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Sample records for current epidemiological trends

  1. Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis: Current Findings in Epidemiological Trends, Causes and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Futoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a definite cancer-causing factor as revealed by cumulative basic, clinical and epidemiological studies. It is mostly induced by infectious agents. For instance, infection with papillomaviruses associates with anogenital cancers, especially cervical cancers; Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach tends to increase the risk of stomach cancer; chronic hepatitis B & C viruses and fluke infections of the liver increase liver cancers; autoimmune diseases, e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases, associate with development of colorectal cancer, and aerial irritants (foreign bodies) such as asbestos or fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in outdoor air increase malignant pleural mesotheliomas or lung cancers. These are typical examples of inflammation-related carcinogenesis. It is apparent that the pathogens to induce inflammatory reactions in specific organs are not related to each other. However, the underlying pathogenesis in common is to induce and/or sustain inflammation. In this article, I would like to review the up-to-date findings of epidemiological trends, causes and mechanisms of inflammation-related carcinogenesis. PMID:25324587

  2. Recent Epidemiological Trends of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Myong-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Rapid increase in aged population and westernization of lifestyle have modified epidemiological status of stroke. The purpose of this study is to analyze changing trends of stroke epidemiology in South Korea. Methods We reviewed retrospectively medical records of 1,124 cases diagnosed as stroke among 54,534 patients who visited the Emergency Medical Center at our hospital from January 1994 to December 1996 (Group A). Also, we evaluated 1,705 cases diagnosed as stroke among 55,381 patients who visited to the same hospital from January 2003 to December 2005 (Group B). The variable features of stroke, such as age, sex, seasonal variation and distribution of stroke subtypes were studied by comparing group A with B. Results In group A, hemorrhagic stroke (67.9%) was more prevalent than ischemic stroke (32.1%). However, group B showed that the ratio of hemorrhagic stroke (40.3%) to ischemic stroke (59.6%) has been reversed. The highest incidence of stroke was noted in their sixties and seventies of age in group B, which was older than that of group A. In group A, male ischemic stroke (IS) patients outnumbered female patients (1.26:1). Moreover, this gender disproportion became higher in group B (1.53:1). In group A, the number of male intracerebral hermorrhage (ICH) patients were similar to that of female patients (0.97:1). However, male ICH patients outnumbered female patients in group B (1.23:1). As for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), female patients outnumbered male patients more than two-fold in both groups. Both groups showed that the occurrence of ischemic stroke was highest in summer, but that of hemorrhagic stroke was the highest in winter. Conclusion This study showed the changing trends of stroke in its distribution of subtypes. Multicenter prospective study using stroke registry would be required for the determination of national epidemiologic trends. PMID:19096539

  3. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  4. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  5. Epidemiological trends in skin mycoses worldwide.

    PubMed

    Havlickova, Blanka; Czaika, Viktor A; Friedrich, Markus

    2008-09-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are a common global problem. The high prevalence of superficial mycotic infections shows that 20-25% of the world's population has skin mycoses, making these one of the most frequent forms of infection. Pathogens responsible for skin mycoses are primarily anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes from the genera Trichophyton (T.), Microsporum (M.) and Epidermophyton (E.). There appears to be considerable inter- and intra-continental variability in the global incidence of these fungal infections. Trichophyton rubrum, T. interdigitale (mentagrophytes var. interdigitale), M. canis, M. audouinii, T. tonsurans and T. verrucosum are the most common, but the attack rates and incidence of specific mycoses can vary widely. Local socio-economic conditions and cultural practices can also influence the prevalence of a particular infection in a given area. For example, tinea pedis (athlete's foot) is more prevalent in developed countries than in emerging economies and is likely to be caused by the anthropophilic germ T. rubrum. In poorer countries, scalp infections (tinea capitis) caused by T. soudanense or M. audouinii are more prevalent. This review summarises current epidemiological trends for fungal infections and focuses on dermatomycosis of glabrous skin on different continents.

  6. Children's Books: Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Joan Stidham

    A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…

  7. Epidemiology, trends, and disparities in regional anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cozowicz, C; Poeran, J; Memtsoudis, S G

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have linked the use of regional anaesthesia to improved outcomes. Epidemiological research on utilization, trends, and disparities in this field is sparse; however, large nationally representative database constructs containing anaesthesia-related data, demographic information, and multiyear files are now available. Together with advances in research methodology and technology, these databases provide the foundation for epidemiological research in anaesthesia. We present an overview of selected studies that provide epidemiological data and describe current anaesthetic practice, trends, and disparities in orthopaedic surgery in particular. This literature suggests that that even among orthopaedic surgical procedures, which are highly amenable to regional anaesthetic techniques, neuraxial anaesthetics and peripheral nerve blocks are used in only a minority of procedures. Trend analyses show that peripheral nerve blocks are gaining in popularity, whereas use of neuraxial anaesthetics is remaining relatively unchanged or even declining over time. Finally, significant disparities and variability in anaesthetic care seem to exist based on demographic and health-care-related factors. With anaesthesia playing an increasingly important part in population-based health-care delivery and evidence indicating improved outcome with use of regional anaesthesia, more research in this area is needed. Furthermore, prevalent disparities and variabilities in anaesthesia practice need to be specified further and addressed in the future.

  8. Recent trends in burn epidemiology worldwide: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smolle, Christian; Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Forbes, Abigail A; Wurzer, Paul; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Branski, Ludwik K; Huss, Fredrik; Kamolz, Lars-Peter

    2017-03-01

    Burns have been more prevalent among low socioeconomic populations and in less developed regions. Incredible advances in burn care and social development over the recent decades, however, should have placed the incidence and severity of burns in a downwards trend. The aim of this review was to give an overview on current trends in burn epidemiology across the world. Also the socioeconomic development in countries that have published epidemiological data used in this study has been taken into account when comparing the results. There was a worldwide downwards trend of burn incidence, burn severity, length of hospital stay, and mortality rate. These findings were particularly pronounced in very highly developed countries. Data from highly and medium developed countries were more heterogeneous. No studies could be obtained from low and middle income countries. Comparisons between the different studies were compromised by the fact that studies emerged from specialized facilities on one hand and general hospitals on the other. Analyzed studies were also frequently focusing on limited patient populations such as "children" or "elderly". Our findings indicate the need for an international burn database with a minimal data-set in order to obtain objective and comparable results in respect of burn epidemiology.

  9. Current Trends in Sinonasal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Huang, Benjamin Y; Senior, Brent A; Castillo, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    As endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has evolved since its introduction to the United States, so has technology for imaging the sinonasal cavities. Although imaging is most frequently performed for evaluating chronic sinusitis refractory to medical therapy, its uses have expanded beyond inflammatory sinus disease. Multidetector Computed Tomography is the current workhorse for both diagnosis and preoperative planning in prospective ESS patients, while MR imaging remains a complementary tool for evaluating suspected tumors or intracranial and orbital complications of rhinosinusitis. In this article, the authors review current trends and potential future directions in the use of these modalities for sinus imaging.

  10. Current trends in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalliainen, Loree K

    2012-06-01

    Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery.

  11. Current trends in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

  12. Current trends in cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dafoe, W; Huston, P

    1997-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality and morbidity for patients with many types of cardiac disease cost-effectively, yet is generally underutilized. Rehabilitation is helpful not only for patients who have had a myocardial infarction but also for those with stable angina or congestive heart failure or those who have undergone myocardial revascularization procedures, a heart transplant or heart valve surgery. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation include a reduction in the rate of death from cardiovascular disease, improved exercise tolerance, fewer cardiac symptoms, improved lipid levels, decreased cigarette smoking, improvement in psychosocial well-being and increased likelihood of return to work. Rehabilitation involves a multidisciplinary team that focuses on education, individually tailored exercise, risk-factor modification and the optimization of functional status and mental health. Current research trends in this area include the evaluation of new secondary-prevention modalities and alternative program options, such as home-based rehabilitation. PMID:9054823

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights

    PubMed Central

    Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia E.; Bifani, Pablo J.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When molecular methods are used in conjunction with classical epidemiology, their utility for TB control has been realized. For instance, molecular epidemiologic studies have added much-needed accuracy and precision in describing transmission dynamics, and they have facilitated investigation of previously unresolved issues, such as estimates of recent-versus-reactive disease and the extent of exogenous reinfection. In addition, there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters (lineages) may differ in virulence, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic characteristics, all of which may significantly impact TB control and vaccine development strategies. Here, we review the current methods, concepts, and applications of molecular approaches used to better understand the epidemiology of TB. PMID:17041139

  14. Global trends in infective endocarditis epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Yew, Haur Sen; Murdoch, David R

    2012-08-01

    The global epidemiology of infective endocarditis is becoming better understood with the initiation of multi-center collaborative studies and with an increasing number of case series being reported from countries outside North America and Europe. However, there are still many knowledge gaps and a lack of population-based data. For endocarditis in developed countries, the role of rheumatic heart disease as a predisposing factor is diminishing; the population is increasingly elderly, staphylococci are becoming much more important pathogens, and proportionally more are healthcare-associated. In developing countries, the epidemiology of infective endocarditis remains similar to North America and Europe from the middle of the twentieth century, affecting a younger age group, is often associated with rheumatic heart disease, and is predominantly caused by streptococci.

  15. Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Pieter A M; Noto, Salvatore; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. With limited diagnostic tools to detect infection with M leprae, other methods are necessary to estimate trends in incidence and transmission. A computer program has been developed for modeling the transmission and control of leprosy (SIMLEP). The effect of failure to sustain early case detection beyond 2005 on leprosy incidence and case detection is shown. Important unanswered questions are whether the incubation period is contagious and how rapid close contacts of leprosy patients are infected. As long as such key questions remain unanswered, it will be difficult to estimate the impact of control strategies on the transmission of M leprae on resulting disease incidence. In the meantime we can expect that the global new-case detection trends will stay more or less stable or only decrease slightly for many years to come. There is a need of new preventive interventions to change this situation and reduce the incidence of leprosy in the 21st century.

  16. Current trends in European renal epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to vary substantially between the countries in Europe that contribute data to the ERA-EDTA Registry. Differences can be attributed to socioeconomic factors and prophylaxis programs for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may also express real differences in CKD incidence. Recently, age-adjusted ESRD incidence has begun to fall in many countries, probably related to improved prophylaxis. However, absolute rates may increase, partly due to socioeconomic advances in countries with a low gross domestic product and partly due to continuing increases in the proportion of elderly patients. Prevalence rates are expected to continue to increase, mainly due to increases in relative transplant prevalence, improved graft survival times and continuing improvements in both dialysis and transplant patient survival. Overall treatment results continue to improve.

  17. Current epidemiology of sepsis in mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xuelian; Du, Bin; Lu, Meizhu; Wu, Minming

    2016-01-01

    The disease burden of sepsis is a global issue. Most of the large-scale epidemiological investigations on sepsis have been carried out in developed countries. The population of 1.3 billion in mainland China accounts for approximately 1/5th of the whole world population. Thus, the knowledge of the incidence and mortality of sepsis in mainland China is vital before employing measures for its improvement. However, most of the epidemiological data of sepsis in mainland China was obtained from ICU settings, and thus lacks the population-based incidence and mortality of sepsis. In the present review, we summarized the limited literature encompassing the incidence, mortality, long-term outcome, and pathogens of sepsis in mainland China. Therefore, it might provide some valuable information regarding the sepsis disease burden and current issues in the management of sepsis in mainland China. PMID:27713882

  18. Current Status of Clostridium difficile Infection Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, Fernanda C.; Gould, Carolyn V.; McDonald, L. Clifford

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) during recent years, with increases in incidence and severity of disease in several countries, have made CDI a global public health challenge. Increases in CDI incidence have been largely attributed to the emergence of a previously rare and more virulent strain, BI/NAP1/027. Increased toxin production and high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones have made this strain a very successful pathogen in healthcare settings. In addition, populations previously thought to be at low risk are now being identified as having severe CDI. Recent genetic analysis suggests that C. difficile has a highly fluid genome with multiple mechanisms to modify its content and functionality, which can make C. difficile adaptable to environmental changes and potentially lead to the emergence of more virulent strains. In the face of these changes in the epidemiology and microbiology of CDI, surveillance systems are necessary to monitor trends and inform public health actions. PMID:22752867

  19. Dengue in Latin America: Systematic Review of Molecular Epidemiological Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Castañeda, José; Barreto dos Santos, Flavia; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Galvão de Araujo, Josélio Maria; Joint, Graham; Sarti, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4). A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed. A total of 396 relevant citations were identified, 57 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All four dengue virus serotypes were present and co-circulated in many countries over the review period (with the predominance of individual serotypes varying by country and year). The number of countries in which more than one serotype circulated steadily increased during the period under review. Molecular epidemiology data were found for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean region, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Central America, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Distinct lineages with different dynamics were found in each country, with co-existence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurring over the review period. Despite some gaps in the literature limiting the possibility for comparison, our review has described the molecular epidemiological trends of dengue infection. However, several gaps in molecular epidemiological information across Latin America and the Caribbean were identified that provide avenues for future research; in particular, sequence determination of the dengue virus genome is important for more precise phylogenetic classification and correlation with clinical outcome and disease severity. PMID:28068335

  20. Dengue in Latin America: Systematic Review of Molecular Epidemiological Trends.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Castañeda, José; Barreto Dos Santos, Flavia; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Galvão de Araujo, Josélio Maria; Joint, Graham; Sarti, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4). A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed. A total of 396 relevant citations were identified, 57 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All four dengue virus serotypes were present and co-circulated in many countries over the review period (with the predominance of individual serotypes varying by country and year). The number of countries in which more than one serotype circulated steadily increased during the period under review. Molecular epidemiology data were found for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean region, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Central America, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Distinct lineages with different dynamics were found in each country, with co-existence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurring over the review period. Despite some gaps in the literature limiting the possibility for comparison, our review has described the molecular epidemiological trends of dengue infection. However, several gaps in molecular epidemiological information across Latin America and the Caribbean were identified that provide avenues for future research; in particular, sequence determination of the dengue virus genome is important for more precise phylogenetic classification and correlation with clinical outcome and disease severity.

  1. Current Trends in Multidrug Optimization.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Andrea; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja

    2016-12-01

    The identification of effective and long-lasting cancer therapies still remains elusive, partially due to patient and tumor heterogeneity, acquired drug resistance, and single-drug dose-limiting toxicities. The use of drug combinations may help to overcome some limitations of current cancer therapies by challenging the robustness and redundancy of biological processes. However, effective drug combination optimization requires the careful consideration of numerous parameters. The complexity of this optimization problem is clearly nontrivial and likely requires the assistance of advanced heuristic optimization techniques. In the current review, we discuss the application of optimization techniques for the identification of optimal drug combinations. More specifically, we focus on the application of phenotype-based screening approaches in the field of cancer therapy. These methods are divided into three categories: (1) modeling methods, (2) model-free approaches based on biological search algorithms, and (3) merged approaches, particularly phenotypically driven network biology methods and computation network models relying on phenotypic data. In addition to a brief description of each approach, we include a critical discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each method, with a strong focus on the limitations and considerations needed to successfully apply such methods in biological research.

  2. Current trends in geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological mapping is a world currently in motion, driven by technological advances and the availability of new high resolution data. As a consequence, classic (paper) geomorphological maps which were the standard for more than 50 years are rapidly being replaced by digital geomorphological information layers. This is witnessed by the following developments: 1. the conversion of classic paper maps into digital information layers, mainly performed in a digital mapping environment such as a Geographical Information System, 2. updating the location precision and the content of the converted maps, by adding more geomorphological details, taken from high resolution elevation data and/or high resolution image data, 3. (semi) automated extraction and classification of geomorphological features from digital elevation models, broadly separated into unsupervised and supervised classification techniques and 4. New digital visualization / cartographic techniques and reading interfaces. Newly digital geomorphological information layers can be based on manual digitization of polygons using DEMs and/or aerial photographs, or prepared through (semi) automated extraction and delineation of geomorphological features. DEMs are often used as basis to derive Land Surface Parameter information which is used as input for (un) supervised classification techniques. Especially when using high-res data, object-based classification is used as an alternative to traditional pixel-based classifications, to cluster grid cells into homogeneous objects, which can be classified as geomorphological features. Classic map content can also be used as training material for the supervised classification of geomorphological features. In the classification process, rule-based protocols, including expert-knowledge input, are used to map specific geomorphological features or entire landscapes. Current (semi) automated classification techniques are increasingly able to extract morphometric, hydrological

  3. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  4. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun

    2013-02-01

    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained to eliminate malaria.

  5. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  6. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  7. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined.

  8. Changing epidemiological trends of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wee Khoon; Wong, Sunny H.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become more common in Asia over the past few decades. The rate of increase in prevalence of the disease varies greatly in Asia, with several countries in East Asia experiencing a more than doubled increase in IBD prevalence over the past decade. Historically, ulcerative colitis (UC) is more common than Crohn's disease (CD) in Asia. However, a reverse trend is beginning to appear in more developed countries in Asia such as Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. While Asian IBD patients share many similarities with their Western counterparts, there are important differences with significant clinical implications. In Asia, there are more men with CD, more ileo-colonic involvement in CD, less familial aggregation, fewer extra-intestinal manifestations and worse clinical outcomes for older-onset patients with UC. These differences are likely related to the different genetic makeup and environmental exposures in different regions. Evaluation of the differences and rates in epidemiologic trends may help researchers and clinicians estimate disease burden and understand the reasons behind these differences, which may hold the key to unravel the etiology of IBD. PMID:27175111

  9. Hypertension in Latin America: Current perspectives on trends and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M; Chagas, A C P; Brandão, A A; Gómez-Berroterán, R; Alcalá, J J A; Paris, J V; Cerda, J J O

    The region of Latin America, which includes Central America, the Caribbean and South America, is one that is rapidly developing. Signified by socio-economic growth, transition and development over the last few decades, living standards in countries like Brazil and Mexico have improved dramatically, including improvements in education and health care. An important marker of socio-economic change has been the epidemiological shift in disease burden. Cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in Latin America, and the drop in prevalence of infectious diseases has been accompanied by a rise in non-communicable diseases. Hypertension is the major risk factor driving the cardiovascular disease continuum. In this article we aim to discuss the epidemiological and management trends and patterns in hypertension that may be specific or more common to Latin-American populations - what we term 'Latin American characteristics' of hypertension - via a review of the recent literature. Recognizing that there may be a specific profile of hypertension for Latin-American patients may help to improve their treatment, with the ultimate goal to reduce their cardiovascular risk. We focus somewhat on the countries of Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela, the experience of which may reflect other Latin American countries that currently have less published data regarding epidemiology and management practices.

  10. Digital surgery: current trends and techniques.

    PubMed

    Good, James; Fiala, Kyle

    2010-10-01

    Digital deformities continue to be a common ailment among many patients who present to foot and ankle specialists. When conservative treatment fails to eliminate patient complaints, surgical correction remains a viable treatment option. Proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis remains the standard procedure among most foot and ankle surgeons. With continued advances in fixation technology and techniques, surgeons continue to have better options for the achievement of excellent digital surgery outcomes. This article reviews current trends in fixation of digital deformities while highlighting pertinent aspects of the physical examination, radiographic examination, and surgical technique.

  11. Epidemiology of MRSA and current strategies in Europe and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Wagenvoort, Hans; Åhrén, Christina; Daniels-Haardt, Inka; Hartemann, Philippe; Kobayashi, Hiro; Kurcz, Andrea; Picazo, Juan; Privitera, Gaetano; Assadian, Ojan

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of health-care associated infections caused by multi-drug resistant organisms has significantly increased over the past decade. Among these organisms, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) plays a prominent and increasing role. Because of consequences for patients and the economic burden in course of prolonged treatment following MRSA infections and additional indirect costs for e.g. isolation or antiseptic treatment, this trend will further damage European health-care systems. In 2006, a workshop was initiated at the 8th International Congress of the German Society of Hospital Hygiene held in Berlin. The aim of this workshop was to give an overview of the current situation of MRSA in selected European countries and to elaborate on potential strategies to prevent MRSA-infections and dissemination. A questionnaire encompassing 20 questions addressed topics such as epidemiology, current measures and future prospects was distributed to representatives from various European countries and Japan. A variety of widely different answers was obtained. It was shown that in all countries prevalence of MRSA is on a rising tide. This trend is observable in all European countries, albeit less strong in The Netherlands, Slovenia, France, Austria and Scandinavian countries. It was conclude that prevention strategies in a united and expanding European Community will become of utmost importance and that rapid screening strategies, e.g. PCR, might be of assistance in such an approach. A potential strategy to improve infection control measures could be the requirement of health-insurance providers to sign contracts only with hospitals able to proof having an infection control management in place. PMID:20204100

  12. Mapping the epidemiology and trends of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bright; Al-Hajoj, Sahal

    2015-12-01

    An extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) infection rate of 30% in Saudi Arabia remains above the global rate. A variable rate of infection in each province has been reported and the involvement of most organs has been cited. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce and the factors behind the increased rate of EPTB are perplexing. This review endeavors to shed light into the epidemiology of EPTB, various types of infections sites, geographical differences in the infection rate, known risk factors, and challenges in the diagnosis and management of EPTB in Saudi Arabia.

  13. The Epidemiology of Skin Cancer and its Trend in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Fathali-loy-dizaji, Mehri; Soltani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common cancers is skin cancer worldwide. Since incidence and cost of treatment of the cancer are increasing, it is necessary to further investigate to prevent and control this disease. This study aimed to determine skin cancer trend and epidemiology in Iran. Methods: This study was done based on existing data. Data used in this study were obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2004–2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. Results: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of skin cancer is rising in Iran and the sex ratio was more in men than women in all provinces. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of skin cancer was highest in males in Semnan, Isfahan, and Hamedan provinces (34.9, 30.80, and 28.84, respectively). The highest ASRs were seen in females in Semnan, Yazd, and Isfahan provinces (26.7, 24.14, and 18.97, respectively). The lowest ASR in male was observed in Sistan and Baluchestan, and in female in Hormozgan provinces. Conclusions: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the country. Therefore, the plan for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers. PMID:26288708

  14. [Current review of the epidemiology of leptospirosis].

    PubMed

    Torres-Castro, Marco; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Arroyave-Sierra, Esteban; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Puerto, Fernando I

    2016-01-01

    Spirochete bacteria Leptospira spp. is the causative agent of leptospirosis, antropozoonotic endemic disease in many parts of the world, mainly in underdeveloped countries with high levels of poverty. Its incidence and prevalence rates are higher and important in human populations living in tropical and subtropical climates. Leptospira spp., is capable of infecting more than 160 species of domestic and wild mammals, including human beings, causing various and nonspecific clinical manifestations that make the diagnosis of the disease rarely accurate. In Mexico, the first reports of leptospirosis dating from 1920 and is now considered a matter of public and animal health, mainly for the economic losses it generates. The aim of this paper is to present a review in Spanish, containing the most important aspects in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, to serve as a starting point for students and researchers who are interested about this endemic disease in Mexico.

  15. Current Trends of Tropical Fruit Waste Utilization.

    PubMed

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Abedin, Nur Hanani Zainal; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2016-05-31

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  16. Current Epidemiology and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Patricia; Kestler, Martha; De Alarcon, Arístides; Miro, José María; Bermejo, Javier; Rodríguez-Abella, Hugo; Fariñas, Maria Carmen; Cobo Belaustegui, Manuel; Mestres, Carlos; Llinares, Pedro; Goenaga, Miguel; Navas, Enrique; Oteo, José Antonio; Tarabini, Paola; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics and identify the risk factors of short-term and 1-year mortality in a recent cohort of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). From January 2008, multidisciplinary teams have prospectively collected all consecutive cases of IE, diagnosed according to the Duke criteria, in 25 Spanish hospitals. Overall, 1804 patients were diagnosed. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range, 55–77), 68.0% were men, and 37.1% of the cases were nosocomial or health care-related IE. Gram-positive microorganisms accounted for 79.3% of the episodes, followed by Gram-negative (5.2%), fungi (2.4%), anaerobes (0.9%), polymicrobial infections (1.9%), and unknown etiology (9.1%). Heart surgery was performed in 44.2%, and in-hospital mortality was 28.8%. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were age, previous heart surgery, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, Staphylococcus or Candida etiology, intracardiac complications, heart failure, and septic shock. The 1-year independent risk factors for mortality were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02), neoplasia (OR, 2.46), renal insufficiency (OR, 1.59), and heart failure (OR, 4.42). Surgery was an independent protective factor for 1-year mortality (OR, 0.44). IE remains a severe disease with a high rate of in-hospital (28.9%) and 1-year mortality (11.2%). Surgery was the only intervention that significantly reduced 1-year mortality. PMID:26512582

  17. Leprosy in China: epidemiological trends between 1949 and 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. S.; Li, W. Z.; Jiang, C.; Ye, G. Y.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the epidemiological trends of leprosy in China from 1949 to 1998. METHOD: Data for the study were obtained from the computerized database of the National System of Leprosy Surveillance. FINDINGS: A total of 474,774 leprosy patients were detected during this 50-year period. Case detection rates per 100,000 population were highest in the 1950s and 1960s, with peaks appearing in 1957-58, 1963-66, 1969-70, and 1983-84, corresponding to mass surveys or screening surveys carried out in most areas or selected areas of the country. While the duration of the disease at the time of detection fell over the period, the disability rates, which were > 50% in the early 1950s, have decreased gradually to 20.8% by 1997-98 but are still too high. More than 50% of cases were found through active methods in the periods 1955-58, 1965-66, and 1969-76, but in recent years cases are mostly detected through dermatological clinics or by voluntary reporting. The peak prevalences of the 1960s (i.e. > 2 per 10,000 population) decreased annually from the 1970s onwards. By the end of 1998 the prevalence was 0.05 per 10,000 population. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that leprosy was well controlled in China and that the WHO goal of elimination of leprosy as a public health problem has been achieved at the national and subnational levels. However, leprosy is still unevenly distributed in the country. According to the criterion for leprosy elimination in China--defined as a prevalence of < 1 per 100,000 in county or city--there are still more than 10% of counties or cities where this target has not yet been reached. Special attention must therefore be given to achieve elimination and final eradication of leprosy in China. PMID:11357209

  18. Dibromochloropropane: epidemiological findings and current questions.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J R

    1997-12-26

    Dibromochloropropane, DBCP, has had a seminal role in our current understanding of how to prevent chemical risks to health. Early toxicological studies showed its special impact on the testes, and detection of its mutagenic potency was soon followed by demonstration of its carcinogenicity to animals. Its commercial use as a useful nematocide ignored, at first, these warnings from the laboratory. When production workers, first in California and then in Israel, found they were sterile as a result of their exposure, this was convincing evidence that prevention had failed. The evidence, azospermia, oligospermia, and gonadotrophin response to testicular damage, were found first in production workers. In agricultural applicators in California who used the material, decreased sperm count and increased gonadotrophin levels were found. While production in California, Texas, and Israel was halted, studies continued and so, it seems, did use. Our first Israeli study was of workers on banana crops, and we found convincing evidence of increased spontaneous abortion in their family histories. Follow-up studies among production workers in Israel showed that some recovered testicular function, but among their offspring, otherwise in good health, there was a predominance of females. Those who did not recover from azospermia were those with high levels of follicle stimulating hormone. However data for production workers did not show increased spontaneous abortion. Nor have any studies so far shown increased birth defects or increased infant mortality. Unfavorable reproductive outcomes can be due to other agents, as shown by sprayers in Dutch orchards having hypofecundity (increased interpregnancy period) and sex ratio changes; but the agents responsible have not yet been identified. These experiences have lead to the general acceptance of some implications: (1) Paternal exposures can lead to a variety of unfavorable effects on reproductive outcome, including infertility, spontaneous

  19. Whither ink jet? Current patent trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Stephen F.; Karz, Robert S.

    1995-04-01

    The status and potential of ink jet technology is discernible in its major technical literature forum: worldwide patents. Most ink jet technical activity is focused in commercial research and development laboratories where proprietary considerations make patents the norm for publication. Currently there are about 2,000 ink jet disclosures issued annually with over 200 enterprises represented. Ink jet patent activity is increasing about 25% per year driven by a rapidly expanding base of products, applications, and revenue. An analysis of the ink jet patent literature reveals a few major themes (i.e. continuous ink jet, piezoelectric drop-on-demand, and thermal ink jet) and numerous minor ones (i.e. electrohydro-dynamic extraction, magnetic drop-on-demand, Hertz continuous, acoustic ink printing). Patents bear witness to transformations in the industry as dominant players of the 1970's have given way to new leaders in the 1990's. They also foretell important commercial developments in ink jet's near term future. When studied in aggregate, the patent record reveals patterns for the industry in general as well as for individual companies. It becomes possible to use the patent data base not only to identify technical approaches and problems for specific firms, but also to track progress and monitor changing strategies. In addition, international filing patterns can provide insights into industry priorities. This paper presents an overview of ink jet technology as revealed by the patent literature. It will include a 25 year perspective, a review of trends over the past five years, and a survey of today's most active companies and their technical approaches. With this analysis, it will be shown that the information inherent in the patent record is more than the sum of its individual disclosures. Indeed, by using it, we can outlook whither goes ink jet.

  20. Current trends in nuclear and radiation sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Harold R.; Quam, William

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of radiation detector history, a summary of the present state of the art, and some speculation on future developments in this field. Trends in the development of radiation detectors over the years are analyzed. Rapid progress in detection technology was experienced between WWII and the 1970s. Since then, fewer dramatic improvements have been seen. The authors speculate about the reasons for this trend and where the technology might take us in the next 20 years. Requirements for radiation detection equipment have changed drastically since 9/11; this demand is likely to accelerate detector development in the near future.

  1. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  2. Current Trends in Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elleman, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of changes in the world of children's publishing and in the sociopolitical climate of the United States between 1960 and 1985 covers changes in the markets for children's books, subject matter, and formats, as well as specific trends in picture books and nonfiction. (EM)

  3. Colorectal cancer in Iran: Epidemiology and morphology trends

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Pakzad, Reza; Abedi, Mehdi; Kor, Yones; Moludi, Jalal; Towhidi, Farhad; Reza Makhsosi, Behnam; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in different countries, including Iran. No comprehensive study has been done in the country for colorectal cancer, but information on the incidence and trends is essential to planning. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and morphology of colorectal cancer and its trend in Iran. This study was conducted using data from the national cancer registry system in Iran from 2003-2008. We used joinpoint regression analysis for assessing incidence time trends and morphology change percentage. Of all cases of colorectal cancer, 61.83 % were colon cancer, 27.54 % rectal cancer, 7.46 % rectosigmoid cancer, and 3.10 anal cancer. The most common histological types with the frequencies of 80.85 % was related to adenocarcinoma, NOS. The Annual percentage changes (APC) in ASIR for colorectal cancer significantly increased in both men and women. APC in ASIR was 13.7 (CI: 10.5-17.1) in women and 16.4 (CI: 12.4-20.5) in men. APC of adenocarcinoma in villous adenoma showed significant declining trend (p<0.05), while APC of adenocarcinoma, NOS had a constant trend. The incidence of the cancer in recent years has increased in Iran because of changes in lifestyle and diet. Therefore, further studies are necessary to detect the cause of this cancer and perform preventive measures. PMID:28337105

  4. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  5. Lung cancer molecular epidemiology in China: recent trends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is both the most common diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in China. During the past three decades, the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China are increasing rapidly. According to data from National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) in 2010, the crude incidence of lung cancer in China was 46.08 per 100,000 population (61.86 per 100,000 men and 29.54 per 100,000 women), with an estimated over 600,000 new diagnosed lung cancer patients (416,333 males and 189,613 females). Meanwhile, the crude mortality of lung cancer in China was 37.00 per 100,000 population (50.04 per 100,000 men and 23.33 per 100,000 women). Consistent with the change in developed countries, adenocarcinoma has become the most predominant histological subtype of lung cancer in China. For the majority advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, especially patients with adenocarcinoma, targeted therapy became increasing important in the treatment. Chinese researcher have done a lot work in terms of lung cancer molecular epidemiology, therefore, in this review, we further summarized the epidemiology of driver genes in NSCLC, hoping to help clinicians to better screen certain driver genes in China for treatment decisions. PMID:25806311

  6. Upper extremity trauma: current trends in management.

    PubMed

    Stone, W M; Fowl, R J; Money, S R

    2007-10-01

    Upper extremity trauma can be penetrating or blunt in etiology. The close proximity of vein, artery and nerve makes for a complicated presentation and potentially complicated reconstruction. Orthopedic and neurologic injuries can cause the more long term disability of these patients, but vascular injuries are initially more life threatening. Control of vascular injuries can be particularly difficult due to anatomic issues in the upper extremities. The intervention carried significant morbidity until evolution to endovascular approaches occurred. By reconstructing the injury from a more ''remote'' access site, less concomitant injury to the extremity can be encountered. However, although control of vascular injuries may result in greater survival rates with less morbidity from the procedure, long term outcome remains dependent upon concomitant injuries. This review will encompass both vascular and neurologic injuries secondary to trauma to the upper extremity and outline some of the trends in management.

  7. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use: New Trends and Prominent Issues.

    PubMed

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-03-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other "high-income countries." Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours.

  8. Current trends in robotic surgery for otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J Kenneth; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2013-09-01

    As minimally invasive surgery has become common in head and neck surgery, the role of robotic surgery has expanded from thyroid surgery and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) of the oropharynx and supraglottic to other areas. Surgeons have advanced the limits of TORS, adapting lasers to the Da Vinci robot for glottic cancer, and combining existing techniques for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and hypopharyngectomy to perform transoral total laryngectomy. Skull base approaches have been reported with some success in case reports and cadaver models, but the current instrument size and configuration limit the applicability of the current robotic system. Surgeons have reported reconstruction of the head and neck via local and free flaps. Using the previously reported approaches for thyroidectomy via modified facelift incision, neck dissection has also been reported. Future applications of robotic surgery in otolaryngology may be additionally expanded, as several new robotic technologies are under development for endolaryngeal work and neurotology.

  9. Epidemiologic Characteristics and Trends of Fatal Suicides among the Elderly in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-Li

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among its elderly. The epidemiologic characteristics and trends of the surging elderly suicide rates from 1993 to 2003 are described, with a special emphasis on the risk groups, the methods used in suicide, and their geographical variations. Data on annual mortality for persons…

  10. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: Epidemiology, current evidence and future prospective

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Marco; Leone, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment. We reviewed, in order to focus the epidemiology, characteristics, and, considering the high mortality rate of SFP, the use of optimal empirical antifungal therapy the current literature. PMID:27678356

  11. Current Trends in Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Patapis, Paul; Zavras, Nick; Tzanetis, Panagiotis; Machairas, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical technique, postoperative complications, and possible recurrence after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) in comparison with open ventral hernia repair (OVHR), based on the international literature. Database: A Medline search of the current English literature was performed using the terms laparoscopic ventral hernia repair and incisional hernia repair. Conclusions: LVHR is a safe alternative to the open method, with the main advantages being minimal postoperative pain, shorter recovery, and decreased wound and mesh infections. Incidental enterotomy can be avoided by using a meticulous technique and sharp dissection to avoid thermal injury. PMID:26273186

  12. Dental education: current scenario and future trends.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sheeba; Vijayaraghavan, Vasantha; Tandon, Piyush; Kumar, D R V; Sharma, Hemant; Rao, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    India has more than 290 dental institutions, producing over 25,000 BDS graduates every year. There are three main characteristics that are shared by any profession: Delivering the best possible education to its students, giving priority to public service over self-interest and enforcing regulations and codes of ethics through self-government. Dentistry in India is currently being challenged to maintain the professionalism. This is partly a result of pressures applied to the educational system. This article discusses some challenges in brief and attempts to attend the challenges in positive manner.

  13. VOC Control: Current practices and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, E.C.; Mukhopadhyay, N. )

    1993-07-01

    One of the most formidable challenges posed by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) is the search for efficient and economical control strategies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are precursors to ground-level ozone, a major component in the formation of smog. Under the CAAA, thousands of currently unregulated sources will be required to reduce or eliminate VOC emissions. In addition, sources that are currently regulated may seek to evaluate alternative VOC control strategies to meet stricter regulatory requirements such as the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements in Title III of the CAAA. Because of the increasing attention being given to VOC control, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers' (AIChE) Center for Waste Reduction Technologies (CWRT) initiated a study of VOC control technologies and regulatory initiatives. A key objective of the project was to identify and describe existing VOC control technologies and air regulations, as well as emerging technologies and forthcoming regulations. That work is the basis for this article.

  14. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  15. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to the colon based on the most current research. However, management of traumatic colon injuries remains a challenge and continues to be associated with significant morbidity. Familiarity with the different methods to the approach and management of colonic injuries will allow surgeons to minimize unnecessary complications and mortality. PMID:24294119

  16. Solar photovoltaics: current state and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milichko, V. A.; Shalin, A. S.; Mukhin, I. S.; Kovrov, A. E.; Krasilin, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Belov, P. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basic aspects of current solar photovoltaics (PVs) are reviewed, starting from the recently developed already-on-the-market first-generation solar cells and ending with promising but not yet commercialized third-generation cells and materials possibly leading to new cell designs. The emphasis is on the physical principles of operation of various solar cells, which are divided into several groups according to our classification scheme. To make the picture complete, some technological and economic aspects of the field are discussed. A separate chapter considers antireflection coatings and light-trapping textures — structures which, while not having appeared yet in the PV review literature, are an integral part of the solar cells.

  17. Nationwide Trends in Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoshan; Li, Wei; Zhong, Ping; Fang, Kun; Zhu, Kexin; Musa, Taha Hussein; Song, Yue; Du, Guoping; Gao, Rong; Guo, Yan; Yan, Wenjuan; Xuan, Yang; Wei, Pingmin

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the nationwide and regional distribution of HIV-1 genotypes in China in the past three decades, province-specific HIV-1 molecular epidemiology data were derived from 260 independent studies of HIV molecular prevalence through searching PubMed, VIP Chinese Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data from January 1981 to December 2015. The nationwide and regional distribution of HIV-1 genotypes was estimated by weighting the genotype distribution from each province- and risk-specific subpopulation with the number of reported cases in the corresponding subgroups in the relevant periods. A sharp transition of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant distribution was observed in various risk groups and regions over time. CRF01_AE has rapidly surged among almost all risk groups and in all areas, and it has become dominant among men who have sex with men and heterosexuals. A wide variety of new circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) were rapidly appearing in several risk groups and regions. After 2007, CRF01_AE was the most prevalent strain, accounting for 42.5% of all national infections, followed by CRF07_BC (28.9%), subtype B'/B (10.9%), CRF08_BC (10.0%), and subtype C (2.8%). URFs and other CRFs were responsible for 2.6% and fewer than 1% of infections nationwide, respectively. The nationwide and regional distributions of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants were sharply shifting in China. CRF01_AE and new CRFs played an increasing role in the nationwide or regional HIV pandemic. The nationwide diversity of HIV-1 poses a formidable challenge to HIV vaccine development and disease prevention.

  18. Sagebrush ecosystems: current status and trends.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.; Stiver, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) biome has changed since settlement by Europeans. The current distribution, composition and dynamics, and disturbance regimes of sagebrush ecosystems have been altered by interactions among disturbance, land use, and invasion of exotic plants. In this chapter, we present the dominant factors that have influenced habitats across the sagebrush biome. Using a large-scale analysis, we identified regional changes and patterns in “natural disturbance”, invasive exotic species, and influences of land use in sagebrush systems. Number of fires and total area burned has increased since 1980 across much of the sagebrush biome. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) and pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodlands have expanded into sagebrush habitats at higher elevations. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual grass, has invaded much of lower elevation, more xeric sagebrush landscapes across the western portion of the biome. Consequently, synergistic feedbacks between habitats and disturbance (natural and human-caused) have altered disturbance regimes, plant community dynamics and contributed to loss of sagebrush habitats and change in plant communities. Habitat conversion to agriculture has occurred in the highly productive regions of the sagebrush biome and influenced up to 56% of the Conservation Assessment area. Similarly, urban areas, and road, railroad, and powerline networks fragment habitats, facilitate predator movements, and provide corridors for spread of exotic species across the entire sagebrush biome. Livestock grazing has altered sagebrush habitats; the effects of overgrazing combined with drought on plant communities in the late 1880s and early 1900s still influences current habitats. Management of livestock grazing has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by habitat treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences, roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements have further

  19. Tuberculosis: current trends in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bello, A K; Njoku, C H; Njoku, A K

    2005-12-01

    Among communicable diseases, tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death worldwide, killing nearly 2 million people each year. It is estimated that about one-third of the world population are infected with TB (2 billion people) and about 10% of this figure will progress to disease state. Most cases are in the less-developed countries of the world. Tuberculosis incidence has been on the increase in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis remains based on culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but rapid diagnosis of infectious tuberculosis by simple sputum smear for acid fast bacilli remains an important tool, as more rapid molecular techniques are being developed. Treatment with several drugs for 6 months or more can cure more than 95% of patients. Direct observation of treatment, a component of the recommended five-element DOTS strategy, is judged to be the standard of care by most authorities. Currently only a third of cases worldwide are treated using this approach. There may be need to modify the treatment modalities especially with the choice of drugs and duration of therapy when TB infection occurs in special situation like pregnancy, liver disease, renal failure or even in coexistence with HlV/AIDS or the drug resistant state.

  20. Current Trends in Vector Control: Adapting to Selective Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-16

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP023975 TITLE: Current Trends in Vector Control: Adapting to Selective...ADP023967 thru ADP023976 UNCLASSIFIED Current Trends in Vector Control: Adapting to Selective Pressure Kendra Lawrence MAJ, Medical Service Corps...of Research, is to mitigate the products to the forefront that may fulfill risk posed by arthropods to DoD mission needs. The Department of personnel

  1. Snowboarding injuries : current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Bladin, Christopher; McCrory, Paul; Pogorzelski, Anita

    2004-01-01

    Snowboarding has become one of the premier alpine sports. The past decade has seen the popularity of snowboarding increase dramatically and the recent Winter Olympic Games at Salt Lake City, USA, showcased the strong visual appeal of the sport and the youth-oriented lifestyle and culture that accompanies it. The injury profile of the sport has also undergone change along with technological advances in boot and binding systems and the changing demographics of the sports participants. Central to the development of injury-prevention strategies is knowledge of the profile of injuries that occur, understanding those who are at particular risk and, if possible, the biomechanical factors involved in each injury type. Snowboarding was initially considered a dangerous, uncontrolled, alpine sport - an opinion based on little or no scientific evidence. That evidence has rapidly grown over the past decade and we now know that snowboard injury rates are no different to those in skiing; however, the injury profile is different. The purpose of this review is to give some perspective to the current snowboard injury literature. It discusses not only the demographic profile of those injured and the type of injuries that occur, but also gives some insight into the progress that has occurred in determining the impact of specific prevention strategies, such as splints to prevent injuries to the wrist/forearm. The next decade will also see a greater understanding of the biomechanical forces involved in snowboard injuries, which may well impact on future technological advances. As the literature indicates, however, some things will not change, e.g. injuries are more likely to occur in beginners and lessons need to be reinforced as a fundamental aspect of any injury-prevention strategy.

  2. Current Trends in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Appleby, G. M.; Kirchner, G.; McGarry, J.; Murphy, T.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pierron, F.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) techniques are used to accurately measure the distance from ground stations to retroreflectors on satellites and the moon. SLR is one of the fundamental techniques that define the international Terrestrial Reference Frame (iTRF), which is the basis upon which we measure many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology. It is one of the fundamental techniques that define at a level of precision of a few mm the origin and scale of the ITRF. Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration/validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice budget, and terrestrial topography. Laser ranging is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants. Many of the GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation. The GNSS Constellations will be the means of making the reference frame available to worldwide users. Data and products from these measurements support key aspects of the GEOSS 10-Year implementation Plan adopted on February 16, 2005, The ITRF has been identified as a key contribution of the JAG to GEOSS and the ILRS makes a major contribution for its development since its foundation. The ILRS delivers weekly additional realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) series with a daily resolution. Additional products are currently under development such as precise orbits of satellites, EOP with daily availability, low-degree gravitational harmonics for studies of Earth dynamics and kinematics, etc. SLR technology continues to evolve toward the next generation laser ranging systems as programmatic requirements become more stringent. Ranging accuracy is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers and faster

  3. Trend tests for the evaluation of exposure-response relationships in epidemiological exposure studies

    PubMed Central

    Hothorn, Ludwig A; Vaeth, Michael; Hothorn, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    One possibility for the statistical evaluation of trends in epidemiological exposure studies is the use of a trend test for data organized in a 2 × k contingency table. Commonly, the exposure data are naturally grouped or continuous exposure data are appropriately categorized. The trend test should be sensitive to any shape of the exposure-response relationship. Commonly, a global trend test only determines whether there is a trend or not. Once a trend is seen it is important to identify the likely shape of the exposure-response relationship. This paper introduces a best contrast approach and an alternative approach based on order-restricted information criteria for the model selection of a particular exposure-response relationship. For the simple change point alternative H1 : π1 = ...= πq <πq+1 = ... = πk an appropriate approach for the identification of a global trend as well as for the most likely shape of that exposure-response relationship is characterized by simulation and demonstrated for real data examples. Power and simultaneous confidence intervals can be estimated as well. If the conditions are fulfilled to transform the exposure-response data into a 2 × k table, a simple approach for identification of a global trend and its elementary shape is available for epidemiologists. PMID:19265556

  4. Current Trends in Nursing Informatics: Results of an International Survey.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Alhuwail, Dari; Ali, Samira; Badger, Martha K; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Georgsson, Mattias; Islam, Tasneem; Jeon, Eunjoo; Jung, Hyunggu; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Lewis, Adrienne; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Ronquillo, Charlene; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Sommer, Janine; Tayaben, Jude L; Topaz, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Nursing informatics (NI) can help provide effective and safe healthcare. This study aimed to describe current research trends in NI. In the summer 2015, the IMIA-NI Students Working Group created and distributed an online international survey of the current NI trends. A total of 402 responses were submitted from 44 countries. We identified a top five NI research areas: standardized terminologies, mobile health, clinical decision support, patient safety and big data research. NI research funding was considered to be difficult to acquire by the respondents. Overall, current NI research on education, clinical practice, administration and theory is still scarce, with theory being the least common. Further research is needed to explain the impact of these trends and the needs from clinical practice.

  5. Trends in Citations to Books on Epidemiological and Statistical Methods in the Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Miquel; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Sanz, Sergio; Fernandez, Esteve; Bhopal, Raj; Morabia, Alfredo; Victora, Cesar; Lopez, Tomàs

    2013-01-01

    Background There are no analyses of citations to books on epidemiological and statistical methods in the biomedical literature. Such analyses may shed light on how concepts and methods changed while biomedical research evolved. Our aim was to analyze the number and time trends of citations received from biomedical articles by books on epidemiological and statistical methods, and related disciplines. Methods and Findings The data source was the Web of Science. The study books were published between 1957 and 2010. The first year of publication of the citing articles was 1945. We identified 125 books that received at least 25 citations. Books first published in 1980–1989 had the highest total and median number of citations per year. Nine of the 10 most cited texts focused on statistical methods. Hosmer & Lemeshow's Applied logistic regression received the highest number of citations and highest average annual rate. It was followed by books by Fleiss, Armitage, et al., Rothman, et al., and Kalbfleisch and Prentice. Fifth in citations per year was Sackett, et al., Evidence-based medicine. The rise of multivariate methods, clinical epidemiology, or nutritional epidemiology was reflected in the citation trends. Educational textbooks, practice-oriented books, books on epidemiological substantive knowledge, and on theory and health policies were much less cited. None of the 25 top-cited books had the theoretical or sociopolitical scope of works by Cochrane, McKeown, Rose, or Morris. Conclusions Books were mainly cited to reference methods. Books first published in the 1980s continue to be most influential. Older books on theory and policies were rooted in societal and general medical concerns, while the most modern books are almost purely on methods. PMID:23667447

  6. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  7. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  8. Five Aspects of Current Trends in German Library Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steierwald, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The specialisation Library Science at the Hochschule Darmstadt/University of Applied Science Darmstadt is the newest academic program in Germany for the higher education of librarians. Five current trends in library science in Germany reflect the new "Darmstadt Model": (1) The delimitation of a specific professional field…

  9. Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

    A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,…

  10. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  11. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  12. Current Trends in European Quality Assurance. ENQA Workshop Report 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozo, Dhurata; Damian, Radu; Gonzalez, Cecilia de la Rosa; Helle, Emmi; Imoda, Franco; Kohler, Alexander; Papazoglou, Vassilios J.; Dalmau, Gemma Rauret; Shopov, Todor

    2009-01-01

    The present report is a product of two ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) seminars, held in 2007, on current trends in European Quality Assurance. The first seminar, hosted by the Bulgarian National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency (NEAA), examined the situation in South-Eastern Europe. The second seminar…

  13. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  14. West Virginia Women Business Owners: Current Study and Trends Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holup, Linda L.; FitzGerald, Kathleen M.

    This report profiles current West Virginia women business owners and notes significant trends in the last eight years. It highlights a subgroup of women business owners, specifically low income, single women with children. These survey areas are discussed: industry sector, type of ownership, reasons for going/not going into business, planning…

  15. Measuring the Burden—Current and Future Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol has a significant impact on health and well-being, from the beneficial aspects of moderate drinking to the detrimental effects of alcoholism. The broad implications of alcohol use on public health have been addressed through a wide range of epidemiological and clinical studies, many of which are described in this issue of Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. Where chronic disease is involved, alcohol use can be a risk factor that not only affects the onset of various chronic diseases but also exacerbates the ongoing extent and severity of those diseases. Lifestyle choices and genetic influences also contribute to, or help to alleviate, that risk. PMID:24881334

  16. Epidemiologic Trends in Medically-attended Tree Stand Fall Injuries among Wisconsin Deer Hunters

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Holsman, Robert H.; Petchenik, Jordan B.; Dhuey, Brian J.; Keifer, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tree stand falls are the most common injury to hunters in the USA, but there is limited research on the topic. This study examined the 5-year trends in incident tree stand fall injuries in rural north-central Wisconsin and described patient demographics and injury features. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on five prior hunting seasons, 2009–2013. Cases were ascertained from electronic health records via natural language processing that identified patients from the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area who received medical attention for a tree stand fall. Annual incidence rates were calculated using the number of hunting license holders in the target population, per administrative data from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Results There were 16,556–16,902 deer hunters in any given year, with 39 (92% male) confirmed medically-attended tree stand fall injuries in 2009–2013. Injuries mainly occurred in the lower extremities (n=23), and included two fatalities and one paralysis case. The risk of tree stand fall injuries went from 6.0 (95% CI: 3.2, 11.1) per 10,000 hunters in 2009 to 3.6 (95% CI: 1.6, 7.9) per 10,000 hunters in 2013, which was not a significant change over five years (p=0.79). Most falls occurred among archery hunters, in the evening and when descending from a tree stand. Cases were demographically similar to the general population of Wisconsin deer hunters. Conclusions The current seasonal incidence rate of tree stand fall injuries is relatively low in rural Wisconsin, but with limited signs of improvement. Continued efforts are needed to promote the long-term safety of the hunting public. PMID:26443558

  17. Recent trends in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases: up or down?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter-Laszlo

    2006-10-14

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally considered to be common in the Western world, and its incidence has sharply increased since the early 1950s. In contrast, until the last decade, low prevalence and incidence rates have been reported from other parts of the world including Eastern Europe, South America, Asia and the Pacific region. Recent trends indicate a change in the epidemiology of IBD with previously low incidence areas now reporting a progressive rise in the incidence, while in West European and North American countries the figures have stabilized or slightly increased, with decreasing incidence rates for ulcerative colitis. Some of these changes may represent differences in diagnostic practices and increasing awareness of the disease. The quality of studies is also variable. Additional epidemiologic studies are needed to better define the burden of illness, explore the mechanism of association with environmental factors, and identify new risk factors.

  18. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together.

  19. Current trends in health facility planning, design, and construction.

    PubMed

    Beale, Craig; Kittredge, Frank D

    2014-01-01

    It is critical now more than ever for today's healthcare facilities to serve as more than just a backdrop to the care provided--they can, and should, be an integral part of that care. In addition to promoting efficacy, delighting the senses, and placing patients and families at ease, facilities need to be high-performing, sustainable, and healthy environments. Creating today's healthcare facilities requires breaking through barriers in unexpected ways, and it often requires looking outside the healthcare profession for guidance. In this article, we explore current trends in health facility planning, design, and construction. Our focus is on the buildings that serve as venues for the provision of healthcare services across the full continuum, from prevention to critical care. In particular, we discuss four current broad trends and conclude with thoughts on future developments.

  20. Current and future technological trends in positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    1992-04-01

    Current trends in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation are examined, with an emphasis on providing information suitable to the prospective PET user. Basic principles underlying PET are explained and information on performance measurements, techniques, and quantitation are given in order to allow the user to compare and contrast different types of PET scanners. These scanner designs are described. Specific examples are given and the combination of PET with other modalities is discussed.

  1. Trends in hospitalization for atrial fibrillation: epidemiology, cost, and implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Azfar; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Nalluri, Nikhil; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Spagnola, Jonathan; Patel, Aashay; Asti, Deepak; Kanotra, Ritesh; Khan, Hafiz; Savani, Chirag; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nilay; Thakkar, Badal; Patel, Neil; Pau, Dhaval; Badheka, Apurva O; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Kowalski, Marcin; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan; Paydak, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia worldwide and the most common arrhythmia leading to hospitalization. Due to a substantial increase in incidence and prevalence of AF over the past few decades, it attributes to an extensive economic and public health burden. The increasing number of hospitalizations, aging population, anticoagulation management, and increasing trend for disposition to a skilled facility are drivers of the increasing cost associated with AF. There has been significant progress in AF management with the release of new oral anticoagulants, use of left atrial catheter ablation, and novel techniques for left atrial appendage closure. In this article, we aim to review the trends in epidemiology, hospitalization, and cost of AF along with its future implications on public health.

  2. Current trends in molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vinhas, Raquel; Cordeiro, Milton; Pedrosa, Pedro; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide suffer from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), involving the fusion of the Abelson oncogene (ABL1) with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene. Early onset diagnosis coupled to current therapeutics allow for a treatment success rate of 90, which has focused research on the development of novel diagnostics approaches. In this review, we present a critical perspective on current strategies for CML diagnostics, comparing to gold standard methodologies and with an eye on the future trends on nanotheranostics.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: achievements and challenges to current knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Megan; Nardell, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, molecular methods have become available with which to strain-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They have allowed researchers to study certain important but previously unresolved issues in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). For example, some unsuspected microepidemics have been revealed and it has been shown that the relative contribution of recently acquired disease to the TB burden in many settings is far greater than had been thought. These findings have led to the strengthening of TB control. Other research has demonstrated the existence and described the frequency of exogenous reinfection in areas of high incidence. Much recent work has focused on the phenotypic variation among strains and has evaluated the relative transmissibility, virulence, and immunogenicity of different lineages of the organism. We summarize the recent achievements in TB epidemiology associated with the introduction of DNA fingerprinting techniques, and consider the implications of this technology for the design and analysis of epidemiological studies. PMID:12132006

  4. Current Status of Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Human Sarcocystosis

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Casper Sahl

    2014-01-01

    Species of Sarcocystis are Apicomplexan parasites requiring intermediate and definitive hosts to complete their life cycle. Humans are one of many natural host species and may serve as both intermediate and definitive hosts. However, the extent and public health significance of human Sarcocystis infection are incompletely known. In this minireview, we provide an update on the epidemiology and diagnosis of human sarcocystosis and propose some tools that could contribute to a better understanding of the clinical significance and epidemiology of Sarcocystis infections. PMID:24759707

  5. Harm reduction history, response, and current trends in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    HIV epidemics in Asia have been initially driven through injecting drug use and the use of shared needles and syringes. Molecular epidemiological work has shown that where there is heroin trafficking and use, so too is there HIV. Given the often strict enforcement of national anti-narcotic laws, harm reduction responses to HIV infections driven by injecting drug use have been historically slow. As it became clear that preventing HIV meant embracing harm reduction, many countries in the region have adopted harm reduction as part of their national AIDS strategy and increasingly as part of their national drug strategy. Initial successes have proven that harm reduction, as it pertains to HIV among IDUs, can and does work in Asia. These initial successes have led to more comprehensive scale-up of other essential components of HIV prevention among IDUs, including increased availability of opiate substitution programs. Still, multiple challenges remain as overall coverage of services in the region remains poor. Changes in the availability and patterns of use of drugs, including the exponential increase in the use of amphetamine-type stimulants, is providing ongoing challenges to both the law enforcement and public health sectors. This paper reflects on the history of harm reduction in Asia and the shifting trends forcing policy makers to adapt and expand harm reduction strategies to include an ever widening approach to criminal justice, policing, public health, and human rights.

  6. Helicopter aeroelastic stability and response - Current topics and future trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents several current topics in rotary wing aeroelasticity and concludes by attempting to anticipate future trends and developments. These topics are: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities; (2) structural modeling, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) aeroelastic stability and response in forward flight; (4) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problems and their active control; and (5) the coupled rotor-fuselage vibration problem and its alleviation by higher harmonic control. Selected results illustrating the fundamental aspects of these topics are presented. Future developments are briefly discussed.

  7. Radicalization, Linkage, and Diversity: Current Trends in Terrorism in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Current Trends in Terrorism in Europe 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER... Europe Lorenzo Vidino Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The RAND Corporation is a...Contract W74V8H-06-C-0002. iii Preface Although it has not suffered a successful attack since the July 7, 2005, bombings in London, Europe perceives

  8. Management of knee osteoarthritis. Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Ondrésik, Marta; Azevedo Maia, Fatima R; da Silva Morais, Alain; Gertrudes, Ana C; Dias Bacelar, Ana H; Correia, Cristina; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Radhouani, Hajer; Amandi Sousa, Rui; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Reis, Rui L

    2017-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large number of the population, and its incidence is showing a growing trend with the increasing life span. OA is the most prevalent joint condition worldwide, and currently, there is no functional cure for it. This review seeks to briefly overview the management of knee OA concerning standardized pharmaceutical and clinical approaches, as well as the new biotechnological horizons of OA treatment. The potential of biomaterials and state of the art of advanced therapeutic approaches, such as cell and gene therapy focused primarily on cartilage regeneration are the main subjects of this review. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 717-739. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Treatment Update and Current Trends.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Kuerer, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) traditionally has been managed through various combinations of surgery, radiation, and endocrine therapy. However, concern for under- or over-treatment of DCIS has led many surgeons to question historically standardized approaches and instead begin to tailor treatment based on individual prognostic indicators. Recent and ongoing clinical trials have investigated the potential for active surveillance in DCIS, the possibility of eliminating radiation therapy (RT), and ways in which adjuvant systemic therapy may be refined. This review will summarize the current trends in the treatment of DCIS, as well as highlight the most pertinent clinical trials that are shaping management today.

  10. Epidemiological and mortality trends in infective endocarditis, a 17-year population-based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chiavarelli, Mario; Scalese, Marco; Nencioni, Cesira; Valentini, Silvia; Guerrini, Francesco; D’Aiello, Incoronata; Picchi, Andrea; De Sensi, Francesco; Habib, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Background The population at risk, the clinical and microbiological features of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed. Aim of our study was to evaluate the contemporary epidemiological trends, over a 17-year period in a definite region of Tuscany, Italy, to analyze the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors. Methods From 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2014, all patients with a definite diagnosis of IE were prospectively entered in a data-base. The Health-Care system data-base was interrogated to capture patients who could have been missed. The final dataset derived by the merging of the two data-bases. Results Incidence rate of IE was 4.6/100,000/y with a significant linear incidence increase. In hospitalized patients the incidence was 1.27/1,000 admissions. Over age 65 incidence rate was 11.7/100,000/y. Male/female ratio was 1.54:1. A temporal trend towards an increase in the mean population age was found (P=0.033). There was an increase in the incidence of Health-care associated IE, P=0.016. The most common microorganisms were staphylococcus aureus (25%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (22%). In-hospital mortality was 24%. A trend towards an increase in mortality rate was found (P=0.055). Independent predictors of mortality were older age, S. aureus infection, heart failure, septic shock and persistent bacteremia. Conclusions Our study confirms an increasing mortality trend in IE, although with a borderline significance. Elderly forms are associated with poor prognosis and higher than 1-year mortality rate even in the multivariate analysis. Ageing population, increase in healthcare-associated and staphylococcal infections, may explain the rise of IE incidence and of the mortality trend. PMID:28164010

  11. Molecular marker systems in insects: current trends and future avenues.

    PubMed

    Behura, Susanta K

    2006-10-01

    Insects comprise the largest species composition in the entire animal kingdom and possess a vast undiscovered genetic diversity and gene pool that can be better explored using molecular marker techniques. Current trends of application of DNA marker techniques in diverse domains of insect ecological studies show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), expressed sequence tags (EST) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers have contributed significantly for progresses towards understanding genetic basis of insect diversity and for mapping medically and agriculturally important genes and quantitative trait loci in insect pests. Apart from these popular marker systems, other novel approaches including transposon display, sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (S-SAP), repeat-associated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers have been identified as alternate marker systems in insect studies. Besides, whole genome microarray and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays are becoming more popular to screen genome-wide polymorphisms in fast and cost effective manner. However, use of such methodologies has not gained widespread popularity in entomological studies. The current study highlights the recent trends of applications of molecular markers in insect studies and explores the technological advancements in molecular marker tools and modern high throughput genotyping methodologies that may be applied in entomological researches for better understanding of insect ecology at molecular level.

  12. Changing epidemiological trends of legionellosis in New Zealand, 1979-2009.

    PubMed

    Graham, F F; White, P S; Harte, D J G; Kingham, S P

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the spatio-temporal variation of Legionella spp. in New Zealand using notification and laboratory surveillance data from 1979 to 2009 and analysed the epidemiological trends. To achieve this we focused on changing incidence rates and occurrence of different species over this time. We also examined whether demographic characteristics such as ethnicity may be related to incidence. The annual incidence rate for laboratory-proven cases was 2·5/100,000 and 1·4/100,000 for notified cases. Incidence was highest in the European population and showed large geographical variations between 21 District Health Boards. An important finding of this study is that the predominant Legionella species causing disease in New Zealand differs from that found in other developed countries, with about 30-50% of cases due to L. longbeachae and a similar percentage due to L. pneumophila for any given year. The environmental risk exposure was identified in 420 (52%) cases, of which 58% were attributed to contact with compost; travel was much less significant as a risk factor (6·5%). This suggests that legionellosis has a distinctive epidemiological pattern in New Zealand.

  13. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  14. Current Epidemiological Assessment of Bancroftian Filariasis in Tanga Region, Northeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Vito; Misinzo, Gerald; Makunde, Williams H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tanzania started a countrywide lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in 2000 adopting the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. The drug used for the programme was the combination of ivermectin and albendazole. However, there is limited information on the current epidemiological trend of the infections, where MDA implementation is ongoing. The present study aimed at assessing the current status of Bancroftian filariasis infection rate and morbidity where MDA has been distributed and administered for over eight rounds. Methodology. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 272 individuals (>18 years) from endemic communities in Tanga region where MDA has been implemented. Clinical, sociodemographic, and circulating filarial antigen (CFA) test was undertaken using immune chromatographic card test according to the manufacturer's instructions. Results. A total of 472 individuals were screened: 307/472 (65.1%) were males while 165/472 (34.9%) were females. The overall prevalence of CFA was 5.51%, that of hydrocoele was 73.2%, and that of lymphoedema was 16.0%. The prevalence of hydrocoele combined with lymphoedema was 5.5%. Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate a considerable reduction in filarial infection. However, there is clear evidence of ongoing transmission despite the 8 rounds of MDA. It is unlikely that the annual MDA would interrupt filarial transmission; therefore, additional strategies are needed to accelerate lymphatic filariasis control and elimination. PMID:28050171

  15. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  16. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  17. Current trends in separation of plasmid DNA vaccines: a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Ashraf; Healey, Robert; Adly, Frady G

    2013-01-14

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines offer more rapid avenues for development and production if compared to those of conventional virus-based vaccines. They do not rely on time- or labour-intensive cell culture processes and allow greater flexibility in shipping and storage. Stimulating antibodies and cell-mediated components of the immune system are considered as some of the major advantages associated with the use of pDNA vaccines. This review summarizes the current trends in the purification of pDNA vaccines for practical and analytical applications. Special attention is paid to chromatographic techniques aimed at reducing the steps of final purification, post primary isolation and intermediate recovery, in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to reach a purified end product from the crude plasmid.

  18. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  19. Current trends in the packaging of photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1995-04-01

    Optoelectronic and photonic devices hold great promise for high data-rate communication and computing. Their wide implementation was limited first by the device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision packaging that is mass-produced. The use of photons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that are highly driven by the need for micron and even sub-micron alignments between photonic devices and their transmission media. Current trends in optoelectronic device packaging are reviewed and future directions are identified both for free-space (3-dimensional) and guided-wave (2-dimensional) photonics. Emphasis will be placed on the special needs generated by increasing levels of device integration.

  20. Current and Historic Trends in Physics and Related Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czujko, Roman

    2002-10-01

    This talk provides a statistical overview of the supply side in physics and related fields. Data on current and historic trends are presented in selected fields at both the bachelor' s and PhD levels. Several of the major factors driving enrollment patterns in higher education are discussed. This paper concludes with an examination of issues related to both supply and demand. The AIP Statistical Research Center has been collecting data on enrollments and degrees in physics for 40 years and they are the source for the physics data presented. The sources for the data on related fields are the National Science Foundation in the case of PhD data and the U.S. Department of Education for bachelor's level data. Finally, this paper includes data on the size of the bachelor's degree classes of 1999 and 2000. These data were not available when the talk was presented.

  1. Epidemiology of pertussis in Italy: disease trends over the last century.

    PubMed

    Gonfiantini, M V; Carloni, E; Gesualdo, F; Pandolfi, E; Agricola, E; Rizzuto, E; Iannazzo, S; Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Villani, A; Tozzi, A E

    2014-10-09

    We reviewed the epidemiology of pertussis in Italy over the last 125 years to identify disease trends and factors that could have influenced these trends. We described mortality rates (1888-2012), case fatality rates (1925-2012), cumulative incidence rates (1925-2013) and age-specific incidence rates (1974-2013). We compared data from routine surveillance with data from a paediatric sentinel surveillance system to estimate under-notification. Pertussis mortality decreased from 42.5 per 100,000 population in 1890 to no reported pertussis-related death after 2002. Incidence decreased from 86.3 per 100,000 in 1927 to 1 per 100,000 after 2008. Vaccine coverage increased from 32.8% in 1993 to about 96% after 2006. As for under-notification, mean sentinel/routine surveillance incidence ratio increased with age (from 1.8 in <1 year-olds to 12.9 in 10-14 year-olds). Pertussis mortality decreased before the introduction of immunisation. Incidence has decreased only after the introduction of pertussis vaccine and in particular after the achievement of a high immunisation coverage with acellular vaccines. Routine surveillance does not show an increase in cumulative incidence nor in ≥ 15 year-olds as reported by other countries. Underrecognition because of atypical presentation and the infrequent use of laboratory tests may be responsible for under-notification, and therefore affect incidence reports and management of immunisation programmes.

  2. Declining Rates of Fatal and Nonfatal Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Epidemiological Trends in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gattellari, Melina; Goumas, Chris; Worthington, John

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent systematic review of epidemiological studies reported intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) incidence and mortality as unchanged over time; however, comparisons between studies conducted in different health services obscure assessment of trends. We explored trends in ICH rates in a large, representative population in New South Wales, Australia's most populous state (≈7.3 million). Methods and Results Adult hospitalizations with a principal ICH diagnosis from 2001 to 2009 were linked to death registrations through to June 30, 2010. Trends for overall, fatal, and nonfatal ICH rates within 30 days and fatal rates for 30‐day survivors at 365 days were calculated. There were 11 332 ICH patient admissions meeting eligibility criteria, yielding a crude hospitalization rate of 25.2 per 100 000 (age‐standardized rate: 17.2). Age‐ and sex‐adjusted overall rates significantly declined by an average of 1.6% per year (P=0.03). Fatal ICH declined by an average of 2.6% per year (P=0.004). For 30‐day survivors, a nonsignificant decline of 2.3% per year in fatal ICH at 365 days was estimated (P=0.17). Male sex and birth in the Oceania region and Asia were associated with an increased ICH risk, although this depended on age. Approximately 12% of ICH admissions would be prevented if the socioeconomic circumstances of the population equated with those of the least disadvantaged. Conclusions Overall and fatal ICH rates have fallen in this large Australian population. Improvements in cardiovascular prevention and acute care may explain declining rates. There was no evidence of an increase in devastated survivors because the longer term mortality of 30‐day survivors has not increased over time. PMID:25488294

  3. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  4. Cold and Hot Extremozymes: Industrial Relevance and Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, Felipe; Peralta, Rocío; Blamey, Jenny M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of enzymes for industrial applications relies heavily on the use of microorganisms. The intrinsic properties of microbial enzymes, e.g., consistency, reproducibility, and high yields along with many others, have pushed their introduction into a wide range of products and industrial processes. Extremophilic microorganisms represent an underutilized and innovative source of novel enzymes. These microorganisms have developed unique mechanisms and molecular means to cope with extreme temperatures, acidic and basic pH, high salinity, high radiation, low water activity, and high metal concentrations among other environmental conditions. Extremophile-derived enzymes, or extremozymes, are able to catalyze chemical reactions under harsh conditions, like those found in industrial processes, which were previously not thought to be conducive for enzymatic activity. Due to their optimal activity and stability under extreme conditions, extremozymes offer new catalytic alternatives for current industrial applications. These extremozymes also represent the cornerstone for the development of environmentally friendly, efficient, and sustainable industrial technologies. Many advances in industrial biocatalysis have been achieved in recent years; however, the potential of biocatalysis through the use of extremozymes is far from being fully realized. In this article, the adaptations and significance of psychrophilic, thermophilic, and hyperthermophilic enzymes, and their applications in selected industrial markets will be reviewed. Also, the current challenges in the development and mass production of extremozymes as well as future prospects and trends for their biotechnological application will be discussed. PMID:26539430

  5. [Current epidemiological situation of bilharziasis in the Antananarivo plain].

    PubMed

    Ravaoalimalala, V E; Ramaniraka, V L; Rabarijaona, L P; Ravoniarimbinina, P; Migliani, R

    2002-01-01

    In 1994, prior to the Project of Development of the Plain of Antananarivo, an epidemiological survey was conducted in primary schools to assess the level of schistosomiasis. The results of stool examination by the Kato-Katz method demonstrated a prevalence of 4.3% among 6,169 randomized schoolchildren. The most infected four villages are located close the Mamba river. In 1999, after the realization of the project, another study had been done in the same Public Primary School to evaluate the evolution of schistosomiasis endemicity. 5,222 randomized pupils aged 5 to 16 years old took part in the study. The sex ratio was 1.4/1. The global prevalence was 1.8%. High prevalence are respectively notified in Antanandrano Primary school (23%) close to the Mamba river in the Northern part of the capitol and in Ambohitsoa Primary School (16.3%) located near the Mahazoarivo lac. Thus, between 1994 and 1999, a significant overall decrease in prevalence was observed (p < 10(-1)), although a few areas still have relatively high rates. Many factors may explain this improvement, including sanitary education, urbanization and a lack of conditions needed in the development of intermediate host. In addition, a high prevalence of ascaridiasis (79%) and trichocephalosis (67%) was observed. 4.3% of schoolchildren had been infected by Taenia sp. Schistosomiasis is hypoendemic in the plain of Antananarivo. The strategy against this disease must include an IEC programme, focusing in childhood exposure.

  6. Current Trends, Evaluation, and Management of Pediatric Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Joel D; Ellison, Jonathan S; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has been steadily increasing for the past several decades, with a concomitant concerning increase in health care costs and burden to children with this disease. Recent population-based studies have also demonstrated a change in the current trends of pediatric nephrolithiasis that is characterized by a significant increase in the number of girls now being affected. While changes in diet and lifestyle, obesity prevalence, and even imaging practices have been proposed to contribute to the recent increase in pediatric nephrolithiasis, a definite underlying cause remains elusive. This situation is complicated by the fact that, unlike in adults, the trends occurring in pediatric nephrolithiasis have not been studied rigorously, which contributes to the paucity of data in children. The level of concern with the increasing incidence is raised by factors unique to pediatric nephrolithiasis that could expose an affected child to more complications. Factors such as variable clinical presentation, high recurrence of kidney stones associated with abnormalities of metabolism and the urinary tract, and the possible presence of rare genetic kidney stone diseases would require physicians to comprehensively evaluate patients presenting with kidney stones. The goal of evaluation is to identify modifiable risk factors and abnormalities for which targeted therapy can be prescribed. The goals of medical and surgical treatments are to eliminate the burden of kidney stones and prevent recurrence while simultaneously minimizing complications from interventions. Patients at high risk may benefit from a specialized kidney stone clinic staffed by a pediatric nephrologist, urologist, dietitian, and clinical nurse. Such a multidisciplinary clinic can help provide the medical and surgical support needed for patients at high risk and offer key opportunities to learn more about pediatric nephrolithiasis, thereby fueling the much-needed research in this

  7. Trends in plant virus epidemiology: opportunities from new or improved technologies.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A C

    2014-06-24

    This review focuses on new or improved technologies currently being applied, or likely to be applied in the future, to worldwide research on plant virus epidemiology. Recent technological advances and innovations provide many opportunities to improve understanding of the way diverse types of plant virus epidemics develop and how to manage them. The review starts at the macro level by considering how recent innovations in remote sensing and precision agriculture can provide valuable information about (i) virus epidemics occurring at continental, regional or district scales (via satellites) and within individual crops (mostly via lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles), and (ii) exactly where to target control measures. It then considers recent improvements in information systems and innovations in modelling that improve (i) understanding of virus epidemics and ability to predict them, and (ii) delivery to end-users of critical advice on control measures, such as Internet-based Decision Support Systems. The review goes on to discuss how advances in analysis of spatiotemporal virus spread patterns within crops can help to enhance understanding of how virus epidemics develop and validate potentially useful virus control measures. At the micro level, the review then considers the many insights that advances in molecular epidemiology can provide about genetic variation within plant virus populations involved in epidemics, and how this variation drives what occurs at the macro level. Next, it describes how recent innovations in virus detection technologies are providing many opportunities to collect and analyse new types, and ever increasing amounts, of data about virus epidemics, and the genetic variability of the virus populations involved. Finally, the implications for plant virus epidemiology of technologies likely to be important in the future are considered. To address looming world food insecurity and threats to plant biodiversity resulting from climate change and

  8. Malaria Four-year Epidemiological Trends in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Norouzinezhad, Faezeh; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Raeisi, Ahmad; Norouzinejad, Abbas; Kaveh, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is one of the foremost public health concerns in Iran, where more than 90% of malaria cases are reported in the southern and south-eastern areas of the country. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological trends of malaria over a four-year period in in the Sistan and Baluchistan province in south east of Iran. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study examined malaria trends in Sistan and Baluchistan province from 2011 to 2014. The study used data collected in accordance with the Iranian Ministry of Health’s malaria control and elimination protocol. This protocol has digitized the data reporting system for malaria, and all information were sent online to the Center of Disease Control in the Ministry of Health. In this manner, information on malaria cases in Sistan and Baluchistan were made available for the researchers to analyze. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted using the SPSS version 13. Results Annual incidence rates reported in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 showed the prevalence of 89.9, 43.9, 38.3 and 36.6 (per 100,000 persons), respectively. Across all 4 years, the highest numbers of cases were found in persons 16–25 years old and among males. Most of the infected individuals were villagers and workers. In total, 64.8% of patients were Iranian and 29.5% were Pakistani. The highest number of cases was diagnosed in the cities of Sarbaz and Chabahar, with 1,742 and 1,707 cases, respectively. The results showed that over the last 4 years, 50.8% of cases have entered into Iran from foreign countries. The majority of cases involved parasites in the trophozoite stage of the life cycle. In terms of surveillance, passive care was reported in the majority of cases, and vivax malaria had the highest prevalence in comparison with other types. Conclusion The findings are showing that the care, control and treatment system applied to Sistan and Baluchistan province has had a positive effect on decreasing the

  9. The National Veteran Sleep Disorder Study: Descriptive Epidemiology and Secular Trends, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Melannie; Ray, Meredith A.; Hébert, James R.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Zhang, Hongmei; Steck, Susan E.; Bogan, Richard K.; Burch, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A large proportion of individuals affected by sleep disorders are untreated and susceptible to accidents, injuries, long-term sequelae (e.g., risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, psychiatric disorders), and increased mortality risk. Few studies have examined the scope and magnitude of sleep disorder diagnoses in the United States (US) or factors influencing them. Veterans are particularly vulnerable to factors that elicit or exacerbate sleep disorders. Methods: This serial cross-sectional study characterized secular trends in diagnosed sleep disorders among veterans seeking care in US Veterans Health Administration facilities over an eleven-year span (FY2000–2010, n = 9,786,778). Electronic medical records from the national Veterans Administration Informatics and Computing Infrastructure database were accessed. Cases were defined using diagnostic codes specified by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Age-adjusted annual prevalence was summarized by sex, race, combat exposure, body mass index, and comorbid diagnoses (cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental disorders). Results: Sleep apnea (47%) and insomnia (26%) were the most common diagnoses among patients with any sleep disorder. There was a six-fold relative increase in total sleep disorder prevalence over the study period. Posttraumatic stress disorder, which tripled over the same time period, was associated with the highest prevalence of sleep disorders (16%) among the comorbid conditions evaluated. Conclusions: The results indicate a growing need for integration of sleep disorder management with patient care and health care planning among US veterans. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1331. Citation: Alexander M, Ray MA, Hébert JR, Youngstedt SD, Zhang H, Steck SE, Bogan RK, Burch JB. The National Veteran Sleep Disorder Study: descriptive epidemiology and secular trends, 2000–2010. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1399–1410. PMID:27091538

  10. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  11. Security in health-care information systems--current trends.

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Eloff, J H

    1999-04-01

    Ever since health-care information systems have been implemented, their security is being considered an important issue, especially in the light of the fact that their data are deemed to comprise extremely sensitive information. The prospect of storing health information in electronic form raises concerns about patient privacy and data security. Any attempt to introduce computerised health-care information systems should, therefore, guarantee adequate protection of the confidentiality and integrity of patient information. At the same time, the patient information also needs to be readily available to all authorised health-care providers, in order to ensure the proper treatment of the patient. The principal aim of the present paper is, however, not to make a new contribution to the subject of security per se, but rather to give an overview of current trends in the security aspects of health-care information systems. The final section of the paper will be devoted to a number of proposals for further research possibilities in the domain of health-care information systems security.

  12. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

  13. Current trends and perspectives for automated screening of cardiac murmurs

    PubMed Central

    Marascio, Giuseppe; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Although in high income countries rheumatic heart disease is now rare, it remains a major burden in low and middle income countries. In these world areas, physicians and expert sonographers are rare, and screening campaigns are usually performed by nomadic caregivers who can only recognise patients in an advanced phase of heart failure with high economic and social costs. Therefore, great interest exists regarding the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost procedure for screening valvular heart disease. With the development of computer science, the cardiac sound signal can be analysed in an automatic way. More precisely, a panel of features characterising the acoustic signal are extracted and sent to a decision-making software able to provide the final diagnosis. Although no system is currently available in the market, the rapid evolution of these technologies recently led to the activation of clinical trials. The aim of this note is to review the state of advancement of this technology (trends in feature selection and automatic diagnostic strategies), data available regarding performance of the technology in the clinical setting and finally what obstacles still need to be overcome before automated systems can be clinically/commercially viable. PMID:27326133

  14. Current trends in inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Monowar; Jacob, Asha; Yang, Weng-Lang; Matsuda, Akihisa; Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis refers to severe systemic inflammation in response to invading pathogens. An overwhelming immune response, as mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators, can lead to shock, multiple organ damage, and even death. Cytokines, proteases, lipid mediators, gaseous substances, vasoactive peptides, and cell stress markers play key roles in sepsis pathophysiology. Various adhesion molecules and chemokines sequester and activate neutrophils into the target organs, further augmenting inflammation and tissue damage. Although the anti-inflammatory substances counterbalance proinflammatory mediators, prolonged immune modulation may cause host susceptibility to concurrent infections, thus reflecting enormous challenge toward developing effective clinical therapy against sepsis. To understand the complex interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory phenomenon in sepsis, there is still an unmet need to study newly characterized mediators. In addition, revealing the current trends of novel mediators will upgrade our understanding on their signal transduction, cross-talk, and synergistic and immunomodulating roles during sepsis. This review highlights the latest discoveries of the mediators in sepsis linking to innate and adaptive immune systems, which may lead to resolution of many unexplored queries. PMID:23136259

  15. Epidemiology in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Miranda, Jaime J; Figueroa, J Peter; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Munoz, Sergio; Kuri-Morales, P Pablo; Silva, Jarbas B

    2012-01-01

    Background This article analyses the epidemiological research developments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It integrates the series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association to all WHO Regions to identify global opportunities to promote the development of epidemiology. Methods Health situations of the regions were analysed based on published data on selected mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Epidemiological publication output by country was estimated by Medline bibliometrics. Internet and literature searches and data provided by key informants were used to describe perspectives on epidemiological training, research and funding. Findings Despite important advances in recent decades, LAC remains the world's most unequal region. In 2010, 10% of the LAC's people still lived in conditions of multidimensional poverty, with huge variation among countries. The region has experienced fast and complex epidemiological changes in past decades, combining increasing rates of non-communicable diseases and injuries, and keeping uncontrolled many existing endemic and emerging diseases. Overall, epidemiological publications per year increased from 160 articles between 1961 and 1970 to 2492 between 2001 and 2010. The increase in papers per million inhabitants in the past three decades varied from 57% in Panama to 1339% in Paraguay. Universities are the main epidemiological training providers. There are at least 34 universities and other institutions in the region that offer postgraduate programmes at the master’s and doctoral levels in epidemiology or public health. Most LAC countries rely largely on external funding and donors to initiate and sustain long-term research efforts. Despite the limited resources, the critical mass of LAC researchers has produced significant scientific contributions. Future needs The health research panorama of the region shows enormous regional discrepancies, but great prospects. Improving research and human resources

  16. Epidemiological Trends for HIV in Southern Africa: Implications for Reaching the Elimination Targets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brian G; Gouws, Eleanor; Somse, Pierre; Mmelesi, Mpho; Lwamba, Chibwe; Chikoko, Trouble; Fazito, Erika; Turay, Mohamed; Kiwango, Eva; Chikukwa, Pepukai; Damisoni, Henry; Gboun, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Southern Africa is the region worst affected by HIV in the world and accounts for one third of the global burden of HIV. Achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target by 2020 and ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 depend on success in this region. We review epidemiological trends in each country in southern Africa with respect to the prevalence, incidence, mortality, coverage of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and TB notification rates, to better understand progress in controlling HIV and TB and to determine what needs to be done to reach the UNAIDS targets. Significant progress has been made in controlling HIV. In all countries in the region, the prevalence of HIV in people not on ART, the incidence of HIV, AIDS-related mortality and, in most countries, TB notification rates, are falling. In some countries, the risk of infection began to fall before biomedical interventions such as ART became widely available as a result of effective prevention measures or people's awareness of, and response to, the epidemic but the reasons for these declines remain uncertain. Some countries have achieved better levels of ART coverage than others, but all are in a position to reach the 2020 and 2030 targets if they accelerate the roll-out of ART and of targeted prevention efforts. Achieving the HIV treatment targets will further reduce the incidence of HIV-related TB, but efforts to control TB in HIV-negative people must be improved and strengthened.

  17. Current and future trends in marine image annotation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes-Pereira, Jose Nuno; Auger, Vincent; Beisiegel, Kolja; Benjamin, Robert; Bergmann, Melanie; Bowden, David; Buhl-Mortensen, Pal; De Leo, Fabio C.; Dionísio, Gisela; Durden, Jennifer M.; Edwards, Luke; Friedman, Ariell; Greinert, Jens; Jacobsen-Stout, Nancy; Lerner, Steve; Leslie, Murray; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Sameoto, Jessica A.; Schoening, Timm; Schouten, Ronald; Seager, James; Singh, Hanumant; Soubigou, Olivier; Tojeira, Inês; van den Beld, Inge; Dias, Frederico; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2016-12-01

    . Integration into available MIAS is currently limited to semi-automated processes of pixel recognition through computer-vision modules that compile expert-based knowledge. Important topics aiding the choice of a specific software are outlined, the ideal software is discussed and future trends are presented.

  18. Dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus epidemiological shifts in Nepal: a case of opposing trends.

    PubMed

    Dumre, Shyam P; Shakya, Geeta; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Rudi Grams, Hans; Upreti, Senendra R; Ghimire, Prakash; KC, Khagendra; Nisalak, Ananda; Gibbons, Robert V; Fernandez, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We report on the changing epidemiology of two important flaviviruses in Nepal: Japanese encephalitis (JE) and dengue viruses. Morbidity and mortality in Nepal is in the thousands since JE was introduced in 1978. Nepal launched an extensive laboratory-based JE surveillance in 2004. Nepal experienced a remarkable reduction in disease burden after mass immunizations from 2005 to 2010, when 2,040 JE infections and 205 JE-related deaths were confirmed. With its emergence in 2006, dengue has become a significant challenge in the country, highlighted by a sudden outbreak in 2010 that resulted in 359 confirmed dengue infections. Currently, both viruses cocirculate in Nepal. Here, we document the remarkable expansion of dengue in Nepal, which urgently requires national surveillance to refine the burden and make recommendations regarding control and prevention programs. We believe that the use of existing JE surveillance network for integrated dengue surveillance may represent the most appropriate alternative.

  19. Curricular Implications of Current Scientific and Sociopolitical Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Melvin D.

    1994-01-01

    The author argues that any new curricular model for optometric education must be responsive to evolving scientific and societal trends and consistent with the long-term goals of the profession. Some of these trends are outlined, including advancing technology and related improvement in health care and health care reform. (MSE)

  20. Epidemiological Trends of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in China From 2007 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-chun; Zhang, Xian-xin; Zhao, Jiang-nan; Liu, Yao; Yu, Chun-bao; Yang, Guo-ru; Li, Huai-chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The emergence and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has become the major concern in global TB control nowadays due to its limited therapy options and high mortality. A comprehensive evaluation for the epidemiological trends of DR-TB in mainland China, of which TB incidences remain high, is essential but lacking. This study aimed to describe the trends of DR-TB overtime, especially multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); and to identify unique characteristics of MDR-TB cases compared with drug-susceptible TB cases in Mainland China. We retrospectively analyzed surveillance data collected from 36 TB prevention and control institutions in Shandong Province, China over an 8-year period. Unique characteristics of MDR-TB were identified; Chi-square test for trends and linear regression were used to assess the changes in proportions of different resistance patterns overtime. The overall MDR rate was 6.2% in our sample population. There were no statistically significant changes in the percentage of drug-susceptible, isoniazid (INH) resistance, ethambutol (EMB) resistance, streptomycin (SM) resistance, and MDR TB during our study period except that the overall rifampin (RFP) resistance and rifampin monoresistance (RMR) increased at a yearly rate of 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Among those with known treatment histories, a higher MDR rate of 8.7% was observed, in which 53.9% were primary MDR-TB patients, and this rate was increasing at a yearly rate of 4.1% over our study period. MDR-TB patients were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.34), aged 25 to 44 years (OR, 1.67; 95%CI, 1.45–1.93), retreated (OR, 11.95; 95%CI, 9.68–14.76), having prior TB contact (OR, 1.89; 95%CI, 1.19–2.78) and having cavity (OR, 1.57; 95%CI 1.36–1.81), or bilateral disease (OR, 1.45; 95%CI 1.19–1.76) on chest radiology. Persistent high levels of MDR-TB, increasing rates of primary MDR-TB and RMR characterize DR-TB cases in

  1. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  2. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  3. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  4. Positron computed tomography: current state, clinical results and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  5. CLA Booklist Part I. Current Trends in Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbery, Michael Gregory

    1970-01-01

    The article provides information about contemporary trends in philosophy to assist librarians in the selection of materials in this subject area. The annotated bibliography illustrates the theory of the essay. (Author/NH)

  6. The epidemiology of AIDS: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Curran, J W; Morgan, W M; Hardy, A M; Jaffe, H W; Darrow, W W; Dowdle, W R

    1985-09-27

    The reported incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues to increase in countries throughout the world. On the basis of a polynomial model for extrapolation, the cumulative number of cases diagnosed and reported since 1981 in the United States is expected to double during the next year with over 12,000 additional cases projected to be diagnosed by July 1986. The annual incidence rates for single (never-married) men in Manhattan and San Francisco, intravenous drug users in New York City and New Jersey, and persons with hemophilia A ranged from 261 to 350 per 100,000 population during 1984. For single men aged 25 to 44 years in Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS was the leading cause of premature mortality in 1984 as measured by years of potential life lost. Infection with HTLV-III/LAV is considerably more common than reported AIDS in high-risk populations and can persist at least for several years, so the presence of specific antibody should be considered presumptive evidence of current infection. The screening of donated blood and plasma for antibody to HTLV-III/LAV and use of safer clotting factor concentrates should greatly reduce HTLV-III/LAV transmission through blood and blood products. Most HTLV-III/LAV infections occur through sexual transmission, use of contaminated needles, and as a result of infected mothers passing the virus to newborns. Continued research commitment is needed to develop an HTLV-III/LAV vaccine and therapy for this infection. In the interim, widespread community efforts are needed to minimize transmission.

  7. Hospital-Acquired Infections: Current Trends and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Boev, Christine; Kiss, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are the primary cause of preventable death and disability among hospitalized patients. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), complications or infections secondary to either device implantation or surgery are referred to as HAIs. Specifically, the CDC monitors surgical site infections, central-line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and ventilator-associated pneumonias. This article explores HAIs specific to pathophysiology, epidemiology, and prevention, and how nurses can work together with other health care providers to decrease the incidence of these preventable complications.

  8. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  9. Hispanic Superintendents in Illinois: Current Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The trends and challenges faced by Hispanic superintendents in Illinois are stated and analyzed throughout the study in both literature and practice. The examined items centered on the issues of hiring experiences and other barriers associated with the acquisition and longevity of the superintendency in Illinois. Data for the study were collected…

  10. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  11. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  12. Current Trends in Children's Literature. (2) The United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia

    1973-01-01

    Three major trends in the writing/publishing of children's literature in the United States are discussed: selection and criticism of books by librarians and editors, increased use of paperback and picture books, and a focus on children's literature as part of the mainstream of literature. (Author/SJ)

  13. Current Trends in Marriage and Divorce among American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Arthur J.; Moorman, Jeanne E.

    1987-01-01

    Examined recent trends and future prospects regarding marriage and divorce patterns among women in the United States. Results suggest that first marriage takes place later, more adult women will never marry, divorce has likely peaked, remarriage after divorce is declining, and women representing first 10 years of the baby boom are expected to have…

  14. Assessment and E-Learning: Current Issues and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Neil; Sakui, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes different ways in which digital technology can be used for language learning. It then identifies some key trends connecting assessment and technology in language learning and higher education: the use of automated systems to enhance traditional assessment practices; the use of Web 2.0 tools to facilitate new assessment…

  15. Planned Change in Education: Current Trends of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Eddy J.; Scollay, Susan J.

    1985-01-01

    Four trends within planned change literature are identified: the increased use of the concept of limited rationality; a better understanding of the implementation process; more exploration of issues dealing with evaluation; and the development of new models for understanding planned change. (MD)

  16. Risk Analysis Training within the Army: Current Status, Future Trends,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    risk analysis . Since risk analysis training in the Army is...become involved in risk analysis training. He reviews all risk analysis -related training done in any course at the Center. Also provided is information...expected to use the training. Then the future trend in risk analysis training is presented. New course, course changes and hardware/software changes that will make risk analysis more palatable are

  17. Trends and variations in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Kuwait 1987-2013.

    PubMed

    Husain, Entesar H; Barakat, Mohammad; Al-Saleh, Mosaab

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine and conjugate pneumococcal vaccine into routine childhood vaccination in Kuwait has resulted in the emergence of Neisseria meningitidis as the leading cause of invasive bacterial infection in children. Currently, a quadrivalent ACYW-135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is administered as part of routine childhood vaccination in Kuwait at the age of 2 years. Conjugate meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be more effective in preventing meningococcal infection in young children. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of meningococcal disease (MD) in Kuwait and evaluate the need for conjugate vaccine in routine childhood immunization. We have reviewed the MD surveillance data from the communicable disease unit, Ministry of Health, Kuwait during the period from 1987 to 2013. The analysis included microbiologically confirmed cases of N. meningitidis in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. There were 293 cases of confirmed MD during the study period. Two hundred and four cases (70%) were in children ≤ 14 years of age. The mean incidence rate was 0.5/100,000 persons. The dominant serogroups were W-135 and B, accounting for 80 cases (32%) each. Serogroup B accounted for 69/204 (34%) of all cases in children ≤ 14 years and serogroup A accounted for 36/89 40% of all adult cases. There were three outbreaks: 1987 (caused by serogroup A), 1989 (caused by serogroup W-135) and 2002 (caused by serogroup B). The mean case fatality rate was 13.5%. In conclusion, despite childhood routine vaccination with ACYW-135 polysaccharide vaccine, infants and young children remain at high risk for MD, which supports the introduction of conjugate meningococcal vaccine to the routine childhood vaccination schedule.

  18. Molecular typing of Sarcocystis neurona: current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2007-10-21

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important protozoal pathogen because it causes the serious neurological disease equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The capacity of this organism to cause a wide spectrum of neurological signs in horses and the broad geographic distribution of observed cases in the Americas drive the need for sensitive, reliable and rapid typing methods to characterize strains. Various molecular methods have been developed and used to diagnose EPM due to S. neurona, to identify S. neurona isolates and to determine the heterogeneity and evolutionary relatedness within this species and related Sarcocystis spp. These methods included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA), slide agglutination test (SAT), SnSAG-specific ELISA, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, and sequence analysis of surface protein genes, ribosomal genes, microsatellite alleles and other molecular markers. Here, the utility of these molecular methods is reviewed and evaluated with respect to the need for molecular approaches that utilize well-characterized polymorphic, simple, independent, and stable genetic markers. These tools have the potential to add to knowledge of the genetic population structure of S. neurona and to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of EPM and S. neurona epidemiology. In particular, these methods provide new tools to address the hypothesis that particular genetic variants are associated with adverse clinical outcomes (severe pathotypes). The ultimate goal is to utilize them in future studies to improve treatment and prevention strategies.

  19. Current Trends in the Management of Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Adesoye, Taiwo; Neuman, Heather B; Wilke, Lee G; Schumacher, Jessica R; Steiman, Jennifer; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend wide excision without axillary staging to treat phyllodes tumors of the breast. Without prospective trials to guide management, NCCN also recommends consideration of radiation therapy (XRT). We describe current patterns of care for the multidisciplinary management of phyllodes tumors. Methods Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data, we identified women diagnosed with phyllodes tumors between 2000 and 2012 who underwent surgical therapy. Trends in breast conserving surgery (BCS), nodal sampling and XRT were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment. Results Of 1,238 patients, 56.9% underwent BCS and 23.6% underwent nodal sampling (10.5% after BCS vs 40.9% after mastectomy). After surgery, 15.4% received adjuvant XRT (BCS, 12.9% and mastectomy, 18.8%). XRT utilization increased significantly over the study period (BCS, p=<0.0001; mastectomy, p=0.0003) while nodal sampling did not change significantly. Women were more likely to receive mastectomy if they were older or had larger tumors. Nodal sampling was also associated with older age, larger tumor size and receipt of mastectomy. Receipt of XRT was associated with later year of diagnosis, larger tumors and nodal assessment. Conclusion Over time, an increasing number of women received XRT after surgical management of phyllodes tumor, and one in four women underwent nodal sampling. While some of this practice can be attributed to concern about more advanced disease in the absence of strong data, there may be an educational gap regarding current guidelines and appropriate management. PMID:27334214

  20. Microplastics in the marine environment: Current trends and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Gimenez, Barbara Carolina Garcia

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade, the presence of microplastics on marine environments has become an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many researches. Thus, to provide a more integrated view of the research trends regarding this topic, we use a scientometric approach to systematically assess and quantify advances in knowledge related to microplastics in the marine environment. The papers that we used for our assessment were obtained from the database Thomson Reuters (ISI Web of Science), between 2004 and 2014. Our results reveal the overall research performance in the study area of microplastics present in the marine environment over the past decade as a newly developed research field. It has been recognized that there are several important issues that should be investigated. Toward that end, based on the suggested directions on all papers reviewed, we point out areas/topics of interest that may guide future work in the coming years.

  1. Current trends in the clinical development of peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Pauline M; Zhang, Bodi D; Reichert, Janice M

    2009-12-01

    The development of peptides as drugs is attracting increasing attention from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest is at least partially a consequence of the widespread acceptance of therapeutic proteins by physicians and patients, and because of improvements to problems such as a short half-life and delivery issues. The markets for peptide-based compounds can be substantial, with six peptide drugs attaining global sales of more than US $750 million in 2008. To track trends in the clinical development and marketing approval of peptides, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development and Ferring Research Institute compiled publically available data for peptides that entered clinical trials sponsored by commercial firms, with a focus on peptide therapeutics, but also including peptide vaccines and diagnostics. The results provide an historical overview of the development of peptide therapeutics, and may inform strategic planning in this area.

  2. Divorce and Health: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Social relationships play a vital role in health and wellbeing, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce and health outcomes. METHODS Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the paper integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. RESULTS The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10–15%) struggle quite substantially, and it appears that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques are discussed that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation. CONCLUSIONS To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: (a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes; (b) better studies of objective social behavior following separation; and, (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high risk adults. PMID:25829240

  3. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Brazil (2000–2010): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Glória; Siqueira,, João Bosco; Ferreira, Germano L. C.; Bricks, Lucia; Joint, Graham

    2013-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil reported between 2000 and 2010. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42011001826: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42011001826). Between 31 July and 4 August 2011, the published literature was searched for epidemiological studies of dengue disease, using specific search strategies for each electronic database. A total of 714 relevant citations were identified, 51 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil, in this period, was characterized by increases in the geographical spread and incidence of reported cases. The overall increase in dengue disease was accompanied by a rise in the proportion of severe cases. The epidemiological pattern of dengue disease in Brazil is complex and the changes observed during this review period are likely to have been influenced by multiple factors. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Brazil were identified that provide avenues for future research, in particular, studies of regional differences, genotype evolution, and age-stratified seroprevalence. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001826. PMID:24386496

  4. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Colombia (2000-2011): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Luis Angel; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Besada-Lombana, Sandra; Sarti, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia. Searches of published literature in epidemiological studies of dengue disease encompassing the terms “dengue”, “epidemiology,” and “Colombia” were conducted. Studies in English or Spanish published between 1 January 2000 and 23 February 2012 were included. The searches identified 225 relevant citations, 30 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia was characterized by a stable “baseline” annual number of dengue fever cases, with major outbreaks in 2001–2003 and 2010. The geographical spread of dengue disease cases showed a steady increase, with most of the country affected by the 2010 outbreak. The majority of dengue disease recorded during the review period was among those <15 years of age. Gaps identified in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Colombia may provide several avenues for future research, namely studies of asymptomatic dengue virus infection, primary versus secondary infections, and under-reporting of the disease. Improved understanding of the factors that determine disease expression and enable improvement in disease control and management is also important. PMID:25790245

  5. Epidemiological trends of dengue disease in Colombia (2000-2011): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Villar, Luis Angel; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Besada-Lombana, Sandra; Sarti, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia. Searches of published literature in epidemiological studies of dengue disease encompassing the terms "dengue", "epidemiology," and "Colombia" were conducted. Studies in English or Spanish published between 1 January 2000 and 23 February 2012 were included. The searches identified 225 relevant citations, 30 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Colombia was characterized by a stable "baseline" annual number of dengue fever cases, with major outbreaks in 2001-2003 and 2010. The geographical spread of dengue disease cases showed a steady increase, with most of the country affected by the 2010 outbreak. The majority of dengue disease recorded during the review period was among those <15 years of age. Gaps identified in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Colombia may provide several avenues for future research, namely studies of asymptomatic dengue virus infection, primary versus secondary infections, and under-reporting of the disease. Improved understanding of the factors that determine disease expression and enable improvement in disease control and management is also important.

  6. Personalization and Patient Involvement in Decision Support Systems: Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, L.; Lanzola, G.; Viani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This survey aims at highlighting the latest trends (2012-2014) on the development, use, and evaluation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based decision support systems (DSSs) in medicine, with a particular focus on patient-centered and personalized care. Methods We considered papers published on scientific journals, by querying PubMed and Web of Science™. Included studies focused on the implementation or evaluation of ICT-based tools used in clinical practice. A separate search was performed on computerized physician order entry systems (CPOEs), since they are increasingly embedding patient-tailored decision support. Results We found 73 papers on DSSs (53 on specific ICT tools) and 72 papers on CPOEs. Although decision support through the delivery of recommendations is frequent (28/53 papers), our review highlighted also DSSs only based on efficient information presentation (25/53). Patient participation in making decisions is still limited (9/53), and mostly focused on risk communication. The most represented medical area is cancer (12%). Policy makers are beginning to be included among stakeholders (6/73), but integration with hospital information systems is still low. Concerning knowledge representation/management issues, we identified a trend towards building inference engines on top of standard data models. Most of the tools (57%) underwent a formal assessment study, even if half of them aimed at evaluating usability and not effectiveness. Conclusions Overall, we have noticed interesting evolutions of medical DSSs to improve communication with the patient, consider the economic and organizational impact, and use standard models for knowledge representation. However, systems focusing on patient-centered care still do not seem to be available at large. PMID:26293857

  7. UNICOMPARTMENTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: CURRENT PERSPECTIVES AND TRENDS IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Júnior, João Alberto Yazigi; Angelini, Felipe Bertelli; Ferlin, Fernando; Hernandes, Andrea Canizares; Astur, Diego da Costa; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons for treating osteoarthrosis by means of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and high tibial osteotomy of the knee. Methods: A questionnaire with 14 closed questions was developed and applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 43rd Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Results: A total of 113 surgeons filled out the questionnaire completely and became part of the sample analyzed. In this study, the majority of the surgeons performed fewer than five unicompartmental knee arthroplasty procedures/year (61.1%) and between 5 and 15 high tibial osteotomy procedures/year (37.2%). Use of computerized navigation systems during surgery remains uncommon in our environment, since only 0.9% of the specialists were using it. 65.5% of the surgeons reported that they had chosen to use total knee arthroplasty rather than partial arthroplasty due to lack of familiarity with the surgical technique. When asked about the possibility that the number of unicompartmental prostheses used in Brazil would grow as surgeons in this country become increasingly familiar with the technique, 80.5% of the respondents believed in this hypothesis. In this sample, we found that the greater the surgeon's experience was, the greater the numbers of unicompartmental prostheses and tibial osteotomies performed annually were (r = 0.550 and r = 0.465, respectively; p < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a clear evolutional trend towards treatment of unicompartmental osteoarthritis using partial knee arthroplasty in Brazil. However, further prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefits of these trends. PMID:27047891

  8. Trends in epidemiology in the 21st century: time to adopt Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Achcar, Jorge Alberto

    2014-04-01

    2013 marked the 250th anniversary of the presentation of Bayes' theorem by the philosopher Richard Price. Thomas Bayes was a figure little known in his own time, but in the 20th century the theorem that bears his name became widely used in many fields of research. The Bayes theorem is the basis of the so-called Bayesian methods, an approach to statistical inference that allows studies to incorporate prior knowledge about relevant data characteristics into statistical analysis. Nowadays, Bayesian methods are widely used in many different areas such as astronomy, economics, marketing, genetics, bioinformatics and social sciences. This study observed that a number of authors discussed recent advances in techniques and the advantages of Bayesian methods for the analysis of epidemiological data. This article presents an overview of Bayesian methods, their application to epidemiological research and the main areas of epidemiology which should benefit from the use of Bayesian methods in coming years.

  9. Professional Development for Teachers: Current Trends and Future Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Gayle

    Creating an effective and efficient program for continuing education and staff development among elementary and secondary teachers has become an important issue. Unfortunately, problems inherent to the current system have sabotaged the best of these individual efforts, leaving little in the way of productivity to show for the efforts that have…

  10. The International Curriculum: Current Trends and Emerging Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Jesse Jones

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of tertiary level international curricula and provides groundwork for future research aimed at ongoing needs. Recognized is the premise that existing international curricular programs require maintenance. Burn (1995) called for curriculum reform in international departments two decades ago with the rationale…

  11. Current Trends in Distance Education: An Administrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compora, Daniel P.

    2003-01-01

    Current practices and procedures of distance education programs at selected institutions in higher education in Ohio were studied. Relevant data was found in the areas of: (1) content of the distance education program's mission statement; (2) needs assessment procedures; (3) student demographics; (4) course acquisition, development, and evaluation…

  12. Trends in Current Issues, Y2K-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltz, Leslie; DeBlois, Peter B.

    2005-01-01

    EDUCAUSE inaugurated its annual Current Issues Survey in 2000 by asking the primary representatives, typically CIOs, of its member institutions to identify up to three critical IT issues (five starting in 2004) from among 30 to 40 in response to each of four questions. The survey response rate has typically been 35 to 40 percent, with a…

  13. Current and Future Trends in Adult Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Mary Jane

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews and discusses results of current adult education research in the areas of cognitive styles, learning strategies, adult learning, hemispheres of the brain, adult development stages, open learning systems, nontraditional forms of learning, social action, nature of adult participation, and other concepts. (MF)

  14. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  15. Personal Trainer Demographics, Current Practice Trends and Common Trainee Injuries.

    PubMed

    Waryasz, Gregory R; Daniels, Alan H; Gil, Joseph A; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P

    2016-09-19

    Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor's degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor's degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.

  16. Personal Trainer Demographics, Current Practice Trends and Common Trainee Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219

  17. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented. PMID:28245551

  18. Emerging trends in the epidemiology of invasive mycoses in England and Wales (1990-9).

    PubMed

    Lamagni, T L; Evans, B G; Shigematsu, M; Johnson, E M

    2001-06-01

    Invasive fungal infections are becoming an increasing public health problem owing to the growth in numbers of susceptible individuals. Despite this, the profile of mycoses remains low and there is no surveillance system specific to fungal infections currently existing in England and Wales. We analysed laboratory reports of deep-seated mycoses made to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre between 1990 and 1999 from England and Wales. A substantial rise in candidosis was seen during this period (6.76-13.70 reports per million population/year), particularly in the older age groups. Rates of cryptococcosis in males fluctuated over the decade but fell overall (1.05-0.66 per million population/year), whereas rates of female cases gradually rose up until 1998 (0.04-0.41 per million population/year). Reports of Pneumocystis carinii in men reduced substantially between 1990 and 1999 (2.77-0.42 per million population/year) but showed little change in women. Reports of aspergillosis fluctuated up until 1996, after which reports of male and female cases rose substantially (from 0.08 for both in 1996 to 1.92 and 1.69 per million population/year in 1999 for males and females respectively), largely accounted for by changes in reporting practice from one laboratory. Rates of invasive mycoses were generally higher in males than females, with overall male-to-female rate ratios of 1.32 (95% CI 1.25-1.40) for candidosis, 1.30 (95% CI 1.05-1.60) for aspergillosis, 3.99 (95% CI 2.93-5.53) for cryptococcosis and 4.36 (95% CI 3.47-5.53) for Pneumocystis carinii. The higher male than female rates of reports is likely to be a partial reflection of HIV epidemiology in England and Wales, although this does not fully explain the ratio in infants and older age groups. Lack of information on underlying predisposition prevents further identification of risk groups affected. Whilst substantial under-reporting of Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptococcus species was apparent, considerable

  19. Carbon Nanotubes Exposure Risk Assessment: From Toxicology to Epidemiologic Studies (Overview of the Current Problem)

    PubMed Central

    Fatkhutdinova, L. M.; Khaliullin, T. O.; Shvedova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale size and fiber like structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may determine high reactivity and penetration, as well as the pathogenicity of asbestos and other mineral fibers. Despite many in vitro and in vivo studies, the absence of full-scale data on CNT effects on human health clearly point out the necessity for epidemiological studies. Currently, several projects are initiated worldwide on studying health risks associated with the inhalation of industrial CNTs, including NIOSH-promoted research (United States), the European CANTES study, and the Russian CNT-ERA project. Studies comprising several successive steps, such as CNT exposure assessment in occupational settings, toxicological evaluation, and epidemiological observations, are critical for determining material safety and use criteria. PMID:26457172

  20. Current and future trends of Volcanology in Italy and abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, P.

    2010-12-01

    light by the numerical studies, and the need of communicating in a formal and structured way the uncertain nature of volcanic predictions to emergency management authorities. Projections to year 2020 suggest a progressive relevance of structured volcano databases, that will provide large-scale sharing of basic knowledge and data for statistical analyses as for epidemiological databases in medicine; full coverage of the frequency range of geophysical and geochemical signals at active volcanoes, today not yet fully achieved; the development of standard volcano models and of global volcano simulator resources and tools, allowing separate sets of observations to be organized in a consistent global picture of the volcano dynamics; the further development of methods for the evaluation of probabilistic scenarios and their organization in event tree systems and hazard forecasting tools; the creation of large-scale volcano infrastructures for sharing of laboratory and computational resources; and the definition of international best practices for volcanic hazard and risk evaluation and for emergency preparedness and response activities. Recent initiatives in Italy and Europe (e.g., EPOS, DIVO, INGV-DPC, Exploris, and others) are developing largely along those lines, providing a view of the expected progresses in volcanology in the next decade.

  1. Current trends in safety testing and toxicological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbinden, G.

    1982-06-01

    The paper reviews current concepts of toxicological evaluation of new drugs and other chemicals. Instead of completing a predetermined check-list toxicologists now consider the potential adverse effects of the substances under actual conditions of use. They then design experimental models which have a high probability to predict the toxic effects. Moreover, the enhanced susceptibilities of special risk populations is more and more taken into consideration.

  2. Current Trends in Treatment of Kienböck Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kolovich, Gregory P.; Kalu, Chidimma M. K.; Ruff, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cause and treatment of Kienböck disease is controversial. No treatment algorithm has been accepted. We surveyed US hand surgeons to determine trends and attitudes regarding the treatment of Kienböck disease. Methods: An online questionnaire was created focusing on specific treatments of Kienböck disease. The survey included 6 questions regarding the cause of disease, preferred vascularized bone grafting (VBG) procedure, and treatment of stages I, II, IIIA, and IIIB. Respondents were also asked to specify their geographic location of practice and the approximate number of years in practice. Results: A total of 338 of the 2781 surgeons contacted completed the survey for a response rate of rate of 12%. The majority of respondents believe ulnar-negative variance alone contributes to the development of Kienböck disease. For treatment of a young ulnar-neutral male with stage I disease who had failed immobilization and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, most hand surgeons chose distal radius core decompression. There was no preferred treatment among respondents for treatment of a young ulnar-neutral female with stage II disease. For treatment of a 40-year-old ulnar-negative male with stage IIIA disease, most hand surgeons chose a radial shortening osteotomy. The preferred treatment among respondents for treatment of stage IIIB disease is a proximal row carpectomy. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that most hand surgeons believe ulnar-negative variance largely contributes to Kienböck disease and the most commonly preferred VBG technique utilizes the fourth and fifth extensor compartment arteries. PMID:27418900

  3. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  4. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  5. Temporal trends of leprosy in a Brazilian state capital in Northeast Brazil: epidemiology and analysis by joinpoints, 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Brito, Aline Lima; Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize epidemiological and temporal trends of leprosy in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012. A total of 9,658 new cases were reported. Their temporal trend was analyzed by the jointpoint regression model. The overall detection rate showed a declining trend, with annual percent change (APC) of -4.0 and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) -5.6 - -2.3. The detection rate in children under 15 years of age (APC = -1.4; 95%CI -5.4 - 2.8) and the detection rate of disability grade 2 (APC = -0.8; 95%CI -4.5 - 3.1) were stable. The proportion of female patients was descending (APC = -1,5; 95%CI -2.3 - -0.8). The proportion of multibacillary cases from 2005 to 2012 (APC = 1.4; 95%CI 0.6 - 2.3) and among them, lepromatous cases from 2004 to 2012 (APC = 6.0; 95%CI 3.4 - 8.6) were increasing. There was stability in the proportion of cases with grade 1 (APC = 1.4; 95%CI -0.9 - 3.7) and grade 2 disability (APC = 3.7; 95%CI -0.1 - 7.8). Despite the trend towards a reduction in detection, the disease transmission persists in the city. The data also suggest late diagnosis.

  6. Current trends in state child labor legislation and enforcement.

    PubMed

    Beyer, D

    1993-09-01

    There is much current child labor law activity, none of it reflecting concern with occupational health hazards. The focus of the legislation is on time for and dedication to education as youth's foremost priority. The only areas of state legislative change that could affect children's health and safety in the workplace are a general movement toward monetarily increasing fines and penalties and some minor inclusions of agricultural restrictions on young workers. Enforcement efforts are in all cases a primary indication of state commitment to child labor law protections, and these efforts are decreasing.

  7. Current trends in the use of liposomes for tumor targeting

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Pranali P; Biswas, Swati; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-01-01

    The use of liposomes for drug delivery began early in the history of pharmaceutical nanocarriers. These nanosized, lipid bilayered vesicles have become popular as drug delivery systems owing to their efficiency, biocompatibility, nonimmunogenicity, enhanced solubility of chemotherapeutic agents and their ability to encapsulate a wide array of drugs. Passive and ligand-mediated active targeting promote tumor specificity with diminished adverse off-target effects. The current field of liposomes focuses on both clinical and diagnostic applications. Recent efforts have concentrated on the development of multifunctional liposomes that target cells and cellular organelles with a single delivery system. This review discusses the recent advances in liposome research in tumor targeting. PMID:23914966

  8. Spinal cord injuries sustained in road crashes are not on the decrease in france: a study based on epidemiological trends.

    PubMed

    Lieutaud, Thomas; Ndiaye, Amina; Laumon, Bernard; Chiron, Mireille

    2012-02-10

    Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI) are rare but extremely costly. In order to improve the modelling of inclusion criteria for studies of SCI it is necessary to determine what epidemiological trends affect SCI. Using the Rhone Registry, which contains all the casualties resulting from road crashes in the Rhône département of France and codes their injuries using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), we describe the epidemiological trends that affect spinal cord injury (SCI), major spinal trauma (MST) and severe injuries (AIS4+) to other body regions between two periods 1996-2001 and 2003-2008. Although there has been a marked decrease (35%) in the incidence of casualties after a road traffic crash, and reductions of 22% in the incidence of MST and 33% in that of severe injuries (AIS4+) (p<0.001), for SCI the incidence rate and number of casualties have remained surprisingly stable. In the second period, there was no change in the incidence of SCI resulting from road traffic crashes, nor in the associated fatality, mortality and survival rates. The incidence for car users was significantly lower in the second period. This contrasts with the incidences for motorcyclists and for the group including pedestrians and cyclists which were respectively 47% and 77% higher in the second period. The median age of the casualties, the age-adjusted incidence of SCI and the number of associated injuries were also higher in the second period. We have observed a marked reduction in the incidence of road trauma including the most severe injuries, but not SCI. The higher proportion of motorcyclists, the increase in the age of casualties and the greater presence of multiple injuries are new factors in the epidemiology of SCI after a road crash.

  9. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  10. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  11. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989-2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48-3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups.

  12. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989–2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48–3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups. PMID:27258369

  13. Recent Epidemiological Trends of Dengue in the French Territories of the Americas (2000–2012): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Taurel, Anne-Frieda; Flamand, Claude; Quénel, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a public health concern across the globe, and an escalating problem in the Americas. As part of a wider programme (covering Latin America and South East Asia) to characterize the epidemiology of dengue in dengue endemic areas, we undertook a systematic literature review to assess epidemiological trends (incidence, timing and duration of outbreaks/epidemics, age and sex distribution, serotype distribution, seroprevalence and disease severity) for dengue across the French Territories of the Americas (FTA), in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy between 2000 and 2012 (CRD42012002341: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002341). Of 413 relevant data sources identified, 45 were eligible for inclusion. A large proportion of the available data were from national surveillance reports, and 12 publications were from peer-reviewed journals. During the review period, 3–5 epidemics were identified in each of the island territories and French Guiana, and epidemics were often associated with a shift in the predominant circulating dengue virus serotype. Substantial gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified. In particular, information regarding dengue virus genotype distribution, seroprevalence and age distribution of dengue were lacking. Additionally, much of the available data were from epidemic years; data from inter-epidemic periods were sparse. Nevertheless, the available epidemiological data showed that dengue is endemic across the FTA and suggest an evolution towards hyperendemicity, highlighting the need to continue the efforts with the existing surveillance programmes to assist in planning an effective vaccination programme once a dengue vaccine is deployed. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002341 PMID:25375627

  14. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, Mayank; Ravidá, Alessandra; Holthofer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications. PMID:24455685

  15. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    PubMed

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations.

  16. Pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer's disease: current and future trends.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Darvesh, Altaf S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its related dementia has shown an alarming rise in the global population. Although considerable efforts have been made to develop effective therapeutic agents for AD therapy, drug development has not met significant clinical success. Current pharmacotherapy of AD is limited to cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine. Considerable research is underway to develop newer agents for the management of AD. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) has been implicated in AD pathogenesis, the use of β secretase inhibitors as well as immunotherapy against Aβ has been investigated. A considerable effort has been spent investigating the therapeutic potential of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, several of natural products and dietary origin, in AD treatment. Numerous drug targets have also been investigated for AD treatment and a modest drug pipeline is available. Despite these efforts, drug development for AD has proved extremely difficult and most clinical trials have afforded disappointing results.

  17. Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi

    2007-01-01

    The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.

  18. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry.

  19. Industrial Large Scale Applications of Superconductivity -- Current and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amm, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    Since the initial development of NbTi and Nb3Sn superconducting wires in the early 1960's, superconductivity has developed a broad range of industrial applications in research, medicine and energy. Superconductivity has been used extensively in NMR low field and high field spectrometers and MRI systems, and has been demonstrated in many power applications, including power cables, transformers, fault current limiters, and motors and generators. To date, the most commercially successful application for superconductivity has been the high field magnets required for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with a global market well in excess of 4 billion excluding the service industry. The unique ability of superconductors to carry large currents with no losses enabled high field MRI and its unique clinical capabilities in imaging soft tissue. The rapid adoption of high field MRI with superconducting magnets was because superconductivity was a key enabler for high field magnets with their high field uniformity and image quality. With over 30 years of developing MRI systems and applications, MRI has become a robust clinical tool that is ever expanding into new and developing markets. Continued innovation in system design is continuing to address these market needs. One of the key questions that innovators in industrial superconducting magnet design must consider today is what application of superconductivity may lead to a market on the scale of MRI? What are the key considerations for where superconductivity can provide a unique solution as it did in the case of MRI? Many companies in the superconducting industry today are investigating possible technologies that may be the next large market like MRI.

  20. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Durran, Alexandra C.; Watts, Christopher

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with {approx}60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  1. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Thailand (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Brett, Jeremy; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Thailand reported between 2000 and 2011. The literature search identified 610 relevant sources, 40 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. Peaks in the number of cases occurred during the review period in 2001, 2002, 2008 and 2010. A shift in age group predominance towards older ages continued through the review period. Disease incidence and deaths remained highest in children aged ≤15 years and case fatality rates were highest in young children. Heterogeneous geographical patterns were observed with higher incidence rates reported in the Southern region and serotype distribution varied in time and place. Gaps identified in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Thailand provide several avenues for future research, in particular studies of seroprevalence. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002170 PMID:25375766

  2. Active debris removal: Recent progress and current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnal, Christophe; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Desjean, Marie-Christine

    2013-04-01

    According to all available findings at international level, the Kessler syndrome, increase of the number of space debris in Low Earth Orbits due to mutual collisions, appears now to be a fact, triggered mainly by several major break-ups in orbit which occurred since 2007. The time may have come to study how to clean this fundamentally useful orbital region in an active way. CNES has studied potential solutions for more than 12 years! The paper aims at reviewing the current status of these activities. The high level requirements are fundamental, and have to be properly justified. The working basis, as confirmed through IADC studies consists in the removal of 5-10 integer objects from the overcrowded orbits, spent upper stages or old satellites, as identified by NASA. The logic of CNES activities consider a stepped approach aiming at progressively gaining the required Technological Readiness Level on the features required for Active Debris Removal which have not yet been demonstrated in orbit. The rendezvous with a non-cooperative, un-prepared, tumbling debris is essential. Following maturation gained with Research and Technology programs, a set of small orbital demonstrators could enable a confidence high enough to perform a full end to end demonstration performing the de-orbiting of a large debris and paving the way for the development of a first generation operational de-orbiter. The internal CNES studies, led together by the Toulouse Space Centre and the Paris Launcher Directorate, have started in 2008 and led to a detailed System Requirements Document used for the Industrial studies. Three industrial teams did work under CNES contract during 2011, led by Thales Alenia Space, Bertin Technologies and Astrium Space Transportation, with numerous sub-contractors. Their approaches were very rich, complementary, and innovative. The second phase of studies began mid-2012. Some key questions nevertheless have to be resolved, and correspond generally to current IADC

  3. Gender Diversity in the Geosciences: Current Status and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Frey, C.; Ongley, L. K.

    2002-12-01

    Since 1995, the proportion of women in the American Geological Institute's Directory of Geoscience Departments has risen from 12% of the entries to 14.2% (exclusive of administrative assistants). Separated into type of institution, there is a greater proportion of women at Museums (17.5%), Bachelor's-granting institutions (17.2%), and non degree-granting academic institutions (16.5%), but these percentages drop when marginal positions, such as "Lecturer", "Instructor", "Adjunct" and "Cooperating Faculty" are excluded to 14.0% (Museums), 15.9% (B.S.-granting institution). The institutions with the lowest proportion of females are the State Geologic Surveys (12.6% female), followed by Ph.D.-granting institutions (12.8% female). Fifteen Ph.D.-granting institutions in the United States still have no females on their faculty. These numbers contrast poorly with the proportion of women receiving B.S. or M.S. degrees in the geosciences over the last 10 years (34 B.S.%/30% M.S. in 1996) and with the proportion receiving the PhD. (24% over the last 10 years; 30% in 2000). There is a significant loss of women between the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and between the Ph.D. degree and a tenure-track position. Women reach or exceed their overall average in four subdisciplines of the geosciences: paleontology, geochemistry, general geology, and oceanography. Women are most under-represented in engineering geology, followed by economic geology, planetology, soil science, geophysics, and hydrology. Within these subdisciplines, women exceed their overall average in geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, ground water and surface water studies, soil biochemistry, and meteorite study. Most women in tenure-track positions at degree-granting institutions are currently Assistant Professors while most men are Full Professors. The proportion of women hired into Assistant Professor positions has increased over the last five years, from 22% hired 5 to 10 years ago to 25% hired 1 to 5 years ago. These

  4. Gyrodactylid developmental biology: historical review, current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Cable, J; Harris, P D

    2002-03-01

    In the viviparous gyrodactylids, embryos develop one inside another within the parental uterus, a phenomenon with major implications for the biology of this species-rich group. Development occurs via two routes: first-born daughters develop at the centre of an embryo cluster in utero, whereas all other daughters develop from oocytes. The resulting offspring are, however, morphologically indistinguishable. We review here the history of gyrodactylid embryology in the context of current knowledge and, present additional cytogenetic and ultrastructural observations of embryonic development. These progenetic parasites are highly modified for viviparity; oocyte maturation and sperm storage occur in a single chamber, the Egg Cell Forming Region, and a mature oocyte passes into the uterus after the birth of the preceding, fully developed offspring. The uterus has a syncytial lining derived from anterior and posterior cap cells. These cells are the first to differentiate in the female reproductive system and may be involved in controlling development. Embryos receive nutrients via the uterus rather than from vitelline cells. Traditionally, development of the first-born daughter has been considered a form of polyembryony, although paedogenesis has also been suggested. In contrast to previous studies, we could not trace lineage of the first-born daughter to a single quiescent macromere. However, only mitotic divisions have been conclusively observed in the intraembryonic generation, indicating an asexual origin. All other daughters are formed from meiotically derived oocytes by sexual reproduction or automictic parthenogenesis. The latter may involve pre-meiotic doubling of chromosomes, but the precise mechanism and the relative proportion of sexual and parthenogenetic offspring are unknown. Exceptionally, cleavage in Gyrodactylus spp. occurs by duets rather than quartets (a pattern previously only recorded in acoels) and is characterised by extensive cell rearrangements

  5. Trends in ecosystem service research: early steps and current drivers.

    PubMed

    Vihervaara, Petteri; Rönkä, Mia; Walls, Mari

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 50 years, human beings have influenced ecosystems more rapidly than at any similar time in human history, drastically altering ecosystem functioning. Along with ecosystem transformation and degradation, a number of studies have addressed the functioning, assessment and management of ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed in the scientific literature since the end of the 1970s. However, ecosystem service research has focused on certain service categories, ecosystem types, and geographical areas, while substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning several aspects. We assess the development and current status of ecosystem service research on the basis of publications collected from the Web of Science. The material consists of (1) articles (n = 353) from all the years included in the Web of Science down to the completion of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and (2) more recent articles (n = 687) published between 2006 and 2008. We also assess the importance of international processes, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Kyoto Protocol and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, as drivers of ecosystem service research. Finally, we identify future prospects and research needs concerning the assessment and management of ecosystem services.

  6. Surfactant therapy: the current practice and the future trends

    PubMed Central

    Altirkawi, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of surfactant preparations used in the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a well known fact; however, many controversies remain. The debate over which surfactant to be used, when and what is the best mode of delivery is still raging. Currently, animal-derived surfactants are preferred and clearly recommended by various practice guidelines, but new synthetic surfactants containing peptides that mimic the action of surfactant proteins are emerging and they seem to have a comparable efficacy profile to the natural surfactants. It is hoped that with further improvements, they will outperform their natural counterparts in terms of reliability and cost-effectiveness. Early surfactant administration was shown to further reduce the risk of RDS and its complications. However, as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is becoming increasingly the preferred first-line therapy for RDS, the less invasive approaches of respiratory support along with early selective surfactant administration (e.g. INSURE) appears to provide a better option. Although neonatal RDS is still the main indication of surfactant therapy, other pathological processes received considerable attention and major research has been dedicated to explore the role of surfactant in their management, Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and congenital pneumonia are two worthy examples. The most updated practice guidelines do recommend the use of endotracheal instillation as the preferred mode of surfactant delivery. However, aerosolization and other non-invasive methods are being investigated with some success; nonetheless, further improvements are very much in need. PMID:27493353

  7. Spinal pain: current understanding, trends, and the future of care

    PubMed Central

    Parkin-Smith, Gregory F; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G; Davies, Stephanie J; Losco, Barrett E; Adams, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This commissioned review paper offers a summary of our current understanding of nonmalignant spinal pain, particularly persistent pain. Spinal pain can be a complex problem, requiring management that addresses both the physical and psychosocial components of the pain experience. We propose a model of care that includes the necessary components of care services that would address the multidimensional nature of spinal pain. Emerging care services that tailor care to the individual person with pain seems to achieve better outcomes and greater consumer satisfaction with care, while most likely containing costs. However, we recommend that any model of care and care framework should be developed on the basis of a multidisciplinary approach to care, with the scaffold being the principles of evidence-based practice. Importantly, we propose that any care services recommended in new models or frameworks be matched with available resources and services – this matching we promote as the fourth principle of evidence-based practice. Ongoing research will be necessary to offer insight into clinical outcomes of complex interventions, while practice-based research would uncover consumer needs and workforce capacity. This kind of research data is essential to inform health care policy and practice. PMID:26604815

  8. [Current Trend of Drug Development for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)].

    PubMed

    Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    EBOLA hemorrhagic fever, a typical emerging infectious disease, began in December 2013 in the southern part of Guinea, and killed more than 11000 people by the end of June, 2015. In addition to emerging/re-emerging diseases and the 3 major infectious diseases i.e. HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have recently become important tropical diseases of the poor. It is remarkable that Japan succeeded in the eradication of malaria and other tropical diseases, which include lymphatic filariasis and schistosomiasis. However, despite these achievements, it is important to sustain our efforts when we consider global health. This review highlights the significance of elimination and/or control of NTDs, and then introduces the current situation of drug development activities in Japan, which are aimed towards combating tropical infectious diseases. They include studies on a novel drug target, the "mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (Fumarate respiration)" composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II, which plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of many helminths such as Ascaris suum. An additional interesting finding highlighted herein is that ascofuranone, a recently developed anti-African trypanosome drug, shows specific inhibition of fumarate respiration in Echinococcus multilocularis mitochondria.

  9. P300 brain computer interface: current challenges and emerging trends

    PubMed Central

    Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Allison, Brendan Z.; Guger, Christoph; Sellers, Eric W.; Kleih, Sonja C.; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables communication without movement based on brain signals measured with electroencephalography (EEG). BCIs usually rely on one of three types of signals: the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP), steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), or event related desynchronization (ERD). Although P300 BCIs were introduced over twenty years ago, the past few years have seen a strong increase in P300 BCI research. This closed-loop BCI approach relies on the P300 and other components of the ERP, based on an oddball paradigm presented to the subject. In this paper, we overview the current status of P300 BCI technology, and then discuss new directions: paradigms for eliciting P300s; signal processing methods; applications; and hybrid BCIs. We conclude that P300 BCIs are quite promising, as several emerging directions have not yet been fully explored and could lead to improvements in bit rate, reliability, usability, and flexibility. PMID:22822397

  10. Vestibular compensation and vestibular rehabilitation. Current concepts and new trends.

    PubMed

    Deveze, A; Bernard-Demanze, L; Xavier, F; Lavieille, J-P; Elziere, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the vestibular compensation and demonstrating how the vestibular rehabilitation is conducted to help the recovery of balance function. Vestibular rehabilitation is based on improving the natural phenomenon called vestibular compensation that occurs after acute vestibular disturbance or chronic and gradual misbalance. Central compensation implies three main mechanisms namely adaptation, substitution and habituation. The compensation, aided by the rehabilitation aimed to compensate and/or to correct the underused or misused of the visual, proprioceptive and vestibular inputs involved in the postural control. As the strategy of equilibration is not corrected, the patient is incompletely cured and remains with inappropriate balance control with its significance on the risk of fall and impact on quality of life. The vestibular rehabilitation helps to correct inappropriate strategy of equilibrium or to accelerate a good but slow compensation phenomenon. Nowadays, new tools are more and more employed for the diagnosis of vestibular deficit (that may include various sources of impairment), the assessment of postural deficit, the control of the appropriate strategy as well to facilitate the efficiency of the rehabilitation especially in elderly people.

  11. Current Trends of Immunization in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ophori, Endurance A.; Tula, Musa Y.; Azih, Azuka V.; Okojie, Rachel; Ikpo, Precious E.

    2014-01-01

    Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25237283

  12. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    PubMed

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  13. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  14. [Current diagnostic-therapeutic trends in treatment of pediatric appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Malnati, R; Capasso, G; Stagni, S; Bua, L; Albisetti, A; Erenbourg, L; Paesano, P L

    1994-03-01

    Acute appendicitis is the first cause of emergency surgery in children. Actually, emergency abdominal sonography has evolved in differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children to differentiate it from other causes of acute abdomen as mesenteric lymphoadenitis, acute right pyelonephritis, acute diverticulitis in Meckel's diverticulum, intestinal intussusception, regional enterits, primary peritonitis, anaphylactoid purpura of Henoch-Schonlein. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the usefulness of abdominal sonography in diagnosing acute appendicitis in our current series of pediatric patients. We have operated 102 patients afflicted by appendicitis admitted to the pediatric department of Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano in a period of 5 years and operated on for appendectomy. In the last 2 years 36 patients were evaluated with abdominal sonography. This diagnostic tool showed in 34 (94.4%) a liquid effusion, sometimes thick of the right iliac fossa. In 2 patients the appendix had thickened layers, was edematous and the lumen was clearly filled with debris. Abdominal sonography has given a clear cut picture of the acute inflammatory process of the appendix. None of these patients has suffered from septic or obstructive complications. Mean duration of hospital stay was 6.35 days (3-15 days). Differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be extremely variable, from simple, paradigmatic situations to the most intriguing ones. This concept is well emphasized by William Silen when he says that "differential diagnosis of acute appendicits is an encyclopedic compendium of every abdominal disease that causes pain" in the 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Novel trends in affinity biosensors: current challenges and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arugula, Mary A.; Simonian, Aleksandr

    2014-03-01

    Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection, extreme selectivity, strong biological base, calibration, in vivo measurements, regeneration, satisfactory performance and ease of production. Nevertheless, recent efforts through this line have produced novel high-tech nanosensing systems such as ‘aptamers’ and ‘phages’ which exhibit high-throughput sensing. Aptamers and phages are powerful tools that excel over antibodies in sensibility, stability, multi-detection, in vivo measurements and regeneration. Phages are superior in stability, screening for affinity-based target molecules ranging from small to proteins and even cells, and easy production. In this review, we focus mainly on recent developments in affinity-based biosensors such as immunosensors, DNA sensors, emphasizing aptasensors and phage-based biosensors basing on novel electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive detection techniques. We also address enzyme inhibition-based biosensors and the current problems associated with the above sensors and their future perspectives.

  16. Asbestos and cancer: An overview of current trends in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M; Magnani, C; Krstev, S; Rapiti, E; Shefer, I

    1999-01-01

    This review assesses the contribution of occupational asbestos exposure to the occurrence of mesothelioma and lung cancer in Europe. Available information on national asbestos consumption, proportions of the population exposed, and exposure levels is summarized. Population-based studies from various European regions on occupational asbestos exposure, mesothelioma, and lung cancer are reviewed. Asbestos consumption in 1994 ranged, per capita, between 0. 004 kg in northern Europe and 2.4 kg in the former Soviet Union. Population surveys from northern Europe indicate that 15 to 30% of the male (and a few percent of the female) population has ever had occupational exposure to asbestos, mainly in construction (75% in Finland) or in shipyards. Studies on mesothelioma combining occupational history with biologic exposure indices indicate occupational asbestos exposure in 62 to 85% of the cases. Population attributable risks for lung cancer among males range between 2 and 50% for definite asbestos exposure. After exclusion of the most extreme values because of methodologic aspects, most of the remaining estimates are within the range of 10 to 20%. Estimates of women are lower. Extrapolation of the results to national figures would decrease the estimates. Norwegian estimates indicate that one-third of expected asbestos-related lung cancers might be avoided if former asbestos workers quit smoking. The combination of a current high asbestos consumption per capita, high exposure levels, and high underlying lung cancer rates in Central Europe and the former Soviet Union suggests that the lung cancers will arise from the smoking-asbestos interaction should be a major concern. PMID:10350513

  17. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shilpa; Gill, David; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-27

    Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  18. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpa; Gill, David; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC. PMID:28134806

  19. Oxytocin and socioemotional aging: Current knowledge and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Maura, Gabriela M.; MacDonald, Kai; Westberg, Lars; Fischer, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The oxytocin (OT) system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and—though evidence is somewhat mixed-intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model) which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety-all of which have high relevance in aging—and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan. PMID:24009568

  20. Background trends in California Current surface chlorophyll concentrations: A state-space view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew C.; Mendelssohn, Roy; Weatherbee, Ryan

    2013-10-01

    State-space models are applied to 13 years of monthly satellite-measured chlorophyll concentrations of the California Current, from British Columbia to Baja California, to isolate the slowly varying background trend from potentially nonstationary seasonal cycles, other higher-frequency cyclical variability, and an irregular plus measurement error signal. Temporal patterns in resulting background trends cluster into four dominant groups, three of which have increasing trends, the strongest of which extends over the coastal upwelling region from southern Oregon to Point Conception, California, and has a mean of 0.118 mg CHL m-3 decade-1. Overall, statistically significant increasing trends are observed over 75% of the study area, 20% of the study area had no trend, and 5% showed decreasing chlorophyll. Location-specific trend estimation shows increases are strongest (> 0.2 mg CHL m-3 decade-1) in upwelling areas along the Washington, Oregon and central California coasts, weaker in regions > 200 km offshore, and that positive trends are statistically significant over most of the California Current north of ˜27°N. Negative trends are evident south of ˜31°N off Baja California. These trends remain significant with similar spatial pattern, but lower magnitude, when the 1997-1998 El Niño period is removed from the analysis. State-space models of trends in alongshore wind stress and sea surface temperature over the same period indicate that local mechanisms linked to these chlorophyll trends are not clear. Comparisons of the chlorophyll trends to nonlocal signals, characterized by the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and the Multivariate El Niño Index, map the spatially varying ecological footprint of these basin-scale signals.

  1. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2016-09-09

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms "enterovirus 71" and "epidemiology" or "pathogenesis" or "molecular epidemiology" or "vaccine" in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing.

  2. Notable Increasing Trend in Azole Non-susceptible Candida tropicalis Causing Invasive Candidiasis in China (August 2009 to July 2014): Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Azole Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xin; Xiao, Meng; Liao, Kang; Kudinha, Timothy; Wang, He; Zhang, Li; Hou, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To report the notable increasing trends of C. tropicalis antifungal resistance in the past 5 years, and explore molecular epidemiology, and the relationship between clinical azoles consumption and increased resistance rate. Methods: Between August 2009 and July 2014, 507 non-duplicated C. tropicalis isolates causing invasive candidiasis were collected from 10 hospitals in China. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of nine common agents was determined by Sensititre YeastOne™ using current available species-specific clinical breakpoint (CBPs) or epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs). A high discriminatory three-locus (ctm1, ctm3, and ctm24) microsatellite scheme was used for typing of all isolates collected. Clinical consumption of fluconazole and voriconazole was obtained and the Defined Daily Dose measurement units were assigned to the data. Results: Overall, 23.1 and 20.7% of isolates were non-susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. And over 5 years, the non-susceptible rate of C. tropicalis isolates to fluconazole and voriconazole continuously increased from 11.2 to 42.7% for fluconazole (P < 0.001), and from 10.4 to 39.1% for voriconazole (P < 0.001). Four genotype clusters were observed to be associated with fluconazole non-susceptible phenotype. However, the increase in azole non-susceptible rate didn't correlate with clinical azole consumption. Conclusions: The rapid emergence of azole resistant C. tropicalis strains in China is worrying, and continuous surveillance is warranted and if the trend persists, empirical therapeutic strategies for C. tropicalis invasive infections should be modified. PMID:28382028

  3. Epidemiological trends and clinical comparisons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in Thai TB meningitis.

    PubMed

    Faksri, Kiatichai; Drobniewski, Francis; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Brown, Timothy; Prammananan, Therdsak; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Chaiprasert, Angkana

    2011-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains were isolated from cerebrospinal fluids collected from individual tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients from 1996 to 2007 (n = 184) and characterised based on IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, Mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs). Beijing strains were found to possess the highest transmissibility and proportion in clustered isolates. Beijing strain predomination and stability, at 56% of the genotypic proportion, as well as association with drug resistance in TBM patients, was demonstrated. The proportion of Beijing sublineages revealed that the modern Beijing sublineage showed an increasing trend, whereas the ancestral Beijing sublineage showed a decreasing trend across the three periods. In contrast, there were neither clustered nor multidrug-resistance (MDR) isolates from the Euro-American (EuA) lineage, and the lineage genotypic proportion trend was also decreased. Based on LSPs, only the Beijing, Indo-Oceanic and Euro-American lineages were identified from TBM patients in Thailand. TBM mortality rates were not associated with either drug resistance or significantly different among MTB lineages. This study may support the Beijing genotype strain as most pathogenic causing TBM, with the EuA lineage genotype as the most benign of the strain genotypes tested. The analysis of drug susceptibility also revealed the trend of increasing drug resistance, especially MDR, in TBM patients in Thailand.

  4. Will There Always Be an Institution? I: The Impact of Epidemiological Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    In this two-part series of articles, it is predicted that institutions will be phased out because of five trends: development of nonresidential community services; new conceptualizations of and attitudes toward residential services; increased usage of individual rather than group residential placements; provision of small, specialized group…

  5. Current status and perspectives of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, omics, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ze-Li; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing

    2016-07-06

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is an important food-borne parasitic disease and one of the most common zoonoses. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of C. sinensis infection, and over 15 million are infected worldwide. C. sinensis infection is closely related to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), fibrosis and other human hepatobiliary diseases; thus, clonorchiasis is a serious public health problem in endemic areas. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, disease burden and treatment of clonorchiasis as well as summarizes the techniques for detecting C. sinensis infection in humans and intermediate hosts and vaccine development against clonorchiasis. Newer data regarding the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis and the genome, transcriptome and secretome of C. sinensis are collected, thus providing perspectives for future studies. These advances in research will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

  6. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Mexico (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. PMID:25375162

  7. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms “enterovirus 71” and “epidemiology” or “pathogenesis” or “molecular epidemiology” or “vaccine” in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing. PMID:27618078

  8. Temporal Trends in Infective Endocarditis Epidemiology from 2007–2013 in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    DeSimone, Daniel C.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Correa de Sa, Daniel D.; Anavekar, Nandan S.; Lahr, Brian D.; Sohail, Muhammad R.; Steckelberg, James M.; Wilson, Walter R.; Baddour, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine if there have been contemporary shifts in IE epidemiology in our local population, an analysis of cases from 2007–2013 was conducted. Methods Population-based review of all adults (≥18 years) residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with definite or possible IE using the Rochester Epidemiology Project from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2013. Results We identified 51 cases of IE in Olmsted County, MN between 2007 and 2013. Median age of IE cases was 68.8 years (IQR 55.6–76.5), and 41% were females. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence of IE was 7.4 (95% CI, 5.3–9.4) cases per 100,000 person-years. From a multivariable Poisson regression model, incidence of IE did not change significantly during the study period (p=0.222) but was significantly higher in males and those of older age (p<0.001). The annual incidences (per 100,000 person years) was 2.5 for Staphylococcus aureus, 1.1 for viridans group streptococci, 1.6 for Enterococcus species, and 0.8 for coagulase-negative staphylococci. Only 19.6% (10/51) of Olmsted County patients underwent valve surgery between 2007–2013 as compared to 44.4% (197/444) of non-Olmsted County patients treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester. Conclusion In this population-based study, no significant change in the overall incidence of IE in Olmsted County, MN, between 2007 and 2013 was seen and it was similar to that seen between 1970 and 2006. Male gender and older age were associated with increased IE risk. With a lesser extent of cases attributable to viridans group streptococcal IE compared to previous years, S. aureus was the predominant pathogen in IE cases during 2007–2013. The relatively low valve surgery rate was disparate from that reported from large, tertiary care centers (including our own) with non-population-based cohorts, which are subject to referral bias and can influence the expected characterization of IE. PMID:26386808

  9. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, B. E.; Kharrazi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To survey advances in public health and epidemiology informatics over the past three years. Methods We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public health informatics (PHI), and published in MEDLINE between January 2012 and December 2014, where information and communication technology (ICT) was a primary subject, or a main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were synthesized using a thematic analysis using the Essential Services of Public Health as a typology. Results Based on themes that emerged, we organized the advances into a model where applications that support the Essential Services are, in turn, supported by a socio-technical infrastructure that relies on government policies and ethical principles. That infrastructure, in turn, depends upon education and training of the public health workforce, development that creates novel or adapts existing infrastructure, and research that evaluates the success of the infrastructure. Finally, the persistence and growth of infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Conclusions Public health informatics is a field that is growing in breadth, depth, and complexity. Several Essential Services have benefited from informatics, notably, “Monitor Health,” “Diagnose & Investigate,” and “Evaluate.” Yet many Essential Services still have not yet benefited from advances such as maturing electronic health record systems, interoperability amongst health information systems, analytics for population health management, use of social media among consumers, and educational certification in clinical informatics. There is much work to be done to further advance the science of PHI as well as its impact on public health practice. PMID:26293869

  10. Epidemiology and temporal trend of suicide mortality in the elderly in Jiading, Shanghai, 2003–2013: a descriptive, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiying; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Hui; Jin, Yaqing; Shi, Guozheng; Wang, Na; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and describe the epidemiological characteristics of suicide in the elderly in Jiading, Shanghai, for the period 2003–2013. Design Retrospective, observational, epidemiological study using routinely collected data. Setting Jiading District, Shanghai. Methods Suicide data were retrieved from the Shanghai Vital Registry database for the period 2003–2013. Crude and age-standardised mortality rates were calculated for various groups according to sex and age. Joinpoint regression was performed to estimate the percentage change (PC) and annual percentage change (APC) for suicide mortality. Result A total of 956 deaths due to suicide occurred among people aged ≥65 years during the study period, accounting for 76.7% (956/1247) of all suicide decedents. Among the 956 people with suicide deaths, 88.7% (848/956) had a history of a psychiatric condition. The age-standardised mortality rates for suicide without and with a psychotic history in people aged ≥65 years were much higher than those for people aged <65 years in both genders. Suicide mortality in the elderly showed a declining trend, with a PC of −51.5% for men and −47.5% for women. The APC was −29.1 in 2003–2005, 4.6 in 2005–2008 and −9.7 in 2008–2013 for aged men, and −12.2 in 2003–2006 and −5.2 in 2006–2013 for aged women, respectively. Women living in Jiading had a higher risk of suicide death than men, especially among the elderly. The mortality rate for suicide increased with age in the elderly, and was more marked for those with a psychiatric history than for those without. Conclusions Suicide mortality declined in Jiading during the study period 2003–2013 overall, but remained high in the elderly, especially those with a psychiatric history. PMID:27543591

  11. Trends of Antibiotic Consumption in Korea According to National Reimbursement Data (2008-2012): A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Park, Gi Chan; An, Hyonggin; Chun, Byung Chul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the trends in the quantities and patterns of nationwide antibiotic consumption in the Republic of Korea (ROK).This nationwide descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in the ROK between 2008 and 2012. The quantities and patterns of total systemic antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed using National Health Insurance claims data collected through the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. Data concerning systemic antibiotics were collected using measurement units of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 people per day according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification.Over the 5-year study period, the annual consumption of systemic antibiotics ranged from 21.68 to 23.12 DDD per 1000 people per day. Outpatient antibiotic use accounted for 80.9% of total consumption. A regression model with autoregressive errors showed significant increased consumption of major antibiotic subgroups, including 3rd-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and glycopeptides (P < 0.001). However, the antibiotic use of 1st- (P = 0.003), 2nd- (P = 0.004), and 3rd-generation (P = 0.018) cephalosporins among patients who underwent surgery under monitoring by the antimicrobial stewardship programs for perioperative prescription was significantly lower than in those who underwent surgery without monitoring programs. In time-series analysis, total antibiotic consumption demonstrated significant seasonality (P < 0.001).The consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics was noted to have increased in the ROK from 2008 to 2012, providing a possible explanation for the changing epidemiology of multidrug resistance. Larger prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact on public health of monitoring programs of perioperative antibiotic usage.

  12. Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and current status of hemodialysis in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Djukanović, L; Radović, M; Baković, J; Budosan, I; Bukvić, D; Cveticanin, A; Davinić, S; Dragoljić, B; Djordjević, V; Djurić, S; Haviza-Lilić, B; Ilić, M; Janos, B; Jelacić, R; Jelić, S; Kostić, N; Mandić, M; Ostrić, V; Pljesa, S; Radisić, M; Radojević, M; Rakić, N; Rangelov, V; Ratković, M; Stojanović, M; Stojanović, R; Tintor, D; Vasić, V

    2002-09-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in Yugoslavia started in the sixties and followed the dialysis trends in the Western Europe. However, in the last decade the development of renal replacement therapy (RRT) slowed down. In this report the epidemiology of ESRD from 1997-1999 and the survey of the status of HD treatment in Yugoslavia in 1999 are presented. Epidemiological data are obtained by the annual center questionnaires (response rate: 92.6 -94.2%). The survey of HD status is based on a specific questionnaire and covered 2108 patients (65%). At the end of 1999 there were 56 RRT centers in Yugoslavia treating 3939 patients: 3232 (82%) patients by HD, 248 (6.3%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 459 (11.7%) living with transplanted kidney. In a three year period, incidence of ESRD ranged from 108-128 pmp, point prevalence from 435-463 pmp and mortality rate from 20.7-17.9. Numerous refugee patients were treated over the last 10 years. Main causes of ESRD were glomerulonephritis (30%); Balkan nephropathy represented 11% and diabetic nephropathy 7% of all primary renal diseases. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were the most common causes of death of RRT patients. Most centers are overcrowded and HD machines are worn out. Mean Kt/V was 1.19+/-0.08, mean URR% 58.8+/-7.4. The shortage of drugs prevented adequate management: 83% of HD patients had hemoglobin level less than 100 g/L but only 10.3 -17.8% were treated with rHuEpo; 64.5% of patients had phosphate levels higher than 1.7 mmol/L but only 33.5% used phosphate binders; 47% of patients had hypertension despite the antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of hepatitis B remained unchanged (about 14%) in HD population during the last three years, but the prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients decreased (31-23%). In conclusion, there is a well developed dialysis service in Yugoslavia but insufficient conditions for adequate treatment.

  13. Trends in Epidemiology of COPD in HIV-Infected Patients in Spain (1997–2012)

    PubMed Central

    de Miguel-Díez, Javier; López-de-Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate trends of incidence of hospital admissions and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in HIV-infected patients with COPD in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era in Spain (1997–2012). Methods A retrospective study with data from nationwide population-based COPD diagnoses in the Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) was performed. We established groups according to their HIV and HCV infections: 1) HIV-uninfected patients; 2) HIV-infected patients (with or without HCV coinfection). Results 1,580,207 patients discharge with a COPD diagnosis were included in the study, 8902 of them were HIV-infected patients (5000 HIV-monoinfected patients and 3902 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients). The HIV-infected patients had higher incidence rates of hospital admissions for COPD than the HIV-uninfected patients during the study period. The HIV-monoinfected patients had higher rates of hospitalizations for COPD than the HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in the early-period cART (1997–1999), but these rates decreased in the first group and increased in the second, being even similar in both groups in the late-period cART (2004–2011). On the other hand, the HIV-infected patients with COPD had higher IHM than the HIV-uninfected patients with COPD. The mortality rates were higher in the HIV-monoinfected patients with COPD than in the HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with COPD in the early-period cART; however, in the late-period cART, the mortality rates trends seems higher in the HIV/HCV group. The likelihood of death in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with COPD was similar to than in HIV-monoinfected patients with COPD. Conclusions Incidence of hospital admissions for COPD and IHM have decreased among HIV-monoinfected individuals but have increased steadily among HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in the cART era. PMID:27846297

  14. Religion and U.S. Secondary School Students: Current Patterns, Recent Trends, and Sociodemographic Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Forman, Tyrone A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Willis, Deborah S.

    2003-01-01

    Used large nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders to examine current patterns, recent trends, and sociodemographic correlates of religiosity among U.S adolescents. Approximately 60 percent of teens considered religion important, with half regularly attending religious services and most reporting affiliation with a…

  15. Current trends in the pharmaceutical industry--a case study approach.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Alexandru; Kuokkanen, Katja; Heier, Annabelle

    2011-10-09

    This commentary offers an overview of some current trends of the pharmaceutical industry drawing on examples taken from the analysis of four companies (Pfizer, Merck, Novo Nordisk, Crucell). The very brief analysis looks at diversification paths, pipeline management strategies, generic competition as well as corporate social responsibility policies.

  16. Disability in the Classroom: Current Trends and Impacts on Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This article covers current trends in disability rights and raises questions about how society's views of disability influence the music education of students in need of special education services. Brief overviews of the disability-rights movement in the United States and of federal laws pertaining to disabilities and education are included. Next,…

  17. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  18. Asthma Management: Part I: An Overview of the Problem and Current Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Valerie O'Toole; Friedman, Janet; Schmitt, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Describes the pathophysiology of asthma and the types, risk factors, and current trends in management of the disease. The role of the school nurse in asthma management is outlined, including identifying children with asthma, evaluating the child's response to the asthma management plan, and controlling environmental factors that precipitate asthma…

  19. Current perspectives on the diagnosis and epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Sibila, Marina; Pieters, Maria; Molitor, Thomas; Maes, Dominiek; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Segalés, Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the principal aetiological agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP), a chronic respiratory disease that affects mainly finishing pigs. Although major efforts to control M. hyopneumoniae infection and its detrimental effects have been made, significant economic losses in pig production worldwide due to EP continue. M. hyopneumoniae is typically introduced into pig herds by the purchase of subclinically infected animals or, less frequently, through airborne transmission over short distances. Once in the herd, M. hyopneumoniae may be transmitted by direct contact from infected sows to their offspring or between pen mates. The 'gold standard' technique used to diagnose M. hyopneumoniae infection, bacteriological culture, is laborious and is seldom used routinely. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction detection methods, in addition to post-mortem inspection in the form of abattoir surveillance or field necropsy, are the techniques most frequently used to investigate the potential involvement of M. hyopneumoniae in porcine respiratory disease. Such techniques have been used to monitor the incidence of M. hyopneumoniae infection in herds both clinically and subclinically affected by EP, in vaccinated and non-vaccinated herds and under different production and management conditions. Differences in the clinical course of EP at farm level and in the efficacy of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination suggest that the transmission and virulence characteristics of different field isolates of M. hyopneumoniae may vary. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the epidemiology of M. hyopneumoniae infection including its transmission, infection and seroconversion dynamics and also compares the various epidemiological tools used to monitor EP.

  20. Current status and future trends in Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Ahmad, R A; Smith, H V

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'. Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations, but their impact on disease, morbidity and cost of illness is not known. The commonness of contributions from human (STW effluents, indiscriminate defaecation) and non-human (calving, lambing, muck spreading, slurry spraying, pasturing/grazing of domestic animals, infected wild animals) hosts indicate that many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. To gain insight into the morbidity and mortality caused by human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, they should be included into differential diagnoses, and routine laboratory testing should be performed and (as for many infectious diseases) reported to a centralised public health agency. To understand transmission routes and the significance of environmental contamination better will require further multidisciplinary approaches and shared resources, including raising national perceptions of the parasitological quality of drinking water. Here, the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be an integral part of the water quality requirement. A multidisciplinary approach among public health professionals in the water industry and other relevant health- and environment-associated agencies is also required in order to determine the significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of Malaysian drinking water. Lastly, adoption of validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype of Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in Malaysia will assist in developing effective risk assessment, management and communication models.

  1. [Pharmacological vigilance and pharmacological epidemiology: principles, definition, methods and current trends in neurology].

    PubMed

    Montastruc, J L; Bagheri, H; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Senard, J M

    1999-04-01

    It is now well established that only clinical trials performed before drug approval are not sufficient for a full modern pharmacological evaluation of drugs and treatments. The need of both pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology is underlined in order to evaluate drugs under real conditions. After a summary of methods used in pharmacoepidemiological trials (spontaneous reports, imputability assessment, cohorts, case control studies etc.), recent pharmacoepidemiological data useful for the neurologist are summarized: side effects of tacrine and vaccines, serotoninergic syndrome and side effects of new antiepileptic drugs.

  2. Thyroid cancer epidemiology in England and Wales: time trends and geographical distribution.

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, I.; Swerdlow, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence has been increasing in many countries, whereas mortality has been falling due to better survival. Radiation is the best-established risk factor and there has been concern that recent rises in incidence might be related to fallout radiation from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. We examined thyroid cancer time trends and geographical distribution in England and Wales and possible interpretations of these. During 1962-84, there were significant increases in incidence (P < 0.001) in each sex at ages under 45. Cohort analysis by single year of birth showed an overall increase in incidence risks in women aged 0-44 born since 1920, with a sudden rise in risk for the birth years 1952-55 followed by a lower risk for the more recent cohorts. In men, there was an overall increase in risk at ages 0-44 in successive birth cohorts, but the pattern was irregular. In each sex, the risk in persons aged 45 and over decreased slightly in successive generations. Geographically, highest incidence risks were in countries in North and Mid Wales, in which the risk was almost twice that in the rest of the country. This pattern was present only at ages 45 and over and was most clear in rural areas. The peak of thyroid cancer risk in women born in 1952-55 is consistent with a carcinogenic effect of fallout radiation, since these women were children in the late 1950s and early 1960s when fallout radiation was greatest in England and Wales. The focus of high thyroid cancer risks in Wales was in areas with high levels of fallout radiation. However, thyroid cancer risks in Wales were not high for more recent cohorts (the ones who were exposed to fallout early in life), and a focus on high risk of benign thyroid diseases was present in Wales well before nuclear weapons existed. The distributions of these benign thyroid diseases, or of factors causing them, seem more likely than fallout to explain the high risk areas for thyroid cancer in the country. PMID:8431362

  3. Mortality related to tuberculosis-HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011: epidemiological patterns and time trends.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricélia da Silveira; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Boigny, Reagan Nzundu; Ramos, Alberto Novaes

    2016-11-03

    Co-infection of tuberculosis (TB)-HIV/AIDS is a persistent public health problem in Brazil. This study describes epidemiological patterns and time trends of mortality related to TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection. Based on mortality data from 2000-2011 (almost 12.5 million deaths), 19,815 deaths related to co-infection were analyzed. The average age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.97 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The highest mortality rates were found among males, those in economically productive age groups, black race/color and residents of the South region. There was a significant reduction in the mortality coefficient at the national level (annual average percent change: -1.7%; 95%CI: -2.4; -1.0), with different patterns among regions: increases in the North, Northeast and Central regions, a reduction in the Southeast and a stabilization in the South. The strategic integration of TB-HIV/AIDS control programmes is fundamental to reduce the burden of mortality related to co-infection in Brazil.

  4. Disseminated tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children; case reports and review of current epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin B; Hazelton, Briony J; Heywood, Anita E; Snelling, Thomas L; Peacock, Kenneth M; Macartney, Kristine K

    2013-03-01

    We present two cases of tuberculous meningitis in Australian-born children. We review the current literature surrounding management of paediatric tuberculosis and disseminated disease, emphasising the importance of prompt diagnosis and intervention. We discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Australian paediatric population and highlight the sentinel role of childhood infection in public health surveillance.

  5. Current practices in teaching introductory epidemiology: how we got here, where to go.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    The number of students and disciplines requiring basic instruction in epidemiologic methods is growing. As a field, we now have a lexicon of epidemiologic terminology and particular methods that have developed and become canonical through the historical development of the field. Yet, many of our basic concepts remain elusive to some students, particularly those not pursuing a career in epidemiology. Further, disagreement and redundancy across basic terms limit their utility in teaching epidemiology. Many approaches to teaching epidemiology generally start with labeling key concepts and then move on to explain them. We submit that an approach grounded not in labels but in foundational concepts may offer a useful adjunct to introductory epidemiology education. We propose 7 foundational steps in conducting an epidemiologic study and provide examples of how these steps can be operationalized, using simple graphics that articulate how populations are defined, samples are selected, and individuals are followed to count cases. A reorganization of introductory epidemiology around core first principles may be an effective way forward for educating the next generation of public health scientists.

  6. Long-term trend of Pacific South Equatorial Current bifurcation over 1950-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Fangguo; Hu, Dunxin; Wang, Qingye; Wang, Fujun

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the long-term change of the Pacific South Equatorial Current (SEC) bifurcation latitude (SBL) over 1950-2010 with Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 2.2.4. Results indicate that the SBL averaged within upper 200 m has migrated southward at 0.020°S yr-1, comparable in magnitude with -0.024°N yr-1 for the North Equatorial Current bifurcation latitude (NBL). The SEC transport into the Coral Sea has increased. Due to the southward SBL migration, most of the increased SEC water was transported equatorward, contributing to the Equatorial Undercurrent intensification. Experiments with a nonlinear 1.5 layer reduced gravity model indicate that the southward migration of SBL is mainly caused by positive Ekman flux divergence trend in the eastern tropical South Pacific, while that of NBL is caused by negative Ekman flux divergence trend in the western tropical North Pacific.

  7. HuGE Watch: tracking trends and patterns of published studies of genetic association and human genome epidemiology in near-real time.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Wulf, Anja; Yesupriya, Ajay; Clyne, Melinda; Khoury, Muin Joseph; Gwinn, Marta

    2008-09-01

    HuGE Watch is a web-based application for tracking the evolution of published studies on genetic association and human genome epidemiology in near-real time. The application allows users to display temporal trends and spatial distributions as line charts and google maps, providing a quick overview of progress in the field. http://www.hugenavigator.net/HuGENavigator/startPageWatch.do

  8. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: a review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alan R; Lee, Maria Veneranda C; Wasserman, Glenn M

    2012-03-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its recommendations for treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this review we highlight new treatment recommendations for mitigating the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum, and treatment options for bacterial vaginosis and venereal warts. We also cover epidemiologic trends for common STDs in Hawai'i.

  9. Photonics industry in China: from current status and trends to the importance of innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chongcheng

    2011-12-01

    Current status and trends in various sectors of photonics industry in Mainland China are reviewed, which includes optical fiber communication, optical preform, fiber and cable, photonic devices and chips, LED illumination and display, and photovoltaics. Then, from the challenges and risks they are facing, critical importance of innovation is discussed. In the evolving Innovation Economy, the core competence of a company, an industry or a country is its innovation power and the capability to grab (and manage) talented people.

  10. Climatic modulation of recent trends in ocean acidification in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.; Münnich, M.

    2016-01-01

    We reconstruct the evolution of ocean acidification in the California Current System (CalCS) from 1979 through 2012 using hindcast simulations with an eddy-resolving ocean biogeochemical model forced with observation-based variations of wind and fluxes of heat and freshwater. We find that domain-wide pH and {{{Ω }}}{arag} in the top 60 m of the water column decreased significantly over these three decades by about -0.02 decade-1 and -0.12 decade-1, respectively. In the nearshore areas of northern California and Oregon, ocean acidification is reconstructed to have progressed much more rapidly, with rates up to 30% higher than the domain-wide trends. Furthermore, ocean acidification penetrated substantially into the thermocline, causing a significant domain-wide shoaling of the aragonite saturation depth of on average -33 m decade-1 and up to -50 m decade-1 in the nearshore area of northern California. This resulted in a coast-wide increase in nearly undersaturated waters and the appearance of waters with {{{Ω }}}{arag}\\lt 1, leading to a substantial reduction of habitat suitability. Averaged over the whole domain, the main driver of these trends is the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. However, recent changes in the climatic forcing have substantially modulated these trends regionally. This is particularly evident in the nearshore regions, where the total trends in pH are up to 50% larger and trends in {{{Ω }}}{arag} and in the aragonite saturation depth are even twice to three times larger than the purely atmospheric CO2-driven trends. This modulation in the nearshore regions is a result of the recent marked increase in alongshore wind stress, which brought elevated levels of dissolved inorganic carbon to the surface via upwelling. Our results demonstrate that changes in the climatic forcing need to be taken into consideration in future projections of the progression of ocean acidification in coastal upwelling regions.

  11. Omic profiling for drug safety assessment: current trends and public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, William M; Tweats, David; Koenig, Jochen

    2009-04-01

    The drug development process is currently being hindered by non-optimal prediction of toxicity. Advances in molecular profiling approaches, such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, offer the potential to provide a more comprehensive insight into toxicological effects than hitherto possible. These new technologies present their own challenges, however, particularly in relation to standardization and assessment. The focus of this article is on describing the current trends concerning the application of omic approaches in drug safety assessment, with specific emphasis on the role of public-private partnerships in advancing this emerging arena.

  12. High-voltage overhead power lines in epidemiology: patterns of time variations in current load and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Reitan, J B; Tynes, T; Kvamshagen, K A; Vistnes, A I

    1996-01-01

    In epidemiological studies of electromagnetic fields and health effects, exposure classification is crucial. There is no generally accepted biophysical interaction mechanism, but many studies are based on the hypothesis of a causal relationship with the strength of magnetic field. Some definition of the magnitude of exposure must be used, e.g., mean magnetic flux density, the integral of magnetic flux and time, or a peak value. Magnetic fields around a particular power line depend on the current load. The aim of the present study was to follow variations in line current load in the power supply system of the largest Norwegian city on a yearly, monthly, daily and diurnal basis. Fairly large variations in load were found, but increases in consumption were not necessarily reflected in current load on high voltage lines. The correlation between outdoor temperature and current load varied widely, depending on the type of power station feeding the line in question. The registered time variations are large enough to interfere with epidemiological classification of residences and testing of epidemiological hypotheses.

  13. Current trends in medical English education and the Japan College of Rheumatology International School.

    PubMed

    Jego, Eric Hajime; Amengual, Olga

    2017-04-11

    In light of the present revolution happening in medical education in Japan as medical schools implement new curricula to conform to global standards, there is a growing demand for more internationalization and higher quality practical medical English education. In response, many institutions including governmental organizations, universities and academic associations are moving ahead with new initiatives to adapt to these changing demands. This paper reviews the current trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan. This paper also describes one initiative by the Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR) known as the JCR International School held yearly in Karuizawa. By examining recent trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan, the most relevant and applicable can be elucidated to illuminate a path forward for improved medical English education within the JCR.

  14. Clinical and molecular epidemiologic trends reveal the important role of rotavirus in adult infectious gastroenteritis, in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jinan; Liu, Pengbo

    2017-01-01

    As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November - March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April - October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0.01). Compared with bacterial pathogens, rotavirus infection from child-to-adult transmission (29.8%, p<0.01) was the most important epidemiologic setting generating a major impact on public health, i.e. increased adult burden of infectious gastroenteritis and genetic diversity of circulating rotaviruses; adults infected with rotavirus developed more severe gastroenteritis symptoms (p<0.01) accompanied with mild intestinal and blood inflammations. Thirty-three G9 (lineages VIe and IIId), seven G2 (lineages IVa-1, IVa-3, and V) and two G1 (lineage Va) strains, together with thirty-eight P[8]-III and eight P[4]-V strains, were identified in this study with multiple amino acid differences observed between sample strains and homotypic vaccines. G9P[8] was the predominant genotype (66.7%), followed by G2P[4] (14.6%) and G1P[8] (4.2%). Eight conserved amino acid substitutions in prototype strain K-1, especially A212T in antigenic region C, formed a novel G9-lineage VIe variant that has emerged worldwide since 2010. Our results indicated that emerging rotavirus G9-VIeP[8]-III predominated over all the genotypes with a short time window in adults in Shanghai, China, and caused a local epidemic during the 2014-2015 rotavirus season. These findings reinforce the importance for inclusion of rotavirus in routine clinical

  15. Investigating international time trends in the incidence and prevalence of atopic eczema 1990-2010: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Ivette A G; McLean, Susannah; Linssen, Sanne; Mommers, Monique; van Schayck, C P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic eczema has been found to have increased greatly in some parts of the world. Building on a systematic review of global disease trends in asthma, our objective was to study trends in incidence and prevalence of atopic eczema. Disease trends are important for health service planning and for generating hypotheses regarding the aetiology of chronic disorders. We conducted a systematic search for high quality reports of cohort, repeated cross-sectional and routine healthcare database-based studies in seven electronic databases. Studies were required to report on at least two measures of the incidence and/or prevalence of atopic eczema between 1990 and 2010 and needed to use comparable methods at all assessment points. We retrieved 2,464 citations, from which we included 69 reports. Assessing global trends was complicated by the use of a range of outcome measures across studies and possible changes in diagnostic criteria over time. Notwithstanding these difficulties, there was evidence suggesting that the prevalence of atopic eczema was increasing in Africa, eastern Asia, western Europe and parts of northern Europe (i.e. the UK). No clear trends were identified in other regions. There was inadequate study coverage worldwide, particularly for repeated measures of atopic eczema incidence. Further epidemiological work is needed to investigate trends in what is now one of the most common long-term disorders globally. A range of relevant measures of incidence and prevalence, careful use of definitions and description of diagnostic criteria, improved study design, more comprehensive reporting and appropriate interpretation of these data are all essential to ensure that this important field of epidemiological enquiry progresses in a scientifically robust manner.

  16. Invited commentary: multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity-a fundamental critique of the current probabilistic risk factor epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Juan

    2014-07-15

    In this issue of the Journal, Dundas et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(2):197-207) apply a hitherto infrequent multilevel analytical approach: multiple membership multiple classification (MMMC) models. Specifically, by adopting a life-course approach, they use a multilevel regression with individuals cross-classified in different contexts (i.e., families, early schools, and neighborhoods) to investigate self-reported health and mental health in adulthood. They provide observational evidence suggesting the relevance of the early family environment for launching public health interventions in childhood in order to improve health in adulthood. In their analyses, the authors distinguish between specific contextual measures (i.e., the association between particular contextual characteristics and individual health) and general contextual measures (i.e., the share of the total interindividual heterogeneity in health that appears at each level). By doing so, they implicitly question the traditional probabilistic risk factor epidemiology including classical "neighborhood effects" studies. In fact, those studies use simple hierarchical structures and disregard the analysis of general contextual measures. The innovative MMMC approach properly responds to the call for a multilevel eco-epidemiology against a widespread probabilistic risk factors epidemiology. The risk factors epidemiology is not only reduced to individual-level analyses, but it also embraces many current "multilevel analyses" that are exclusively focused on analyzing contextual risk factors.

  17. World progress in electronic switching. Part 2: Analysis of current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, P.

    1980-03-01

    Systems developed in industrialized countries are reviewed and current trends in electronic switching are analyzed. Basic structural principles are defined: stored program control, standardization of languages, digital techniques and integrated networks, information interchange (signalling and data transmission), distribution network, data switching, message switching. Improvements in microelectronics (integrated circuitry and microprocessors) are considered along with architectures, and methods for both networks and systems. Modular design at function level, increased compatibility, and distributed control are discussed including a standardized approach to new services, centralized maintenance facilities, and dynamic network management.

  18. Current state and research trend in light environment for plant factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Juro; Ohdoi, Katsuaki

    2013-05-01

    Plant factory has been attracting attention as a new system of food production, and there are approximately 130 commercially operated facilities in March 2012 in Japan. Currently, leafy vegetables are mainly produced in plant factory. However, not only year-round and agricultural chemical free production but new researches focused on high value-added vegetable production and raw material production for pharmaceutical compounds have been studied. This report outlines the recent trends in research on high-value-added plants using light environments.

  19. Current status and historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in the ecosystem of Deep Bay, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Ling-Li; Cheng, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Li, Xiang-Dong; Wai, Onyx W. H.

    2009-11-01

    To characterize the current status and historical trends in organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination in Deep Bay, an important water body between Hong Kong and mainland China with a Ramsar mangrove wetland (Maipo), samples from seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), surface sediment, sediment core and fish were collected to determine the OCPs concentrations. Sediment core dating was accomplished using the 210Pb method. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in water were 1.96, 0.71, 0.81 ng l -1, while in SPM were 36.5, 2.5, 35.7 ng g -1 dry weight, in surface sediment were 20.2, 0.50, 2.4 ng g -1 dry weight, and in fish were 125.4, 0.43, 13.1 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. DDTs concentrations in various matrices of Deep Bay were intermediate compared with those in other areas. Temporal trends of the targeted OCPs levels in sediment core generally increased from 1948 to 2004, with the highest levels in top or sub-surface sediment. Both DDT composition and historical trends indicated an ongoing fresh DDT input. A positive relationship between the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of target chemicals and the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficient ( Kow), and between the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and the Kow were observed in the Bay. The risk assessment indicated that there were potential ecological and human health risks for the target OCPs in Deep Bay.

  20. The role of epidemiology in MS research: Past successes, current challenges and future potential.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifaceted condition, with a range of environmental, behavioural and genetic factors implicated in its aetiology and clinical course. Successes in advancing our appreciation of the roles of Epstein-Barr virus, vitamin D/UV and the HLA-DRB1 locus; and our greater understanding of these and related factors' modes of action in MS and other conditions, can be attributed in no small part to the work of generations of epidemiologists. Hardly content to rest on our laurels, however, there are yet a range of unsolved conundrums in MS, including some changes in epidemiological characteristics (e.g. increasing incidence and sex ratio), to say nothing of the unresolved parts regarding what underlies MS risk and its clinical course. There is evidence that epidemiology will continue to play a crucial role in unravelling the architecture of MS causation and clinical course. While classic epidemiological methods are ongoing, novel avenues for research include gene-environment interaction studies, the world of '-omic' research, and the utilisation of mobile and social media tools to both access and track study populations, which means that the epidemiological discoveries of the past century may be but a glimpse of our understanding in the next few decades.

  1. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-12-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  2. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-11-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Non Linear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  3. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena Special issue on Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, D.; Lombardo, S.; Mañas, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Nijhoff, F.; Sommacal, M.

    2009-12-01

    may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. Contributions to the special issue should if possible be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa, or by email to jphysa@iop.org, quoting 'JPhysA Special Issue: Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena' Submissions should ideally be in standard LaTeX form. Please see the website for further information on electronic submissions. Authors unable to submit electronically may send hard-copy contributions to: Publishing Administrators, Journal of Physics A, IOP Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Please quote 'JPhysA Special Issue—Current Trends in Integrability and Nonlinear Phenomena'. All contributions should be accompanied by a read-me file or covering letter giving the postal and e-mail addresses for correspondence. The Publishing Office should be notified of any subsequent change of address. This special issue will be published in the paper and online version of the journal.

  4. Past, present and future trends in tuberculosis epidemiology in a region of northern Italy. An analysis carried out through the application of a simulation model (Eskimo).

    PubMed

    Acocella, G; Comaschi, E; Nonis, A; Rossanigo, C; Migliori, G B

    1989-01-01

    The epidemiological model Eskimo has been utilized to simulate some epidemiological parameters relative to tuberculosis in a restricted geographical area of northern Italy. After having identified a series of features relative to the regimens applied in the area in the period 1982-86 and which were found to be compatible with the observed data, this hypothesis has been utilized to project data on tuberculosis for the period 1986-1996. The results have indicated that the incidence in the area should stabilize around values of 20 new cases per year (per 100,000 population). A decrease in the incidence can be expected to occur only if the regimens so far employed are brought to a greater part of the patients' population (increasing coverage). The effects of importing the disease from developing countries through immigration and of the AIDS epidemic are likely to negatively affect the trend of tuberculosis incidence in the future.

  5. Salmonellosis and charter tourism: epidemiology and trends of imported human cases to Norway from the Canary Islands and Thailand, 1994-2008.

    PubMed

    Emberland, K E; Nygård, K; Aavitsland, P

    2012-09-01

    More than 70% of reported human Salmonella infections in Norway are infected abroad. The Canary Islands and Thailand are two of the most popular charter tourist destinations for Norwegians. Using surveillance data for the years 1994-2008, and denominator data on travel to the Canary Islands 2000-2008 and to Thailand 1997-2008, we present the epidemiology and trends of Salmonella infections in Norwegian tourists to these destinations. We found a declining trend in risk of salmonellosis in tourists returning from the Canary Islands, and a change in serovar distribution in travellers to Thailand with more S. Enteritidis infections, similar to that observed in Western European countries. The use of denominator data is important when studying risk of travel-related disease, as surveillance data tend to reflect travel activity more than the risk. Infections among tourists do not always affect the local residents and therefore may not be detected by local public health authorities. Sharing knowledge on the epidemiology of infections in tourists could be useful for observation of changes in trends in the countries visited, and in future outbreak investigations.

  6. Current trends in the etiology and diagnosis of HPV-related head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ryan C; Lambie, Duncan; Verma, Mukesh; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current review summarizes the epidemiology of HNSCC and the disease burden, the infectious cycle of HPV, the roles of viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, and the downstream cellular events that lead to malignant transformation. Current techniques for the clinical diagnosis of HPV-associated HNSCC will also be discussed, that is, the detection of HPV DNA, RNA, and the HPV surrogate marker, p16 in tumor tissues, as well as HPV-specific antibodies in serum. Such methods do not allow for the early detection of HPV-associated HNSCC and most cases are at an advanced stage upon diagnosis. Novel noninvasive approaches using oral fluid, a clinically relevant biological fluid, allow for the detection of HPV and cellular alterations in infected cells, which may aid in the early detection and HPV-typing of HNSCC tumors. Noninvasive diagnostic methods will enable early detection and intervention, leading to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity associated with HNSCC. PMID:25644715

  7. Congenital heart disease in Saudi Arabia: current epidemiology and future projections.

    PubMed

    Alabdulgader, A A A

    2006-01-01

    To provide an overview of the epidemiology of congenital heart disease, the results of epidemiological studies done in 4 regions of Saudi Arabia (August 1988-February 2000) and 2604 individuals with congenital heart disease were evaluated. Ventricular septal defect was the commonest lesion (33.9%) followed by atrial septal defect (18.1%). Overall, sex distribution was similar; for 3 conditions, more males than females were affected. Of 2269 (59%) presenting in the first year of life, 566 (24.9%) had neonatal congenital heart disease. Down syndrome was the commonest cause. Distribution of specific lesions and sex distribution was similar to findings from other parts of the world; however, the overall detection rate at 1 year of age was lower.

  8. Epidemiology and management of osteoporosis in the People’s Republic of China: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Xiong, Dan; Peng, Yi-Qun; Sheng, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Xi-Yu; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    With the progressive aging of the population, osteoporosis has gradually grown into a global health problem for men and women aged 50 years and older because of its consequences in terms of disabilities and fragility fractures. This is especially true in the People’s Republic of China, which has the largest population and an increasing proportion of elderly people, as osteoporosis has become a serious challenge to the Chinese government, society, and family. Apart from the fact that all osteoporotic fractures can increase the patient’s morbidity, they can also result in fractures of the hip and vertebrae, which are associated with a significantly higher mortality. The cost of osteoporotic fractures, moreover, is a heavy burden on families, society, and even the country, which is likely to increase in the future due, in part, to the improvement in average life expectancy. Therefore, understanding the epidemiology of osteoporosis is essential and is significant for developing strategies to help reduce this problem. In this review, we will summarize the epidemiology of osteoporosis in the People’s Republic of China, including the epidemiology of osteoporotic fractures, focusing on preventive methods and the management of osteoporosis, which consist of basic measures and pharmacological treatments. PMID:26150706

  9. Mumps: a current epidemiologic pattern as a necessary background for the choice of a vaccination strategy.

    PubMed

    Zotti, C; Ossola, O; Barberis, R; Castella, A; Ruggenini, A M

    1999-08-01

    Before the measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination was widely offered, the epidemiologic data about mumps (morbidity, immunization level, vaccine coverage) were analyzed in Piedmont region (Italy). The disease had a 3- to 5-year epidemic recurrence with morbidity rate between 40 and 150/100,000; the surveillance conducted by 'sentinel' pediatricians showed that the notifications underestimated the real data by about 5- to 7-fold. The 12-year-old subjects showed an immunization level (reached by the disease or the vaccination) of about 50% and their parents tended to refuse the MMR vaccination. Only 54% of the 3- to 5-year-old children received the MMR vaccine in the second year of life and the frequency of the vaccination failure was about 10%. The strategy of vaccination should take into account this epidemiologic pattern, to program an offer adequate to reach mumps control/elimination; the strategy of our region should include the active offer in the second year of life to reach higher coverage, a second offer at 4-6 and/or 12 years of life, when other vaccinations are given and the choice of a highly efficacious vaccine. The improvement of the notification system could also allow a more sensitive surveillance of epidemiologic patterns.

  10. Epidemiology and management of osteoporosis in the People's Republic of China: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Xiong, Dan; Peng, Yi-Qun; Sheng, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Xi-Yu; Wu, Xian-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    With the progressive aging of the population, osteoporosis has gradually grown into a global health problem for men and women aged 50 years and older because of its consequences in terms of disabilities and fragility fractures. This is especially true in the People's Republic of China, which has the largest population and an increasing proportion of elderly people, as osteoporosis has become a serious challenge to the Chinese government, society, and family. Apart from the fact that all osteoporotic fractures can increase the patient's morbidity, they can also result in fractures of the hip and vertebrae, which are associated with a significantly higher mortality. The cost of osteoporotic fractures, moreover, is a heavy burden on families, society, and even the country, which is likely to increase in the future due, in part, to the improvement in average life expectancy. Therefore, understanding the epidemiology of osteoporosis is essential and is significant for developing strategies to help reduce this problem. In this review, we will summarize the epidemiology of osteoporosis in the People's Republic of China, including the epidemiology of osteoporotic fractures, focusing on preventive methods and the management of osteoporosis, which consist of basic measures and pharmacological treatments.

  11. Current Understanding of Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Epidemiological Update

    PubMed Central

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2012-01-01

    The incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have steadily increased over the last several decades in the United States, and the temporal trends in incidence can only be partially explained by the HIV epidemic. In 1992, an international workshop sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute concluded that there was an “emerging epidemic” of NHL and emphasized the need to investigate the factors responsible for the increasing incidence of this disease. Over the past two decades, numerous epidemiological studies have examined the risk factors for NHL, particularly for putative environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and international consortia have been established in order to investigate rare exposures and NHL subtype-specific associations. While few consistent risk factors for NHL aside from immunosuppression and certain infectious agents have emerged, suggestive associations with several lifestyle and environmental factors have been reported in epidemiologic studies. Further, increasing evidence has suggested that the effects of these and other exposures may be limited to or stronger for particular NHL subtypes. This paper examines the progress that has been made over the last twenty years in elucidating the etiology of NHL, with a primary emphasis on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures. PMID:23008714

  12. Current trends in lead discovery: Are we looking for the appropriate properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, Tudor I.

    2002-05-01

    The new drug discovery paradigm is based on high-throughput technologies, both with respect to synthesis and screening. The progression HTS hits → lead series → candidate drug → marketed drug appears to indicate that the probability of reaching launched status is one in a million. This has shifted the focus from good quality candidate drugs to good quality leads. We examined the current trends in lead discovery by comparing MW (molecular weight), LogP (octanol/water partition coefficient, estimated by Kowwin [17]) and LogSw (intrinsic water solubility, estimated by Wskowwin [18]) for the following categories: 62 leads and 75 drugs [11]; compounds in the development phase (I, II, III and launched), as indexed in MDDR; and compounds indexed in medicinal chemistry journals [ref. 20], categorized according to their biological activity. Comparing the distribution of the above properties, the 62 lead structures show the lowest median with respect to MW (smaller) and LogP (less hydrophobic), and the highest median with respect to LogSw (more soluble). By contrast, over 50% of the medicinal chemistry compounds with activities above 1 nanomolar have MW > 425, LogP > 4.25 and LogSw < -4.75, indicating that the reported active compounds are larger, more hydrophobic and less soluble when compared to time-tested quality leads. In the MDDR set, a progressive constraint to reduce MW and LogP, and to increase LogSw, can be observed when examining trends in the developmental sequence: phase I, II, III and launched drugs. These trends indicate that other properties besides binding affinity, e.g., solubility and hydrophobicity, need to be considered when choosing the appropriate leads.

  13. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes.

  14. Current trends in treatment of obesity in Karachi and possibilities of cost minimization.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mirza Izhar; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum

    2015-03-01

    Our study finds out drug usage trends in over weight and obese patients without any compelling indications in Karachi, looks for deviations of current practices from evidence based antihypertensive therapeutic guidelines and identifies not only cost minimization opportunities but also communication strategies to improve patients' awareness and compliance to achieve therapeutic goal. In present study two sets were used. Randomized stratified independent surveys were conducted in hospital doctors and family physicians (general practitioners), using pretested questionnaires. Sample size was 100. Statistical analysis was conducted on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Opportunities of cost minimization were also analyzed. One the basis of doctors' feedback, preference is given to non-pharmacologic management of obesity. Mass media campaign and media usage were recommended to increase patients awareness and patients' education along with strengthening family support systems was recommended for better compliance of the patients to doctor's advice. Local therapeutic guidelines for weight reduction were not found. Feedbacks showed that global therapeutic guidelines were followed by the doctors practicing in the community and hospitals in Karachi. However, high price branded drugs were used instead of low priced generic therapeutic equivalents. Patient's education is required for better awareness and improving patients' compliance. The doctors found preferring brand leaders instead of low cost options. This trend increases cost of therapy by 0.59 to 4.17 times. Therefore, there are great opportunities for cost minimization by using evidence-based clinically effective and safe medicines.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  16. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Perovic, Olga; Iyaloo, Samantha; Kularatne, Ranmini; Lowman, Warren; Bosman, Noma; Wadula, Jeannette; Seetharam, Sharona; Duse, Adriano; Mbelle, Nontombi; Bamford, Colleen; Dawood, Halima; Mahabeer, Yesholata; Bhola, Prathna; Abrahams, Shareef; Singh-Moodley, Ashika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). Methods Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46%) were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003). Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001). Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01). The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%]) followed by type IV (402 [31%]). Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87%) most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8) (n = 7) followed by ST5 (CC5) (n = 4), ST36 (CC30) (n = 4) and ST239 (CC8) (n = 3). Conclusions MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41%) and type IV (31%), which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB. PMID:26719975

  17. A survey of current trends in diffusion MRI for structural brain connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and we present current trends in modelling the brain's tissue microstructure and the human connectome. dMRI is today the only tool that can probe the brain's axonal architecture in vivo and non-invasively, and has grown in leaps and bounds in the last two decades since its conception. A plethora of models with increasing complexity and better accuracy have been proposed to characterise the integrity of the cerebral tissue, to understand its microstructure and to infer its connectivity. Here, we discuss a wide range of the most popular, important and well-established local microstructure models and biomarkers that have been proposed from these models. Finally, we briefly present the state of the art in tractography techniques that allow us to understand the architecture of the brain's connectivity.

  18. End-of-Life Care and Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions in India

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, Jayita K.

    2016-01-01

    Although 80% of the deaths worldwide occur in middle- and low-income countries such as India, there is less awareness of end-of-life care (EOLC) for people with chronic, serious, progressive, or advanced life-limiting illnesses, including dementia. EOLC involves good communication, clinical decision-making, liaison with medical teams and families, comprehensive assessment of and specialized interventions for physical, psychological, spiritual, and social needs of patients and their caregivers. The psychiatrist can play a significant role in each of the above domains in EOLC. The current trends in India are examined, including ambiguities between EOLC and euthanasia. Future directions include formulating a national EOLC policy, providing appropriate services and training. The psychiatrist should get involved in this process, with major responsibilities in providing good quality EOLC for patients with both life-limiting physical illnesses and severe mental disorders, supporting their caregivers, and ensuring dignity in death. PMID:28031629

  19. Patient centric approach for clinical trials: Current trend and new opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neha Shankar

    2015-01-01

    The clinical research industry today is undergoing a major facelift. Companies are continuously looking to adopt and implement effective and innovative ways to accelerate drug launches in the market. Companies today are more open and do not view patients as mere “subjects” who generate data, – but as informed collaborators whose participation is “core” to the overall success of trials leading to the emergence of the concept of “patient-centric trials.” This paper is intended to highlight the current trends and new opportunities that can be seen in industry -indicative of crucial role patients today play in their own health care using technology, social media and self education. PMID:26229748

  20. End-of-Life Care and Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions in India.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, Jayita K

    2016-01-01

    Although 80% of the deaths worldwide occur in middle- and low-income countries such as India, there is less awareness of end-of-life care (EOLC) for people with chronic, serious, progressive, or advanced life-limiting illnesses, including dementia. EOLC involves good communication, clinical decision-making, liaison with medical teams and families, comprehensive assessment of and specialized interventions for physical, psychological, spiritual, and social needs of patients and their caregivers. The psychiatrist can play a significant role in each of the above domains in EOLC. The current trends in India are examined, including ambiguities between EOLC and euthanasia. Future directions include formulating a national EOLC policy, providing appropriate services and training. The psychiatrist should get involved in this process, with major responsibilities in providing good quality EOLC for patients with both life-limiting physical illnesses and severe mental disorders, supporting their caregivers, and ensuring dignity in death.

  1. Comprehensive management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury: Current concepts and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Erwin A.; Pires, Marilyn; Ngann, Yvette; Sterling, Michelle; Rubayi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury represent a challenging problem for patients, their caregivers, and their physicians. They often lead to recurrent hospitalizations, multiple surgeries, and potentially devastating complications. They present a significant cost to the healthcare system, they require a multidisciplinary team approach to manage well, and outcomes directly depend on patients' education, prevention, and compliance with conservative and surgical protocols. With so many factors involved in the successful treatment of pressure ulcers, an update on their comprehensive management in spinal cord injury is warranted. Current concepts of local wound care, surgical options, as well as future trends from the latest wound healing research are reviewed to aid medical professionals in treating patients with this difficult problem. PMID:24090179

  2. Contaminant trends derived by comparing archived samples with results of a current estuarine monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Lauenstein, G.

    1995-12-31

    Organic contaminant concentrations in mussels and oysters were compared between archived samples of a Mussel Watch Program of the 1970s and samples collected in the 1980s and the 1990s by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA`s) National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Project. These comparisons are possible because 51 sites of the current Mussel Watch Project were co-located with sites of the 1970s program. Archived samples were analyzed using current analytical techniques and were analyzed concurrently with the 1992 samples of NOAA`s Mussel Watch Project. Chlorinated pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, displayed significant decreases between the 1970s and the 1990s. Polychlorinated biphenyls and butyltins were found in higher concentrations in the first year that they were quantified by NOAA`s Mussel Watch Project (1986 and 1989, respectively) than in the 1970s samples. Concentrations for both have decreased since then. The original 1970s analytical results were also compared to current analytical results from archived samples. Results were comparable for the quantification of DDE. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses were generally comparable for the greater than 3-ring molecules. When a conversion factor was applied, results were also comparable for the quantification of PCBs even though the early methods quantified Aroclor 1254 and the more recent method quantifies PCBs by congener.

  3. Categorisation of continuous risk factors in epidemiological publications: a survey of current practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reports of observational epidemiological studies often categorise (group) continuous risk factor (exposure) variables. However, there has been little systematic assessment of how categorisation is practiced or reported in the literature and no extended guidelines for the practice have been identified. Thus, we assessed the nature of such practice in the epidemiological literature. Two months (December 2007 and January 2008) of five epidemiological and five general medical journals were reviewed. All articles that examined the relationship between continuous risk factors and health outcomes were surveyed using a standard proforma, with the focus on the primary risk factor. Using the survey results we provide illustrative examples and, combined with ideas from the broader literature and from experience, we offer guidelines for good practice. Results Of the 254 articles reviewed, 58 were included in our survey. Categorisation occurred in 50 (86%) of them. Of those, 42% also analysed the variable continuously and 24% considered alternative groupings. Most (78%) used 3 to 5 groups. No articles relied solely on dichotomisation, although it did feature prominently in 3 articles. The choice of group boundaries varied: 34% used quantiles, 18% equally spaced categories, 12% external criteria, 34% other approaches and 2% did not describe the approach used. Categorical risk estimates were most commonly (66%) presented as pairwise comparisons to a reference group, usually the highest or lowest (79%). Reporting of categorical analysis was mostly in tables; only 20% in figures. Conclusions Categorical analyses of continuous risk factors are common. Accordingly, we provide recommendations for good practice. Key issues include pre-defining appropriate choice of groupings and analysis strategies, clear presentation of grouped findings in tables and figures, and drawing valid conclusions from categorical analyses, avoiding injudicious use of multiple alternative analyses

  4. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people.

  5. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon; Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research.

  6. [Current phase of control of epidemiological surveillance of poliomyelitis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Tello Anchuela, Odorina

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the last case of indigenous wild virus poliomyelitis occurred in 1988. Since then cases detected by the surveillance system are either imported cases, cases associated with vaccine or OPV derivatives (VDPV). The Plan of Action required for Certificate of Achievement of polio eradication began in 1997. The activities were agreed with the regions and approved by the Inter-territorial Council of Health. The plan integrates epidemiological surveillance and laboratory activities: - Implement an effective surveillance system acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children under 15 years - Achieve and maintain high immunization coverage (95% in the primary series in children under 2 years old). - Environmental monitoring through surveillance of enteroviruses. In the implementation of the Plan in Spain have remained high vaccination coverage and concern to avoid susceptible bags in vulnerable populations. Surveillance System Acute Flaccid Paralysis in children under 15 years has been consistently evaluated by the quality indicators related to the sensitivity, timeliness (in reporting and sampling) and the indicators for epidemiological research and laboratory. The challenges of polio surveillance are introducing cases: imported polio caused by wild poliovirus, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) or poliovirus vaccine. Therefore, all activities should continue until a polio-free world.

  7. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: Current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research. PMID:24114263

  8. The distribution of pharmaceuticals in Europe--current and future trends in wholesaling.

    PubMed

    Andersson, F

    1994-03-01

    As of January 1, 1993 a huge market, encompassing more than 325 million people, has been established with the unification of the 12 member states in the European Community. During the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical wholesaling sector has therefore been involved in an intense restructuring process. But, there is a considerable scientific gap in the knowledge of pharmaceutical wholesaling. In view of the uncertain situation and the scarcity of structured information, the purpose of this article is to examine current and future trends in the European pharmaceutical wholesaling sector. We reviewed the literature and identified three major areas of interest; general threats to traditional full-line wholesaling, wholesalers' response to these threats, and the new Glaxo distribution scheme. The current and expected importance of these areas were assessed with the help of a survey, encompassing 20 experts in this field. Based on the review and the survey, we conclude that there are many serious threats to traditional wholesaling, the major ones being governmental pressures to lower the already relatively low gross margins, manufacturers contemplating taking over the drug distribution process themselves and increasing international competition. The major responses to these threats are to become a truly international player (via mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures), or being able to provide the customers with detailed management information through computerised networks. In order to survive the next 5-10 years, companies have to be very alert to the changing competitive situation.

  9. Radiology Research in Quality and Safety: Current Trends and Future Needs.

    PubMed

    Zygmont, Matthew E; Itri, Jason N; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Mankowski Gettle, Lori; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Scali, Elena P; Winokur, Ronald S; Probyn, Linda; Kung, Justin W; Bakow, Eric; Kadom, Nadja

    2017-03-01

    Promoting quality and safety research is now essential for radiology as reimbursement is increasingly tied to measures of quality, patient safety, efficiency, and appropriateness of imaging. This article provides an overview of key features necessary to promote successful quality improvement efforts in radiology. Emphasis is given to current trends and future opportunities for directing research. Establishing and maintaining a culture of safety is paramount to organizations wishing to improve patient care. The correct culture must be in place to support quality initiatives and create accountability for patient care. Focused educational curricula are necessary to teach quality and safety-related skills and behaviors to trainees, staff members, and physicians. The increasingly complex healthcare landscape requires that organizations build effective data infrastructures to support quality and safety research. Incident reporting systems designed specifically for medical imaging will benefit quality improvement initiatives by identifying and learning from system errors, enhancing knowledge about safety, and creating safer systems through the implementation of standardized practices and standards. Finally, validated performance measures must be developed to accurately reflect the value of the care we provide for our patients and referring providers. Common metrics used in radiology are reviewed with focus on current and future opportunities for investigation.

  10. Current trends in endotoxin detection and analysis of endotoxin-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Dullah, Elvina Clarie; Ongkudon, Clarence M

    2017-03-01

    Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen that can be found in Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin can form a stable interaction with other biomolecules thus making its removal difficult especially during the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. The prevention of endotoxins from contaminating biopharmaceutical products is paramount as endotoxin contamination, even in small quantities, can result in fever, inflammation, sepsis, tissue damage and even lead to death. Highly sensitive and accurate detection of endotoxins are keys in the development of biopharmaceutical products derived from Gram-negative bacteria. It will facilitate the study of the intermolecular interaction of an endotoxin with other biomolecules, hence the selection of appropriate endotoxin removal strategies. Currently, most researchers rely on the conventional LAL-based endotoxin detection method. However, new methods have been and are being developed to overcome the problems associated with the LAL-based method. This review paper highlights the current research trends in endotoxin detection from conventional methods to newly developed biosensors. Additionally, it also provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and docking programs in the endotoxin-protein analysis.

  11. [Spiritual support in the spirit of current trends in the Israeli healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Ziv, Amitai; Talmi, Rachet; Gary-Cohen, Meirav; Chen, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    This editorial is in response to Bar-Sela, Bentur, Schultz and Corn's article entitled "Spiritual care in hospitals and other healthcare settings in Israel--a profession in the making", published in Harefuah in May 2014. The integration of spiritual support into hospitals marks an interesting trend in light of the current emphases in the Israeli medical system on technological advancement, financial feasibility and quantifiable quality measures. This step is evidence of the importance still attached by policy and decisionmakers to those human aspects of illness and disease, which are difficult to define and measure. "Spiritual Support" is an ancient profession based on the principle, whereby support of the spirit is considered a basic human right, in recognition of the spirit as a source of strength during times of crisis and distress. This service was introduced into the Chaim Sheba Medical Center six years ago for patients with untreatable illnesses, and through identification of commonality between their coping features and those of rehabilitation patients. It was later expanded into the orthopedic and neurological rehabilitation departments. The service is provided on an individual level for the patients and in a group formal for their caregivers. Spiritual support as an integral part of the multi-disciplinary care further ratifies the holistic approach in medical practice, as an everlasting value transcending periodical trends. The conclusion drawn is that technological advancement, the scientific approach, physical-medical treatment, emotional therapy and spiritual support can and should exist side by side to improve the welfare and coping abilities of patients dealing with adverse medical conditions.

  12. Icehouse Effect: A Selective Arctic Cooling Trend Current Models are Missing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The icehouse effect is a hypothesized climate feedback mechanism which could result in human-caused surface cooling trends in polar regions. Once understood in detail, it becomes apparent that these trends, which are discernable in the literature, but have been largely dismissed, do not conflict with the consensus assessment of the evidence, which infers century-scale Arctic warming. In fact, confirmation of the hypothesis would substantially strengthen the argument that there is a detectable human influence on today's climate. This apparent enigma is resolved only through careful attention to the detail of the hypothesis and the data supporting it. The posited surface cooling is entirely dependent on the existence of climate warming in layers capping the stable boundary layer. Also, the cooling is not pandemic, but is selective. It is readily revealed in properly sorted data by making use of the principles of micrometeorological similarity. Specifically, the cooling is manifest under a range of favorable turbulence conditions which can develop and disappear locally on time scales of minutes to hours because of the intrinsically intermittent nature of stable boundary layer turbulence. Because of the fine-scale nature of the processes which produce the cooling, modeling it is a difficult proposition. Vertical resolution on the order of 1 meter is required. Adequate models of intermittent surface fluxes coupled with radiation exchange do not currently exist, not as parameterizations for aggregated systems, nor in large eddy simulation (LES) models. This presentation will introduce the theory. An important testable null hypothesis emerges: the icehouse effect produces a unique signature or "fingerprint" which could not be produced by any other known process. The presence of this signature will be demonstrated using nearly all available Arctic temperature observations. Its aggregate effect is clearly found in Arctic monthly surface temperature trends when sorted by

  13. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  14. [Epidemiologic knowledge and current situation of Chagas disease in the state of Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Kasten, Felipe; Magallón-Gastélum, Ezequiel; Soto-Gutiérrez, Margarita; Kasten-Monges, Marina; Bosseno, Marie-France; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    Chagas disease in the state of Jalisco, Mexico was described for the first time in 1967; however, knowledge on the disease remains in a slow process. Between 1967 and 2006, the disease was described in its acute and chronic forms. The vector species have been identified, and the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has been isolated and genetically characterized. Also, the magnitude of the infection in humans has been determined through serological studies of different populations as well as of blood donors. The up-to-dateness of knowledge of the disease in the state of Jalisco, unveils a necessity of increased research on the epidemiology of Chagas disease as well as on clinical studies to assess the health of individuals and the populations.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neoplasms: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and review of current therapy.

    PubMed

    Aboulafia, D M

    1994-01-01

    The development of cancer in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a devastating event and highlights the role of impaired immunity in the generation of various neoplasms. Improved strategies to suppress viral replication and prevent opportunistic infections generally have enabled patients with HIV to live longer and more productively. Unfortunately, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated neoplasia is increasing. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary central nervous system lymphoma, intermediate- and high-grade B-cell lymphoma, and invasive cervical carcinoma are AIDS-defining conditions and the most commonly encountered malignancies. Recent information suggests an indirect role for HIV in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Effective treatment involves addressing complex variables encountered specifically in patients with AIDS. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of KS and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  16. Friend or foe? The current epidemiologic evidence on selenium and human cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Crespi, Catherine M; Malagoli, Carlotta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.

  17. Epidemiology of job stress and health in Japan: review of current evidence and future direction.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, N; Haratani, T

    1999-04-01

    With the increasing concern about job stress, there is a growing body of literature addressing psychosocial job stress and its adverse effects on health in Japan. This paper reviews research findings over the past 15 years concerning the assessment of job stress, the relationship of job stress to mental and physical health, and the effects of worksite stress reduction activities in Japan. Although studies were conducted in the past using ad-hoc job stress questionnaires, well-established job stressor scales have since been translated into Japanese, their psychometric properties tested and these scales extensively used in recent epidemiologic studies. While the impact of overtime and quantitative job overload on mental health seems moderate, job control, skill use and worksite support, as well as qualitative job demands, had greater effects on psychological distress and drinking problems in cross-sectional and prospective studies. These job stressors also indicated a strong association with psychiatric disorders, including major depression, even with a prospective study design. Long working hours were associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. There is evidence that the job demands-control model, as well as the use of new technology at work, is associated with higher levels of blood pressure and serum lipids among Japanese working populations. Fibrinolytic activity, blood glucose levels, immune functions and medical consultation rates were also affected by job stressors. It is further suggested that Japanese workers tend to suppress expression of positive feelings, which results in apparently higher psychological distress and lower job satisfaction among Japanese workers compared with workers in the U.S. Future epidemiologic studies in Japan should focus more on a prospective study design, theoretical models of job stress, job stress among women, and cultural difference and well-designed intervention studies of

  18. Long-term trends in the development of the epidemiology of breast cancer in the Slovak and Czech Republic with reference to applied screening and international comparisons.

    PubMed

    Ondrusova, M; Muzik, J; Durdik, S; Ondrus, D

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer represents a major problem in oncology and epidemiology, especially because of the growing trends in its incidence, which are most pronounced in countries with historically low levels of incidence of this disease and because of the increasingly unfavorable mortality trends even in some countries where screening has been established. The purpose of this study is to analyse the incidence of breast cancer and resulting mortality in two neighbouring countries with national population-based cancer data in central Europe and to assess possible reasons for any differences discovered. The recorded increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the Slovak and Czech Republic is apparently the result of a westernizing lifestyle. In the Czech Republic the acceleration of the incidence of this disease recorded after 1991 was more pronounced than in the Slovak Republic, which may be influenced especially by the more pronounced increase in the number of mammograms but also by a higher prevalence of risk factors of the disease. After the year 1991 a stabilization of mortality was recorded in both countries. However, this stabilization is not satisfactory but is correlated with the unsatisfactory extent (in the case of the Slovak Republic still unorganized) of screening, with the low number (or unused) mammograms, with slow onset of anti-cancer therapy and with expenditures for health care below the European average. The existing situation with an unfavourable mortality trend in all age groups indicates the importance of implementing intervention measures.

  19. Current trends in pedicle screw stimulation techniques: lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical levels.

    PubMed

    Isley, Michael R; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Leppanen, Ronald E

    2012-06-01

    justification" of intraoperative neuromonitoring"... is the perception that the safety and efficacy of pedicle screw fixation are enhanced..." (Resnick et al. 2005b). However in summarizing a massive (over 1000 papers taken from the National Library of Medicine), contemporary, literature review spanning nearly a decade (1996 to 2003), this invited panel (Resnick et al. 2005b) recognized that the evidence-based documents contributing to the parts related to pedicle screw fixation and neuromonitoring were "... full of potential sources of error ..." and lacked appropriate, randomized, prospective studies for formulating rigid standards and guidelines. Nevertheless, current trends support the routine use and clinical utility of these neuromonitoring techniques. In particular free-run and triggered EMG have been well recognized in numerous publications for improving both the accuracy and safety of pedicle screw implantation. Currently, treatment with pedicle screw instrumentation routinely involves all levels of the spine - lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical. Significant historical events, various neuromonitoring modalities, intraoperative alarm criteria, clinical efficacy, current trends, and caveats related to pedicle screw stimulation along the entire vertebral column will be reviewed.

  20. Periodization in Team Sport Games - A Review of Current Knowledge and Modern Trends in Competitive Sports

    PubMed Central

    Lyakh, Vladimir; Bujas, Przemysław; Witkowski, Zbigniew; Zając, Tomasz; Litkowycz, Ryszard; Banyś, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main goal of this study was to present a review of current knowledge and modern trends in periodization of the training process in team sports. The research objectives were: an analysis of various aspects of periodization of the annual training cycle for elite athletes practicing team sport games, an attempt to determine both the examined and unexamined issues related with periodization of training as well as to indicate directions for further research, and finally, presentation of different training loads and competitions in micro-, meso- and macrocycles. The research consisted of the analysis and generalization of the bibliography, methods of monitoring training and competition loads of the Polish national U17 female soccer team in the seasons 2011/2012 and 2012/2013, as well as of the female basketball division one club in the season 2014/2015. Findings of the present study indicate resolved as well as unresolved aspects of annual training cycle periodization in team sport games and provide information on the types of training and competitive workload planning in micro-, meso- and macrocycles.

  1. Quality management in European screening laboratories in blood establishments: A view of current approaches and trends.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Westgard, James O; Encarnação, Pedro; Seghatchian, Jerard; de Sousa, Gracinda

    2015-04-01

    The screening laboratory has a critical role in the post-transfusion safety. The success of its targets and efficiency depends on the management system used. Even though the European Union directive 2002/98/EC requires a quality management system in blood establishments, its requirements for screening laboratories are generic. Complementary approaches are needed to implement a quality management system focused on screening laboratories. This article briefly discusses the current good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices, as well as the trends in quality management system standards. ISO 9001 is widely accepted in some European Union blood establishments as the quality management standard, however this is not synonymous of its successful application. The ISO "risk-based thinking" is interrelated with the quality risk-management process of the EuBIS "Standards and criteria for the inspection of blood establishments". ISO 15189 should be the next step on the quality assurance of a screening laboratory, since it is focused on medical laboratory. To standardize the quality management systems in blood establishments' screening laboratories, new national and European claims focused on technical requirements following ISO 15189 is needed.

  2. Current Trends in Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Substrate, Inhibitor Reduction, Growth Variables, Coculture, and Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol is one of the most commonly used biofuels in transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gases. S. cerevisiae is the most employed yeast for ethanol production at industrial level though ethanol is produced by an array of other yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. This paper reviews the current and nonmolecular trends in ethanol production using S. cerevisiae. Ethanol has been produced from wide range of substrates such as molasses, starch based substrate, sweet sorghum cane extract, lignocellulose, and other wastes. The inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be reduced by repeated sequential fermentation, treatment with reducing agents and activated charcoal, overliming, anion exchanger, evaporation, enzymatic treatment with peroxidase and laccase, in situ detoxification by fermenting microbes, and different extraction methods. Coculturing S. cerevisiae with other yeasts or microbes is targeted to optimize ethanol production, shorten fermentation time, and reduce process cost. Immobilization of yeast cells has been considered as potential alternative for enhancing ethanol productivity, because immobilizing yeasts reduce risk of contamination, make the separation of cell mass from the bulk liquid easy, retain stability of cell activities, minimize production costs, enable biocatalyst recycling, reduce fermentation time, and protect the cells from inhibitors. The effects of growth variables of the yeast and supplementation of external nitrogen sources on ethanol optimization are also reviewed. PMID:27379305

  3. Gender trends in dental practice patterns. A review of current U.S. literature.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews three recent reports of national gender trends in dental practice patterns. Although the three independent cross-sectional studies were conducted at different points in time, used different sampling strategies, and used similar but independent survey instruments, findings were consistent across studies. In summary: Women dentists are less likely to be married and have fewer children. Women are more likely to assume child rearing and household responsibilities. Women are less likely to be practice owners. Women worked slightly fewer hours per week and weeks per year, and were more likely to take a leave of absence for illness or child rearing. However, women dentists demonstrate a far greater professional work commitment than was previously reported in the literature. Women earn significantly less income from the practice of dentistry, even after controlling for age, practice ownership, hours worked per week, and other personal characteristics. The most current "Gender Wage Gap" estimates range from 57.7% for specialists to 75.4% for general practitioners (8). delta.

  4. Current trends in the treatment of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma – an overview

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma has been recognised as a distinct entity with unique clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. According to WHO 2008 classification it is marked as a variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but shares characteristics with classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetic analysis has shown that amplification of the 9p24.1 region is the disease's specific structural alteration. Aggressive behaviour and a tendency to invade surrounding tissues of the thoracic cavity, often causing superior vena cava syndrome, or pleural or pericardial effusions, are the clinical hallmarks of this disease. For a long period of time it has been considered as a disease with poor prognosis, which responds poorly to the conventional treatment created for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. An elective treatment has not yet been established, but recently the situation has became much more favourable. After the introduction of rituximab the cure rates have risen to over 80%, and the most recent results have demonstrated a new insight with dose-adjusted intensified continuous treatments, in which the cure rates have exceeded 90%. Current trends have led to the introduction of dose-adjusted intensified protocols becoming a standard of care, whereas the use of radiotherapy remains controversial because of the questionable predictive value of post-treatment PET/CT validity. The relapse rate is very low after two years of sustained complete remission. If the disease relapses or is resistant the outcome is very poor regardless of the applied treatment modality. PMID:26843837

  5. ICT-based health information services for elderly people: past experiences, current trends, and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Marschollek, Michael; Mix, Stefan; Wolf, Klaus-H; Effertz, Beate; Haux, Reinhold; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2007-12-01

    Although health information is readily available on the Internet and has changed the way people deal with their health in many ways, the retrieval of relevant information remains problematic, especially for elderly people. With a focus on elderly people, this paper summarizes current trends in consumer health informatics, discusses past and present initiatives providing health-information services, and proposes a future strategy for the design of sustainable services. A systematic literature review and a review of past German and EU projects concerned with health information services for elderly people are given. Many publications focus on health information services for specific diseases and on their quality and semantic accessibility, yet few deal with presenting and customizing health information for elderly and disabled people. Past experiences from Germany suggest that very often the specific needs of this target group are not met, and therefore accessibility remains largely hypothetical. We propose a strategy with five key points for the design of sustainable health-information services for elderly people. More research is needed to customize web-based health information services to the needs of the user group that needs them most urgently - elderly and disabled people.

  6. Current trends in interprofessional education of health sciences students: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rish, Erin; Kim, Sara; Choe, Lapio; Varpio, Lara; Malik, Elisabeth; White, Andrew A; Craddick, Karen; Blondon, Katherine; Robins, Lynne; Nagasawa, Pamela; Thigpen, Allison; Chen, Lee-Ling; Rich, Joanne; Zierler, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    There is a pressing need to redesign health professions education and integrate an interprofessional and systems approach into training. At the core of interprofessional education (IPE) are creating training synergies across healthcare professions and equipping learners with the collaborative skills required for today's complex healthcare environment. Educators are increasingly experimenting with new IPE models, but best practices for translating IPE into interprofessional practice and team-based care are not well defined. Our study explores current IPE models to identify emerging trends in strategies reported in published studies. We report key characteristics of 83 studies that report IPE activities between 2005 and 2010, including those utilizing qualitative, quantitative and mixed method research approaches. We found a wide array of IPE models and educational components. Although most studies reported outcomes in student learning about professional roles, team communication and general satisfaction with IPE activities, our review identified inconsistencies and shortcomings in how IPE activities are conceptualized, implemented, assessed and reported. Clearer specifications of minimal reporting requirements are useful for developing and testing IPE models that can inform and facilitate successful translation of IPE best practices into academic and clinical practice arenas.

  7. Lifelong education for older adults in Malta: Current trends and future visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-04-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their policies. Based on a study carried out between September 2009 and May 2010, this article evaluates the policies guiding late-life education in Malta, as well as the local plethora of learning opportunities for older adult education, and participation rates. The Maltese government is committed to supporting the inclusion of older persons (aged 60+) in lifelong education policies and programmes, to the extent that local studies have uncovered a recent rise in the overall participation of older adults in formal, non-formal and informal areas of learning. While the present and future prospects for late-life education in Malta seem promising, a critical scrutiny of present ideologies and trends finds the field to be no more than seductive rhetoric. Though the coordination of late-life education in Malta does result in various social benefits to older learners and Maltese society in general, it also occurs within five intersecting lines of inequality - namely an economic rationale, elitism, gender bias, the urban-rural divide and third ageism. This article ends by proposing policy recommendations for the future of late-life education.

  8. Current Trends in the Management of Oral Mucositis Related to Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Biswa Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most common toxicities observed during radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for cancers. Mucositis results in sore mouth, altered taste sensation, pain and dysphagia leading to malnutrition. Left untreated, oral mucositis leads to ulceration, orodental infection, bleeding and discontinuation of effective radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Frequent hospitalization, enteral or parenteral nutrition, increased demand for analgesics ultimately account for increased cost of healthcare. Quantification of oral mucositis using standardized grading system is important for appropriate evaluation, reporting and management. In the recent past there is a paradigm shift in the pathobiology of cancer therapy related mucositis. Clear understanding of its pathogenesis is essential for the formulation of effective mucositis care. Numerous drug therapies, radiation techniques and oral care protocols have been tried in the past to reduce oral mucositis, None have proven to be consistently effective. Current trends for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis is multi-targeted treatment supplemented by aggressive oral hygiene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, growth factors and use of specific topical agents to improve treatment of oral mucositis in future. PMID:22570584

  9. MO-A-BRD-00: Current Trends in Y90-Microsphere Therapy: Delivery and Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Yttrium-90 (Y90) microsphere therapy, a form of radiation therapy, is an increasingly popular option for care of patients with liver metastases or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. The therapy directly delivers Y90 microspheres via the hepatic artery to disease sites. Following delivery, a vast majority of microspheres preferentially lodge in the capillary vessels due to their embolic size and targeted trans-arterial delivery – depositing up to 90% of its energy in the first 5 mm of tissue. There have been a number of advances in tomographic imaging within both interventional radiology and nuclear medicine that has advanced therapy planning techniques. Quantitative imaging of Y90 microsphere distribution post-therapy has also seen innovations that have led to improvements in tumor dosimetry and characterization of tumor response. A review of current trends and recent innovation in Y90 microsphere therapies will be presented. Learning Objectives: To present the imaging requirements for Y90 microsphere therapy planning To explain the standard dosimetry models used in Y90 microsphere therapy planning To report on advances in imaging for therapy planning and posttherapy assessment of tumor dosimetry and response.

  10. Current Trends in Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Substrate, Inhibitor Reduction, Growth Variables, Coculture, and Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Tesfaw, Asmamaw; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol is one of the most commonly used biofuels in transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gases. S. cerevisiae is the most employed yeast for ethanol production at industrial level though ethanol is produced by an array of other yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. This paper reviews the current and nonmolecular trends in ethanol production using S. cerevisiae. Ethanol has been produced from wide range of substrates such as molasses, starch based substrate, sweet sorghum cane extract, lignocellulose, and other wastes. The inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be reduced by repeated sequential fermentation, treatment with reducing agents and activated charcoal, overliming, anion exchanger, evaporation, enzymatic treatment with peroxidase and laccase, in situ detoxification by fermenting microbes, and different extraction methods. Coculturing S. cerevisiae with other yeasts or microbes is targeted to optimize ethanol production, shorten fermentation time, and reduce process cost. Immobilization of yeast cells has been considered as potential alternative for enhancing ethanol productivity, because immobilizing yeasts reduce risk of contamination, make the separation of cell mass from the bulk liquid easy, retain stability of cell activities, minimize production costs, enable biocatalyst recycling, reduce fermentation time, and protect the cells from inhibitors. The effects of growth variables of the yeast and supplementation of external nitrogen sources on ethanol optimization are also reviewed.

  11. Manufacture and use of nanomaterials: current status in the UK and global trends.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R J; Chaudhry, M Q; Boxall, A B A; Hull, M

    2006-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the production and use of nanomaterials (NMs), particularly in the UK. Currently, relatively few companies in the UK are identifiable as NM manufacturers, the main emphasis being the bulk markets in metals and metal oxides, and some niche markets such as carbon nanotubes and quantum dots. NM manufacturing in the UK does not reflect the global emphasis on fullerenes, nanotubes and fibres. Some assumptions have been made about the types of NM that are likely to be imported into the UK, which currently include fullerenes, modified fullerenes and other carbon-based NMs including nanotubes. Many university departments, spin-offs and private companies have developed processes for the manufacture of NMs but may only be producing small quantities for research and development (R&D) purposes. However, some have the potential to scale up to produce large quantities. The nanotechnology industry in the UK has strong R&D backup from universities and related institutions. This review has covered R&D trends at such institutions, and appropriate information has been added to a searchable database. While several companies are including NMs in their products, only a few (e.g. manufacturers of paints, coatings, cosmetics, catalysts, polymer composites) are using nanoparticles (NPs) in any significant quantities. However, this situation is likely to change rapidly. There is a need to collect more information about exposure to NPs in both manufacturing and user scenarios. As the market grows, and as manufacturers switch from the micro- to the nanoscale, the potential for exposure will increase. More research is required to quantify any risks to workers and consumers.

  12. The current status and trend of clinical pharmacology in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several international forums for promoting clinical pharmacology in developing countries have been held since 1980, and several clinical pharmacology programmes targeting developing countries were instituted such that the status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries is not where it was 50 years ago. Therefore, a survey and an appraisal of the literature on the current status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries were undertaken with a hope that it would enable development of appropriate strategies for further promotion of clinical pharmacology in these countries. Methods First, nine determinants (or enabling factors) for running a successful clinical pharmacology programme were identified, i.e., disease burden, drug situation, economic growth, clinical pharmacology activities, recognition, human capital, government support, international collaboration, and support for traditional/alternative medicines. These factors were then evaluated with regard to their current status in the developing countries that responded to an electronic questionnaire, and their historical perspective, using the literature appraisal. From these, a projected trend was constructed with recommendations on the way forward. Results Clinical pharmacology services, research and teaching in developing countries have improved over the past 50 years with over 90% of countries having the appropriate policies for regulation and rational use of medicines in place. Unfortunately, policy implementation remains a challenge, owing to a worsening disease burden and drug situation, versus fewer clinical pharmacologists and other competing priorities for the national budgets. This has led to a preference for training ‘a physician clinical pharmacologist’ in programmes emphasizing local relevancy and for a shorter time, and the training of other professionals in therapeutics for endemic diseases (task shifting), as the most promising strategies of ensuring rational use of

  13. [Current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses.

  14. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    PubMed

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn.

  15. Zika virus: Epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from World Olympics and Pilgrimage

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. Results: ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947. It is transmitted mainly through bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Sexual, perinatal and blood-borne transmissions are implicated. ZIKV is incriminated to cause microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The spiky spread of ZIKV and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries which host big MGs with endogenous ZIKV circulation. This put millions of international travelers and local inhabitants at risk of acquiring ZIKV, especially in absence of vaccine until now. Brazil Olympic and Paralympics Games, and Muslims Hajj in Saudi Arabia are important upcoming MGs. Regarding Brazil, swiftly epidemic of ZIKV causes phobia and provokes claims and counter-claims about possible postponing or cancellation of such events. Recommendations: Intensifying ZIKV epidemiological surveillance (sentinel, syndromic, environmental, laboratory and electronic), and conduction of educational programs are required. Controlling Aedes vector (chemically & biologically) is essential. Multidisciplinary cooperation is required to win the war against ZIKV. PMID:27648063

  16. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design…

  17. Current Trends in Retirement: Implications for Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Megan C.; Clancy, Megan E.; Foley, Pamela F.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of emerging trends in retirement, examines demographic trends in the labor force, and provides practical recommendations for working with older workers across cultures (e.g., women and racial/ethnic minorities, and among others). Increasingly, older workers in the United States remain in the workforce for reasons…

  18. Current Trends in the Detection of Sociocultural Signatures: Data-Driven Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2014-09-15

    available that are shaping social computing as a strongly data-driven experimental discipline with an increasingly stronger impact on the decision-making process of groups and individuals alike. In this chapter, we review current advances and trends in the detection of sociocultural signatures. Specific embodiments of the issues discussed are provided with respect to the assessment of violent intent and sociopolitical contention. We begin by reviewing current approaches to the detection of sociocultural signatures in these domains. Next, we turn to the review of novel data harvesting methods for social media content. Finally, we discuss the application of sociocultural models to social media content, and conclude by commenting on current challenges and future developments.

  19. Current Epidemiology and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis: A Multicenter, Prospective, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricia; Kestler, Martha; De Alarcon, Arístides; Miro, José María; Bermejo, Javier; Rodríguez-Abella, Hugo; Fariñas, Maria Carmen; Cobo Belaustegui, Manuel; Mestres, Carlos; Llinares, Pedro; Goenaga, Miguel; Navas, Enrique; Oteo, José Antonio; Tarabini, Paola; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics and identify the risk factors of short-term and 1-year mortality in a recent cohort of patients with infective endocarditis (IE).From January 2008, multidisciplinary teams have prospectively collected all consecutive cases of IE, diagnosed according to the Duke criteria, in 25 Spanish hospitals.Overall, 1804 patients were diagnosed. The median age was 69 years (interquartile range, 55-77), 68.0% were men, and 37.1% of the cases were nosocomial or health care-related IE. Gram-positive microorganisms accounted for 79.3% of the episodes, followed by Gram-negative (5.2%), fungi (2.4%), anaerobes (0.9%), polymicrobial infections (1.9%), and unknown etiology (9.1%). Heart surgery was performed in 44.2%, and in-hospital mortality was 28.8%. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were age, previous heart surgery, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, Staphylococcus or Candida etiology, intracardiac complications, heart failure, and septic shock. The 1-year independent risk factors for mortality were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02), neoplasia (OR, 2.46), renal insufficiency (OR, 1.59), and heart failure (OR, 4.42). Surgery was an independent protective factor for 1-year mortality (OR, 0.44).IE remains a severe disease with a high rate of in-hospital (28.9%) and 1-year mortality (11.2%). Surgery was the only intervention that significantly reduced 1-year mortality.

  20. Epidemiology of primary brain tumors: current concepts and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Minn, Yuriko; Chew, Terri; Bondy, Melissa; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a sufficiently detailed perspective on epidemiologic studies of primary brain tumors to encourage multidisciplinary etiologic and prognostic studies among surgeons, neuro-oncologists, epidemiologists, and molecular scientists. Molecular tumor markers that predict survival and treatment response are being identified with hope of even greater gains in this area from emerging array technologies. Regarding risk factors, studies of inherited susceptibility and constitutive polymorphisms in genes pertinent to carcinogenesis (for example, DNA repair and detoxification genes and mutagen sensitivity) have revealed provocative findings. Inverse associations of the history of allergies with glioma risk observed in 3 large studies and reports of inverse associations of glioma with common infections suggest a possible role of immune factors in glioma genesis or progression. Studies continue to suggest that brain tumors might result from workplace, dietary, and other personal and residential exposures, but studies of cell phone use and power frequency electromagnetic fields have found little to support a causal connection with brain tumors; caveats remain. The only proven causes of brain tumors (that is, rare hereditary syndromes, therapeutic radiation, and immune suppression giving rise to brain lymphomas) account for a small proportion of cases. Progress in understanding primary brain tumors might result from studies of well-defined histologic and molecular tumor types incorporating assessment of potentially relevant information on subject susceptibility and environmental and noninherited endogenous factors (viruses, radiation, and carcinogenic or protective chemical exposures through diet, workplace, oxidative metabolism, or other sources). Such studies will require the cooperation of researchers from many disciplines. PMID:12356358

  1. Cerebral Palsy—Trends in Epidemiology and Recent Development in Prenatal Mechanisms of Disease, Treatment, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stavsky, Moshe; Mor, Omer; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Greenbaum, Shirley; Than, Nandor Gabor; Erez, Offer

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood. This syndrome is the manifestation of intrauterine pathologies, intrapartum complications, and the postnatal sequel, especially among preterm neonates. A double hit model theory is proposed suggesting that an intrauterine condition along with intrapartum or postnatal insult lead to the development of CP. Recent reports demonstrated that treatment during the process of preterm birth such as magnesium sulfate and postnatal modalities such as cooling may prevent or reduce the prevalence of this syndrome. Moreover, animal models demonstrated that postnatal treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs coupled with nanoparticles may affect the course of the disease in pups with neuroinflammation. This review will describe the changes in the epidemiology of this disease, the underlying prenatal mechanisms, and possible treatments that may reduce the prevalence of CP and alter the course of the disease. PMID:28243583

  2. Surveillance of Candida spp Bloodstream Infections: Epidemiological Trends and Risk Factors of Death in Two Mexican Tertiary Care Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Corzo-Leon, Dora E.; Alvarado-Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Cornejo-Juarez, Patricia; Cortes, Jorge; Echevarria, Juan I.; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Macias, Alejandro E.; Nucci, Marcio; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, Maria E.; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Tiraboschi, Iris N.; Zurita, Jeannete; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Larger populations at risk, broader use of antibiotics and longer hospital stays have impacted on the incidence of Candida sp. bloodstream infections (CBSI). Objective To determine clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CBSI in two tertiary care reference medical institutions in Mexico City. Design Prospective and observational laboratory-based surveillance study conducted from 07/2008 to 06/2010. Methods All patients with CBSI were included. Identification and antifungal susceptibility were performed using CLSI M27-A3 standard procedures. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney U test or T test were used as needed. Risk factors were determined with multivariable analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results CBSI represented 3.8% of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Cumulative incidence was 2.8 per 1000 discharges (incidence rate: 0.38 per 1000 patient-days). C. albicans was the predominant species (46%), followed by C. tropicalis (26%). C. glabrata was isolated from patients with diabetes (50%), and elderly patients. Sixty-four patients (86%) received antifungals. Amphotericin-B deoxycholate (AmBD) was the most commonly used agent (66%). Overall mortality rate reached 46%, and risk factors for death were APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 6.94, CI95% = 2.34–20.58, p<0.0001), and liver disease (OR = 186.11, CI95% = 7.61–4550.20, p = 0.001). Full susceptibility to fluconazole, AmBD and echinocandins among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis was observed. Conclusions The cumulative incidence rate in these centers was higher than other reports from tertiary care hospitals from Latin America. Knowledge of local epidemiologic patterns permits the design of more specific strategies for prevention and preemptive therapy of CBSI. PMID:24830654

  3. Epidemiological trends of leprosy in an urban leprosy centre of Delhi: a retrospective study of 16 years.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, P K; Kar, H K; Sharma, P K; Gautam, R K; Arora, T C; Naik, H; Dhir, V

    2011-01-01

    This study was done by collecting the retrospective data from 1994 to 2009 of patients attending the urban leprosy centre attached to the department of dermatology, STD & leprosy of PGIMER & Dr. R M L Hospital, New Delhi. The data was analysed according to age, sex, type of leprosy, leprosy reactions, deformities and relapse and compared with the national figures by comparison of proportions after taking the national data per 10,000 population. A total of 3659 patients attended our ULC (Urban Leprosy Centre) among which 2741 were male and 945 females (M:F-3:1). 669 patients (18.2%) were children. The data analysed show a gradual decline in new case detection rate with a marginal rise in 2005 and 2008. Percentage of MB cases was falling consistently till 2005 after which it showed an abrupt rise. The incidence of type 1 reaction varied from 21% in 1994 to 10% in 2009 in PB patients and from 6% in 1994 to 8% in 2009 in MB patients. The trend of type 2 reactions in MB patients showed a slow declining trend. MDT completion rate showed an impressive improvement from 56% in 1994 to 90% in 2009. The number of patients revisiting the ULC with features of relapse also showed a decrease in number. The pattern of visible deformities showed an almost constant trend similar to national figures. Improved MDT completion rate helps in reducing the disease transmission, severity, reactions and disabilities.

  4. Epidemiology of Trichomoniasis in South Korea and Increasing Trend in Incidence, Health Insurance Review and Assessment 2009-2014

    PubMed Central

    Joo, So-Young; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won Kee; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-01-01

    Trichomoniasis, which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is one of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections; however, limited population-based data are available that describe patterns and trends of the disease. We summarized insurance claims of trichomoniasis cases reported during 2009–2014 to South Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The average annual incidence in South Korea was 276.8 persons per 100,000 population, and a substantial sex-associated variation was observed. The incidence rate among female subjects trended upward over 6 years, that is, it increased from 501 in 2009 to 625.8 in 2014 per 100,000 female population, which indicates a 25% overall increase. This trend was sharpest in the ≥60 years group of female population. However, a 66% decrease in incidence rates was observed among male subjects (23.7 in 2009 to 15.7 in 2014 per 100,000 male population). Further, substantial decrease was observed in the ≥40 years groups of male population. The incidence of trichomoniasis varied across regions and was the highest in Jeju province of South Korea. Overall, as the incidence of trichomoniasis appears to have increased in South Korea during 2009–2014, the disease burden is increasing; hence, there is a need to better understand the disease transmission. PMID:27936227

  5. Long-term trends in the East Australian Current separation latitude and eddy driven transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetina-Heredia, P.; Roughan, M.; van Sebille, E.; Coleman, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    An observed warming of the Tasman Sea in recent decades has been linked to a poleward shift of the maximum wind stress curl, and a strengthening of the poleward flow along the coast of southeastern Australia. However, changes in the East Australian Current (EAC) separation latitude, as well as in the contribution of the EAC, the EAC extension and its eddy field to the total southward transport due to such a strengthening remain unknown. This study uses 30 years (1980-2010) of the Ocean Forecast for the Earth Simulator (OFES) sea surface height and velocity outputs to obtain a three decade long-time series of (i) the EAC separation latitude, (ii) the southward transport along the coast of southeastern Australia (28°S-39°S), and (iii) the southward transport across the EAC separation latitude. A Lagrangian approach is implemented and the spin parameter Ω is used to provide a quantitative distinction between the transports occurring outside and inside (cyclonic and anticyclonic) eddies. Significant positive trends of the low pass southward transports indicate that the intensification of the poleward flow has occurred both within the EAC and in the EAC extension. In addition, a significant increase in southward transport inside and outside eddies is found. Importantly, the contribution of eddy driven transport has a large temporal variability and shows a sharp increase from 2005 onward. Finally our results show that the EAC has not penetrated further south but it has separated more frequently at the southernmost latitudes within the region where it typically turns eastward.

  6. ENDF/B-VII.1 library - current and future trends in reaction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Michal

    2011-10-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.0 library, made available in December 2006, has been the first major release of the US nuclear reaction data library in 16 years. Intensive validation proved generally good performance of the library but a number of deficiencies were discerned. In 2008 CSEWG decided to undertake multi-laboratory effort leading to VII.1 version, which is scheduled for release in December 2011. Highlights of the new library include (i) a consistent set of covariance data, for over 180 materials, targeting explicit needs of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, (ii) new R-matrix based evaluations for several light nuclei, (iii) evaluations for reactions on structural materials in both the fast neutron region and the resonance region, (iv) improvements of resonances regions and thermal cross sections for certain fission products and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd), (v) improvements in minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am, (vi) adoption of JENDL4.0 evaluations for the Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, and some other minor actinides, (vii) fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on 239Pu, and (viii) a new Decay Data sub-library. No significant changes are expected for the major actinides 235,8U and 239Pu, except reverting delayed neutron data to ENDF/B-VI.8 and adding covariances. Current update concerns only the most important neutron, fission yields, and decay data sub-libraries leaving the remaining 11 sub-libraries unchanged. Open issues and trends for the future releases of the ENDF/B will be discussed.

  7. A Study of Current Trends and Issues for Graphics Education: Results from a Five-Year Follow-Up Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales, Alice Y.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 academic year, a survey was conducted to look at current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education (Clark & Scales, 1999). The survey solicited information from the membership of the Engineering Design Graphics Division of the American Society for Engineering Education related to their view of future areas of…

  8. [Immigration from the Maghreb. Notes about the origins and current trends].

    PubMed

    Carchedi, F; Mottura, G

    1996-01-01

    Trends in international migration between Northern Africa and Europe are reviewed. The authors identify three main phases of this migration, which are the pre-colonial, the colonial, and the period since independence. Particular attention is given to migration trends since the development of policies restricting immigration by most European countries following the economic down-turn of the mid-1970s, and in Italy and Spain toward the end of the 1980s. (ANNOTATION)

  9. Understanding and preventing acl injuries: current biomechanical and epidemiologic considerations - update 2010.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Myer, Gregory D

    2010-12-01

    This invited clinical commentary summarizes the current state of knowledge in the area of prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. ACL injuries occur with a four to six fold greater incidence in female compared to male athletes playing the same high risk sports. The combination of increased risk of ACL injury and a 10-fold increase in sports participation since the enactment of Title IX in 1972 has led to an almost epidemic rise in ACL injuries in female athletes. Examination of the mechanisms responsible for this sex disparity in ACL rupture accelerated in the last two decades. A summary of these findings and a synthesis and framework for understanding the results of the intense investigation of this research are detailed herein. This clinical commentary focuses on the current understanding, identification and interventional targeting of the primary neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors associated with the ACL injury mechanism in high-risk individuals.

  10. Time trends in the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of neural tube defects in Liaoning Province, China, 2006-2015: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tie-Ning; Gong, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yan-Ling; Wu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Li, Jing; Li, Li-Li; Zhou, Chen; Huang, Yan-Hong

    2017-02-03

    To evaluate the time trends in the prevalence of neural tube defects and all their subtypes as well as to identify the epidemiological characteristics of these malformations documented in the Liaoning Province of northeast China from 2006 to 2015. This was a population-based observational study using data from 3,248,954 live births as well as from 6217 cases of neural tube defects, 1,600 cases of anencephaly, 2,029 cases of spina bifida, 404 cases of encephalocele, and 3,008 cases of congenital hydrocephalus from 14 cities in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. All analyses were conducted using SPSS software. During the observational period, the prevalence of neural tube defects, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, and congenital hydrocephalus was 19.1, 4.9, 6.2, 1.2, and 9.3 per 10,000 live births, respectively. Significantly decreasing trends were observed in the prevalence of all these malformations except for encephalocele. Notably, relatively higher prevalence rates were found in isolated compared with non-isolated malformations, with significant differences in selected characteristics (e.g., prognosis status, gestational age, and birth weight) between isolated and non-isolated cases of these malformations. The prevalence of neural tube defects showed a downward trend in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. However, more attention should be focused on non-isolated cases in the future because of the severe clinical manifestations. Future prevention efforts should be strengthened to reduce the risk of these malformations, especially the non-isolated subtype, in areas with high prevalence.

  11. Mental health services for Alzheimer's disease. Current trends in reimbursement and public policy, and the future under managed care.

    PubMed

    Bartels, S J; Colenda, C C

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral or psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are strongly related to the use of health care services and result in a significant emotional and financial burden for families. This paper is an overview of major trends in the organization and funding of mental health services for people with Alzheimer's disease, emphasizing specific public policy and reimbursement initiatives that have affected acute and long-term care. Recent trends reflecting increased federal scrutiny of Medicare-reimbursed services and the current and future challenges in providing mental health services to people with Alzheimer's disease within managed care and capitated health plans are also addressed.

  12. Neonatal infections due to multi-resistant strains: Epidemiology, current treatment, emerging therapeutic approaches and prevention.

    PubMed

    Tzialla, Chryssoula; Borghesi, Alessandro; Pozzi, Margherita; Stronati, Mauro

    2015-12-07

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units. The benefits of antibiotic therapy when indicated are clearly enormous, but the continued and widespread use of antibiotics has generated over the years a strong selective pressure on microorganisms, favoring the emergence of resistant strains. Health agencies worldwide are galvanizing attention toward antibiotic resistance in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Infections in neonatal units due to multidrug and extensively multidrug resistant bacteria are rising and are already seriously challenging antibiotic treatment options. While there is a growing choice of agents against multi-resistant gram-positive bacteria, new options for multi-resistant gram-negative bacteria in the clinical practice have decreased significantly in the last 20 years making the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens challenging mostly in neonates. Treatment options are currently limited and will be some years before any new treatment for neonates become available for clinical use, if ever. The aim of the review is to highlight the current knowledge on antibiotic resistance in the neonatal population, the possible therapeutic choices, and the prevention strategies to adopt in order to reduce the emergency and spread of resistant strains.

  13. Current Trends in Retirement: Implications for Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Megan C; Clancy, Megan E; Foley, Pamela F; Cotter, Elizabeth W

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of emerging trends in retirement, examines demographic trends in the labor force, and provides practical recommendations for working with older workers across cultures (e.g., women and racial/ethnic minorities, among others). Increasingly, older workers in the United States remain in the workforce for reasons related to financial security, healthcare, and personal fulfillment. Although retirement trends have become more complex, there is limited empirical literature addressing this issue and the research available does not attend to the needs of a diverse workforce. Therefore, implications for training, practice, advocacy, and research with regards to working with older workers across cultures (e.g., women and racial/ethnic minorities, among others) are provided.

  14. Current Trends in Retirement: Implications for Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Clancy, Megan E.; Foley, Pamela F.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of emerging trends in retirement, examines demographic trends in the labor force, and provides practical recommendations for working with older workers across cultures (e.g., women and racial/ethnic minorities, among others). Increasingly, older workers in the United States remain in the workforce for reasons related to financial security, healthcare, and personal fulfillment. Although retirement trends have become more complex, there is limited empirical literature addressing this issue and the research available does not attend to the needs of a diverse workforce. Therefore, implications for training, practice, advocacy, and research with regards to working with older workers across cultures (e.g., women and racial/ethnic minorities, among others) are provided. Keywords: Cross-cultural/multicultural career issues, career development stages, elderly employees, career/vocational education/guidance PMID:26034345

  15. Gelatinous Transformation of Bone Marrow: A Prospective Tertiary Center Study, Indicating Varying Trends in Epidemiology and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sneh; Gupta, Monica; Singh, Gajender; Batra, Ashima; Dhiman, Pratibha; Abhinav; Chhabra, Sonia; Sen, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GTBM) also known as serous atrophy is a degenerative change in the hematopoietic bone marrow and is a rare well recognized pathological entity. It was earlier described mainly in association with anorexia nervosa and psychiatric eating disorders, but recently it has been reported in ulcerative colitis, tuberculosis, chronic renal diseases, immuno suppressed states (mainly HIV infection), malignancies and Kala azar. Treatment is based on treating the underlying disease. Our objective was to study the epidemiology and pathogenesis of diseases causing gelatinous transformation of bone marrow, at a tertiary center level. A prospective study was conducted on 732 samples of bone marrow aspirate with the aim of identifying gelatinous transformation in bone marrow aspirates which was confirmed by Alcian blue stain at pH 2.5. The presence of this material was correlated with the hematological profile of the patient, the presenting signs and symptoms and provisional clinical diagnosis at initial visit. Incidence of gelatinous transformation was calculated to be nearly 4.8 % and the condition was more common in males (23) as compared to females (12) (Male:Female = 2:1). Forty percent of the cases were seen in children followed by 37 % in adolescents and young adults. The older individuals comprised only 23 % of the cases. The bone marrow was hypocellular in 21 (60 %), normocellular in 10 (28.5 %) and hypercellular in four cases (11.5 %). Five cases with GTBM progressed to aplastic anaemia of which three were in children.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXIV. Trends of in vitro antimalarial drug responses in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ringwald, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In vitro response to chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin was assessed by the radioisotopic microtest in Yaoundé, Cameroon, during 2000-2004 and compared with our previous data obtained during 1996-1999. Based on the cut-off value of 100 nmol/L, 36.3% of isolates were chloroquine-susceptible (N = 175; geometric mean IC(50), 40.3 nmol/L) and 63.7% were chloroquine-resistant (N = 307; geometric mean IC(50), 211 nmol/L). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s from 1996 to 2004, but a significant linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increased proportion of chloroquine-resistant isolates was observed from 1996 (49%) to 2004 (69%). All chloroquine-susceptible isolates and most chloroquine-resistant isolates were susceptible to monodesethylamodiaquine (i.e., IC(50) < 60 nmol/L). Despite the positive correlation between chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine (r = 0.739, P < 0.05), the IC(50)s for monodesethylamodiaquine remained stable during 1997-2004, with no increase in the proportion of monodesethylamodiaquine-resistant isolates. Mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin were equally active against the chloroquine-susceptible and chloroquine-resistant parasites. The responses to these three drugs were positively correlated, and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s was observed during the study period compared with our earlier data in 1997-1999, probably because of their inverse relationship with chloroquine response. The in vitro results were in general agreement with the in vivo response to chloroquine and amodiaquine. In vitro drug susceptibility assay is a useful, complementary laboratory tool for determining the trend of response to drugs for which there is still no established molecular marker and may serve as an early warning system for emerging drug resistance.

  17. PREFACE: National Seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishnan, R.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2013-05-01

    India is going through an era of many changes in its higher education system. Emphasis is being given to research and development initiatives at Universities and colleges. The teaching community is faced with the challenge of coping with both regular academic activities and research initiatives. The teaching faculties need to keep in step with the momentous research output being generated globally. To mold young talent that will be sought after, teachers need to undertake challenging initiatives. Research in emerging areas like nanotechnology, meta materials, functional materials and structures is being pursued vigorously in Universities and colleges in the state of Kerala. Awareness of the impact of integrating teaching and research in basic science has inspired the teaching faculty. The number of seminars and conferences is not commensurate with the amount of research being conducted in this state. The state lags behind in the number of institutes with state of the art facilities and human resource with cutting edge knowledge. The national seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011) is organized by the Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur. It is a continuation of the initiatives of the Department to bridge the haitus between teaching and research. Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2007) was successfully conducted with over 80 research paper presentations and participation of delegates from the states of Karnataka, Andhrapradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala. CTMS-2011 is a sequel envisaged to serve as an effective platform for teachers to interact with eminent scientists and share their knowledge and experience. Papers were invited from the subject area comprising glasses and ceramics, crystal growth, nanotechnology, semiconductors thin films and polymers. We are delighted that after a peer review process of the papers we have selected ten of the best papers presented at the seminar for publication in IOP Conference Series

  18. Measuring biomarkers in wastewater as a new source of epidemiological information: Current state and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Castiglioni, Sara; Bade, Richard; Been, Frederic; Castrignanò, Erika; Covaci, Adrian; González-Mariño, Iria; Hapeshi, Evroula; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; Lai, Foon Yin; Letzel, Thomas; Lopardo, Luigi; Meyer, Markus R; O'Brien, Jake; Ramin, Pedram; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Rydevik, Axel; Ryu, Yeonsuk; Santos, Miguel M; Senta, Ivan; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Veloutsou, Sofia; Yang, Zhugen; Zuccato, Ettore; Bijlsma, Lubertus

    2017-02-01

    The information obtained from the chemical analysis of specific human excretion products (biomarkers) in urban wastewater can be used to estimate the exposure or consumption of the population under investigation to a defined substance. A proper biomarker can provide relevant information about lifestyle habits, health and wellbeing, but its selection is not an easy task as it should fulfil several specific requirements in order to be successfully employed. This paper aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the most relevant biomarkers used so far. In addition, some potential wastewater biomarkers that could be used for future applications were evaluated. For this purpose, representative chemical classes have been chosen and grouped in four main categories: (i) those that provide estimates of lifestyle factors and substance use, (ii) those used to estimate the exposure to toxicants present in the environment and food, (iii) those that have the potential to provide information about public health and illness and (iv) those used to estimate the population size. To facilitate the evaluation of the eligibility of a compound as a biomarker, information, when available, on stability in urine and wastewater and pharmacokinetic data (i.e. metabolism and urinary excretion profile) has been reviewed. Finally, several needs and recommendations for future research are proposed.

  19. Current Developments in Education in Mexico and Trends for the 1980s: A Modified Delphi Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Stanley G.

    Twenty-nine professional educators at the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara and post-graduate students of educational administration participated in a study to identify trends in education based on change in the society and the environment. Researchers used a modification of Delphi Technique, an intuitive method for organizing and sharing the…

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy in College Counseling Centers: Current Trends and Barriers to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugani, Carla D.; Landes, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine trends and barriers in implementation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) programs in college counseling centers (CCCs). Participants were 107 CCC employees who participated in an electronic survey. One third of respondents endorsed use or planned use of DBT at their centers. The most prevalent primary…

  1. Distance Education Programs Preparing Personnel for Rural Areas: Current Practices, Emerging Trends, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, Barbara L.; Brannan, Sara A.

    1999-01-01

    The use of distance education for rural personnel preparation in special education and disability services was examined in the literature on 32 programs. The programs tended to have a narrow focus on graduate education in low-incidence disabilities; needed external support due to high costs; and had demonstrated sustainability. Emerging trends are…

  2. The Current Status and Possible Trends in Teaching Industrial Arts Wood Information at Teacher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jay Mario

    To investigate the present status of the wood area in selected teacher education institutions and to discover possible trends which might be useful in improving the college wood programs, a questionnaire was developed and sent to 122 industrial arts instructors, and the results were compared on a percentage basis. Specific findings were that: (1)…

  3. Teaching the Evolution of the Mind: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in Evolutionary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, James R.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    As the burgeoning field of evolutionary psychology continues to gain exposure and acceptance throughout the psychological community, it is important to explain this field clearly and accurately to students. This article discusses some recent findings and trends in evolutionary psychological research to aid instructors in their efforts to provide…

  4. Teaching Creativity: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in the Psychology of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, the psychological study of creativity has accelerated greatly. To facilitate the teaching of creativity, I provide an overview of the recent literature. The overview begins by discussing recent empirical results and research trends. This discussion specifically treats creativity's cognitive, differential, developmental, and…

  5. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Han, Jun Hee; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Enhi; Kim, Bongyoung

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, P<0.001; 2013, RR, 1.86, P<0.001). In summary, we report that hepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea.

  6. Increasing trend of HIV seropositivity in a sexually transmitted diseases centre and epidemiology of HIV seropositive individuals.

    PubMed

    Ray, K; Ramesh, V; Karmakar, S N; Misra, R S

    1996-01-01

    11,539 STD clinic attenders and 20,897 antenatal clinic (ANC) attenders at a New Delhi hospital were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA over a 3-year period. Results were confirmed by Western Blot. A low HIV seropositivity rate (1 per 1000) with an increasing trend in 1993 (4 per 1000) was observed in the STD attenders as against 0.1 per 1000 in the normal control populations. Most of the STD attenders including all the HIV seropositives had heterosexual contact with female sex workers. Both the HIV seropositive ANC attenders acquired the infection through blood transfusion. Thirteen of 23 HIV positive STD attenders had genital lesions, 5 having ulcerative and 8 having nonulcerative STD. Their clinical presentation did not differ from the HIV negative cases but the therapeutic response in 4 was altered. None had signs of symptoms of ARC/AIDS. Two out of 6 spouses and a 2-year-old child of HIV seropositive patients were seropositive. Increasing HIV seropositivity observed in this study reflects the changing situation in the country and highlights the importance of improvement of surveillance, early diagnosis and combined approaches to the management and control of STDs and HIV.

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Fargnoli, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15–34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000–2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures. PMID:28067779

  8. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease of the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization (TDR), the objective was set to promote and finance research aimed at the development of new methods and tools to control this disease. The well known research institutions in Latin America were the key elements of a world wide network of laboratories that received - on a competitive basis - financial support for projects in line with the priorities established. It is presented the time line of the different milestones that were answering successively and logically the outstanding scientific questions identified by the Scientific Working Group in 1978 and that influenced the development and industrial production of practical solutions for diagnosis of the infection and disease control.

  9. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly

  10. Could smaller really be better? Current and future trends in high-resolution microcoil NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher J; Larive, Cynthia K

    2012-01-01

    NMR is an invaluable analytical technique that provides structural and chemical information about a molecule without destroying the sample. However, NMR suffers from an inherent lack of sensitivity compared to other popular analytical techniques. This trends article focuses on strategies to increase the sensitivity of NMR using solenoidal microcoil, microstrip, and microslot probes. The role of these reduced-volume receiver coils for detection in hyphenated capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) NMR experiments is discussed. Future directions will likely build on work to develop probes containing multiple coils for high-throughput NMR and field-portable instruments.

  11. The development of clinical research training: past history and current trends in the United States.

    PubMed

    Teo, Alan R

    2009-04-01

    This article provides a brief account of the history of the development of training opportunities in clinical research in the United States. It highlights some developments in the clinical research enterprise since World War II and focuses examination on the involvement of the U.S. government and academic sector. Clinical research training is a relatively new academic field, and curricula in the design and conduct of clinical research have only emerged since the 1980s. The growing complexity of clinical trials and the emergence of evidence-based medicine in the last several decades created great demand for clinicians with knowledge of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics. Amidst alarm bells rung by physician-scientist leaders about the endangered species of clinical researchers, numerous proposals and solutions emerged to address these workforce and educational problems in the 1990s. Traditionally, physicians wishing to expand their education had to get a master's degree in public health or participate in unique programs such as the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. Since the 1990s, the National Institutes of Health, through K awards, the Roadmap Initiative, and other funding mechanisms, has furnished tremendous support for the development of clinical research training opportunities from predoctoral immersion programs to degree-granting graduate programs. The author discusses key components of successful clinical research training programs and concludes with empirical recommendations for promoting careers in clinical research.

  12. [Imported severe falciparum malaria in France in 2000-2011: epidemiological trends and the need for new treatments].

    PubMed

    Danis, Martin; Thellier, Marc; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Bricaire, François; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    In France malaria is monitored by the Centre National de Référence (CNR) du Paludisme (French National Malaria Reference Centre). The annual incidence of imported malaria currently ranges from 4 800 to 3 500 cases and has fallen gradually since 2000. However, the proportion of patients with severe P. falciparum malaria is increasing (2.5% in 2000, 7% in 2011), particularly among French residents from sub-Saharan Africa who neglect preventive measures. Overall mortality remains stable at 0.4%, but survival is improving in severe cases. The survival rate is higher among patients of African origin than among Europeans. Nonetheless, between 10 and 20 patients die of malaria every year in France. Two large controlled trials published in 2005 and 2010 showed that IV artesunate, a new treatment for severe falciparum malaria, is associated with a 22-38% absolute reduction in mortality relative to quinine. Artesunate is not licensed in Europe but has been available in France since May 2011 through a named-patient program controlled by the French Agency for Drug Safety [ANSM]. The first 99 patients treated with artesunate up to September 2012 experienced satisfactory efficacy and tolerability. Delayed, sometimes persistent anemia was observed in 13 patients, a rate similar to that noted in recent reports on imported malaria in Europe. This unexpected adverse effect requires further investigation. IV artesunate is now recommended as the first-line treatment for severe falciparum malaria in France.

  13. Sixty years of research of tick-borne encephalitis--a basis of the current knowledge of the epidemiological situation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Benes, C; Danielová, V; Kríz, B

    2011-11-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was isolated for the first time in Central Europe in 1948 from both a patient and Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the area where the patient had been tick bitten (the Beroun area - Central Bohemia) and concomitantly from a TBE patient in Moravia (the Vyskov area). Another priority discovery was alimentary transmission of TBE virus via the milk from tick infected grazing goats that was made during a TBE outbreak in Roznava (SE Slovakia). This outbreak of 660 cases has been the largest of its kind. Both of these discoveries were a challenge to multidisciplinary research into the natural focality of TBE. The results obtained were published by Czech and Slovak authors in the first European TBE monograph (1954) and were the stimulus for further research in this area. From the epidemiological point of view, among others, the impact of meteorological factors (on TBE incidence associated with I. ricinus host-seeking activity) and recreational nature of TBE were clearly defined then. At the same time, TBE became a notifiable disease (since 1971 laboratory confirmed TBE cases only). In the following decades, the phenomenon of natural focality of TBE (including anthropic impacts) was extensively studied and the determinants of high-risk areas in the field were analyzed. The results were used in the creation of I. ricinus and TBE risk prediction maps for the Czech Republic generated for the first time in Europe using LANDSAT 5 satellite data and GIS technology (1990). In the early 1990s (in particular since 1993), similarly to other countries, the Czech Republic reported a sharp rise in TBE cases that continues, with some fluctuations, until now. The cooperation with climatologists in the analysis of historical data, current epidemiological observations, and study of I. ricinus in the field have shown a decisive impact of the ongoing climate change. The analysis of the socio-economic conditions in high-risk areas for TBE has not revealed

  14. Trends in primary production in the California Current detected with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahru, Mati; Kudela, Raphael; Manzano-Sarabia, Marlenne; Mitchell, B. Greg

    2009-02-01

    Several ocean primary production algorithms using satellite data were evaluated on a large archive of net primary production (NPP) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements collected by the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigations program in the California Current. The best algorithm matching in situ data was found by empirically adjusting the Behrenfeld-Falkowski Vertically Generalized Production Model. Satellite-derived time series of NPP were calculated for the California Current area. Significant increase in NPP and Chl-a annual peak levels, i.e., the "bloom magnitude," were found along the coasts of the California Current as well as other major eastern boundary currents for the period of modern ocean color data (1997-2007). The reasons for this increase are not clear but are associated with various environmental conditions.

  15. Current Practices and Future Trends in Neuropathology Assessment for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuing education course on "Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing" (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and non-invasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neu...

  16. Some current trends in Milky Way research (the Henry Norris Russell Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, B. J.

    1983-10-01

    A discussion is presented of the Milky Way Galaxy research trends that have recently established a far greater mass and a greater outward extent for the Galaxy than would have been considered likely only 7-8 years ago. The maximum radius of the Galaxy circa 1975 was believed to be of the order of 20 kpc. The new radius is at least three times, and possibly as much as five times, greater than the earlier value. Attention is given to such pertinent topics as the general luminosity function near the central plane of the disk, space densities at different distances from the galactic plane, the galactic corona, spiral structure studies, giant molecular clouds, and bipolar ejections.

  17. [Current trends in biomedical ethics in the United States of America].

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1990-01-01

    In the United States, contemporary biomedical ethics began to develop in the 1960s, together with the advent of major advances in basic research and clinical application and the establishment of health care entitlement programs. Problems of a moral nature promptly arose in the fields of biology and medicine that have generated ongoing debate. Today, the five topics of greatest importance are the rights and autonomy of the patient, the meaning of the "sanctity of life" as opposed to the "quality of life," interventions in nature, the allocation of resources, and the function of the public in decision-making about health. Ethics committees have been set up in 60% of hospitals to examine the most difficult problems and provide pertinent advice. Another trend that may be very significant in the future is a politicization of bioethical questions and a division into factions that will introduce political rhetoric into the field of medicine.

  18. Engineering pathogen resistance in crop plants: current trends and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans J L; Lund, Ole S; Lyngkjaer, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic crops are now grown commercially in 25 countries worldwide. Although pathogens represent major constraints for the growth of many crops, only a tiny proportion of these transgenic crops carry disease resistance traits. Nevertheless, transgenic disease-resistant plants represent approximately 10% of the total number of approved field trials in North America, a proportion that has remained constant for 15 years. In this review, we explore the socioeconomic and biological reasons for the paradox that although technically useful solutions now exist for providing transgenic disease resistance, very few new crops have been introduced to the global market. For bacteria and fungi, the majority of transgenic crops in trials express antimicrobial proteins. For viruses, three-quarters of the transgenics express coat protein (CP) genes. There is a notable trend toward more biologically sophisticated solutions involving components of signal transduction pathways regulating plant defenses. For viruses, RNA interference is increasingly being used.

  19. Epigenetic modifications of embryonic stem cells: current trends and relevance in developing regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Chung, Henry; Sidhu, Kuldip S

    2008-11-17

    Epigenetics is a growing field not only in the area of cancer research but recently in stem cells including human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research. The hallmark of profiling epigenetic changes in stem cells lies in maintaining pluripotency or multipotency and in attaining lineage specifications that are relevant for regenerative medicine. Epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, play important roles in regulating gene expressions. Other epigenetic modifications include X chromosome silencing, genomic stability and imprinting and mammalian development. This review attempts to elucidate the mechanism(s) behind epigenetic modifications and review techniques scientists use for identifying each modification. We also discuss some of the trends of epigenetic modifications in the fields of directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells and de-differentiation of somatic cells.

  20. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    PubMed

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  1. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY: TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES AND TRENDS

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego da Costa; Kanas, Michel; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the procedures used by knee surgeons in Brazil for treating and rehabilitating anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 21 closed questions was developed, addressing topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The questionnaire was applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 42nd Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology in 2010. Results: A total of 226 surgeons filled out the questionnaire completely. The most commonly used types of graft were hamstrings tendons and the central third of the ipsilateral patellar tendon, which were used by 82.3% and 53.5% of the sample, respectively. The technique of reconstruction with a single transtibial band was the first preference and was used by 66.4% of the participants. A period of 1 to 4 weeks between injury and surgical procedure was considered ideal by most participants (52.65%). Complaints from patients that the knee was ‘giving way’ or unstable and presence of a positive pivot shift maneuver were the most decisive factors considered in making the decision to operate the patient. Patient satisfaction and absence of complaints of instability during the postoperative period were the criteria deemed to be most important for the surgery to be considered a success. Conclusions: There are clearly evolving trends in treating and rehabilitating the anterior cruciate ligament in Brazil. However, more prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefits of these trends. PMID:27042620

  2. Polygenic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  3. Integrating gender and sex to unpack trends in sexually transmitted infection surveillance data in British Columbia, Canada: an ethno-epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Rod; Falasinnu, Titilola; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Small, Will; Goldenberg, Shira; Shoveller, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Surveillance data frequently indicate that young men and women experience high—yet considerably different—reported rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including bacterial infections such as chlamydia. We examined how several sex-based (eg, biological) and gender-based (eg, sociocultural) factors may interact to influence STI surveillance data trends. Methods Employing ethno-epidemiological techniques, we analysed cross-sectional qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2013 about young people's experiences accessing STI testing services in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. These data included 250 semistructured interviews with young men and women aged 15–24 years, as well as 39 clinicians who provided STI testing services. Results The findings highlight how young women are socially and medically encouraged to regularly test, while young men are rarely offered similar opportunities. Instead, young men tend to seek out testing services: (1) at the beginning or end of a sexual relationship; (2) after a high-risk sexual encounter; (3) after experiencing symptoms; or (4) based on concerns about ‘abnormal’ sexual anatomy. Our results illustrate how institutions and individuals align with stereotypical gender norms regarding sexual health responsibilities, STI testing and STI treatments. While these patterns reflect social phenomena, they also appear to intersect with sex-based, biological experiences of symptomatology in ways that might help to further explain systematic differences between young men's and women's patterns of testing for STIs. Conclusions The results point to the importance of taking a social and biological view to understanding the factors that contribute to the gap between young men's and women's routine engagement in STI care. PMID:27566628

  4. Contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and resource utilization of necrotizing fasciitis in Texas: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. There are limited population-level reports on the contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Methods. We conducted a cohort study of Texas inpatient population, identifying hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF during the years 2001-2010. The incidence, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of NF hospitalizations were examined. Results. There were 12,172 NF hospitalizations during study period, with ICU admission in 50.3%. The incidence of NF rose 2.7%/year (P = 0.0001). Key changes between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of NF (5.9 versus 7.6 per 100,000 [P < 0.0001]), chronic comorbidities (69.4% versus 76.7% [P < 0.0001]), and development of ≥1 organ failure (28.5% versus 51.7% [P < 0.0001]). Inflation-adjusted hospital charges rose 37% (P < 0.0001). Hospital mortality (9.3%) remained unchanged during study period. Discharges to long-term care facilities rose from 12.2 to 30% (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The present cohort of NF is the largest reported to date. There has been increasing incidence, chronic illness, and severity of illness of NF over the past decade, with half of NF hospitalizations admitted to ICU. Hospital mortality remained unchanged, while need for long-term care rose nearly 2.5-fold among survivors, suggesting increasing residual morbidity. The sources of the observed findings require further study.

  5. Environmental epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  6. The Assessment of Occupational Competence. l. Competence Assessment in Personnel Selection: Current Practices and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Anne; And Others

    One of seven sections of a report that examines the assessment of occupational competence, this chapter presents competence assessment as it is defined in practice by selection techniques currently used by employers. The chapter begins with a discussion of the major techniques used in employee selection, focusing on the competencies employers…

  7. Children of Current and Former Welfare Recipients: Similarly at Risk. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; Scarpa, Juliet; Zaslow, Martha J.

    This research brief, one of a series being prepared to help inform the public debate surrounding the reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant, uses data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families to examine the outcomes for children of welfare leavers and current welfare recipients; outcomes examined…

  8. Mathematics Education in Rural Communities in Light of Current Trends in Mathematics Education. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James E.

    Despite the considerable efforts now under way to improve our nation's mathematics education for all students, students in rural settings do not receive their share of attention. This paper considers school mathematics in rural communities in the larger context of current reform from a number of perspectives, including curricular materials,…

  9. The Socioeconomic Status of Hispanic New Yorkers: Current Trends and Future Prospects. Pew Hispanic Center Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.

    This report describes major demographic and socioeconomic changes in New York's Hispanic population in the 1990s. Data come from the Current Population Surveys and the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census of Population and Housing. Despite some gains, New York Hispanics were not significantly better off in 2000 than in 1990. New York City's Hispanic…

  10. Behaviour Analysis in Educational Settings in New Zealand: Current Research Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Ted; McNaughton, Stuart

    A state of the art survey provided an overview of approximately ten years of applied behavior analysis research in New Zealand. Research areas identified in an earlier review are updated in this report, and current directions in research activities are identified. General programs, including innovative special education facilities and remedial…

  11. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  12. Biobased adhesives, gums, emulsions and binders: current trends and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers derived from renewable resources are an emerging class of advanced materials that offer many useful properties for a wide range of food and non-food applications. Current state of the art in research and development of renewable polymers as adhesives, gums, binders and emulsions will be ...

  13. The Education of Students with Emotional and Behavior Disabilities in Australia: Current Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Therese M.

    2012-01-01

    A discussion about the current state of special education, more specifically the field of emotional and behavior disabilities (EBD), in Australia cannot take place without first providing an overview of the Australian education system. Education comes under the jurisdiction of state and territory responsibility. The federal government coordinates…

  14. Lifelong Education for Older Adults in Malta: Current Trends and Future Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their…

  15. Environmental radioactivity measurements and applications - Difficulties, current status and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostakis, Marios J.

    2015-11-01

    For several decades natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment have been extensively studied all around the world. Nuclear accidents - mainly that of Chernobyl - have led to the development of the field of radioecology, while detector systems and techniques - with predominant that of γ-spectrometry - have been continuously developed through the years to meet researchers' needs. The study of natural radionuclides that was originally limited to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was then extended to include radionuclides such as 234Th, 210Pb, 235U and 7Be, which allowed the study of radioactive equilibrium. Besides their importance from the radiation protection point of view, many radionuclides are also used as tracers of environmental processes, such as aerosol and transportation of air masses studies (7Be, 10Be, 22Na), soil erosion, sedimentation and geochronology (210Pb, 137Cs), marine ecosystems studies and studies related to climate change. All these studies require specialized samplings strategies and sampling preparation techniques as well as high quality measurements, while the improvement of detection limits is often of vital importance. This work is a review of environmental radioactivity measurements and applications, mainly focused in the field of γ-spectrometry, for which difficulties and limitations will be presented, together with future trends, new challenges and applications.

  16. Ten years after "Worrying trends in econophysics": developments and current challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has made a number of important additions to scientific knowledge. Yet it continues to lack influence with both economists and policy makers. Ten years ago, I and three other economists sympathetic to econophysics wrote a paper on worrying trends within the discipline. For example, its lack of awareness of the economics literature, and shortfalls in the use of statistical analysis. These continue to be obstacles to wider acceptance by economists. Like all agents, policy makers respond to incentives, and economists understand this very well. Much of the econophysics community appears to think that simply doing good science is sufficient to have the work recognised, rather than relating to the motivations and incentives of policy makers. Nevertheless, econophysics now has three major opportunities to advance knowledge in areas where policy makers perceive weaknesses in what they are presented with by economists. All can benefit from the analysis of Big Data. The first is a core model of agent behaviour which is more relevant to cyber society than the rational agent model of economics. Second, extending our understanding of the business cycle, primarily by incorporating the importance of networks into models. Third, devising proper measures of output in cyber society.

  17. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue.

  18. Current trends in the empirical study of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saperstein, Alice M; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) for schizophrenia is a learning-based behavioural skills training intervention designed to enhance neuro and (or) social cognitive skills, with the ultimate goal of generalization to improve psychosocial outcomes. This review summarizes conceptual approaches to CR for schizophrenia and the evidence for efficacy in clinical research settings. Four issues are at the forefront of ongoing research: the identification of techniques that produce the largest cognitive change, delineation of techniques that enhance transfer of cognitive skills to functional skills, the identification of CR methods that can be personalized to meet the specific cognitive and functional needs of each individual, and, all the while, ensuring that when CR methods are developed in a research setting, they remain scalable for delivery in the larger clinical community. In response to these issues, 3 prominent research trends have emerged: the rise of a new generation of computerized restorative cognitive training, the integration of CR with skills training to promote generalization, and the application of techniques to enhance motivation and learning during CR. As data on the neural basis of learning in people with schizophrenia become available, new technologies that harness the ability of the brain to make sustainable, functional changes may be integrated within a therapeutic context that promotes a personalized approach to learning. The development of transportable and scalable methods of CR that maximize the ability of people with schizophrenia to improve cognition will help them achieve personal goals for recovery.

  19. Temperature driven p-n-p type conduction switching materials: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Guin, Satya N; Biswas, Kanishka

    2015-04-28

    Modern technological inventions have been going through a "renaissance" period. Development of new materials and understanding of fundamental structure-property correlations are the important steps to move further for advanced technologies. In modern technologies, inorganic semiconductors are the leading materials which are extensively used for different applications. In the current perspective, we present discussion on an important class of materials that show fascinating p-n-p type conduction switching, which can have potential applications in diodes or transistor devices that operate reversibly upon temperature or voltage change. We highlight the key concepts, present the current fundamental understanding and show the latest developments in the field of p-n-p type conduction switching. Finally, we point out the major challenges and opportunities in this field.

  20. Recent trends for practical rehabilitation robotics, current challenges and the future.

    PubMed

    Yakub, Fitri; Md Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran; Mori, Yasuchika

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents and studies various selected literature primarily from conference proceedings, journals and clinical tests of the robotic, mechatronics, neurology and biomedical engineering of rehabilitation robotic systems. The present paper focuses of three main categories: types of rehabilitation robots, key technologies with current issues and future challenges. Literature on fundamental research with some examples from commercialized robots and new robot development projects related to rehabilitation are introduced. Most of the commercialized robots presented in this paper are well known especially to robotics engineers and scholars in the robotic field, but are less known to humanities scholars. The field of rehabilitation robot research is expanding; in light of this, some of the current issues and future challenges in rehabilitation robot engineering are recalled, examined and clarified with future directions. This paper is concluded with some recommendations with respect to rehabilitation robots.

  1. Regeneration of tissues of the oral complex: current clinical trends and research advances.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thomas T; Mui, Brennan; Mehrabzadeh, Mahsa; Chea, Yannie; Chaudhry, Zoya; Chaudhry, Kamran; Tran, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapy in oral health care is limited by both the body's natural capacity for regeneration and the materials and methods currently available. Research on various aspects of regenerative therapy, such as tissue engineering and stem cell and gene therapy, has produced promising results. Compelling advances, ranging from the discovery and characterization of stem cell populations in oral tissue to the engineering and transplantation of whole tooth structures, could result in exciting new treatment methods for clinicians in the near future. In this review, we discuss the limitations of natural healing and regeneration of various tissues of the oral complex, including teeth, periodontium and salivary glands, and summarize current treatment methods for tissue damage as well as research advances in oral tissue regeneration.

  2. Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Pacsial-Ong, Eden Joy; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and near-term detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described.

  3. Mercury Content of Sediments in East Fork Poplar Creek: Current Assessment and Past Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C.; Eller, Virginia A.; Dickson, Johnbull O.; Earles, Jennifer E.; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Mehlhorn, Tonia L.; Olsen, Todd A.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Watson, David J.; Phillips, Debra H; Peterson, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    This study provided new information on sediment Hg and MMHg content and chemistry. The results support the relevance and potential impacts of other active and planned investigations within the TD project (e.g., assessment and control of bank soil inputs, sorbents for Hg and MMHg removal, re-introduction of freshwater clams to EFPC) and identify gaps in current understanding that represent opportunities to understand controlling variables that may inform future technology development studies.

  4. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  5. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  6. Climate Change Vulnerability and Resilience: Current Status and Trends for Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarraran , Maria E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2010-08-25

    Climate change alters different localities on the planet in different ways. The impact on each region depends mainly on the degree of vulnerability that natural ecosystems and human-made infrastructure have to changes in climate and extreme meteorological events, as well as on the coping and adaptation capacity towards new environmental conditions. This study assesses the current resilience of Mexico and Mexican states to such changes, as well as how this resilience will look in the future.

  7. Surface soil moisture retrievals from remote sensing: Current status, products & future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Ireland, Gareth; Barrett, Brian

    Advances in Earth Observation (EO) technology, particularly over the last two decades, have shown that soil moisture content (SMC) can be measured to some degree or other by all regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a variety of techniques have been proposed to facilitate this purpose. In this review we provide a synthesis of the efforts made during the last 20 years or so towards the estimation of surface SMC exploiting EO imagery, with a particular emphasis on retrievals from microwave sensors. Rather than replicating previous overview works, we provide a comprehensive and critical exploration of all the major approaches employed for retrieving SMC in a range of different global ecosystems. In this framework, we consider the newest techniques developed within optical and thermal infrared remote sensing, active and passive microwave domains, as well as assimilation or synergistic approaches. Future trends and prospects of EO for the accurate determination of SMC from space are subject to key challenges, some of which are identified and discussed within. It is evident from this review that there is potential for more accurate estimation of SMC exploiting EO technology, particularly so, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches between a variety of EO instruments. Given the importance of SMC in Earth's land surface interactions and to a large range of applications, one can appreciate that its accurate estimation is critical in addressing key scientific and practical challenges in today's world such as food security, sustainable planning and management of water resources. The launch of new, more sophisticated satellites strengthens the development of innovative research approaches and scientific inventions that will result in a range of pioneering and ground-breaking advancements in the retrievals of soil moisture from space.

  8. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Kontogianni, Stamatia; Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni'meh; Al-Sari', Majed I

    2015-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens' collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent's educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the results will indicate the measure taking required to avoid accidents occurred in those regions (burns from toxics, cuts from sharps, etc). National policy and legislation development based on the research outcomes will ensure equitable and accessible services are in place in order to move towards a healthier environment. Specialized health education and training programs on national scale are also needed to enhance awareness on hazardous waste.

  9. Improving Control System Security through the Evaluation of Current Trends in Computer Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rolston

    2005-03-01

    At present, control system security efforts are primarily technical and reactive in nature. What has been overlooked is the need for proactive efforts, focused on the IT security research community from which new threats might emerge. Evaluating cutting edge IT security research and how it is evolving can provide defenders with valuable information regarding what new threats and tools they can anticipate in the future. Only known attack methodologies can be blocked, and there is a gap between what is known to the general security community and what is being done by cutting edge researchers --both those trying to protect systems and those trying to compromise them. The best security researchers communicate with others in their field; they know what cutting edge research is being done; what software can be penetrated via this research; and what new attack techniques and methodologies are being circulated in the black hat community. Standardization of control system applications, operating systems, and networking protocols is occurring at a rapid rate, following a path similar to the standardization of modern IT networks. Many attack methodologies used on IT systems can be ported over to the control system environment with little difficulty. It is extremely important to take advantage of the lag time between new research, its use on traditional IT networks, and the time it takes to port the research over for use on a control system network. Analyzing nascent trends in IT security and determining their applicability to control system networks provides significant information regarding defense mechanisms needed to secure critical infrastructure more effectively. This work provides the critical infrastructure community with a better understanding of how new attacks might be launched, what layers of defense will be needed to deter them, how the attacks could be detected, and how their impact could be limited.

  10. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Awais; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Folio, Les R; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy-guided, and (e) machine learning-based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed.

  11. More green infrastructure is required to maintain ecosystem services under current trends in land-use change in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maes, Joachim; Barbosa, Ana; Baranzelli, Claudia; Zulian, Grazia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Vandecasteele, Ine; Hiederer, Roland; Liquete, Camino; Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Mubareka, Sarah; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Castillo, Carolina Perpiña; Lavalle, Carlo

    Green infrastructure (GI), a network of nature, semi-natural areas and green space, delivers essential ecosystem services which underpin human well-being and quality of life. Maintaining ecosystem services through the development of GI is therefore increasingly recognized by policies as a strategy to cope with potentially changing conditions in the future. This paper assessed how current trends of land-use change have an impact on the aggregated provision of eight ecosystem services at the regional scale of the European Union, measured by the Total Ecosystem Services Index (TESI8). Moreover, the paper reports how further implementation of GI across Europe can help maintain ecosystem services at baseline levels. Current demographic, economic and agricultural trends, which affect land use, were derived from the so called Reference Scenario. This scenario is established by the European Commission to assess the impact of energy and climate policy up to 2050. Under the Reference Scenario, economic growth, coupled with the total population, stimulates increasing urban and industrial expansion. TESI8 is expected to decrease across Europe between 0 and 5 % by 2020 and between 10 and 15 % by 2050 relative to the base year 2010. Based on regression analysis, we estimated that every additional percent increase of the proportion of artificial land needs to be compensated with an increase of 2.2 % of land that qualifies as green infrastructure in order to maintain ecosystem services at 2010 levels.

  12. [Genetically modified food (food derived from biotechnology): current and future trends in public acceptance and safety assessment].

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Imai, Hirohisa; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Katoh, Takahiko

    2002-11-01

    Current and future trends regarding genetically modified (GM) crops and food stuffs were reviewed, with a particular focus on public acceptance and safety assessment. While GM foods, foods derived from biotechnology, are popular with growers and producers, they are still a matter of some concern among consumers. In fact, our recent surveys showed that Japanese consumers had become uneasy about the potential health risks of genetically modified foods. Many Japanese consumers have only vague ideas about the actual health risks, and they appear to be making decisions simply by rejecting GM food because of non-informed doubts. Although the debate about GM foods has increased in the mass media and scientific journals, few articles concerning direct studies on the potential toxicity or adverse health effects of GM foods have appeared. The roles of relevant international regulatory bodies in ensuring that GM crops and food are safe are therefore have summarized. Finally, the current debate on use of GM crops in agriculture and future trends for development of GM foods with enriched nutrients, better functionality, and medicinal ingredients, which will be of direct benefit to the consumer, are covered.

  13. Current trends in community-based clinical teaching programs in U.K.and Ireland dental schools.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Christopher D; Ash, Peter J; Chadwick, Barbara L

    2013-05-01

    Community-based clinical teaching/outreach programs using a variety of approaches have been established in many predoctoral dental schools around the world. The aim of this article is to report current trends in the teaching of community-based clinical teaching/outreach teaching in dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In late 2010-early 2011, a questionnaire was distributed by e-mail to deans of the eighteen established dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The questionnaire included both open and closed questions relating to current and anticipated trends in community-based clinical teaching. Fourteen responses were received (response rate=78 percent). All fourteen responding schools reported inclusion of a community-based clinical teaching program. Ten schools indicated that their program was based on total patient (comprehensive) care including the treatment of child patients. In nine schools, the program is directed by a senior clinical academic in restorative dentistry. As well as student dentists, ten schools and seven schools include teaching of student dental therapists and student dental hygienists, respectively. There is a varied experience within the schools surveyed in terms of the extent, nature, and content of these programs. Overall, however, community-based clinical teaching was seen as part of the future of dental school education in many schools as an ideal way of preparing graduates for Dental Foundation Training and subsequent independent practice.

  14. Current trends in negative immuno-synergy between two sexually transmitted infectious viruses: HIV-1 and HSV-1/2.

    PubMed

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Dervillez, Xavier; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Kuo, Tiffany; Zhang, Xiuli; Nagot, Nicolas; Tuaillon, Edouard; Van De Perre, Philippe; Nesburn, Anthony B; Benmohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of effective anti-retroviral therapy, immuno-compromised patients with HIV-1 infection do live long enough to suffer diseases caused by many opportunistic infections, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and/or type 2 (HSV-1/2). An estimated two-third of the 40 million individuals that have contracted HIV-1 worldwide are co-infected with HSV-1/2 viruses, the causative agents of ocular oro-facial and genital herpes. The highest prevalence of HIV and HSV-1/2 infections are confined to the same regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. HSV-1/2 infections affect HIV-1 immunity, and vice versa. While important research gains have been made in understanding herpes and HIV immunity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between HSV-1/2 and HIV co-infection remain to be fully elucidated. Understanding the mechanisms behind the apparent HSV/HIV negative immuno-synergy maybe the key to successful HSV and HIV vaccines; both are currently unavailable. An effective herpes immunotherapeutic vaccine would in turn - indirectly - contribute in reducing HIV epidemic. The purpose of this review is: (i) to summarize the current trends in understanding the negative immuno-crosstalk between HIV and HSV-1/2 infections; and (ii) to discuss the possibility of developing a novel mucosal herpes immunotherapeutic strategy or even a combined or chimeric immunotherapeutic vaccine that simultaneously targets HIV and HSV-1/2 infections. These new trends in immunology of HSV-1/2 and HIV co-infections should become part of current efforts in preventing sexually transmitted infections. The alternative is needed to balance the ethical and financial concerns associated with the rising number of unsuccessful mono-valent clinical vaccine trials.

  15. Current trends in negative immuno-synergy between two sexually transmitted infectious viruses: HIV-1 and HSV-1/2

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Dervillez, Xavier; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Kuo, Tiffany; Zhang, Xiuli; Nagot, Nicolas; Tuaillon, Edouard; Van De Perre, Philippe; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of effective anti-retroviral therapy, immuno-compromised patients with HIV-1 infection do live long enough to suffer diseases caused by many opportunistic infections, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and/or type 2 (HSV-1/2). An estimated two-third of the 40 million individuals that have contracted HIV-1 worldwide are co-infected with HSV-1/2 viruses, the causative agents of ocular oro-facial and genital herpes. The highest prevalence of HIV and HSV-1/2 infections are confined to the same regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. HSV-1/2 infections affect HIV-1 immunity, and vice versa. While important research gains have been made in understanding herpes and HIV immunity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between HSV-1/2 and HIV co-infection remain to be fully elucidated. Understanding the mechanisms behind the apparent HSV/HIV negative immuno-synergy maybe the key to successful HSV and HIV vaccines; both are currently unavailable. An effective herpes immunotherapeutic vaccine would in turn - indirectly - contribute in reducing HIV epidemic. The purpose of this review is: (i) to summarize the current trends in understanding the negative immuno-crosstalk between HIV and HSV-1/2 infections; and (ii) to discuss the possibility of developing a novel mucosal herpes immunotherapeutic strategy or even a combined or chimeric immunotherapeutic vaccine that simultaneously targets HIV and HSV-1/2 infections. These new trends in immunology of HSV-1/2 and HIV co-infections should become part of current efforts in preventing sexually transmitted infections. The alternative is needed to balance the ethical and financial concerns associated with the rising number of unsuccessful mono-valent clinical vaccine trials. PMID:23355766

  16. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Awais; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Folio, Les R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy–guided, and (e) machine learning–based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26172351

  17. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Kontogianni, Stamatia; Abu Nabaa, Hendya; Alshami, Ni’meh; Al-Sari’, Majed I.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Contribution to the scientific literature by examining the relationship between concern for the environment and waste disposal in the frame of household waste treatment mechanism specifically in developing countries. • The awareness of the citizens satisfaction level and the local existing capacities in developing countries significantly contribute to decision making on MSW management sustainability in Palestine and other developing countries when applied. • Identification of the differences and similarities among DC resulting to failures or success in WM field. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) piling up is becoming a serious problem in all developing countries (DC) as a result of inequitable waste collection and treatment. Citizens’ collaboration is partly based on understanding their views and their active involvement in MSW planning; on the other hand the assessment of the perception of hazardousness related with MSW is considered rather important as well since the identification of the weak points of the applied MWM strategy is eased and the level of required training is determined. Researchers implemented a case study in the West Bank (WB) and Gaza Strip (GS) regions of Palestine, taking into consideration previous researches in other developing countries. They reached to safe and useful conclusions regarding the parameters which mean the greatest in the waste management field as far as DC are concerned. Lack of skilled manpower, irregular collection services, inadequate equipment used for waste collection, inadequate legal provisions, and resource constraints are additional factors that are confirmed to be challenging the waste management scenarios in all DCs today. The research takes those factors under consideration but focuses on the educational gap and the results revealed interesting trends a significant relationship between respondent’s educational attainment and their awareness of hazardous waste (hazard perception); the

  18. 8th International Special Session on Current Trends in Numerical Simulation for Parallel Engineering Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Trinitis, C; Bader, M; Schulz, M

    2009-06-09

    In today's world, the use of parallel programming and architectures is essential for simulating practical problems in engineering and related disciplines. Significant progress in CPU architecture (multi- and many-core CPUs, SMT, transactional memory, virtualization support, shared caches etc.) system scalability, and interconnect technology, continues to provide new opportunities, as well as new challenges for both system architects and software developers. These trends are paralleled by progress in algorithms, simulation techniques, and software integration from multiple disciplines. In its 8th year, ParSim continues to build a bridge between application disciplines and computer science and to help fostering closer cooperations between these fields. Since its successful introduction in 2002, ParSim has established itself as an integral part of the EuroPVM/MPI conference series. In contrast to traditional conferences, emphasis is put on the presentation of up-to-date results with a short turn-around time. We believe that this offers a unique opportunity to present new aspects in this dynamic field and discuss them with a wide, interdisciplinary audience. The EuroPVM/MPI conference series, as one of the prime events in parallel computation, serves as an ideal surrounding for ParSim. This combination enables participants to present and discuss their work within the scope of both the session and the host conference. This year, five papers from authors in five countries were submitted to Par-Sim, and we selected three of them. They cover a range of different application fields including mechanical engineering, material science, and structural engineering simulations. We are confident that this resulted in an attractive special session and that this will be an informal setting for lively discussions as well as for fostering new collaborations. Several people contributed to this event. Thanks go to Jack Dongarra, the EuroPVM/MPI general chair, and to Jan Westerholm, Juha

  19. Humanized mouse as an appropriate model for accelerated global HIV research and vaccine development: current trend.

    PubMed

    Ibeh, Bartholomew Okechukwu; Furuta, Yasuhide; Habu, Josiah Bitrus; Ogbadu, Lucy

    2016-09-23

    Humanized mouse models currently have seen improved development and have received wide applications. Its usefulness is observed in cell and tissue transplant involving basic and applied human disease research. In this article, the development of a new generation of humanized mice was discussed as well as their relevant application in HIV disease. Furthermore, current techniques employed to overcome the initial limitations of mouse model were reviewed. Highly immunodeficient mice which support cell and tissue differentiation and do not reject xenografts are indispensable for generating additional appropriate models useful in disease study, this phenomenom deserves emphases, scientific highlight and a definitive research focus. Since the early 2000s, a series of immunodeficient mice appropriate for generating humanized mice has been successively developed by introducing the IL-2Rγ(null) gene (e.g. NOD/SCID/γc(null) and Rag2(null)γc(null) mice) through various genomic approaches. These mice were generated by genetically introducing human cytokine genes into NOD/SCID/γc(null) and Rag2(null)γc(null) mouse backgrounds. The application of these techniques serves as a quick and appropriate mechanistic model for basic and therapeutic investigations of known and emerging infections.

  20. Defining pseudofolliculitis barbae in 2001: a review of the literature and current trends.

    PubMed

    Perry, Patricia K; Cook-Bolden, Fran E; Rahman, Zakia; Jones, Elena; Taylor, Susan C

    2002-02-01

    Pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB) is a chronic inflammatory and potentially disfiguring condition most often seen in men and women of African American and Hispanic origin who have tightly curled hair and who shave or tweeze hairs frequently. The etiology is multifactorial. The shape of the hair follicle, hair cuticle, and the direction of hair growth each play a role in the inflammatory response once the hair is shaven or plucked and left to grow. This reaction often produces painful, pruritic, and sometimes hyperpigmented papules in the beard distribution. The result is an unappealing cosmetic appearance, often with emotionally distressing consequences for affected individuals. The diagnosis is made clinically. Currently, prevention and early intervention are the mainstays of therapy. Many treatment options are available; however, none has been completely curative. In this review, the history, incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, dermatopathology, prevention, and treatment of PFB, including the most current surgical options, will be discussed. In addition, new data on patients with PFB from the Skin of Color Center will be presented.

  1. Revisit of Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation; Current Trends in the Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Muraru, Denisa; Surkova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) as a progressive entity, worsening the prognosis of patients irrespective of its aetiology, has led to renewed interest in the pathophysiology and assessment of FTR. For the proper management of FTR, not only its severity, but also the mechanisms, the mode of leaflet coaptation, the degree of tricuspid annulus enlargement and leaflet tenting, and the haemodynamic consequences for right atrial and right ventricular morphology and function have to be taken into account. A better assessment of the anatomy and function of tricuspid apparatus and tricuspid regurgitation severity should help with the appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from either surgical tricuspid valve repair/replacement or a percutaneous procedure, especially among patients who are to undergo or have undergone primary left-sided valvular surgery. In this article, we review the anatomy, pathophysiology and the use of imaging techniques to assess patients with FTR, as well as the various treatment options for FTR, including emerging transcatheter procedures. The limitations affecting the current approach to FTR patients and the unmet clinical needs for their management have also been discussed. PMID:27482252

  2. Current and predicted trends in the production, consumption and trade of live animals and their products.

    PubMed

    Narrod, C; Tiongco, M; Scott, R

    2011-04-01

    Changes in livestock production, driven by both demand- and supply-side factors, have been significant worldwide. Though historically the developed world was a large supplier of meat and livestock for the developing world, the developing world has rapidly increased production and is meeting more of its growing domestic demand. Many regions of the developing world, however, do not produce enough currently to meet their domestic demand and continue to import more than they produce. There are exceptions, such as Brazil, Thailand, the People's Republic of China and India, where growth in livestock production has been rapid. It is anticipated that in the future many of the developing countries will increase domestic production to meet growing domestic demand. By 2030, beef will probably still be the most significant meat import of developing countries and milk will have more than doubled as a net export of the developed world.

  3. Field of Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions: An Indian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kishore P

    2016-01-01

    Attempting to predict future is dangerous. This is particularly true in medical science where change is a result of chance discoveries. Currently, practicing psychiatrists are aware of deficiencies in psychiatric practice. However, we have a number of genuine reasons for optimism and excitement. Genetics, novel treatment approaches, new investigative techniques, large-scale treatment trials, and research in general medicine and neurology will give better insights in psychiatric disorders and its management. Psychiatric services in rural India can be reached by telemedicine. There are some threat perceptions which require solving and remedying. Subspecialties in psychiatry are the need of the hour. There is also a requirement for common practice guidelines. Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, requires suitable amendments before it is passed in the Indian Parliament. Research in psychiatry is yet to be developed as adequate resources are not available.

  4. Fuel ethanol production from L-arabinose: Constraints, challenges, current status and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, B.C.; Bothast, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Interest in fermentation of L-arabinose to ethanol has increased in recent years because corn fiber contains 11% L-arabinose and is available in sufficient quantities to serve as a low cost feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. Various L-arabinose utilizing yeasts were screened for cost feedstock to produce fuel ethanol of their ability to ferment L-arabinose to ethanol. Most yeasts produced L-arabitol instead ethanol. The optimal conditions for production of L-arabitol in high yield from L-arabinose alone, in mixed sugars and in corn fiber acid hydrolyzate by certain yeasts will be described. In addition, the fermentative performance of an ethanologenic recombinant organism on L-arabinose will be discussed. Current status of microbial fermentation of L-arabinose to ethanol, problems and prospects of ethanol production from L-arabinose by yeasts and future directions of research will be reviewed.

  5. Biodiversity in a changing climate: a synthesis of current and projected trends in the US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Carter, Shawn L.; Cross, Molly S.; Dubois, Natalie S.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Enquist, Carolyn; Griffis, Roger; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; O’Leary, John; Morrison, Scott A.; Sneddon, Lesley; Stein, Bruce A.; Thompson, Laura M.; Turner, Woody

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of the recent literature describing how global biodiversity is being affected by climate change and is projected to respond in the future. Current studies reinforce earlier findings of major climate-change-related impacts on biological systems and document new, more subtle after-effects. For example, many species are shifting their distributions and phenologies at faster rates than were recorded just a few years ago; however, responses are not uniform across species. Shifts have been idiosyncratic and in some cases counterintuitive, promoting new community compositions and altering biotic interactions. Although genetic diversity enhances species' potential to respond to variable conditions, climate change may outpace intrinsic adaptive capacities and increase the relative vulnerabilities of many organisms. Developing effective adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation will not only require flexible decision-making and management approaches that account for uncertainties in climate projections and ecological responses but will also necessitate coordinated monitoring efforts.

  6. Field of Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Kishore P.

    2016-01-01

    Attempting to predict future is dangerous. This is particularly true in medical science where change is a result of chance discoveries. Currently, practicing psychiatrists are aware of deficiencies in psychiatric practice. However, we have a number of genuine reasons for optimism and excitement. Genetics, novel treatment approaches, new investigative techniques, large-scale treatment trials, and research in general medicine and neurology will give better insights in psychiatric disorders and its management. Psychiatric services in rural India can be reached by telemedicine. There are some threat perceptions which require solving and remedying. Subspecialties in psychiatry are the need of the hour. There is also a requirement for common practice guidelines. Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, requires suitable amendments before it is passed in the Indian Parliament. Research in psychiatry is yet to be developed as adequate resources are not available. PMID:28031625

  7. Targeting the mTOR pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma: Current state and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Matthias S.; Decaens, Thomas; Andersen, Jesper B.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, metabolism and aging in response to nutrients, cellular energy stage and growth factors. mTOR is frequently up-regulated in cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is associated with bad prognosis, poorly differentiated tumors, and earlier recurrence. Blocking mTOR with rapamycin and first generation mTOR inhibitors, called rapalogs, has shown promising reduction of HCC tumors growth in preclinical models. Currently, rapamycin/rapalogs are used in several clinical trials for the treatment of advanced HCC, and as adjuvant therapy in HCC patients after liver transplantation and TACE. A second generation of mTOR pathway inhibitors has been developed recently, and is being tested in various clinical trials of solid cancers and has been used in preclinical HCC models. The results of series of clinical trials using mTOR inhibitors in HCC treatment will emerge in the near future. PMID:24308993

  8. Effects of micro- and nanoplastics on aquatic ecosystems: Current research trends and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-17

    Contamination by bulk plastics and plastic debris is currently the one of the most serious environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, small-scale plastic debris such as microplastics and nanoplastics has become leading contributors to the pollution of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Studies are investigating the impacts of micro-and nanoplastics on aquatic organisms and ecosystems worldwide. This review covers 83 studies that investigated the distribution of microplastics and the ecotoxicity of micro- and nanoplastics in marine and freshwater ecosystems. The studies indicated that micro-sized plastics and plastic debris were distributed at various concentrations in aquatic ecosystems around the world. They had various effects on the growth, development, behavior, reproduction, and mortality of aquatic animals. We discuss these studies in detail and suggest directions for future research.

  9. Current Trends about Inner Limiting Membrane Peeling in Surgery for Epiretinal Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, Francesco; Morescalchi, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Gambicorti, Elena; Russo, Andrea; Costagliola, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    The inner limiting membrane (ILM) is the basement membrane of the Müller cells and can act as a scaffold for cellular proliferation in the pathophysiology of disorders affecting the vitreomacular interface. The atraumatic removal of the macular ILM has been proposed for treating various forms of tractional maculopathy in particular for macular pucker. In the last decade, the removal of ILM has become a routine practice in the surgery of the epiretinal membranes (ERMs), with good anatomical results. However many recent studies showed that ILM peeling is a procedure that can cause immediate traumatic effects and progressive modification on the underlying inner retinal layers. Moreover, it is unclear whether ILM peeling is helpful to improve vision after surgery for ERM. In this review, we describe the current understanding about ILM peeling and highlight the beneficial and adverse effects associated with this surgical procedure. PMID:26425352

  10. Current and future trends in biomarker discovery and development of companion diagnostics for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David S; Bustard, Michael J; McGeough, Cathy M; Murray, Helena A; Crockard, Martin A; McDowell, Andrew; Blayney, Jayne K; Gardiner, Philip V; Bjourson, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are complex multifactorial disorders that are chronic in nature and debilitating for patients. A number of drug families are available to clinicians to manage these disorders but few tests exist to target these to the most responsive patients. As a consequence, drug failure and switching to drugs with alternate modes of action is common. In parallel, a limited number of laboratory tests are available which measure biological indicators or 'biomarkers' of disease activity, autoimmune status, or joint damage. There is a growing awareness that assimilating the fields of drug selection and diagnostic tests into 'companion diagnostics' could greatly advance disease management and improve outcomes for patients. This review aims to highlight: the current applications of biomarkers in rheumatology with particular focus on companion diagnostics; developments in the fields of proteomics, genomics, microbiomics, imaging and bioinformatics and how integration of these technologies into clinical practice could support therapeutic decisions.

  11. Anti-HIV Drug Discovery and Development: Current Innovations and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Peng; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-04-14

    The early effectiveness of combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the treatment of HIV infection has been compromised to some extent by rapid development of multidrug-resistant HIV strains, poor bioavailability, and cumulative toxicities, and so there is a need for alternative strategies of antiretroviral drug discovery and additional therapeutic agents with novel action modes or targets. From this perspective, we first review current strategies of antiretroviral drug discovery and optimization, with the aid of selected examples from the recent literature. We highlight the development of phosphate ester-based prodrugs as a means to improve the aqueous solubility of HIV inhibitors, and the introduction of the substrate envelope hypothesis as a new approach for overcoming HIV drug resistance. Finally, we discuss future directions for research, including opportunities for exploitation of novel antiretroviral targets, and the strategy of activation of latent HIV reservoirs as a means to eradicate the virus.

  12. Estimating the success of enzyme bioprospecting through metagenomics: current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Bargiela, Rafael; Streit, Wolfgang R; Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the establishment of industrially relevant enzyme collections from environmental genomes has become a routine procedure. Across the studies assessed, a mean number of approximately 44 active clones were obtained in an average size of approximately 53,000 clones tested using naïve screening protocols. This number could be significantly increased in shorter times when novel metagenome enzyme sequences obtained by direct sequencing are selected and subjected to high-throughput expression for subsequent production and characterization. The pre-screening of clone libraries by naïve screens followed by the pyrosequencing of the inserts allowed for a 106-fold increase in the success rate of identifying genes encoding enzymes of interest. However, a much longer time, usually on the order of years, is needed from the time of enzyme identification to the establishment of an industrial process. If the hit frequency for the identification of enzymes performing at high turnover rates under real application conditions could be increased while still covering a high natural diversity, the very expensive and time-consuming enzyme optimization phase would likely be significantly shortened. At this point, it is important to review the current knowledge about the success of fine-tuned naïve- and sequence-based screening protocols for enzyme selection and to describe the environments worldwide that have already been subjected to enzyme screen programmes through metagenomic tools. Here, we provide such estimations and suggest the current challenges and future actions needed before environmental enzymes can be successfully introduced into the market.

  13. Current Trends in the Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester Chuks

    2012-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract with global distribution. The incidence is on the increase in different parts of the world. In the last 30 to 40 years, research findings have given rise to a more robust understanding of its pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management. The current definition of GERD (The Montreal definition, 2006) is not only symptom-based and patient-driven, but also encompasses esophageal and extraesophageal manifestations of the disease. The implication is that the disease can be confidently diagnosed based on symptoms alone. Nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) remains the predominant form of GERD. Current thinking is that NERD and erosive reflux disease (ERD) are distinct phenotypes of GERD rather than the old concept which regarded them as components of a disease spectrum. Non erosive reflux disease is a very heterogeneous group with significant overlap with other functional gastrointestinal disorders. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD. Esophageal pH monitoring and intraluminal impedance monitoring have thrown some light on the heterogeneity of NERD. A substantial proportion of GERD patients continue to have symptoms despite optimal PPI therapy, and this has necessitated research into the development of new drugs. Several safety concerns have been raised about chronic use of proton pump inhibitors but these are yet to be substantiated in controlled studies. The debate about efficacy of long-term medical treatment compared to surgery continues, however, recent data indicate that modern surgical techniques and long-term PPI therapy have comparable efficacy. These and other issues are subjects of further research. PMID:22844607

  14. A perspective on paper-based microfluidics: Current status and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Ballerini, David R.; Shen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    “Paper-based microfluidics” or “lab on paper,” as a burgeoning research field with its beginning in 2007, provides a novel system for fluid handling and fluid analysis for a variety of applications including health diagnostics, environmental monitoring as well as food quality testing. The reasons why paper becomes an attractive substrate for making microfluidic systems include: (1) it is a ubiquitous and extremely cheap cellulosic material; (2) it is compatible with many chemical/biochemical/medical applications; and (3) it transports liquids using capillary forces without the assistance of external forces. By building microfluidic channels on paper, liquid flow is confined within the channels, and therefore, liquid flow can be guided in a controlled manner. A variety of 2D and even 3D microfluidic channels have been created on paper, which are able to transport liquids in the predesigned pathways on paper. At the current stage of its development, paper-based microfluidic system is claimed to be low-cost, easy-to-use, disposable, and equipment-free, and therefore, is a rising technology particularly relevant to improving the healthcare and disease screening in the developing world, especially for those areas with no- or low-infrastructure and limited trained medical and health professionals. The research in paper-based microfluidics is experiencing a period of explosion; most published works have focused on: (1) inventing low-cost and simple fabrication techniques for paper-based microfluidic devices; and (2) exploring new applications of paper-based microfluidics by incorporating efficient detection methods. This paper aims to review both the fabrication techniques and applications of paper-based microfluidics reported to date. This paper also attempts to convey to the readers, from the authors’ point of view the current limitations of paper-based microfluidics which require further research, and a few perspective directions this new analytical system

  15. A perspective on paper-based microfluidics: Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Ballerini, David R; Shen, Wei

    2012-03-01

    "Paper-based microfluidics" or "lab on paper," as a burgeoning research field with its beginning in 2007, provides a novel system for fluid handling and fluid analysis for a variety of applications including health diagnostics, environmental monitoring as well as food quality testing. The reasons why paper becomes an attractive substrate for making microfluidic systems include: (1) it is a ubiquitous and extremely cheap cellulosic material; (2) it is compatible with many chemical/biochemical/medical applications; and (3) it transports liquids using capillary forces without the assistance of external forces. By building microfluidic channels on paper, liquid flow is confined within the channels, and therefore, liquid flow can be guided in a controlled manner. A variety of 2D and even 3D microfluidic channels have been created on paper, which are able to transport liquids in the predesigned pathways on paper. At the current stage of its development, paper-based microfluidic system is claimed to be low-cost, easy-to-use, disposable, and equipment-free, and therefore, is a rising technology particularly relevant to improving the healthcare and disease screening in the developing world, especially for those areas with no- or low-infrastructure and limited trained medical and health professionals. The research in paper-based microfluidics is experiencing a period of explosion; most published works have focused on: (1) inventing low-cost and simple fabrication techniques for paper-based microfluidic devices; and (2) exploring new applications of paper-based microfluidics by incorporating efficient detection methods. This paper aims to review both the fabrication techniques and applications of paper-based microfluidics reported to date. This paper also attempts to convey to the readers, from the authors' point of view the current limitations of paper-based microfluidics which require further research, and a few perspective directions this new analytical system may take in

  16. Landscape of current and emerging cell therapy clinical trials in the UK: current status, comparison to global trends and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Isabelle; Green, Emma; Sharpe, Michaela; Herbert, Chris; Hyllner, Johan; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Cell Therapy Clinical Trial and Preclinical Research databases have been established by the Cell Therapy Catapult to document current and future cell therapy clinical trials in the UK. We identified 41 ongoing trials in April 2014, an increase of seven trials from April 2013. In addition, we identified 45 late-stage preclinical research projects. The majority of the clinical trials are early phase, primarily led by academic groups. The leading therapeutic areas are cancer, cardiology and neurology. The trends in the UK are also seen globally. As the field matures, more later phase and commercial studies will emerge and the challenges will likely evolve into how to manufacture sufficient cell quantities, manage complex logistics for multi-center trials and control cost.

  17. Current trends of human infections and antibiotic resistance of the genus Shewanella.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, K; Bekal, S; Usongo, V; Touati, A

    2017-03-15

    Shewanella spp. are commonly known as environmental bacteria and are most frequently isolated from aquatic areas. Currently, diseases syndromes and multidrug resistance have increasingly been reported in the genus Shewanella. Some species are associated with various infections, such as skin and soft tissue infections, as well as bacteremia. Generally, these bacteria are opportunistic and mostly affect people with an impaired immune system. This genus is also a probable vehicle and progenitor of antibiotic resistance genes. In fact, several resistance genes and mobile genetic elements have been identified in some resistant species isolated from environmental or clinical settings. These genes confer resistance to different antibiotic classes, including those used in therapies such as β-lactams and quinolones, and are generally located on the chromosome. Recently, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmid harboring several drug resistance genes associated with transposons and integrons has been identified in Shewanella xiamenensis. These antibiotic resistance genes can circulate in the environment and contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review describes different aspects of Shewanella, focusing on the infections caused by this genus, as well as their role in the propagation of antibiotic resistance via mobile genetic elements.

  18. Genetic linkage mapping in fungi: current state, applications, and future trends.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie

    2012-08-01

    Genetic mapping is a basic tool for eukaryotic genomic research. Linkage maps provide insights into genome organization and can be used for genetic studies of traits of interest. A genetic linkage map is a suitable support for the anchoring of whole genome sequences. It allows the localization of genes of interest or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based cloning. While genetic mapping has been extensively used in plant or animal models, this discipline is more recent in fungi. The present article reviews the current status of genetic linkage map research in fungal species. The process of linkage mapping is detailed, from the development of mapping populations to the construction of the final linkage map, and illustrated based on practical examples. The range of specific applications in fungi is browsed, such as the mapping of virulence genes in pathogenic species or the mapping of agronomically relevant QTL in cultivated edible mushrooms. Future prospects are finally discussed in the context of the most recent advances in molecular techniques and the release of numerous fungal genome sequences.

  19. Current trends in mathematical modeling of tumor-microenvironment interactions: a survey of tools and applications.

    PubMed

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A; McCawley, Lisa J

    2010-04-01

    In its simplest description, a tumor is comprised of an expanding population of transformed cells supported by a surrounding microenvironment termed the tumor stroma. The tumor microenvironment has a very complex composition, including multiple types of stromal cells, a dense network of various extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers interpenetrated by the interstitial fluid and gradients of several chemical species that either are dissolved in the fluid or are bound to the ECM structure. In order to study experimentally such complex interactions between multiple players, cancer is dissected and considered at different scales of complexity, such as protein interactions, biochemical pathways, cellular functions or whole organism studies. However, the integration of information acquired from these studies into a common description is as difficult as the disease itself. Computational models of cancer can provide cancer researchers with invaluable tools that are capable of integrating the complexity into organizing principles as well as suggesting testable hypotheses. We will focus in this Minireview on mathematical models in which the whole cell is a main modeling unit. We will present a current stage of such cell-focused mathematical modeling incorporating different stromal components and their interactions with growing tumors, and discuss what modeling approaches can be undertaken to complement the in vivo and in vitro experimentation.

  20. Continuing education course #3: current practices and future trends in neuropathology assessment for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Brad; Garman, Robert H; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen G; Allan Johnson, G; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Krinke, Georg; Little, Peter B; Makris, Susan L; Mellon, R Daniel; Sulik, Kathleen K; Jensen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The continuing education course on Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and noninvasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neuropathologists and regulatory scientists regarding suitable DNT practices. Conventional DNT neuropathology endpoints are qualitative histopathology and morphometric endpoints of particularly vulnerable sites (e.g., cerebral, cerebellar, or hippocampal thickness). Novel imaging and stereology measurements hold promise for automated analysis of factors that cannot be effectively examined in routinely processed specimens (e.g., cell numbers, fiber tract integrity). The panel recommended that dedicated DNT neuropathology data sets be acquired on a minimum of 8 sections (for qualitative assessment) or 3 sections (for quantitative linear and stereological analyses) using a small battery of stains to examine neurons and myelin. Where guidelines permit discretion, immersion fixation is acceptable for younger animals (postnatal day 22 or earlier), and peripheral nerves may be embedded in paraffin. Frequent concerns regarding DNT data sets include false-negative outcomes due to processing difficulties (e.g., lack of concordance among sections from different animals) and insensitive analytical endpoints (e.g., qualitative evaluation) as well as false-positive results arising from overinterpretation or misreading by inexperienced pathologists.

  1. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  2. Surgical margins in breast-conserving therapy: current trends and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Lucchini, Roberta; Santoprete, Stefano; Bistoni, Giovanni; Avenia, Stefano; Triola, Roberto; Avenia, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate surgical margins represent a high risk for adverse clinical outcome in breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for early-stage breast cancer. The majority of studies report positive resection margins in 20% to 40% of the patients who underwent BCT. This may result in an increased local recurrence (LR) rate or additional surgery and, consequently, adverse effects on cosmesis, psychological distress, and health costs. In the literature, various risk factors are reported to be associated with positive margin status after lumpectomy, which may allow the surgeon to distinguish those patients with a higher “a priori” risk for re-excision. However, most risk factors are related to tumor biology and patient characteristics, which cannot be modified as such. Therefore, efforts to reduce the number of positive margins should focus on optimizing the surgical procedure itself, because the surgeon lacks real time intraoperative information on the presence of positive resection margins during breast-conserving surgery. This review presents the status of pre- and intraoperative modalities currently used in BCT. Furthermore, innovative intraoperative approaches, such as positron emission tomography, radio-guided occult lesion localization, and near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging, are addressed, which have to prove their potential value in improving surgical outcome and reducing the need for re-excision in BCT.

  3. Climate Change Vulnerability and Resilience: Current Status and Trends for Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarraran , Maria E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-12-30

    Climate change alters different localities on the planet in different ways. The impact on each region depends mainly on the degree of vulnerability that natural ecosystems and human-made infrastructure have to changes in climate and extreme meteorological events, as well as on the coping and adaptation capacity towards new environmental conditions. This study assesses the current resilience of Mexico and Mexican states to such changes, as well as how this resilience will look in the future. In recent studies (Moss et al. 2000, Brenkert and Malone 2005, Malone and Brenket 2008, Ibarrarán et al. 2007), the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) is used to integrate a set of proxy variables that determine the resilience of a region to climate change. Resilience, or the ability of a region to respond to climate variations and natural events that result from climate change, is given by its adaptation and coping capacity and its sensitivity. On the one hand, the sensitivity of a region to climate change is assessed, emphasizing its infrastructure, food security, water resources, and the health of the population and regional ecosystems. On the other hand, coping and adaptation capacity is based on the availability of human resources, economic capacity and environmental capacity.

  4. [School shootings in Germany: current trends in the prevention of severe, targeted violence in German schools].

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.

  5. Treatment planning for replacing missing teeth in UK general dental practice: current trends.

    PubMed

    Patel, P M; Lynch, Christopher D; Sloan, A J; Gilmour, A S M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the confidence, barriers and attitudes towards the replacement of missing teeth by general dental practitioners (GDPs). The perceived impact of the recently introduced National Health Service (NHS) contract on the provision of prosthodontic treatments was also considered. Pre-piloted postal questionnaires were mailed to 500 GDPs in Wales. Open- and closed-ended questions were utilised to establish confidence, adequacy of training and attitudes towards treatments for replacing missing teeth. Two hundred and seventeen completed questionnaires were received (response rate = 43.4%). Many respondents described themselves as 'confident' or 'very confident' in the provision of removable partial dentures (RPDs) (acrylic = 100%, metal based = 99.5%), cantilever resin-bonded bridges (94.4%) and conventional bridgework (98.6%). GDPs were 'not confident' providing fixed-fixed resin-bonded bridges (21.1%) or implants (81.4%). Financial barriers were identified to the provision of prosthodontic treatments, including comments such as "the new [National Health Service] contract does limit the treatments available". Privately funded patients were more likely to be offered a fixed bridge or implant replacement of a missing upper first molar, whereas non-privately funded patients were more likely to be offered no treatment (P < 0.01). Most respondents reported confidence at providing more routine forms of prosthodontic care such as RPDs and bridges. It appears that funding arrangements may have an impact on treatments offered to replace missing teeth, particularly under the current NHS contract.

  6. Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems.

  7. Spelling with non-invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces--current and future trends.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have become a large research field that include challenges mainly in neuroscience, signal processing, machine learning and user interface. A non-invasive BCI can allow the direct communication between humans and computers by analyzing electrical brain activity, recorded at the surface of the scalp with electroencephalography. The main purpose for BCIs is to enable communication for people with severe disabilities. Spelling is one of the first BCI application, it corresponds to the main communication mean for people who are unable to speak. While spelling can be the most basic application it remains a benchmark for communication applications and one challenge in the BCI community for some patients. This paper proposes a review of the current main strategies, and their limitations, for spelling words. It includes recent BCIs based on P300, steady-state visual evoked potentials and motor imagery. By considering some challenges in BCI spellers and virtual keyboards, some pragmatic issues are pointed out to eliminate false hopes about BCI for both disabled and healthy people.

  8. Current trends for medico-legal disputes related to functional nasal surgery in Italy.

    PubMed

    Motta, S; Nappi, S

    2014-06-01

    The problem of professional liability in case of adverse outcomes or failures secondary to surgery is very sensitive in many countries of the European Community. In Italy, a recent sentence of the Supreme Court concerning a patient who underwent septoplasty raised considerable doubts in relation to the guidance to be followed in disputes related to an alleged professional liability, further exacerbating the juridical orientation of recent years in this context. This ruling involves any surgery, as well as rhinologic surgery, and calls into question most regulatory and legal principles that have traditionally been adopted by the Italian Civil Law. The sentence states that the plaintiff is only required to document the failure of surgical treatment, but not the breach of the duty of care by the surgeon, thus shifting the burden of proof to the physician-debtor. It also considers that, in assessing the degree of negligence, reference should be made to the qualifications of the surgeon, according to principles that are not covered by current regulations, denying that in general surgery (i.e., not with aesthetic purposes) the surgeon must only to act with diligence and need not guarantee a favourable outcome. This series of statements, complementing one another and evolving more unfavourably towards physicians, facilitate legal disputes for speculative purposes through complainants, with obvious health and socio-economic implications.

  9. Current and future trends in the anatomic and functional imaging of head and neck paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Taïeb, David; Varoquaux, Arthur; Chen, Clara C; Pacak, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) account for approximately 3% of all paragangliomas (PGLs). Most often, HNPGLs are benign, non-secreting, and slowly progressing. The initial physical examination and biochemical diagnosis usually adds very little to the proper diagnosis of these tumors and therefore, radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians play the pivotal role in providing the initial diagnosis, the locoregional staging, and the plan for detecting potential multicentric or metastatic lesions. Based on several current studies, the most accurate use of HNPGL-specific initial and subsequent imaging modalities must be guided by the knowledge of genetics and the specifically measured biochemical profile of these tumors for the proper management of these patients. Thus, this short review article presents the application of the most up-to-date anatomic and functional imaging approaches to HNPGLs tightly linked to the clinical management of these patients. Based on the most recent studies, 18F-FDOPA PET/CT has been shown to be a useful addition to anatomic imaging in the preoperative localization and molecular assessment of HNPGLs. It is estimated that the frequency of metabolically active PGLs on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT in this region is higher than 90%. 18F-FDG PET/CT should be reserved for patients with hereditary PGL syndromes. Imaging of somatostatin receptors using Octreoscan or 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs plays an important role for selecting patients for targeted radiation therapy. This review also concludes that it is expected that in the near future, these patients will indeed benefit from new diagnostic approaches based on the identification of new targets by molecular profiling studies that will result in the development of novel PGL specific radiopharamceuticals. PMID:24094713

  10. Current and Future Trends in Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular Targets and PET Probes.

    PubMed

    Alauddin, Mian M; De Palatis, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of pancreatic cancer has been a long-standing challenge in determining prognosis and management of the deadly disease. Although the incidence of pancreatic cancer is low (2% of all malignancies), it is the fourth leading cause of deaths attributable to cancer in the U.S. A major cause for the high mortality rate, which exceeds 85%, is the difficulty in diagnosing the disease early in its development. The relative lack of reliable diagnostic tools to screen patients who are asymptomatic prior to the aggressive progression of disease has been the primary contributing factor in the high mortality rate in this patient population. Indeed, 80-90% of patients with pancreatic cancer have relatively small unresectable tumors at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a highly sensitive diagnostic imaging modality to detect early-stage pancreatic cancer, as this may save the lives of many thousands of patients. Many literature reviews have been published on various aspects of pancreatic cancer, including biology, screening, and therapy; however, limited information is available on early detection, especially the use of highly sensitive modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET). Current [(18)F]FDG/PET imaging combined with CT (PET/CT) lacks the necessary sensitivity and specificity for detection of small lesions (~2-3 mm) of pancreatic cancer that may be resectable and curable. Furthermore, accumulation of [(18)F]FDG in inflammatory tissue is a major problem; therefore, an appropriate PET tracer that is both highly sensitive and specific for carcinoma is necessary for PET imaging of early stage pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on early detection of pancreatic cancer by PET, including new targets and the development and application of new PET tracers.

  11. Thermal plasma waste remediation technology: Historical perspective and current trends. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Counts, D.A.; Sartwell, B.D.; Peterson, S.H.; Kirkland, R.; Kolak, N.P.

    1999-01-29

    The idea of utilizing thermal plasma technology for waste processing goes back to the mid-1970`s during the energy crisis. Since then, more interest has been shown by universities, industry, and government in developing thermal plasma waste processing technology for hazardous and non-hazardous waste treatment. Much of the development has occurred outside of the United States, most significantly in Japan and France, while the market growth for thermal plasma waste treatment technology has remained slow in the United States. Despite the slow expansion of the market in the United States, since the early 1990`s there has been an increase in interest in utilizing thermal plasma technology for environmental remediation and treatment in lieu of the more historical methods of incineration and landfilling. Currently within the Department of Defense there are several demonstration projects underway, and details of some of these projects are provided. Prior to these efforts by the U.S. Government, the State of New York had investigated the use of thermal plasma technology for treating PCB contaminated solvent wastes from the Love Canal cleanup. As interest continues to expand in the application of thermal plasma technology for waste treatment and remediation, more and more personnel are becoming involved with treatment, regulation, monitoring, and commercial operations and many have little understanding of this emerging technology. To address these needs, this report will describe: (1) characteristics of plasmas; (2) methods for generating sustained thermal plasmas; (3) types of thermal plasma sources for waste processing; (4) the development of thermal plasma waste treatment systems; and (5) Department of Defense plasma arc waste treatment demonstration projects.

  12. Computer Assisted Surgery and Current Trends in Orthopaedics Research and Total Joint Replacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirouche, Farid

    2008-06-01

    Musculoskeletal research has brought about revolutionary changes in our ability to perform high precision surgery in joint replacement procedures. Recent advances in computer assisted surgery as well better materials have lead to reduced wear and greatly enhanced the quality of life of patients. The new surgical techniques to reduce the size of the incision and damage to underlying structures have been the primary advance toward this goal. These new techniques are known as MIS or Minimally Invasive Surgery. Total hip and knee Arthoplasties are at all time high reaching 1.2 million surgeries per year in the USA. Primary joint failures are usually due to osteoarthristis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteocronis and other inflammatory arthritis conditions. The methods for THR and TKA are critical to initial stability and longevity of the prostheses. This research aims at understanding the fundamental mechanics of the joint Arthoplasty and providing an insight into current challenges in patient specific fitting, fixing, and stability. Both experimental and analytical work will be presented. We will examine Cementless total hip arthroplasty success in the last 10 years and how computer assisted navigation is playing in the follow up studies. Cementless total hip arthroplasty attains permanent fixation by the ingrowth of bone into a porous coated surface. Loosening of an ingrown total hip arthroplasty occurs as a result of osteolysis of the periprosthetic bone and degradation of the bone prosthetic interface. The osteolytic process occurs as a result of polyethylene wear particles produced by the metal polyethylene articulation of the prosthesis. The total hip arthroplasty is a congruent joint and the submicron wear particles produced are phagocytized by macrophages initiating an inflammatory cascade. This cascade produces cytokines ultimately implicated in osteolysis. Resulting bone loss both on the acetabular and femoral sides eventually leads to component instability. As

  13. Trends in Health Information Technology Safety: From Technology-Induced Errors to Current Approaches for Ensuring Technology Safety

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health information technology (HIT) research findings suggested that new healthcare technologies could reduce some types of medical errors while at the same time introducing classes of medical errors (i.e., technology-induced errors). Technology-induced errors have their origins in HIT, and/or HIT contribute to their occurrence. The objective of this paper is to review current trends in the published literature on HIT safety. Methods A review and synthesis of the medical and life sciences literature focusing on the area of technology-induced error was conducted. Results There were four main trends in the literature on technology-induced error. The following areas were addressed in the literature: definitions of technology-induced errors; models, frameworks and evidence for understanding how technology-induced errors occur; a discussion of monitoring; and methods for preventing and learning about technology-induced errors. Conclusions The literature focusing on technology-induced errors continues to grow. Research has focused on the defining what an error is, models and frameworks used to understand these new types of errors, monitoring of such errors and methods that can be used to prevent these errors. More research will be needed to better understand and mitigate these types of errors. PMID:23882411

  14. The outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use among pregnant and birthing women: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Steel, Amie; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Broom, Alex

    2015-06-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is used by a substantial number of pregnant women and maternity care providers are often faced with the task of ensuring women are using safe and effective treatments while respecting a woman's right to autonomous decision-making. In the era of evidence-based medicine maternity health professionals are expected to draw upon the best available evidence when making clinical decisions and providing health advice. This review will outline the current trends in research evidence associated with the outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine use amongst pregnant and birthing women as well as highlight some potential directions for future development in this important yet largely unknown topic in contemporary maternity care.

  15. Current trends in geomathematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    Geoscience has extended its role and improved its applications by the development of geophysics since the nineteen-thirties, geochemistry since the nineteen-fifties and now, in the late nineteen-sixties, a new synergism leads to geomathematics; again the greatest pressure for change arises from areas of application of geoscience and, as the problems to which geoscience is applied increase in complexity, the analytical tools become more sophisticated, a development which is accelerated by growth in the use of computers in geological problem-solving. In the next decade the problems with greatest public impact appear to be the ones which will receive greatest emphasis and support. This will require that the geosciences comprehend exceedingly complex probabilistic systems and these, in turn, demand the use of operations research, cybernetics and systems analysis. Such a development may well lead to a change in the paradigms underlying geoscience; they will certainly include more realistic models of "real-world" systems and the tool of simulation with cybernetic models may well become the basis for rejuvenation of experimentation in the geosciences. ?? 1970.

  16. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    PubMed

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  17. Taxonomic and functional composition of the algal benthos exhibits similar successional trends in response to nutrient supply and current velocity.

    PubMed

    Larson, Chad A; Passy, Sophia I; Laanbroek, Riks

    2012-05-01

    In an effort to identify the causes and patterns of temporal change in periphytic communities, we examined biomass accumulation, taxonomic and functional composition, rate of species turnover, and pairwise species correlations in response to variability in current velocity and nutrient supply in artificial stream flumes. Divergent patterns in community growth and succession were observed between nutrient treatments and, to a lesser extent, between flow treatments best described by shifts in taxonomic and functional composition. Specifically, understory low profile species, tolerant to low resource supply, became dominant under low nutrients, while overstory high profile and motile species with higher nutrient demands dominated the high nutrient treatments. Increased resource supply or current velocity did not influence the species turnover rate, measured by a time-lag analysis. Interspecific interactions, especially competition, did not appear to be driving community dynamics, as the number of positive and negative pairwise species correlations ranged between low and extremely low, respectively. The overwhelming majority of correlations were not significant, indicating that species within the biofilm matrix were not perceptibly influencing one another. Thus, temporal trends in taxonomic and functional composition were largely environmentally driven, signifying that coexistence in biofilms is defined by the same mechanism along the hierarchy from species to functional groups.

  18. Global Epidemiology of HIV Among Women and Girls Who Use or Inject Drugs: Current Knowledge and Limitations of Existing Data

    PubMed Central

    Larney, Sarah; Mathers, Bradley M.; Poteat, Tonia; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Women and girls who use and inject drugs are a critical population at risk of HIV. In this article, we review data on the epidemiology of drug use and injection among women globally and HIV prevalence among women and girls who use and inject drugs. Results Women and girls comprise one-third of people who use and inject drugs globally. There is substantial variation in HIV prevalence in this population, between and within countries. There is a pronounced lack of data examining HIV risk among particularly vulnerable subpopulations of women who use and inject drugs, including women who have sex with women, transgender women, racial and ethnic minority women, and young women. Women who use and inject drugs experience stigma and discrimination that affect access to services, and high levels of sexual risk exposures. Conclusions There are significant gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of drug use and injecting among women and girls and HIV risk and prevalence in this population. Women are frequently underrepresented in studies of drug use and HIV risk and prevalence among people who inject drugs, limiting our understanding of possible sex differences in this population. Most research originates from developed countries and may not be generalizable to other settings. A great deal of work is needed to improve understanding of HIV among particularly vulnerable subpopulations, such as transgender women who use drugs. Better data are critical to efforts to advocate for the needs of women and girls who use and inject drugs. PMID:25978476

  19. Groundwater Trends and Availability Under Current and Future Groundwater Withdrawals and Climate Scenarios in Semi-arid India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Sishodia, R. P.; Graham, W. D.; Jones, J. W.; Wani, S.; Heaney, J.

    2015-12-01

    Irrigation withdrawals have caused groundwater depletion, decreased surface flows and water quality problems in many parts of the world including India. Anticipated increase in groundwater demand and climate change is likely to exacerbate the problem. This study investigated long term (1990-2012) groundwater level trends in hard rock aquifers of semi-arid south India and used an integrated hydrologic model MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 to analyze the effects of changes in groundwater withdrawals and climate on groundwater and surface water flow and levels. Contrary to the common perception of widespread groundwater declines, statistical trend test results showed significant declines in only 22-36% of the wells in a three district region (3.15 million ha). Free electricity policy for farmers, implemented in 2004, and increased irrigated area were the two main causal factors. Groundwater levels in up to 76% of these wells showed significant decline after the subsidy (2005-2012) indicating the nexus between energy and groundwater. An integrated hydrologic model, developed using long-term monitoring data for a watershed (320 ha) in the region, performed well in simulating surface and groundwater levels. Compared to the current withdrawal scenario, prolonged hydrologic drought and decreased surface flows were predicted under future withdrawal scenarios. Future (2040-2069) climate scenarios from five General Circulation Models (GCMs), showed increased rainfall and flooding in the watershed. Although, projected increase in rainfall under the climate change scenarios is likely to provide opportunities for capture and reuse of surface flows, earlier well drying, and increased frequency and duration of hydrologic drought is likely to affect livelihoods of millions of small-scale farmers in this hard rock aquifer region. Several management options including changes in power subsidy and implementation of efficient irrigation systems, effective institutional mechanism to regulate

  20. Is there a place for drug combination strategies using clinical pharmacology attributes?--review of current trends in research.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2009-09-01

    Drug discovery is the main flag ship of the pharmaceutical industry in order to ensure that innovations constantly occur in the identification and development of novel therapeutic options for the management of diseases. Recently, research trends that take advantage of the safety and efficacy of marketed products by combining such products with other agents to influence certain clinical pharmacology attribute(s) have emerged. The focus of the review is to evaluate ongoing research trends that have considered leveraging on certain clinical pharmacology attributes in the areas of viral infection (HIV and influenza) and oncology. Case studies discussed in this review include: a) the use of probenecid to block the organic anion renal transport of oseltamivir carboxylate (a key active metabolite of oseltamivir phosphate) to reduce the oral dose of oseltamivir phosphate; b) the use of rifampicin to induce the CYP2C19 enzyme and thereby, promote the formation of a potent active metabolite M8 (nelfinavir hydroxyl-t-butylamide) and achieve sustained blood levels to combat HIV infection along with ritonavir; c) the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole, cyclosporin A, ritonavir etc to overcome the extensive presystemic metabolism of docetaxel and enhance the oral bioavailability of docetaxel. Along with the case studies, several hurdles for drug development such as dose selection, frequency of dosing, and duration of the clinical studies, picking the right surrogate(s) for efficacy, evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential with other co-substrates have been discussed in line with the current day requirements for a sound clinical and regulatory strategy. In summary, based on the collated information, a pragmatic approach would render feasibility for a balanced therapy management using combined clinical pharmacology attributes of drugs.

  1. Birth cohort trends in the global epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol-related harms in men and women: systematic review and metaregression

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Swift, Wendy; Keyes, Katherine; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Objective Historically, alcohol use and related harms are more prevalent in men than in women. However, emerging evidence suggests the epidemiology of alcohol use is changing in younger cohorts. The current study aimed to systematically summarise published literature on birth cohort changes in male-to-female ratios in indicators of alcohol use and related harms. Methods We identified 68 studies that met inclusion criteria. We calculated male-to-female ratios for 3 broad categories of alcohol use and harms (any alcohol use, problematic alcohol use and alcohol-related harms) stratified by 5-year birth cohorts ranging from 1891 to 2001, generating 1568 sex ratios. Random-effects meta-analyses produced pooled sex ratios within these 3 categories separately for each birth cohort. Findings There was a linear decrease over time in the sex ratio for all 3 categories of alcohol use and related harms. Among those born in the early 1900s, males were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.5) times more likely than females to consume alcohol, 3.0 (95% CI 1.5 to 6.0) times more likely to drink alcohol in ways suggestive of problematic use and 3.6 (95% CI 0.4 to 30.3) times more likely to experience alcohol-related harms. Among cohorts born in the late 1900s, males were 1.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.2) times more likely than females to consume alcohol, 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.4) times more likely to drink alcohol in ways suggestive of problematic use and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) times more likely to experience alcohol-related harms. Conclusions Findings confirm the closing male–female gap in indicators of alcohol use and related harms. The closing male–female gap is most evident among young adults, highlighting the importance of prospectively tracking young male and female cohorts as they age into their 30s, 40s and beyond. PMID:27797998

  2. HIV among injecting drug users: current epidemiology, biologic markers, respondent-driven sampling, and supervised-injection facilities

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Arasteh, Kamyar; Semaan, Salaam; Wood, Evan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent research done primarily during the past 12 months (i.e., primarily in 2008) on the epidemiology of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs). Recent findings Major research developments include a global assessment of HIV infection among IDUs and evidence of a transition from epidemics concentrated among IDUs to generalized, heterosexual epidemics in eastern Europe and Asia. Intervention research also includes several studies of supervised-injecting facilities. Methodological research includes respondent-driven sampling and the use of hepatitis C virus and herpes simplex virus-2 as biomarkers for injecting and sexual risk. Summary There have been important advances in research during the past year, but HIV infection continues to spread rapidly across many areas of the world among IDUs and their nondrug-using sex partners. PMID:19532069

  3. The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (iCARE): Multinational Registry-Based Investigations of Autism Risk Factors and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Carter, Kim W.; Francis, Richard W.; Gissler, Mika; Grønborg, Therese K.; Gross, Raz; Gunnes, Nina; Hornig, Mady; Hultman, Christina M.; Langridge, Amanda; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Leonard, Helen; Parner, Erik T.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sandin, Sven; Sourander, Andre; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Suominen, Auli; Surén, Pål; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (iCARE) is the first multinational research consortium (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Norway, Sweden, USA) to promote research in autism geographical and temporal heterogeneity, phenotype, family and life course patterns, and etiology. iCARE devised solutions to challenges in…

  4. Epidemiological trends for hospital admissions for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Belgium following the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination and the subsequent switch from lyophilized to liquid formulation of Rotarix™.

    PubMed

    Raes, M; Strens, D; Kleintjens, J; Biundo, E; Morel, T; Vyse, A

    2016-10-01

    This study describes epidemiological trends for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Belgium in children aged ⩽5 years during the period June 2007 to May 2014 after the introduction of routine rotavirus (RV) vaccination. This period encompassed the switch from lyophilized to the liquid formulation of Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in August 2011. Uptake of RV vaccine remained consistently high throughout the study period with Rotarix the brand most often used. RV was present in 9% (1139/12 511) of hospitalized cases with acute gastroenteritis included in the study. Epidemiological trends for hospital admissions for RVGE remained consistent throughout the study period, with no evidence of any change associated with the switch from lyophilized to liquid formulation of Rotarix. This suggests both formulations perform similarly, with the liquid formulation not inferior regarding ability to reduce hospital admissions for acute RVGE in children aged ⩽5 years. A strong seasonal effect was observed with most RVGE occurring in the winter months but with some variability in intensity, with highest incidence found in those aged 6-24 months. The main observation was the decreased number of hospital admissions for RVGE in Belgium that occurred during winter 2013/2014.

  5. Level, Trend and Correlates of Mistimed and Unwanted Pregnancies among Currently Pregnant Ever Married Women in India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mili; Shekhar, Chander; Prashad, Lokender

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy accounts for more than 40% of the total pregnancies worldwide. An Unintended pregnancy can have serious implications on women and their families. With more than one-fourth of the children in India born out of unintended pregnancies such pregnancies are considered to be one of the major public health concerns today. The present study is aimed at determining major predictors of unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant ever-married women in India. The present study has used National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data, conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, to show the trend, pattern and determinants of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression model have been used with the help of Stata 13 software. The results show that the likelihood of a mistimed pregnancy is more prevalent among young women whereas the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy is observed more among the women aged 35 years or more. The results also show that the risk of experiencing mistimed pregnancy decreases if the woman belongs to ‘other’ castes and has higher education. The likelihood of unwanted pregnancy decreases among married women aged 18 years and above, those women having higher education, some autonomy and access to any mode of mass communication. Knowledge of these predictors of mistimed and unwanted pregnancy will be helpful in identifying the most vulnerable group and prioritize the intervention strategies of the reproductive health programmes for the population in need. PMID:26629813

  6. Current trends in nontuberculous mycobacteria infections in Canadian children: A Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Pham-Huy, Anne; Robinson, Joan L; Tapiéro, Bruce; Bernard, Chantal; Daniel, Sam; Dobson, Simon; Déry, Pierre; Le Saux, Nicole; Embree, Joanne; Valiquette, Louis; Quach, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections appear to be increasing in number and severity in developed countries worldwide. Surgical excision has been considered the standard treatment for NTM lymphadenitis, but the use of medical therapy seems to be increasing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the disease characteristics as well as the current therapeutic management of NTM infections in Canadian children. METHODS: Cases of definite or probable NTM infections were identified prospectively in children up to 18 years of age seen in 10 Canadian paediatric tertiary care centres from September 2005 to August 2006. Clinical, microbiological and pathological data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 60 cases were identified. Data were complete for 45 patients, including 34 cases of lymphadenitis, four cases of skin and soft tissue infection, and seven cases of pulmonary NTM infection. Seventy-nine per cent of children (27 of 34) with lymphadenitis had an unsuccessful course of antibiotics before diagnosis. Sixty-eight per cent of purified protein derivative tests (15 of 22) were positive. NTM was detected in 76% of samples (29 of 38), of which 62% were Mycobacterium avium complex. All patients with lymphadenitis underwent surgical therapy and most patients (74%) also received antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: Current trends indicate that the majority of the study centres are using medical therapy with variable regimen and duration as an adjunct to surgical excision in the treatment of NTM lymphadenitis. Larger numbers and longer follow-up times are needed to better evaluate the efficacy of medical therapy and outcome of disease. A randomized controlled study comparing surgical therapy alone and chemotherapy for NTM lymphadenitis is required. PMID:21532791

  7. Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination. I. Epidemiology and current control efforts

    PubMed Central

    Yeka, Adoke; Gasasira, Anne; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Achan, Jane; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Nsobya, Sam; Staedke, Sarah G.; Donnelly, Martin J.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Talisuna, Ambrose; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the leading health problems of the developing world, and Uganda bears a particularly large burden from the disease. Our understanding is limited by a lack of reliable data, but it is clear that the prevalence of malaria infection, incidence of disease, and mortality from severe malaria all remain very high. Uganda has made progress in implementing key malaria control measures, in particular distribution of insecticide impregnated bednets, indoor residual spraying of insecticides, utilization of artemisinin-based combination therapy to treat uncomplicated malaria, and provision of intermittent preventive therapy for pregnant women. However, despite enthusiasm regarding the potential for the elimination of malaria in other areas, there is no convincing evidence that the burden of malaria has decreased in Uganda in recent years. Major challenges to malaria control in Uganda include very high malaria transmission intensity, inadequate health care resources, a weak health system, inadequate understanding of malaria epidemiology and the impact of control interventions, increasing resistance of parasites to drugs and of mosquitoes to insecticides, inappropriate case management, inadequate utilization of drugs to prevent malaria, and inadequate epidemic preparedness and response. Despite these challenges, prospects for the control of malaria have improved, and with attention to underlying challenges, progress toward the control of malaria in Uganda can be expected. PMID:21420377

  8. Current epidemiology and clinical practice in arboviral infections – implications on blood supply in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gan, V C H; Leo, Y-S

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are a growing threat to global health. Complex vector–virus–host interactions lead to unpredictable epidemiological patterns. Difficulties in accurate surveillance including imperfect diagnostic tools impair effective response to outbreaks. With arboviral infections causing a wide spectrum of disease severity, from asymptomatic infection to fatal neuroinvasive and haemorrhagic fevers, the potential impact on blood safety is significant. Asymptomatic or presymptomatic individuals may introduce virus into the blood supply by donation, while recipients can potentially suffer severe consequences. Dengue, West Nile and chikungunya outbreaks have led to responses by blood transfusion services which can inform future planning. Reports of transfusion-associated transmission demonstrate the potentially fatal consequences of lack of haemovigilance. South-East Asia remains vulnerable to arboviruses with permissive climate and high levels of endemic transmission as well as the potential for emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases. Resource limitations constrain the use of expensive technologies for donor screening. Continued surveillance and research will be required to manage the arboviral threat to the blood supply. PMID:25210534

  9. Preventing preterm births: trends and potential reductions with current interventionsin 39 very high human development index countries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hannah H.; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y.; Howson, Christopher P.; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M.; Lee, Shoo K.; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C.; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Each year,1.1 million babies die from prematurity, andmany survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are preterm(<37 weeks’ gestation),withtwo decades of increasing ratesinalmost all countries with reliable data. Improved care of babies has reduced mortality in high-income countries, although effective interventions have yet to be scaled-up in most low-income countries. A 50% reduction goal for preterm-specific mortality by 2025 has been set in the “Born Too Soon” report. However, for preterm birth prevention,understanding of drivers and potential impact of preventive interventions is limited. We examine trends and estimate the potential reduction in preterm birthsforvery high human development index (VHHDI) countries if current evidence-based interventions were widely implemented. This analysis is to inform a “Born Too Soon” rate reduction target. Methods Countries were assessed for inclusion based on availability and quality ofpreterm prevalence data (2000-2010), and trend analyses with projections undertaken. We analysed drivers of rate increases in the USA, 1998-2004. For 39 VHHDI countrieswith >10,000 births, country-by-country analyses were performed based on target population, incremental coverage increase,and intervention efficacy. Cost savings were estimated based on reported costs for preterm care in the USAadjusted usingWorld Bank purchasing power parity. Findings From 2010, even if all VHHDI countries achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers, (Sweden and Netherlands), 2000-2010 or 2005-2010(Lithuania, Estonia)), rates would experience a relative reduction of<5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries.Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1998-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers includeinductions/cesareandelivery and ART.For all 39 VHHDI countries, five interventionsmodeling at high coveragepredicted 5%preterm birth rate relative reduction from 9

  10. Current trends in green liquid chromatography for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environmental water compartments.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Heba; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry is an aspect of green chemistry which introduced in the late nineties. The main objectives of green analytical chemistry are to obtain new analytical technologies or to modify an old method to incorporate procedures that use less hazardous chemicals. There are several approaches to achieve this goal such as using environmentally benign solvents and reagents, reducing the chromatographic separation times and miniaturization of analytical devices. Traditional methods used for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds require large volumes of organic solvents and generate large amounts of waste. Most of them are volatile and harmful to the environment. With the awareness about the environment, the development of green technologies has been receiving increasing attention aiming at eliminating or reducing the amount of organic solvents consumed everyday worldwide without loss in chromatographic performance. This review provides the state of the art of green analytical methodologies for environmental analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aquatic environment with special emphasis on strategies for greening liquid chromatography (LC). The current trends of fast LC applied to environmental analysis, including elevated mobile phase temperature, as well as different column technologies such as monolithic columns, fully porous sub-2 μm and superficially porous particles are presented. In addition, green aspects of gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) will be discussed. We pay special attention to new green approaches such as automation, miniaturization, direct analysis and the possibility of locating the chromatograph on-line or at-line as a step forward in reducing the environmental impact of chromatographic analyses.

  11. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  12. Current outlook of childhood cancer epidemiology in a middle-income country under a public health insurance program.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Velasco-Hidalgo, Liliana; Zapata-Tarrés, Marta; Cárdenas-Cardos, Rocío; Aguilar-Ortiz, Marco R

    2017-03-13

    In Mexico, childhood cancer (0-18 years) is treated in a multidisciplinary way while providing care for more than half of the affected children through a public medical insurance. This insurance is given to all children who do not have any health care coverage in Mexico. This program is offered to the poorest of all Mexicans. All the children with this disease are submitted to pathology diagnosis and treatment according to national treatment protocols from 57 accredited medical institutions. From 2007 to 2015, a total of 24,039 children with cancer have been registered; the male gender predominates by 55%. The highest incidence was in the group aged between 0 and 4 years. Every year, there has been an increment in registration. In 2015, there were 3,433 new patients with an incidence of 150.1/million. In the same year, the incidence for all types of leukemia increased to 89.5/million. But for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the incidence was found to be 79.8/million, which is extremely high. The mortality rate for all these patients in 2015 was 5.3/100,000. However, with regard to children aged between 15 and 18 years, the mortality rate was 8.5/100,000. Abandonment rate was 10%, and there were nine state institutions that had a mortality rate between 25% and 50% among their patients. Coincidentally, as per the Human Development Index, the parameters for education, health, and income were low for those nine institutions. The purpose of this work is to show the epidemiology and the burden we are facing due to this disease.

  13. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  14. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report I. Internal Consistencies and Relationships to Performance By Site. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorella, Patricia A.; Bowers, David G.

    Analyses preparatory to construction of a suitable file for generating a system of future performance trend indicators are described. Such a system falls into the category of a current value approach to human resources accounting. It requires that there be a substantial body of data which: (1) uses the work group or unit, not the individual, as…

  15. [An epidemiological analysis of the trends in laryngeal cancer mortality and morbidity in Spain and the Commune of Valencia (1977-1985)].

    PubMed

    Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis González, A; Moreno Guillén, E; Megía Sanz, M J

    1992-01-01

    An epidemiological study is made of the evolution of cancer of the larynx in the Valencia Community (Spain) in comparison with the nationwide situation, during the period 1977-1985. Both morbidity and mortality are evaluated based on the data published by the National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística INE). Indirect data standardization was decided on, given the lack of information by age groups. The results reveal an increase in the incidence during the study period in all provinces--both morbidity and mortality standing out in the province of Castellón; in Alicante the figures were lower in comparison with the national values.

  16. Epidemiological trends and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from stool cultures in two different populations in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Itai; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Leibovitz, Eugene; Broides, Arnon

    2014-03-01

    Southern Israel is inhabited by Bedouins, living in conditions similar to developing countries and Jews, living in conditions similar to developed countries. We determined the epidemiology of Shigella spp. in these populations. We retrospectively reviewed Shigella spp. stool isolations between 2005-2009. Overall, 3295 isolates were analyzed. S. sonnei was isolated in 2057/3295 (62.4%) and S. flexneri in 1058 (32.1%). S. sonnei was isolated in 1567/1707 (91.8%) from Jewish patients and S. flexneri in 931/1542 (60.4%) from Bedouin patients. Ampicillin resistance increased linearly from 217/373 (58.2%) in 2005 to 186/256 (72.7%) in 2009, (P < 0.001). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance decreased linearly from 328/373 (87.9%) in 2005 to 133/256 (51.9%) in 2009 (P < 0.001). Higher resistance of Shigella spp. to ampicilin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were found in Jewish patients: 1527/1706 (89.5%) versus 977/1542 (63.4%) (P < 0.0001), 1635/1706 (95.8%) versus 1026/1542 (66.5%) (P < 0.0001). The epidemiology of Shigella spp. infections can differ in populations residing in the same geographical area.

  17. [Carbapenemases in gram-negative bacteria. Current data and trends of resistance resulting from the work of national reference centres].

    PubMed

    Kaase, M

    2012-11-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria is one of the major challenges of the present. Since 2009, the National Reference Laboratory for gram-negative nosocomial pathogens has observed the molecular epidemiology of carbapenemases in Germany. In 2011, 1,454 referred bacterial isolates were tested for the presence of carbapenemases. Carbapenemase was found in 34.4% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, in 19.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and in 96.3% of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The most frequent carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae were OXA-48, KPC and VIM-1; in P. aeruginosa it was VIM-2 and in A. baumannii OXA-23.

  18. Epidemiologic study of Holstein dairy cow performance and reproduction near a high-voltage direct-current powerline.

    PubMed

    Martin, F B; Bender, A; Steuernagel, G; Robinson, R A; Revsbech, R; Sorensen, D K; Williamson, N; Williams, A

    1986-01-01

    The development and operation of a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission line in rural Minnesota generated public concern over potential adverse effects to nearby residents and their livestock. Electrical environmental parameters near an HVDC line decline rapidly with distance, but effects on ambient space charge have been detected out to 1 mile. Previous studies of powerline effects on livestock have involved the more common alternating-current (HVAC) lines, which create a different electrical environment. To identify potential adverse effects of HVDC line operation on livestock, case-control and cohort study methods were used to examine various indices of Holstein performance in relation to distance from the line and the onset of line operation. It was believed that these indices would reflect changes in physiologic function or overt health effects that might arise from the HVDC environment. High-quality performance data from existing Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) records were obtained for 97% of qualifying herds located within 10 miles of the line. The large number of animals and years of observation provided high statistical power to detect even small systematic changes in performance. No significant differences in milk production or reproductive capacity were associated with presumed exposure to the HVDC environment. The absence of measurable effects in a large "sentinel" animal population may have implications for the assessment of human health risks related to HVDC transmission lines.

  19. The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (iCARE): multinational registry-based investigations of autism risk factors and trends.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Diana E; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Carter, Kim W; Francis, Richard W; Gissler, Mika; Grønborg, Therese K; Gross, Raz; Gunnes, Nina; Hornig, Mady; Hultman, Christina M; Langridge, Amanda; Lauritsen, Marlene B; Leonard, Helen; Parner, Erik T; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sandin, Sven; Sourander, Andre; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Suominen, Auli; Surén, Pål; Susser, Ezra

    2013-11-01

    The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (iCARE) is the first multinational research consortium (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Norway, Sweden, USA) to promote research in autism geographical and temporal heterogeneity, phenotype, family and life course patterns, and etiology. iCARE devised solutions to challenges in multinational collaboration concerning data access security, confidentiality and management. Data are obtained by integrating existing national or state-wide, population-based, individual-level data systems and undergo rigorous harmonization and quality control processes. Analyses are performed using database federation via a computational infrastructure with a secure, web-based, interface. iCARE provides a unique, unprecedented resource in autism research that will significantly enhance the ability to detect environmental and genetic contributions to the causes and life course of autism.

  20. The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (iCARE): Multinational Registry-Based Investigations of Autism Risk Factors and Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, Michaeline; Carter, Kim W.; Francis, Richard W.; Gissler, Mika; Grønborg, Therese K.; Gross, Raz; Gunnes, Nina; Hornig, Mady; Hultman, Christina M.; Langridge, Amanda; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Leonard, Helen; Parner, Erik T.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sandin, Sven; Sourander, Andre; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Suominen, Auli; Surén, Pål; Susser, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (iCARE) is the first multinational research consortium (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Norway, Sweden, USA) to promote research in autism geographical and temporal heterogeneity, phenotype, family and life course patterns, and etiology. iCARE devised solutions to challenges in multinational collaboration concerning data access security, confidentiality and management. Data are obtained by integrating existing national or state-wide, population-based, individual-level data systems and undergo rigorous harmonization and quality control processes. Analyses are performed using database federation via a computational infrastructure with a secure, web-based, interface. iCARE provides a unique, unprecedented resource in autism research that will significantly enhance the ability to detect environmental and genetic contributions to the causes and life course of autism. PMID:23563868

  1. Epidemiological analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China with the seasonal-trend decomposition method and the exponential smoothing model

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Guibao; Hu, Yao; Huang, Xin; Peng, Xuan; Lei, Min; Huang, Chaoli; Gu, Li; Xian, Ping; Yang, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. With the most reported cases in the world, the epidemic characteristics are still remained unclear in China. This paper utilized the seasonal-trend decomposition (STL) method to analyze the periodicity and seasonality of the HFRS data, and used the exponential smoothing model (ETS) model to predict incidence cases from July to December 2016 by using the data from January 2006 to June 2016. Analytic results demonstrated a favorable trend of HFRS in China, and with obvious periodicity and seasonality, the peak of the annual reported cases in winter concentrated on November to January of the following year, and reported in May and June also constituted another peak in summer. Eventually, the ETS (M, N and A) model was adopted for fitting and forecasting, and the fitting results indicated high accuracy (Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) = 13.12%). The forecasting results also demonstrated a gradual decreasing trend from July to December 2016, suggesting that control measures for hemorrhagic fever were effective in China. The STL model could be well performed in the seasonal analysis of HFRS in China, and ETS could be effectively used in the time series analysis of HFRS in China. PMID:27976704

  2. Why has Mongolia Chosen to Participate in Peace Support Operations? An Analysis of Current Trends and Future Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    TRENDS AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES Ariunbold Dashjivaa Lieutenant Colonel, Mongolian Armed Forces M.A., Police Academy of Mongolia, 2002...Initiative GSMAF General Staff of Mongolian Armed Forces GWOT Global War on Terrorism IMET International Military Education Training ISAF...International Security Force in Afghanistan KFOR Kosovo Force MAF Mongolian Armed Forces MDR Mongolian Defense Reform MINURSO Mission des

  3. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  4. The current epidemiological status of infectious coryza and efficacy of PoulShot Coryza in specific pathogen-free chickens

    PubMed Central

    Han, Moo-Sung; Kim, Jong-Nyeo; Jeon, Eun-Ok; Lee, Hae-Rim; Koo, Bon-Sang; Min, Kyeong-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Baek; Bae, Yeon-Ji; Mo, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sun-Hyung; Jang, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Infectious coryza (IC) is an infectious disease caused by Avibacterium (Av.) paragallinarum. IC is known to cause economic losses in the poultry industry via decreased egg production in layers. Between 2012 and 2013, Av. paragallinarum was isolated from seven chicken farms by Chungbuk National University. We identified Av. paragallinarum, the causative pathogen of IC by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serovar serotype A, by multiplex PCR. Antibiotic sensitivity tests indicated that a few field-isolated strains showed susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin, lincomycin, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and tylosin. A serological survey was conducted to evaluate the number of flocks that were positive for Av. paragallinarum by utilizing a HI test to determine the existence of serovar A. Serological surveys revealed high positivity rates of 86.4% in 2009, 78.9% in 2010, 70.0% in 2011, and 69.6% in 2012. We also challenged specific pathogen-free chickens with isolated domestic strains, ADL121286 and ADL121500, according to the measured efficacy of the commercial IC vaccine, PoulShot Coryza. We confirmed the effectiveness of the vaccine based on relief of clinical signs and a decreased re-isolation rate of ADL121500 strain. Our results indicate IC is currently prevalent in Korea, and that the commercial vaccine is effective at protecting against field strains. PMID:26726018

  5. Long-term global trends in crop yield and production reveal no current pollination shortage but increasing pollinator dependency.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Marcelo A; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M

    2008-10-28

    There is evidence that pollinators are declining as a result of local and global environmental degradation [1-4]. Because a sizable proportion of the human diet depends directly or indirectly on animal pollination [5], the issue of how decreases in pollinator stocks could affect global crop production is of paramount importance [6-8]. Using the extensive FAO data set [9], we compared 45 year series (1961-2006) in yield, and total production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crops [5]. We investigated temporal trends separately for the developed and developing world because differences in agricultural intensification, and socioeconomic and environmental conditions might affect yield and pollinators [10-13]. Since 1961, crop yield (Mt/ha) has increased consistently at average annual growth rates of approximately 1.5%. Temporal trends were similar between pollinator-dependent and nondependent crops in both the developed and developing world, thus not supporting the view that pollinator shortages are affecting crop yield at the global scale. We further report, however, that agriculture has become more pollinator dependent because of a disproportionate increase in the area cultivated with pollinator-dependent crops. If the trend toward favoring cultivation of pollinator-dependent crops continues, the need for the service provided by declining pollinators will greatly increase in the near future.

  6. Trends in the Utilization of Adjuvant Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy and/or External Beam Radiation Treatment in Stage I and II Endometrial Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Mehul K.; Cote, Michele L.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Buekers, Thomas; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal adjuvant radiation treatment for endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains controversial. Adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VB) has emerged as an increasingly common treatment modality. However, the time trends for using VB, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or combined therapy (VB+EBRT) have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the utilization trends of VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT for adjuvant RT in International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology (FIGO) stage I and II EC over time. Methods and Materials: We evaluated treatment patterns for 48,122 patients with EC diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2005, using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use database. Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences by radiation type (VB, EBRT, and VB+EBRT) and various demographic and clinical variables. Results: Analyses were limited to 9,815 patients (20.4%) with EC who met the inclusion criteria. Among women who received adjuvant RT, the proportion receiving VB increased yearly (12.9% in 1995 compared to 32.8% in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The increasing use of VB was proportional to the decreasing use of EBRT (56.1% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2005; p < 0.0001) and VB+EBRT (31.0% in 1995 to 21.4% in 2005; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This population-based report demonstrates an increasing trend in the use of VB in the adjuvant setting after hysterectomy for treatment of women with FIGO stage I-II EC. VB alone appears to be replacing pelvic EBRT and VB+EBRT therapy in the management of stage I-II EC.

  7. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions.

  8. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    PubMed Central

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  9. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  10. Epidemiological surveillance of the HIV/AIDS complex through the analysis of trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Saldarriaga-Cantillo, Alejandra; Londoño, Óscar; García, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) incidence has markedly changed in the general population since the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the eighties and after the introduction of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in the nineties. Objective: To investigate incidence rate trends for Kaposi's sarcoma before and during the (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Cali, Colombia. Methods: Exploratory ecological study that included all Kaposi's sarcoma cases identified by the Cali Cancer Registry from 1962-2007, and 12,887 cases of HIV/AIDS recorded in the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali between 1986 and 2010. The joinpoint regression model was used to conduct the incidence rate analyses between the years 1962 and 2010. Results: A total of 349 KS cases were identified during the study period. Only 5.3% of the cases (n=20) were diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era (1963-1987), of these, 35% were women, and 90% of the tumors were located on the skin. In contrast, 94.7% of KS cases (n=329) were discovered after the emergence of HIV-AIDS. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of women (10.9%, p <0.001) and an increase in the frequency of tumors with an extra-cutaneous location (19.1%, p <0.01) compared to those cases diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era. Notification rates of HIV/AIDS have decreased since 2002 in both genders but KS incidence rates have decreased since 2004 in men only. Conclusion: The downward trend in the incidence of these diseases may be associated with factors that prevent the transmission of HIV infection or limit the spread of HIV in the community. Cancer registries represent a resource for timely, population-based surveil-lance of HIV-associated malignancies in Cali, Colombia. PMID:24893300

  11. Current trend of acute myocardial infarction in Korea (from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from 2006 to 2013).

    PubMed

    Kook, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Oh, Sangeun; Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Ju Han; Chai, Leem Soon; Kim, Young Jo; Kim, Chong Jin; Chan Cho, Myeong

    2014-12-15

    Although the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea has been rapidly changed because of westernization of diet, lifestyle, and aging of the population, the recent trend of the myocardial infarction have not been reported by classification. We investigated recent trends in the incidence and mortality associated with the 2 major types of AMI. We reviewed 39,978 patients registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry for either ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from 2006 to 2013. When the rate for AMI were investigated according to each year, the incidence rates of STEMI decreased markedly from 60.5% in 2006 to 48.1% in 2013 (p <0.001). In contrast, a gradual increase in the incidence rates of NSTEMI was observed from 39.5% in 2006 to 51.9% in 2013 (p <0.001). As risk factors, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were much more common in patients with NSTEMI than STEMI. Among medical treatments, the use of β blockers, angiotensin receptor blocker, and statin were increased from 2006 to 2013 in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Patients with STEMI and NSTEMI were more inclined to be increasingly treated by invasive treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the trend of myocardial infarction has been changed rapidly in the aspect of risk factors, ratio of STEMI versus NSTEMI, and therapeutic strategies during the recent 8 years in Korea.

  12. A review of wireless sensor technologies and applications in agriculture and food industry: state of the art and current trends.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  13. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed. PMID:22408551

  14. Curriculum Planning: Trends in Communication Studies, Workplace Competencies, and Current Programs at 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelsen, Dale A.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2009-01-01

    Many communication scholars recognize the need to regularly explore current communication curriculum and to evaluate its contribution to meeting the needs of students and the demands of the workplace. However, within the communication discipline, current curricular decisions are based on studies conducted nearly a decade ago. This study (a)…

  15. Current status and trends in performance-based risk-sharing arrangements between healthcare payers and medical product manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Josh J; Gries, Katharine S; Yeung, Kai; Sullivan, Sean D; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to identify and characterize publicly available cases and related trends for performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs). We performed a review of PBRSAs over the past 20 years (1993-2013) using available databases and reports from colleagues and healthcare experts. These were categorized according to a previously published taxonomy of scheme types and assessed in terms of the underlying product and market attributes for each scheme. Macro-level trends were identified related to the timing of scheme adoption, countries involved, types of arrangements, and product and market factors. Our search yielded 148 arrangements. From this set, 65 arrangements included a coverage with an evidence development component, 20 included a conditional treatment continuation component, 54 included a performance-linked reimbursement component, and 42 included a financial utilization component. Each type of scheme addresses fundamental uncertainties that exist when products enter the market. The pace of adoption appears to be slowing, but new countries continue to implement PBRSAs. Over this 20-year period, there has been a consistent movement toward arrangements that minimize administrative burden. In conclusion, the pace of PBRSA adoption appears to be slowing but still has traction in many health systems. These remain a viable coverage and reimbursement mechanism for a wide range of medical products. The long-term viability and growth of these arrangements will rest in the ability of the parties to develop mutually beneficial arrangements that entail minimal administrative burden in their development and implementation.

  16. Emerging trends in the epidemiology of human astrovirus infection among infants, children and adults hospitalized with acute watery diarrhea in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Pativada, Madhusudhan; Nataraju, Seegekote Mariyappa; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Rajendran, Krishnan; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Ganguly, Sandipan; Bhattacharya, Mihir Kumar; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Krishnan, Triveni

    2012-12-01

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) have now emerged as another common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in humans worldwide. This study investigated the epidemiology and genetic diversity of human astrovirus strains circulating among infants, younger children (up to 6 years), older children and adolescents (>6-17 years) and adults (18 years and above) hospitalized for diarrhea and their role in AGE in Kolkata, India. A total of 2535 fecal samples were screened for the presence of known enteric viral, bacterial and parasitic etiologies by conventional microbiological assays and molecular methods. The overall incidences of sole or mixed infection of HAstV with known enteric viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens were detected in 60 cases (2.4%) among all age groups. The clinical symptoms of astrovirus-associated acute watery diarrhea cases were recorded for all sole and mixed infection cases. A high number of sole (n = 13/60 [21.7%]) and mixed infection cases (n = 22/60 [36.7%]) were observed in adults (18 years old or more). Considering all age groups, 18 sole infection cases (n = 18/60 [30%]) and 42 mixed infection cases (n = 42/60 [70%]) with Rotavirus (n = 11/25 [44%]), Vibrio cholerae O1 (n = 6/24 [25%]) Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia lamblia (n = 5/13 [38.4%]) were observed. Further, eleven HAstV samples from infants and children (up to 6 years), children and adolescents (>6-17 years) and adults (18 years and above) were analyzed for their sequences of overlap region between ORF1b (RdRp) and ORF2 (capsid). Among these, ten strains were found to have close genetic relatedness to the Japanese strain HAstV_G1 [AB009985]. Additionally, the IDH2211 Kolkata strain showed a close genetic match with the Thai HAstV_G3 strain [EU363889]. Our study reports show that HAstVs as the sole agent and as mixed infection with other known enteric viral, bacterial, parasitic pathogens are also responsible for AGE among infants, children, adolescents and adults in

  17. Epidemiological Trends Strongly Suggest Exposures as Etiologic Agents in the Pathogenesis of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Neusner, Alexander; Chu, Jennifer; Lawton, Margot

    2015-01-01

    Nitrosamines mediate their mutagenic effects by causing DNA damage, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation, which lead to increased cellular degeneration and death. However, the very same pathophysiological processes comprise the “unbuilding” blocks of aging and insulin-resistance diseases including, neurodegeneration, diabetes mellitus (DM), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Previous studies demonstrated that experimental exposure to streptozotocin, a nitrosamine-related compound, causes NASH, and diabetes mellitus Types 1, 2 and 3 (Alzheimer (AD)-type neurodegeneration). Herein, we review evidence that the upwardly spiraling trends in mortality rates due to DM, AD, and Parkinson's disease typify exposure rather than genetic-based disease models, and parallel the progressive increases in human exposure to nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines via processed/preserved foods. We propose that such chronic exposures have critical roles in the pathogenesis of our insulin resistance disease pandemic. Potential solutions include: 1) eliminating the use of nitrites in food; 2) reducing nitrate levels in fertilizer and water used to irrigate crops; and 3) employing safe and effective measures to detoxify food and water prior to human consumption. Future research efforts should focus on refining our ability to detect and monitor human exposures to nitrosamines and assess early evidence of nitrosamine-mediated tissue injury and insulin resistance. PMID:19363256

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in the General Population in Northeast Germany: Results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND-0)

    PubMed Central

    Holtfreter, Silva; Grumann, Dorothee; Balau, Veronika; Barwich, Annette; Kolata, Julia; Goehler, André; Weiss, Stefan; Holtfreter, Birte; Bauerfeind, Stephanie S.; Döring, Paula; Friebe, Erika; Haasler, Nicole; Henselin, Kristin; Kühn, Katrin; Nowotny, Sophie; Radke, Dörte; Schulz, Katrin; Schulz, Sebastian R.; Trübe, Patricia; Vu, Chi Hai; Walther, Birgit; Westphal, Susanne; Cuny, Christiane; Witte, Wolfgang; Völzke, Henry; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Kocher, Thomas; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies on Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization are scarce. We examined the prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of S. aureus in the general population in Northeast Germany. Nasal swabs were obtained from 3,891 adults in the large-scale population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND). Isolates were characterized using spa genotyping, as well as antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiling. We observed an S. aureus prevalence of 27.2%. Nasal S. aureus carriage was associated with male sex and inversely correlated with age. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 0.95% of the colonizing S. aureus strains. MRSA carriage was associated with frequent visits to hospitals, nursing homes, or retirement homes within the previous 24 months. All MRSA strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most MRSA isolates belonged to the pandemic European hospital-acquired MRSA sequence type 22 (HA-MRSA-ST22) lineage. We also detected one livestock-associated MRSA ST398 (LA-MRSA-ST398) isolate, as well as six livestock-associated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (LA-MSSA) isolates (clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC97, and CC398). spa typing revealed a diverse but also highly clonal S. aureus population structure. We identified a total of 357 spa types, which were grouped into 30 CCs or sequence types. The major seven CCs (CC30, CC45, CC15, CC8, CC7, CC22, and CC25) included 75% of all isolates. Virulence gene patterns were strongly linked to the clonal background. In conclusion, MSSA and MRSA prevalences and the molecular diversity of S. aureus in Northeast Germany are consistent with those of other European countries. The detection of HA-MRSA and LA-MRSA within the general population indicates possible transmission from hospitals and livestock, respectively, and should be closely monitored. PMID:27605711

  19. Current and future trends in fecal source tracking and deployment in the Lake Taihu Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Liang, Xinqiang

    quantitative, stability of ratios between host-specific markers in the environment must be established. In addition, research is needed on the correlation between host-specific markers and pathogens, and survival of markers after waste treatments. As a result of the exclusive emphasis on FIB by regulatory agencies, monitoring and FST development has concentrated on FIB rather than the actual pathogens. A more rational approach to regulating water quality might be to use available epidemiological data to identify pathogens of concern in a particular water body, and then use targeted pathogen monitoring coupled with very specific FST approaches to control the pathogens. Baseline monitoring of FIB would be just one tool among many in this example.

  20. The epidemiology and experience of atopic eczema during childhood: a discussion paper on the implications of current knowledge for health care, public health policy and research

    PubMed Central

    Fennessy, M.; Coupland, S.; Popay, J.; Naysmith, K.

    2000-01-01

    Atopic eczema is a chronic skin condition affecting between 5% and 20% of children aged up to 11 years at one time or other. Research suggests that prevalence is increasing and various environmental factors have been implicated in the aetiology. While often seen to be a minor problem, research suggests that it can cause considerable disruption to the lives of children and their carers and involves significant cost for the family and health care systems. The current consensus is that the majority of cases of atopic eczema are most appropriately managed within primary care. However, management of the condition is problematic because diagnosis is often difficult. Consultations tend to focus on the physical aspects of the problems neglecting the psychosocial, while treatment remains mainly palliative and can be as diverse as the condition itself. More appropriate and effective primary care management and support for children with atopic eczema and their carers will only be developed if health professionals become more aware of the social context of the disease and the impact on the lives of those affected. Public health responses focusing on primary prevention are also needed. This paper reviews a diverse literature on the epidemiology of the condition, the way in which it affects the lives of children and their carers and the factors that shape their help seeking decisions. The aim is to contribute to a more substantial knowledge base for public health and primary care developments and to point to areas for future research


Keywords: atopic eczema; primary care; lay management PMID:10890869

  1. Staffing Patterns in Public School Systems: Current Status and Trends, Update 2003. A Reference Tool for School Administrators. Research Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia R.; Protheroe, Nancy; Parks, Michael C.

    This research brief examines staffing patterns within U.S. public school systems. Specifically, it answers the following sets of questions: (1) Why is information about staffing ratios important? (2) How many people currently work in public schools? What proportion of these are teachers, administrators, and support staff? (3) What are the current…

  2. The Teacher Education Development Program: New Challenges (Current Status and Developing Trends in the State Policy for Higher Teacher Education)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolev, Alexander Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the general context of the situation that has arisen in Russian education after the new provisions of the Federal Law of 29 December 2012 "On Education in the Russian Federation" went into effect. The law has been enacted in response to the need to develop a new concept of teacher education. Currently, about 270…

  3. Screening, early detection, education, and trends for melanoma: current status (2007-2013) and future directions: Part I. Epidemiology, high-risk groups, clinical strategies, and diagnostic technology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jonathan E; Swetter, Susan M; Fu, Teresa; Geller, Alan C

    2014-10-01

    While most cancers have shown both decreased incidence and mortality over the past several decades, the incidence of melanoma has continued to grow, and mortality has only recently stabilized in the United States and in many other countries. Certain populations, such as men >60 years of age and lower socioeconomic status groups, face a greater burden from disease. For any given stage and across all ages, men have shown worse melanoma survival than women, and low socioeconomic status groups have increased levels of mortality. Novel risk factors can help identify populations at greatest risk for melanoma and can aid in targeted early detection. Risk assessment tools have been created to identify high-risk patients based on various factors, and these tools can reduce the number of patients needed to screen for melanoma detection. Diagnostic techniques, such as dermatoscopy and total body photography, and new technologies, such as multispectral imaging, may increase the accuracy and reliability of early melanoma detection.

  4. Current status and temporal trend of heavy metals in farmland soil of the Yangtze River Delta Region: Field survey and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Diwei; Zhan, Yu; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    While the spatial distributions of heavy metals in farmland soil of China have been comprehensively delineated, their temporal trends are rarely investigated but are important for environmental risk management. In this study, the current status and temporal trends of heavy metals in the farmland soil of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were evaluated through field survey and meta-analysis. The field survey conducted in 2014 showed that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni in the farmland topsoil were 0.23 ± 0.14, 37.63 ± 15.60, 25.83 ± 41.62, 88.38 ± 43.30, and 29.21 ± 12.41 mg kg(-1) (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. The heavy metals showed relatively higher concentrations on the borders among Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. In the meta-analysis, we selected 68 published studies related to heavy metal pollution in farmland topsoil of YRD from 2000 to the year (2014) when the field survey was conducted. The results show an increasing trend for Cd (p < 0.05; 0.0081 mg kg(-1) year(-1)), a decreasing trend for Cu (p < 0.05; -0.80 mg kg(-1) year(-1)), and no significant trend for Pb (p = 0.155), Zn (p = 0.746), and Ni (p = 0.305). The increasing rate of Cd from the meta-analysis is consistent with the rate (0.0013 mg kg(-1) year(-1)) derived from the mass balance calculation for Cd, where atmospheric deposition originated from intensive coal combustion is considered as the main source of Cd in the topsoil. The decreasing trend of Cu is likely due to largely reduced application of copper-based agrochemicals. Environmental regulation and soil remediation are needed to protect food safety and ecosystem from heavy metal pollution, especially Cd.

  5. Integrating Radiology and Anatomy Teaching in Medical Education in the UK--The Evidence, Current Trends, and Future Scope.

    PubMed

    Heptonstall, N B; Ali, T; Mankad, K

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents the current evidence of the importance of integrating radiology and anatomy in medical education in the UK, a recommendation by a number of key anatomy, education, and radiology organizations. Current evidence highlights that on average only 5% of total teaching time in medical education is dedicated to radiology. Often, radiology teaching does not adequately fulfill students' learning needs and potentially leaves them underprepared for medical practice. Benefits of integrating radiology and anatomy include improved clinical application of anatomy, an increase in student's interest in anatomy, and ultimately improved radiological interpretation. Various modalities exist for the integration of radiology and anatomy, facilitated by the vast portability of radiological images. It appears that combining radiological resources with traditional anatomy teaching methodology in a blended approach is most beneficial.

  6. Promoting public health legal preparedness for emergencies: review of current trends and their relevance in light of the Ebola crisis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Odeya; Feder-Bubis, Paula; Bar-Dayan, Yaron; Adini, Bruria

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health legal preparedness (PHLP) for emergencies is a core component of the health system response. However, the implementation of health legal preparedness differs between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and developed countries. Objective This paper examines recent trends regarding public health legal preparedness for emergencies and discusses its role in the recent Ebola outbreak. Design A rigorous literature review was conducted using eight electronic databases as well as Google Scholar. The results encompassed peer-reviewed English articles, reports, theses, and position papers dating from 2011 to 2014. Earlier articles concerning regulatory actions were also examined. Results The importance of PHLP has grown during the past decade and focuses mainly on infection–disease scenarios. Amid LMICs, it mostly refers to application of international regulations, whereas in developed states, it focuses on independent legislation and creation of conditions optimal to promoting an effective emergency management. Among developed countries, the United States’ utilisation of health legal preparedness is the most advanced, including the creation of a model comprising four elements: law, competencies, information, and coordination. Only limited research has been conducted in this field to date. Nevertheless, in both developed and developing states, studies that focused on regulations and laws activated in health systems during emergencies, identified inconsistency and incoherence. The Ebola outbreak plaguing West Africa since 2014 has global implications, challenges and paralleling results, that were identified in this review. Conclusions The review has shown the need to broaden international regulations, to deepen reciprocity between countries, and to consider LMICs health capacities, in order to strengthen the national health security. Adopting elements of the health legal preparedness model is recommended. PMID:26449204

  7. Past and current trends of change in a dune prairie/oak savanna reconstructed through a multiple-scale history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Taylor, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The history of a rapidly changing mosaic of prairie and oak savanna in northern Indiana was reconstructed using several methods emphasizing different time scales ranging from annual to millennial. Vegetation change was monitored for 8 yr using plots and for 30 yr using aerial photographs. A 20th century fire history was reconstructed from the stand structure of multiple-stemmed trees and fire scars. General Land Office Survey data were used to reconstruct the forest of A.D. 1834. Fossil pollen and charcoal records were used to reconstruct the last 4000 yr of vegetation and fire history. Since its deposition along the shore of Lake Michigan about 4000 yr ago, the area has followed a classical primary dune successional sequence, gradually changing from pine forest to prairie/oak savanna between A.D. 264 and 1007. This successional trend, predicted in the models of Henry Cowles, occurred even though the climate cooled and prairies elsewhere in the region retreated. Severe fires in the 19th century reduced most tree species but led to a temporary increase in Populus tremuloides. During the last few decades, the prairie has been invaded by oaks and other woody species, primarily because of fire suppression since A.D. 1972. The rapid and complex changes now occurring are a response to the compounded effects of plant succession, intense burning and logging in the 19th century, recent fire suppression, and possibly increased airborne deposition of nitrates. The compilation of several historical research techniques emphasizing different time scales allows this study of the interactions between multiple disturbance variables

  8. Current trends in mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins: Application to veterinary and sports-doping control.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Irene; Blokland, Marco; Nessen, Merel A; Sterk, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Detection of misuse of peptides and proteins as growth promoters is a major issue for sport and food regulatory agencies. The limitations of current analytical detection strategies for this class of compounds, in combination with their efficacy in growth-promoting effects, make peptide and protein drugs highly susceptible to abuse by either athletes or farmers who seek for products to illicitly enhance muscle growth. Mass spectrometry (MS) for qualitative analysis of peptides and proteins is well-established, particularly due to tremendous efforts in the proteomics community. Similarly, due to advancements in targeted proteomic strategies and the rapid growth of protein-based biopharmaceuticals, MS for quantitative analysis of peptides and proteins is becoming more widely accepted. These continuous advances in MS instrumentation and MS-based methodologies offer enormous opportunities for detection and confirmation of peptides and proteins. Therefore, MS seems to be the method of choice to improve the qualitative and quantitative analysis of peptide and proteins with growth-promoting properties. This review aims to address the opportunities of MS for peptide and protein analysis in veterinary control and sports-doping control with a particular focus on detection of illicit growth promotion. An overview of potential peptide and protein targets, including their amino acid sequence characteristics and current MS-based detection strategies is, therefore, provided. Furthermore, improvements of current and new detection strategies with state-of-the-art MS instrumentation are discussed for qualitative and quantitative approaches.

  9. The future of genetic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morton, N E

    1992-12-01

    Starting from a broad definition of genetic epidemiology, current developments in association, segregation, and linkage analysis of complex inheritance are considered together with integration of genetic and physical maps and resolution of genetic heterogeneity. Mitochondrial inheritance, imprinting, uniparental disomy, pregressive amplification, and gonadal mosaicism are some of the novel mechanisms discussed, with speculation about the future of genetic epidemiology.

  10. One ring to rule them all: Current trends in combating bacterial resistance to the β‐lactams

    PubMed Central

    King, Dustin T.; Sobhanifar, Solmaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract From humble beginnings of a contaminated petri dish, β‐lactam antibiotics have distinguished themselves among some of the most powerful drugs in human history. The devastating effects of antibiotic resistance have nevertheless led to an “arms race” with disquieting prospects. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria threatens an ever‐dwindling antibiotic arsenal, calling for new discovery, rediscovery, and innovation in β‐lactam research. Here the current state of β‐lactam antibiotics from a structural perspective was reviewed. PMID:26813250

  11. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  12. [Current trends and problems in the measurement of limb loading parameters during transosseous osteosynthesis using external fixation devices].

    PubMed

    Shuts, S A; Dzhafarova, O A; Shuts, B S

    1999-01-01

    The problem in question is whether it is reasonable to equip a conventional limb external fixation apparatus with means for the diagnosis of loading parameters: the forces and displacement of the opposite supporting elements of the apparatus. It is assumed that during distraction osteogenesis it is expedient to apply load to the limb by the load rate only at the initial stage of callus regeneration (the plastic or slightly elastic mechanical state) while the most effective way to do so is to act force at later stages. A number of functions derived from the modified parameters which might aid a physician to choose the optimum limb loading parameters at different stages of treatment were considered by using as example a hypothetical ring-type apparatus equipped with means for continuous measurement of current forces applied to the apparatus and current displacements of opposite ring blocks. Specifications for the measuring system of loading parameters were defined by using an Ilizarov apparatus as an example and why possible rough measurement errors may occur is revealed. The paper shows it necessary to develop methods for calculation of parasitic deformations, i.e. those of the loaded elements of the apparatus for the evaluation of the reciprocal displacement of bone fragments.

  13. Current trends in the usage of the Adaptability Rating for Military Aviation (ARMA) among USAF flight surgeons.

    PubMed

    Verdone, R D; Sipes, W; Miles, R

    1993-12-01

    The Adaptability Rating for Military Aviation (ARMA) is that portion of the initial flight physical that assesses an aviator candidate's motivation for and potential adaptability toward an aviation career. A survey was mailed to all USAF operational flight surgeons in the continental U.S. to describe the frequency and distribution of ARMA usage and attitudes. Descriptive statistics suggest that the ARMA is used suboptimally in accordance with current USAF regulation. ARMA training, flight surgeon satisfaction and lack of regulation clarity are described and discussed. More flight surgeons are dissatisfied with the ARMA than are satisfied, and the regulation is perceived as unclear in the area of final disposition for candidates with equivocal ARMA's. A post-hoc analysis to rule out the influences of rank, gender, experience and residency training was performed. Residency training in Aerospace Medicine is beneficial in terms of doing an ARMA, when required, and covering recommended areas. Females and those with less than 1 year experience perform an ARMA more frequently than males and experienced flight surgeons. Despite the limitations of the current ARMA, it should not be abandoned. Recommendations to improve it are provided. Doing better ARMA's can lead to decreased illness, injury, accidents, and attrition.

  14. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  15. Current trends of management of respiratory diseases by pulmonologists: Results of National Conference of Pulmonary Disease - 2015 survey

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sheetu; Singh, Nishtha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Respiratory diseases are a common problem in our country and these are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: The aim of the paper was to analyze the pattern of diagnostic tests used and treatment prescribed for common respiratory diseases. Settings and Design: A total of 1028 pulmonologists, either member of Indian Chest Society or delegate attending the National Conference of Pulmonary Diseases (NAPCON) 2015, participated in the online survey. Subjects and Methods: The survey included questions pertinent to common respiratory diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pneumonia. Results: Investigation used for severity assessment and diagnosis of PTB, was sputum for acid-fast bacilli (83.5%), for IPF was high-resolution computed tomography chest (85.6%), for severe pneumonia was arterial blood gas analysis (69.3%), for asthma was spirometery and peak flow (96.8%) and for COPDs was spirometry (87.2%). The most popular choice of treatment for PTB was directly observed treatment short course (55.7%), for bronchial asthma, it was long-acting beta agonist with inhaled corticosteroids (LABA + ICSs) (41.1%), for COPD, it was LABA, ICS, and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LABA + ICS + long-acting muscarinic antagonist) (32.4%) and for IPF, it was pirfenidone and N acetyl cysteine (38.3%). About 67.5% of doctors preferred hospitalization for patients with severe pneumonia. About 84.5% pulmonologists ordered diagnostic tests and 55.5% prescribed treatment as per current guidelines. Conclusions: The majority of doctors (70.1%) in our survey followed recommended guidelines for respiratory disease diagnosis and treatment. However, there is a need for upgradation of treatment strategies currently used by doctors. PMID:28144054

  16. The genetics of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: current trends and future implications for diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, J Chad; Isfort, Michael C; Roggenbuck, Jennifer; Arnold, W David

    2015-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary polyneuropathy and is classically associated with an insidious onset of distal predominant motor and sensory loss, muscle wasting, and pes cavus. Other forms of hereditary neuropathy, including sensory predominant or motor predominant forms, are sometimes included in the general classification of CMT, but for the purpose of this review, we will focus primarily on the forms associated with both sensory and motor deficits. CMT has a great deal of genetic heterogeneity, leading to diagnostic considerations that are still rapidly evolving for this disorder. Clinical features, inheritance pattern, gene mutation frequencies, and electrodiagnostic features all are helpful in formulating targeted testing algorithms in practical clinical settings, but these still have shortcomings. Next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with multigene testing panels, is increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of genetic testing and is quickly overtaking targeted testing strategies. Currently, multigene panel testing and NGS can be considered first-line in many circumstances, although obtaining initial targeted testing for the PMP22 duplication in CMT patients with demyelinating conduction velocities is still a reasonable strategy. As technology improves and cost continues to fall, targeted testing will be completely replaced by multigene NGS panels that can detect the full spectrum of CMT mutations. Nevertheless, clinical acumen is still necessary given the variants of uncertain significance encountered with NGS. Despite the current limitations, the genetic diagnosis of CMT is critical for accurate prognostication, genetic counseling, and in the future, specific targeted therapies. Although whole exome and whole genome sequencing strategies have the power to further elucidate the genetics of CMT, continued technological advances are needed. PMID:26527893

  17. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney-Lang, E.; Auyeung, B.; Escudero, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. • BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. • A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. • Indirect studies discovered

  18. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  19. The Role of Proteomics in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Women's Cancers: Current Trends in Technology and Future Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Eun-Kyoung Yim; Murph, Mandi M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and scientific innovations over the last decade have greatly contributed to improved diagnostics, predictive models, and prognosis among cancers affecting women. In fact, an explosion of information in these areas has almost assured future generations that outcomes in cancer will continue to improve. Herein we discuss the current status of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers as it relates to screening, disease diagnosis, and treatment options. Among the differences in these cancers, it is striking that breast cancer has multiple predictive tests based upon tumor biomarkers and sophisticated, individualized options for prescription therapeutics while ovarian cancer lacks these tools. In addition, cervical cancer leads the way in innovative, cancer-preventative vaccines and multiple screening options to prevent disease progression. For each of these malignancies, emerging proteomic technologies based upon mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling with amino acids, high-throughput ELISA, tissue or protein microarray techniques, and click chemistry in the pursuit of activity-based profiling can pioneer the next generation of discovery. We will discuss six of the latest techniques to understand proteomics in cancer and highlight research utilizing these techniques with the goal of improvement in the management of women's cancers. PMID:21886869

  20. Current trends in formats and coordinate transformations of geospatial data — based on MyGeoData Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlik, Antonin; Orlikova, Lucie

    2014-09-01

    With the rise in the number of applications using geospatial data and the number of GIS applications, the number of people who come into contact with geospatial data is increasing, too. Despite many attempts to introduce standardized formats in this area, they are often ignored by software developers as well as the users themselves for various reasons. When creating or exporting geographical data, users choose the format with regard to the software they use, or for which the data are intended. Users then have to deal with conversion of data formats, and considering its use also the issue of their transformation to the appropriate spatial reference system. This work presents findings related to this issue, obtained from several years of operation of an online service for the conversion and transformation of geographical data which is heavily used by users from all over the world. It presents statistics of individual formats use and spatial reference systems of geospatial data use from the point of view of both input and output data. The results, besides other things, are shown in the form of a pie chart map in which various needs of users from a variety of countries can be seen. The results of this work can be used especially by developers of applications which use geospatial data; it will allow them to quickly understand current user needs.

  1. Computer literacy and attitudes among students in 16 European dental schools: current aspects, regional differences and future trends.

    PubMed

    Mattheos, N; Nattestad, A; Schittek, M; Attström, R

    2002-02-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the competence and attitude of dental students towards computers. The current study presents the findings deriving from 590 questionnaires collected from 16 European dental schools from 9 countries between October 1998 and October 1999. The results suggest that 60% of students use computers for their education, while 72% have access to the Internet. The overall figures, however, disguise major differences between the various universities. Students in Northern and Western Europe seem to rely mostly on university facilities to access the Internet. The same however, is not true for students in Greece and Spain, who appear to depend on home computers. Less than half the students have been exposed to some form of computer literacy education in their universities, with the great majority acquiring their competence in other ways. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills of the average dental student, within this limited sample of dental schools, do not facilitate full use of new media available. In addition, if the observed regional differences are valid, there may be an educational and political problem that could intensify inequalities among professionals in the future. To minimize this potential problem, closer cooperation between academic institutions, with sharing of resources and expertise, is recommended.

  2. Development of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network: Current Status and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, M. R.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Derner, J. D.; Harmel, D.; Heilman, P.; Huggins, D. R.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Moorman, T.; Mccarty, G.; Pierson, F. B.; Rigby, J.; Robertson, G. P.; Sadler, J.; Sanderson, M.; Steiner, J. L.; Strickland, T.; Wienhold, B.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term research conducted at multiple scales is critical to assessing the effects of key long term drivers (e.g., global population growth; land-use change; increased competition for natural resources; climate variability and change) on our ability to sustain or enhance agricultural production to meet future global demand for agricultural products (e.g., food; feed; fiber; fuel). To address this need, the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS), in collaboration with a broad group of partners, identified and reorganized existing long-term research infrastructure (i.e., benchmark watersheds; experimental ranges; research farms) into a Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network, the only long-term research network focused specifically on US agro-ecosystems. In 2014, the initial network of 10 sites was expanded to 18 sites, including 3 sites led wholly or in part by non-USDA entities. Later this year, the LTAR network will make the first near real-time data sets from all 18 sites available on the web. This talk will focus briefly on LTAR establishment history, but primarily on LTAR's current status and next steps, including plans for a final network expansion to complete coverage of key farm resource regions in the continental US. In the broader context of this symposium, this talk will set the stage for discussions of complementary long-term research networks (e.g., LTER; NEON) and potential future collaborations to address questions of mutual interest.

  3. Current trends for packaging transuranic waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LA-UR-07-4785)

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Kapil K.; Carson, Peter H.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.

    2007-07-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste leaving the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is packaged using LANL's waste acceptance criteria for onsite storage. Before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, each payload container is subject to rigorous characterization to ensure compliance with WIPP waste acceptance criteria and Department of Transportation regulations. Techniques used for waste characterization include nondestructive examination by WIPP-certified real-time radiography (RTR) and nondestructive assay (NDA) of containers, as well as headspace gas sampling to ensure hydrogen and other flammable gases remain at safe levels during transport. These techniques are performed under a rigorous quality assurance program to confirm that results are accurate and reproducible. If containers are deemed problematic, corrective action is taken before shipment to WIPP. Currently this activity is possible only at the Laboratory's Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. To minimize additional waste requiring remediation, WIPP waste acceptance criteria must be applied at the point of waste generation. Additional criteria stem from limitations of RTR or NDA instruments or lack of appropriate sampling and analysis. This paper presents the changes that have been implemented at the Plutonium Facility and gives readers a preview of what LANL expects to accomplish to expeditiously certify and dispose of newly generated TRU waste. (authors)

  4. Current trends in the application of non-ceramic insulators for transmission & distribution lines subject to contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCI) have been in application for more than 25 years. During this time, manufacturers have worked diligently to improve product designs and polymer materials. Today, the use of Non-Ceramic Polymer insulators is proliferating as Utilities become more confident in this advanced technology. The application advantages of NCI technology are more widely recognized and understood and credibility is growing in the long term service performance of these insulators. Current estimates place the NCI market share as high as 50% of the total US transmission insulator market. Indeed, Reliable Power Products is proud to advise that their insulators have been selected for the first 500 KV-DC transmission line in the USA to use 100% composite polymer insulators. With the combination of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (Los Angeles to Las Vegas) and Salt River Project (Las Vegas to Phoenix), a total of almost 1,000 Kms. of transmission line will be insulated with Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators. The total project will include almost 15,000 insulator strings. User confidence is not confined to the USA market. The application of NCI`s by International Utilities has also experienced significant growth. This may be evidenced by EHV installations in South America, Middle East, South Africa, Australia and South East Asia.

  5. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

  7. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Valsami, Serena; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gialeraki, Argyri; Chimonidou, Maria; Politou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility) have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT) count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization. PMID:26420927

  8. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    PubMed

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.

  9. New trend in the epidemiology of thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Kong

    2017-02-01

    Thalassaemia is the most common monogenic disorder worldwide. It is common in areas with prevalent malaria as thalassaemic red cells provide immunity against the parasite. The incidence of thalassaemia carriers is high in regions such as Mediterranean, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and South China. In the past few decades, migrants from the thalassaemia prevalent countries to non-prevalent countries, mainly North America and Central and North Europe, are rapidly increasing in number. The non-prevalent countries may not have established pre-natal screening system for thalassaemia. The genetic subtypes among the different ethnic groups vary; this may pose challenges in prenatal diagnosis. Genetic counselling on the postnatal course of thalassaemia may be affected by the genotype-phenotype correlation and coinheritance of other genetic diseases. New treatment methods improve the survival of patient with thalassaemia major, but some late complications that occur with longer survival have been recently discovered.

  10. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  11. Current Trends in Biology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wivagg, Daniel E.; Moore, Randy

    1987-01-01

    This newsletter reports on the status of biology education in the United States. It states that biology has entered its "golden age" because of the emergence of biotechnology, ecology, agricultural productivity, and human biology as major societal issues. This report discusses the status of the informal national curriculum of biology, involving…

  12. Current trends in typhoid Fever.

    PubMed

    Crum, Nancy F

    2003-08-01

    Typhoid fever, a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi, remains an important worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. Endemic cases in the United States are unusual, with most following foreign travel to the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Asia, or Latin America. The classic findings of typhoid fever include rose spots, relative bradycardia, and stepwise fevers, but unfortunately these signs are frequently absent. Gastrointestinal manifestations may include diffuse abdominal pain, bleeding, perforation, cholecystitis, and cholangitis. The diagnosis should be suspected after collection of the appropriate clinical and travel history with confirmation by blood or bone marrow culture. Novel methods are in development to establish the diagnosis when cultures are negative or unavailable. Multidrug resistance has increased worldwide, and decisions on antimicrobial therapy must take such resistance into account. The empiric treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone drug; ceftriaxone and azithromycin are alternatives. Preventive strategies include good sanitation and food handling practices along with vaccination of selected groups.

  13. Current Trends in Ubiquitous Biosensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    peptide display technology, the extremely fast replication rate of bacteria is exploited, and biological components (e.g., modified proteins) on an E...fundamental advances have been made in the synergistic combination of research in the fields of microfluidics and optics, coined “optofluidics” [24-26

  14. Current Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Atomic spectroscopy is the study of atoms/ions through their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, interactions in which radiation is absorbed or emitted with an internal rearrangement of the atom's electrons. Discusses nature of this field, its status and future, and how it is applied to other areas of physics. (JN)

  15. Current trends in biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Chanprateep, Suchada

    2010-12-01

    The microbial polyesters known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) positively impact global climate change scenarios by reducing the amount of non-degradable plastic used. A wide variety of different monomer compositions of PHAs has been described, as well as their future prospects for applications where high biodegradability or biocompatibility is required. PHAs can be produced from renewable raw materials and are degraded naturally by microorganisms that enable carbon dioxide and organic compound recycling in the ecosystem, providing a buffer to climate change. This review summarizes recent research on PHAs and addresses the opportunities as well as challenges for their place in the global market.

  16. Current trends in quarantine entomology.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Neven, Lisa G

    2006-01-01

    With world trade in agricultural commodities increasing, the introduction of exotic insects into new areas where they become pests will increase. The development and application of quarantine treatments or other mitigation approaches to prevent pest introduction in traded commodities raise many research and regulatory issues. The probit 9 standard for quarantine treatment efficacy has given way to risk-based alternatives. Varietal testing may have merit for some treatments or commodities but not for others. Development of generic treatments to control broad groups of insects or insects in all commodities can expedite new trade in agricultural products. Area-wide pest management programs lower pest levels before harvest and improve the quarantine security provided by any postharvest treatments. Systems approaches capitalize on cumulative pest mortality from multiple control components to achieve quarantine security in an exported commodity. Certain quarantine treatment technologies such as irradiation are not universally accepted, which is slowing their adoption. Standardized phytosanitary measures and research protocols are needed to improve the flow of information when countries propose to trade in a regulated commodity.

  17. Social behavior in the “Age of Empathy”?—A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences

    PubMed Central

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the “social brain” that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what “social” means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what “social” means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the “social.” The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond. PMID:23755003

  18. Is the current prevention strategy based on vaccination coverage and epidemiological surveillance sufficient to achieve measles and rubella elimination in Europe?

    PubMed

    Plans-Rubio, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Elimination of measles and rubella in Europe is a feasible objective, but it requires achieving a maintaining a high prevalence of protected individuals in order to prevent cases and outbreaks from imported cases. The epidemiology of measles and rubella in Europe in the period 2003-2013 suggests that we are far away from the elimination target for measles, while the situation is better for rubella. In this situation, a new preventive strategy based on serological surveillance systems should be developed in Europe in order to identify and immunise individuals in population groups without sufficient herd immunity against measles and rubella.

  19. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  20. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.