in two hemispheres, so the currents observed in one hemisphere can provide us with information about currents in the opposite hemisphere, which is especially important when their magnitude can not be obtained from direct observation (e.g., in Antarctica). In this study, we investigate the generation of the inter-hemispherical currents for several distributions of ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres including a simplified model of ionospheric conductivity, which is important for better understanding of the expected distribution and magnitude of these currents, and a more realistic model of ionospheric conductivity, which is observed during magnetospheric substorms, when the geometry of the inter-hemispherical currents is more complicated. Simulation results show that the inter-hemispherical currents during substorms could play a very significant role, and neglecting these currents does not allow obtaining the correct picture of 3-D magnetosphere-ionosphere current system. These currents are an important part of 3-D field-aligned current system, and they are especially strong during summer-winter months, when they are comparable in magnitude with the R2 currents (about ~0.5 MA). Inter-hemispherical currents map. Left panel is related to Northern hemisphere, right panel to Southern. R1 and R2 currents are not shown; their locations are indicated by the red and blue dashed circles, respectively. The inter-hemispherical currents appear inside the auroral zone in the region of conductivity gradient. The currents in both hemispheres are equal in magnitude and

  4. Magnetostatic image current and its application to an analytic identification of a current dipole inside a conducting sphere.

    PubMed

    He, S; Norgren, M

    2000-02-01

    The image solution for the static magnetic field outside a conducting sphere with an internal current dipole is considered. The image current, which is a linear distribution of magnetic dipoles on the line segment between the dipole point and the center of the sphere, is derived by using the fact that the induced current does not have any contribution to the radial component of the magnetic field outside the sphere. The image is then used to obtain some explicit formulas for identifying the location and tangential moment of the primary current dipole. This explicit identification method is also tested with a real model for a patient's brain.

  5. DOE/ABACC safeguards cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.M.; Alvim, C.F.; Toth, P.; Rubio, J.

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) signed a safeguards cooperation agreement. The agreement provides for cooperation in the areas of nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards applications. ABACC is an international safeguards organization responsible for verifying the commitments of a 1991 bilateral agreement between Argentina and Brazil in which both countries agreed to submit all nuclear material in all nuclear activities to a Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). DOE provides critical assistance (including equipment and training) through the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to countries and international organizations to enhance their capabilities to control and verify nuclear material inventories. Specific activities initiated under the safeguards agreement include: (1) active US participation in ABACC`s safeguards training courses, (2) joint development of specialized measurement training workshops, (3) characterization of laboratory standards, and (4) development and application of an extensive analytical laboratory comparison program. The results realized from these initial activities have been mutually beneficial in regard to strengthening the application of international safeguards in Argentina and Brazil.

  6. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  7. Current standardisation for nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Delphine; Mark, David; Möhlmann, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    Standardisation and standards provide an important mechanism to support both innovation and the application of regulations. There is currently no specific regulation for any nanomaterials. Health, safety and environmental protection aspects associated with nanomaterials are however in principle covered to different levels by current EU regulatory framework. There are a number of national, European and international organisations developing standards associated with the development, description and use of nanomaterials as well as the protection of human health and the environment from the production and use of chemicals and consumer products, including nanomaterials. These organisations have also established specific committees on nanotechnology. This paper outlines the different relevant regulations and standards. This paper will mainly be focused on a European health and safety perspective.

  8. MEPAS exposure model updates to meet current EPA guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a software package developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a management tool to screen the many potential hazardous waste problems at DOE facilities across the country. The program considers both radioactive and chemical pollutants in estimating potential human health risks based on site-specific waste, environmental transport, and exposure characteristics. To support various DOE programs, recent modifications have been made to MEPAS to increase its applicability in analyzing the problems of mixed hazardous waste. Such analyses are needed to evaluate remediation options for mixed hazardous waste sites. This paper presents an overview of the MEPAS program and summarizes the current models used to translate environmental concentration values into projected intake by humans and, finally, into estimates of health risk. The recent modifications are described consistent with current EPA guidance for exposure and human health impact assessment.

  9. High current ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  10. Advanced Current Collection Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Oxidizing Gases .. ..... . ... 5-2 5.3.2 Hydrocarbon and Water Vapor Additives . . 5-4 SECTION 6: FIBER BRUSH RESEARCH.. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..6-1 6.1...operating in controlled inert gas atmospheres with water vapor and/or other additives. Furthenmore, greatly reduced friction coefficients and voltage...period. ! 1-5 1.3.4 Current Collector Gaseous Environment Five non-oxidizing gases, combined with water vapor, were tested as the atmosphere for the

  11. Current progress in pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Blakey, John D; Hall, Ian P

    2011-01-01

    The study of genetic variation has the potential to aid understanding of the mechanisms underlying the observed inter-individual variation in drug response and by which idiosyncratic adverse effects occur. In this review, we outline current progress in pharmacogenetics using examples to highlight both mechanisms of influence of polymorphisms and research strategies for their detection. In the final sections we discuss contemporary challenges for both researchers and clinicians. PMID:21235621

  12. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  13. Neonatal resuscitation: Current issues

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Indu A

    2010-01-01

    The following guidelines are intended for practitioners responsible for resuscitating neonates. They apply primarily to neonates undergoing transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. The updated guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation have assimilated the latest evidence in neonatal resuscitation. Important changes with regard to the old guidelines and recommendations for daily practice are provided. Current controversial issues concerning neonatal resuscitation are reviewed and argued in the context of the ILCOR 2005 consensus. PMID:21189881

  14. Currents in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1983-01-01

    A model of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field is obtained from the Voyager 1 and 2 observations. A representation consisting of the Z sub 3 zonal harmonic model of Saturn's planetary magnetic field together with an explicit model of Saturn's planetary magnetic field and a model of the equatorial ring current fits the observations well within r 20 R sub S, with the exception of data obtained during the Voyager 2 inbound pass.

  15. Current oscillations in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, Brittany

    We develop a simple phenomenological model to describe current oscillations in single, conically shaped nanopores. The model utilizes aspects of reaction rate theory, electrochemical oscillators, and nonlinear dynamical systems. Time series of experimental data were analyzed and compared to time series simulated using the model equations. There is good qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation, though the model needs to be improved in order to obtain better quantitative agreement.

  16. The critical current and irreversible magnetisation in UPt 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, S.; Huxley, A. D.; Rodière, P.; Paulsen, C.; Flouquet, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the field-dependence of critical current and magnetisation in the superconducting phase of a single crystal of UPt 3. At low temperatures the critical current shows a peak below Hc2, which is also seen in measurements of the magnetic hysterisis. The onset of the peak does not coincide with the transition between the B and C superconducting phases, which is consistent with measurements of the magnetic hysterisis.

  17. Fast wave current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.

  18. Turbulent current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  19. The anisotropy of kinetic and current helicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, M. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    A three-dimensional model for thermal convection with a dynamo in a rotating planar layer heated from below is used to investigate the behavior of the mean kinetic and current helicities. In spite of the presence of gravity and rotation, which introduce anisotropy into the system, the components of the helicity determined from the field components in the directions tangent and normal to the boundary have similar values. The existence of a separation by scale, when the current helicity has different signs on different spatial scales, is demonstrated. The number of regions where the sign of the helicity does not coincide with the sign of its mean value in that region is estimated (˜43-45% of the total number of regions). The estimates presented are relevant for interpretations of observations of solar activity and analysis of the properties of rotating magnetohydrodynamical turbulence.

  20. Continuum mechanics, stresses, currents and electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Segev, Reuven

    2016-04-28

    The Eulerian approach to continuum mechanics does not make use of a body manifold. Rather, all fields considered are defined on the space, or the space-time, manifolds. Sections of some vector bundle represent generalized velocities which need not be associated with the motion of material points. Using the theories of de Rham currents and generalized sections of vector bundles, we formulate a weak theory of forces and stresses represented by vector-valued currents. Considering generalized velocities represented by differential forms and interpreting such a form as a generalized potential field, we present a weak formulation of pre-metric, p-form electrodynamics as a natural example of the foregoing theory. Finally, it is shown that the assumptions leading to p-form electrodynamics may be replaced by the condition that the force functional is continuous with respect to the flat topology of forms.

  1. Baryon number current in holographic noncommutative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Tadahito; Ohtake, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-08-01

    We consider the noncommutative deformation of the finite-temperature holographic QCD (Sakai-Sugimoto) model in external electric and magnetic field and evaluate the effect of the noncommutativity on the properties of the conductor-insulator phase transition associated with a baryon number current. Although the noncommutative deformation of the gauge theory does not change the phase structure with respect to the baryon number current, the transition temperature Tc, the transition electric field ec, and magnetic field bc in the conductor-insulator phase transition depend on the noncommutativity parameter θ . Namely, the noncommutativity of space coordinates have an influence on the shape of the phase diagram for the conductor-insulator phase transition. On the other hand, the allowed range of the noncommutativity parameter can be restricted by the reality condition of the constants of motion.

  2. Current Management of Undescended Testes

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, David

    2016-01-01

    Opinion Statement Undescended testes (UDTs) are a relatively common finding in newborn males, especially in those born prematurely. Upon discovering a non-intrascrotal testis, it is important to determine whether the testis is palpable or non-palpable and whether the finding is unilateral or bilateral. Imaging should not be used in this workup, as no current modality has been shown to be adequately sensitive or specific to aid in management decisions. Patients with UDTs diagnosed after 6 months of age should be referred to a specialist for correction so that surgery may be performed within 1 year thereafter. This allows testes to descend spontaneously if they are to do so while facilitating early intervention to decrease the risk of subfertility and testicular malignancy for those patients in whom spontaneous descent does not occur. The surgical approach is often dependent on the location of the testis on physical exam. Most orchiopexies for palpable testes are performed through an inguinal incision, although a scrotal approach can be safely utilized depending on the testis position. Diagnostic laparoscopy is most often used for non-palpable testes, as it not only allows for the identification of an atrophic or absent testicle, but it also provides an opportunity to perform an orchiopexy simultaneously should a viable testis be found. Hormonal therapy is not recommended for treatment of UDTs due to its low success rate, the incidence of secondary re-ascent, and the possible detrimental effects on spermatogenesis. Finally, patients with bilateral non-palpable UDTs require a more extensive preliminary evaluation to rule out congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and disorders of sexual development (DSD). This involves serum electrolytes, karyotype analysis and hormonal testing including a serum müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), in order to determine if testicular tissue is present and functional. PMID:27158583

  3. Oxygen therapeutics--current concepts.

    PubMed

    Hill, S E

    2001-04-01

    In an effort to develop agents that enhance the oxygen-delivery capability of blood without the risks associated with allogeneic blood transfusions, several products are undergoing development and clinical trials. These oxygen transport agents can be divided into two main groups, perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions and modified hemoglobin solutions. Articles from the literature on the development and clinical trials of oxygen therapeutic agents were reviewed. PFCs are synthetic fluorinated hydrocarbons that increase dissolved oxygen in the fluid phase of the blood without binding the oxygen molecule. They enhance oxygen delivery significantly and may be used to augment the technique of intraoperative autologous donation. Two PFC products have been tested in Phase III clinical trials. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are either cross-linked or microencapsulated hemoglobin molecules. Modification of the human hemoglobin molecule with intra- and inter-molecular cross-linking eliminates renal toxicity and improves the oxygen dissociation characteristics of the molecule. These modifications are necessary because stroma-free hemoglobin (Hb) does not release oxygen in the physiologic range and dissociates into dimers which can be rapidly filtered by the kidney, leading to renal toxicity. In addition to human Hb, bovine hemoglobin is another source of raw material for HBOC products. Recombinant human Hb has also been produced, using an E. coli expression system, for HBOC manufacturing. Four cross-linked hemoglobin products have been tested in Phase III clinical trials. While no product has yet been approved for clinical use, preliminary studies with oxygen therapeutics show promising results, with effective oxygen carrying capacity and acceptable side effect profiles. In the future, the formation of a hybrid product which combines the best features from several of the products currently undergoing development may yield the ideal oxygen therapeutic agent.

  4. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  5. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  6. Respiratory rhythm generation during gasping depends on persistent sodium current.

    PubMed

    Paton, Julian F R; Abdala, Ana P L; Koizumi, Hidehiko; Smith, Jeffrey C; St-John, Walter M

    2006-03-01

    In severe hypoxia, homeostatic mechanisms maintain function of the brainstem respiratory network. We hypothesized that hypoxia involves a transition from neuronal mechanisms of normal breathing (eupnea) to a rudimentary pattern of inspiratory movements (gasping). We provide evidence for hypoxia-driven transformation within the central respiratory oscillator, in which gasping relies on persistent sodium current, whereas eupnea does not depend on this cellular mechanism.

  7. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  8. Hiro and Evans currents in Vertical Disruption Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Xujing Li Team; Sergei Galkin Team

    2014-10-01

    The notion of Tokamak Magneto-Hydrodynamics (TMHD), which explicitly reflects the anisotropy of a high temperature tokamak plasma is introduced. The set of TMHD equations is formulated for simulations of macroscopic plasma dynamics and disruptions in tokamaks. Free from the Courant restriction on the time step, this set of equations is appropriate for high performance plasmas and does not require any extension of the MHD plasma model. At the same time, TMHD requires the use of magnetic field aligned numerical grids. The TMHD model was used for creation of theory of the Wall Touching Kink and Vertical Modes (WTKM and WTVM), prediction of Hiro and Evans currents, design of an innovative diagnostics for Hiro current measurements, installed on EAST device. While Hiro currents have explained the toroidal asymmetry in the plasma current measurements in JET disruptions, the Evans currents explain the tile current measurements in tokamaks. The recently developed Vertical Disruption Code (VDE) have demonstrated 5 regimes of VDE and confirmed the generation of both Hiro and Evans currents. The results challenge the 24 years long misinterpretation of the tile currents in tokamaks as ``halo'' currents, which were a product of misuse of equilibrium reconstruction for VDE. This work is supported by US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH1146.

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing and...

  10. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy framework...

  11. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy framework...

  12. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing and...

  13. 41 CFR 102-3.180 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.180 Section 102-3.180 Public Contracts and Property Management... What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides guidance to agencies on...

  14. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  15. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  16. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  17. 41 CFR 102-3.45 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.45 Section 102-3.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-3.45 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? Requirements for establishing...

  18. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  19. 41 CFR 102-3.180 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.180 Section 102-3.180 Public Contracts and Property Management... What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides guidance to agencies...

  20. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  1. Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  3. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-09-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE`s waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE`s waste management capabilities.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. Current Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lambova, Sevdalina; Hermann, Walter; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2017-08-29

    Osteoarthritis (ОА) is the most common joint disease and a leading cause for impaired function and disability with significant treatment costs and socio-economic burden. Despite recent achievements in the knowledge on disease pathogenesis, the treatment is still a challenge and contrary to inflammatory joint diseases, no disease-modifying drugs are currently available for OA. Different response in different localizations of the disease further complicates the therapeutic choice. The standard pharmacologic treatment includes agents for control of pain and inflammation (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics including opioids, intraarticular corticosteroids) and the group of the symptomatic slow acting drugs for OA such as glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, diacerein, unsaponifiables extract of soybean and avocado administered orally and intrarticular hyaluronic acid. In addition, a number of studies investigate the efficacy of classical disease-modifying drugs used in inflammatory arthritides and antiresoptive agents as potential future therapies that could prevent structural progression of the disease. In a number of small studies therapeutic efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCT) in OA has been suggested, but the results are contradictory. The first results from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial focused on symptomatic hand OA were recently reported (British HERO study). It has been concluded that HCQ was not superior than placebo as analgesic treatment or for reduction of the radiographic progression in hand OA. Placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of HCT in inflammatory and erosive hand OA is under way. Another field of recent research is the efficacy of TNF-alpha blockers based on the knowledge of their high efficacy in inflammatory joint diseases and the significant role of TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of OA. However, current evidence from the available studies does not support use of TNF

  8. Current Status of Vaccines for Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Donald P.; Loukas, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. Infection follows direct contact with freshwater harboring free-swimming larval (cercaria) forms of the parasite. Despite the existence of the highly effective antischistosome drug praziquantel (PZQ), schistosomiasis is spreading into new areas, and although it is the cornerstone of current control programs, PZQ chemotherapy does have limitations. In particular, mass treatment does not prevent reinfection. Furthermore, there is increasing concern about the development of parasite resistance to PZQ. Consequently, vaccine strategies represent an essential component for the future control of schistosomiasis as an adjunct to chemotherapy. An improved understanding of the immune response to schistosome infection, both in animal models and in humans, suggests that development of a vaccine may be possible. This review considers aspects of antischistosome protective immunity that are important in the context of vaccine development. The current status in the development of vaccines against the African (Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium) and Asian (S. japonicum) schistosomes is then discussed, as are new approaches that may improve the efficacy of available vaccines and aid in the identification of new targets for immune attack. PMID:18202444

  9. ENERGY IN THE PACIFIC COASTAL ZONE DOES D.O.E. HAVE A ROLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, Ronald L.; Haven, Kendall F.; Cherniss, Jennifer

    1980-09-01

    This paper addresses the energy-related acti ties in the Pacific Coastal Zone within the context of the absence of a coastal-specific energy policy. First, the present and projected coastal energy activities are described in order to establish a perspective of the importance of the coastal zone to energy development. transport, and use. Next, the state and federal decision-making processes relevant to coastal energy activities are summarized for the purpose of defining the institutional framework that has been constructed to respond to coastal energy issues. Finally, the functional areas not currently being adequately addressed are identified; and an associate role, which ensures both comprehensive evaluation and sound development of regional coastal energy resources, is defined for the DOE Office of Environment.

  10. Stochastic longshore current dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar

    2016-12-01

    We develop a stochastic parametrization, based on a 'simple' deterministic model for the dynamics of steady longshore currents, that produces ensembles that are statistically consistent with field observations of these currents. Unlike deterministic models, stochastic parameterization incorporates randomness and hence can only match the observations in a statistical sense. Unlike statistical emulators, in which the model is tuned to the statistical structure of the observation, stochastic parametrization are not directly tuned to match the statistics of the observations. Rather, stochastic parameterization combines deterministic, i.e physics based models with stochastic models for the "missing physics" to create hybrid models, that are stochastic, but yet can be used for making predictions, especially in the context of data assimilation. We introduce a novel measure of the utility of stochastic models of complex processes, that we call consistency of sensitivity. A model with poor consistency of sensitivity requires a great deal of tuning of parameters and has a very narrow range of realistic parameters leading to outcomes consistent with a reasonable spectrum of physical outcomes. We apply this metric to our stochastic parametrization and show that, the loss of certainty inherent in model due to its stochastic nature is offset by the model's resulting consistency of sensitivity. In particular, the stochastic model still retains the forward sensitivity of the deterministic model and hence respects important structural/physical constraints, yet has a broader range of parameters capable of producing outcomes consistent with the field data used in evaluating the model. This leads to an expanded range of model applicability. We show, in the context of data assimilation, the stochastic parametrization of longshore currents achieves good results in capturing the statistics of observation that were not used in tuning the model.

  11. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  12. Low Current Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because Goddard Space Flight Center needed a way to cool sensors aboard the AXAF, a low current superconducting magnet was developed under contract by Cryomagnetics, Inc. The magnet, now commercially available, reduced the rate of helium consumption, extending the lifetime of the AXAF's x-ray spectrometer. On Earth, it offers a way to reduce operating costs through smaller, less expensive power supplies and reduced use of coolant. The magnet has particular advantages for MRI systems, as it is safer and has lower maintenance requirements.

  13. Current orbital debris environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    NASA has instituted a plan for the definition of activities and resources required over the coming decade for the deepening of current understanding of anthropogenic orbital debris, and its effects on future mission operations. This understanding will be the basis of policy definition and policy implementation efforts. The most immediate requirement is the definition of the debris environment, with emphasis on data for debris sizes smaller than 4 cm. Systems-damage criteria and hypervelocity-impact theory will then be used to define the hazard to specific spacecraft.

  14. SBC Dark Current Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaz, Sara

    2013-10-01

    This takes a series of SBC dark measurements over a continuous period of about 6 hours {4 orbits}. The aim is to collect dark images during an extended SBC on-time. Earlier measurements indicate that the dark current increases with SBC on-time and may also be increasing with overall SBC use. The 6-hour time matches the longest time used by any observer. As with all SBC observations this needs continuous SAA free time.This program is executed once per cycle. The last exposures were taken in Mar 2013 under Program 13161.

  15. Vaginal rejuvenation: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Buggio, Laura; Alberico, Daniela; Frattaruolo, Maria Pina; Kustermann, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery includes several procedures aimed at reaching better female genital appearance and/or improved sexual functioning. Among these procedures, vaginal rejuvenation is considered as one of the most controversial genital cosmetic surgical interventions and involves a range of surgical procedures performed by gynecologists or plastic surgeons to decrease the average diameter of the vagina, mainly for sexual reasons. In this narrative review, vaginal rejuvenation outcomes are examined in order to clarify the current scenario of the different vaginal rejuvenation techniques, as well as their effectiveness and associated complications. Psychological and ethical issues linked to these procedures are also addressed. PMID:28860864

  16. Current energetic particle sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Claudepierre, S.; Mazur, J.; Kanekal, S.; O'Brien, P.; Baker, D.; Crain, W.; Mabry, D.; Clemmons, J.

    2016-09-01

    Several energetic particle sensors designed to make measurements in the current decade are described and their technology and capabilities discussed and demonstrated. Most of these instruments are already on orbit or approaching launch. These include the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometers (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) that are flying on the Van Allen Probes, the Fly's Eye Electron Proton Spectrometers (FEEPS) flying on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, and Dosimeters flying on the AC6 Cubesat mission. We focus mostly on the electron measurement capability of these sensors while providing summary comments of their ion measurement capabilities if they have any.

  17. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  18. Ring currents in azulene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, A. T.; Todorov, T. N.; Elena, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    We propose a self consistent polarisable ion tight binding theory for the study of push-pull processes in aromatic molecules. We find that the method quantitatively reproduces ab initio calculations of dipole moments and polarisability. We apply the scheme in a simulation which solves the time dependent Schrödinger equation to follow the relaxation of azulene from the second excited to the ground states. We observe rather spectacular oscillating ring currents which we explain in terms of interference between the HOMO and LUMO states.

  19. AMS/DOE Fellowship Recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Stephanie

    2016-11-21

    The AMS/DOE graduate fellowships were awarded to three students entering their first year of graduate study. The funds allowed each student to take a full course load during their first of year of graduate study which helps each of them to enter the professional, scientific community at an earlier date. Each recipient is academically outstanding, received glowing references of support and demonstrated their strong desire to perform scientific research. As part of the fellowship, each of the students was invited to attend the AMS Annual Meeting where they got to participate in the AMS student conference, attend scientific sessions and visit the exhibition hall. In addition, a student awards luncheon was held where each of the recipients got to meet their sponsor and receive a certificate.

  20. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  1. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  2. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  3. Does health affect portfolio choice?

    PubMed

    Love, David A; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    A number of recent studies find that poor health is empirically associated with a safer portfolio allocation. It is difficult to say, however, whether this relationship is truly causal. Both health status and portfolio choice are influenced by unobserved characteristics such as risk attitudes, impatience, information, and motivation, and these unobserved factors, if not adequately controlled for, can induce significant bias in the estimates of asset demand equations. Using the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we investigate how much of the connection between health and portfolio choice is causal and how much is due to the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity with fixed effects and correlated random effects models, we find that health does not appear to significantly affect portfolio choice among single households. For married households, we find a small effect (about 2-3 percentage points) from being in the lowest of five self-reported health categories.

  4. Does rhinoplasty improve nasal breathing?

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2010-08-01

    Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims to improve nasal aesthetics and nasal breathing. The aesthetic improvement of the nose is usually judged subjectively by the patient and the surgeon, but the degree of improvement of nasal obstruction is difficult to assess by clinical examination only. The measurement of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is a reliable tool that has been shown to correlate with other objective methods of assessing nasal breathing and with patients' symptoms of nasal obstruction. Twenty-three consecutive patients undergoing rhinoplasty have been evaluated by measurement of PNIF before and after surgery. All but three patients had an increase in PNIF after surgery. The mean preoperative PNIF was 86.5 L/min and the mean postoperative PNIF was 123.0 L/min ( P < 0.001). Not surprisingly, the greatest improvement in PNIF was achieved when bilateral spreader grafts were used. This study suggests that rhinoplasty does improve nasal breathing. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers

  5. How does a virus bud?

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, D M; Deutsch, J M; Oster, G F

    1993-01-01

    How does a virus bud from the plasma membrane of its host? Here we investigate several possible rate-limiting processes, including thermal fluctuations of the plasma membrane, hydrodynamic interactions, and diffusion of the glycoprotein spikes. We find that for bending moduli greater than 3 x 10(-13) ergs, membrane thermal fluctuations are insufficient to wrap the viral capsid, and the mechanical force driving the budding process must arise from some other process. If budding is limited by the rate at which glycoprotein spikes can diffuse to the budding site, we compute that the budding time is 10-20 min, in accord with the experimentally determined upper limit of 20 min. In light of this, we suggest some alternative mechanisms for budding and provide a rationale for the observation that budding frequently occurs in regions of high membrane curvature. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:8369463

  6. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    PubMed

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  7. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  8. Current Ebola vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  9. Current Psychosomatic Practice.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    Psychosomatic research has advanced over the past decades in dealing with complex biopsychosocial phenomena and may provide new effective modalities of patient care. Among psychosocial variables affecting individual vulnerability, course, and outcome of any medical disease, the role of chronic stress (allostatic load/overload) has emerged as a crucial factor. Assessment strategies include the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. They are presented here in an updated version based on insights derived from studies carried out so far and encompass allostatic overload, type A behavior, alexithymia, the spectrum of maladaptive illness behavior, demoralization, irritable mood, and somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder. Macroanalysis is a helpful tool for identifying the relationships between biological and psychosocial variables and the individual targets for medical intervention. The personalized and holistic approach to the patient includes integration of medical and psychological therapies in all phases of illness. In this respect, the development of a new psychotherapeutic modality, Well-Being Therapy, seems to be promising. The growth of subspecialties, such as psychooncology and psychodermatology, drives towards the multidisciplinary organization of health care to overcome artificial boundaries. There have been major transformations in health care needs in the past decades. From psychosomatic medicine, a land of innovative hypotheses and trends, many indications for changes in the current practice of medicine are now at hand. The aim of this critical review is to outline current and potential clinical applications of psychosomatic methods.

  10. Misophonia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Seri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders), or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. PMID:26316758

  11. Current Climate Variability & Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  12. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T. . Office of Technology Development); Snipes, R.L. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref.

  13. A Content Analysis of Television Ads: Does Current Practice Maximize Cognitive Processing?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-11

    12 . DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT...work. A Content Analysis of Television vii Abstract Television advertising is a 67 billion dollar a year industry (McCann, 2008...by PCT Condition 62 4-11 Mean Use of Concrete Words (Total Words) by PCT Condition 63 4- 12 Best Practice 4: Product/Service

  14. [Does fertility treatment increase the risk of breast cancer? Current knowledge and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Gabriele, V; Benabu, J-C; Ohl, J; Youssef, C Akladios; Mathelin, C

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the level of risk of breast cancer for women exposed to ovulation-inducing therapy (OIT). The 25 selected studies were extracted from the PUBMED database from January 2000 until March 2016 with the following key-words: "fertility agents", "infertility treatments", "clomiphene citrate", "buserelin", "ovarian stimulation", "assisted reproductive technology" and "breast cancer". Our meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager software, Cochrane Collaboration, 2014. The results were calculated by type of OIT, as well as globally. The analysis of these published epidemiological studies confirms that exposition to OIT is not a breast cancer risk factor, but the results are contradictory. Two studies have shown a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in a population of infertile women, while two others have found a significant decrease of this risk. The twenty others did not show any impact of IOT over this risk. Our meta-analysis of 20 selected studies has not identified a significant association between exposition to OIT and breast cancer risk (relative risk=0,96; IC 95: (0,81-1,14) for cohort studies and odds ratio=0,94; IC 95% (0,81-1,10) for case-control studies). Exposition to OIT is not an identified risk factor for breast cancer. A message reassuring about a possible risk of OIT-related breast cancer should be given to these women. Exposition to OIT is therefore not an indication of increased breast surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Report of technical progress under the current DOE Contract, EY-76-C-02-2232. *OOOB

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.B.; Khuri, N.N.; Pais, A.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical studies of gauge field theories are reported. Dynamical symmetry breaking is emphasized. Phenomenology of vector boson decay and a modified definition of a hadronic jet are also presented. (GHT)

  16. Does the Air Force Total Force Chaplain Service’s Map Match the Current Terrain?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-09

    weather. He suffered numerous injuries including two sprained ankles, pulled muscles in his shoulder, and damaged ligaments and cartilage in his knees ...appeared in 1970 when Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird articulated his vision and said, “Concurrent consideration of the Total Force, active and

  17. Does nurses' health affect their intention to remain in their current position?

    PubMed

    Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine; Sibbritt, David; Bichel-Findlay, Jen; Nicholls, Rachel

    2016-11-01

    To investigate and describe nurses' and midwives' physical health, rates of symptoms and disease, and to determine if these factors contribute to intention to leave. The nursing and midwifery workforce is ageing yet little is known about their physical health or its relationship to intention to leave. An online survey of health and work-related assessments was distributed through the New South Wales Nurses and Midwives Association and professional contacts. Nurses and midwives (n = 5041) reported good-very good health overall. With 22.2% intending to leave in the next 12 months, older age, better perceived health and job satisfaction, regional residence and not working shifts predicted no intention to leave while breathing problems predicted intention to leave. Study findings flag the importance of health as an influence on intention to leave. Alongside job satisfaction and shift-working, health presents opportunities for workplace initiatives to maintain nurses in the workforce. Educators, managers and policy makers should heed the significant influence of health for retention of staff and consider what strategies may mitigate health risks for this workforce. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Does soil pH influence swallow-wort distribution in its current range?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The perennial non-native vines, pale swallow-wort (Cynanchum rossicum [Kleopow] Borhidi) and black swallow-wort (Cynanchum louiseae [L.] Kartesz & Gandhi), are established invaders in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and are spreading westward. The swallow-worts typically colo...

  19. Overview and current status of DOE/UPVG`s TEAM-UP Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, S.

    1995-11-01

    An overview is given of the Utility Photovoltaic Group. The mission is to accelerate the use of small-scale and large scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of the electric utilities and their customers.

  20. Does Current Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses Doctrine Support Air Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    Blowpipe, or Stinger missiles. Hybrid SHORAD systems, such as the 2S6M " Tunguska " and the Avenger system, combine both guns and short-range SAMs on the...Archie, Flak, AAA. and SAM, (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1988), 115. 4Monch Publishing Group, ŖS6M Tunguska : The world’s first gun...NVA offensive. Events would prove that this timetable was too ambitious for the ARVN. Intelliaence At the start of the battle, the NVA in Laos